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(30 Marks)

To fulfill the task teachers used to tell the students to;

 Read the question carefully

 Study the visual aids and notes given

 Write a brief outline i.e. mind map

 Have at least 3 paragraphs i.e. introduction, body, conclusion

 Arrange the points according to importance or sequence

 Elaborate on the points given

 Use a variety of sentence structures and use familiar words

 Use interesting expressions, idioms or proverbs

Types of Composition:

1) Speeches / Talks

Introduction : Greeting the audience

State the topic of your speech/talk

Body : Paragraph 1

Start with the interesting details.

Make use of WH-question. Give examples or explanation to support your point.

: Paragraph 2 and 3

Give other details. Use sentence connectors, correct punctuation and support with more


Conclusion : State your topic again.

Thank the audience.

2) Report

Headlines / Title

Paragraph 1 : Write important and relevant information. Summary of important details.

Paragraph 2, 3 and 4 : Details of incident in order of importance, logical sequence.

Remember to include details/ examples to support your points

It should be straight forward, formal and brief

3) Informal Letters


Examples : How are you? Thank you for your letter.


 Arrange contents in paragraphs in the right order.

 Express yourself clearly, simply and directly.

 Write what you think the reader is keen to know and will interest the reader.


Consists of special wishes or words of farewell.

Example : Goodbye for now. Best wishes to you.

4) Formal Letters

 It should be short and concise.

 Be brief and polite.

 Use formal but simple English

 Present information correctly

 Use correct spelling, punctuation and grammar.

5) Processes and procedures

Introduction: Name the process or procedures you are going to describe


Paragraph 1: Start with the first step. Use First/Firstly.

Paragraph 2: Continue to describe the following steps. Use sequence connectors to link one step to


Paragraph 3: Proceed until the last step.

Conclusion : Add some comments about the process. E.g. simple/difficult process, what it is used for,


6) Descriptive / Narrative

You may be asked to describe a place or scene

• Make use of WH-Question (What, Who, Where, When, Why and How)

 Use adjectives

 Put yourself in the place of the person in the story. Include other people as well as their activities.

 You may also want to write about how you feel about the place/ scene. Use words that appeal to
the five senses – sight, sound, smell, taste and feelings

 Use the correct tense. Usually the past tense is used.

7) Argumentative

 Read the question carefully and state your viewpoint. Your opinion must be very clear in the

 Support your opinion by giving reasons and examples.

 Draft as many points as you can. Then number them to importance.

 Write out your strongest argument first and your weakest argument last.

 Present your argument clearly and logically.

 Use logical connectors such as therefore, besides, moreover, etc to help you link your points
End your essay by restating your stand on the argument

8) Charts and Graphs.

• Read the question and study the chart or graph carefully.

• Make observations and draw correct conclusions based on the chart/graph.

• Decide on your tense.

• Link each sentence and paragraph carefully for a smooth flow of ideas.

• Make use of adverbs and adjective

Low Proficiency Students

 Encourage them to write simple sentence and expand the notes given.

 Use the WH-Question to give details.

What? Who? Where? When? Why? and How?

 Make use of logical connectors. (Therefore, besides etc.)

 Use correct format of writing.

 Give the students sample of correct answer for each type of composition.

Sample of Answers

PMR 2005 : This section required students to write a report on a National Day celebration in

school. Students were provided with a set of related pictures and short.

A) Introduction

Sample 1:
Every school in Malaysia will celebrate the National Day in every year. Like also this year SMK
Saujana celebrate the National Day very grand.

Sample 2:

Today is a 31st August and it’s a National Day. My school held a National Day celebration.

Sample 3:

Forty-eight years ago, on a crisp August morning, hundreds of thousands of people watched in
awe as our Nations Father of Independence bellowed ‘Merdeka!” At last, we were free from the
colonisation and that moment symbolised freedom, peace and harmony for one and all.

B) Body

Sample 1: Paragraph 1

The National Day celebration held in SMK Saujana on 31st August 2004. The main aim of this
celebration is to make the students patriotic own their country. The first activity held on the day is march
past. The school bands wear dress very neddly. They wear white and black dress.

Sample 2: Paragraph 1

Many thing can we see example is a march past at the field.

Sample 3: Paragraph 1

On the morning of the big event, the students thronged the school field with much excitement.
Happiness filled the air. The school looked more beautiful than usual as it was decorated with colourful
flags. The school band marched past the stage playing many melodious tunes and was greeted with
thunderous applause. Next, our principal, Mr. Chin gave a very meaningful and unforgettable speech
marking the beginning of the National Day celebration.

C) Conclusion
Sample 1:
We as the future leaders of tomorrow should be patriotic and strive to improve ourselves. Only
then, we lead our country and its people to reach the pinnacle of success. Although it is a Herculean task,
we should not forget what our forefathers had done for us. So that their blood and sweat will not be in
Sample 2
The grand National Day of 2004 was end at 1:00 pm. On the day the students and teachers of
SMK Saujana was enjoyed.

Sample 3: I so proud because my school are the best of the best school in Sabah.

Sample of Answer
PMR 2008 : This section required students to write a speech during the school assembly about

‘Safety Measures in School’. Students were provided with pictures and notes to be used.

A) Introduction

Sample 1:

Top of the morning to our beloved principal, Mr.Aziz Bin Salleh, the ever dedicated teachers,
prefects and friends. As the Head Prefect, I have been asked to give a speech this morning concerning the
topic “Safety Measures in School”. Before I begin, I wish to request everyone’s attention and cooperation
throughout this speech as this topic is of great importance.

Sample 2:

Assalamualaikum and the very good morning to our principal, En Johan Lim, teachers and all

B) Body

Sample 1 : Paragraph 1

Allow me to begin my speech with the safety measures in the Living Skills Rooms. The reason
why I choose to begin with the Living Skills Rooms is because they have been the site of the highest
number of, shall we say, calamities. Now, do not be ashamed when I say this. Many of said calamities
could have been prevented if the students were more careful. So, as long as you remember to use the
utensils and tools in a proper manner and follow your teacher’s instructions carefully, you should be just

Sample 2 : Paragraph 2

When we are in the living skills rooms, we have to use the utensils and tools carefully. Read the
label and follow the instructions from your teachers.

C) Conclusion
Sample 1:

In conclusion, my entire speech in a nutshell is, rules are not meant to be broken. They are here to
prevent accidents from happening. With the proper observation of the safety rules, I assure you, our
school will be a much safer place to study in. I thank you all kindly for your attentive listening.

Sample 2:

I hope my speech is helpful to you. Thank you very much to listen to my speech.


Essay Topic: A Hit-and-run Accident

When it happens?
How it happens?
Why it occurs?
What is the brand of the hit-and-run car?
Where it happens?
Who is the victim?

• Answers to these questions are the points for your essay.

PMR 2008: Point No. 2 Staircase – walk in line, avoid pushing.

Who? – the students

Where? - The staircase

When? - During recess, going to the lab etc

Examples of common English idioms being used:

 Give someone a hand

means "help"

 know something like the back of your hand

means "know something very, very well"

 PMR 2008- Sample Answer

To sum up, it is very important to obey the safety rules that I have mentioned earlier. As
the saying goes, where there’s a will, there’s a way. We can prevent unexpected accidents from
happening if all of us follow the rules.
Use irrelevant idioms in your writing with the sole purpose of scoring a
better grade. Use English idioms with caution – contextually targeted to
the particular writing only.

Simple Sentences (Activity)

Question: How to write about an Apple (paragraph)

• Using "short" words, list at least five things you already know about the apple.

Example : Apple – eat them, different colors, grow on trees, great in pie, some have worms.

• Now S T R E T C H the words on your list into at least five sentences.

Example :You can eat an apple.

Apples come in different colors.
Apples grow on trees.
I ate an apple pie once.
Sometimes an apple has a worm in it.

• Now let's put the sentences in a paragraph!

• First, think about which sentence you want to come first, second, third etc...
Example : 1) Apples come in different colors.
2) Apples grow on trees.
3) You can eat an apple.
4) I ate an apple pie.
5) Sometimes an apple has a worm .in it.
• Connect the sentences into a paragraph with indention, capital letters at the beginning of each
sentence and a punctuation mark at the end of each sentence.

Example : Apples come in different colors. Apples grow on trees. You can eat an apple. I
ate an apple pie. Sometimes an apple has a worm in it.