2008 IEEE Asia-Pacific Services Computing Conference

An SDR-based Wireless Communication Gateway for Vehicle Networks
Boncheol Gu, Junyoung Heo, Sangchul Oh, Namhoon Park, Gwangil Jeon, and Yookun Cho Electronics and Korea Polytechnic Seoul National Seoul National University Telecommunications University University Research Institute {bcgu, jyheo}@os.snu.ac.kr {scoh, nhpark}@etri.re.kr gijeon@kpu.ac.kr ykcho@snu.ac.kr Abstract
As telematics and infotainment services are becoming more and more prevalent on the roadway, modern vehicles need to be equipped to support various wireless communication standards. The conventional ways for implementing those standards are dependent on their dedicated hardware chips, and thus in order to add a new standard or change an obsolete standard, a new dedicated hardware chip should be installed. Software defined radio (SDR) technology enables software components running on a generic hardware platform to perform signal processing instead of hardware chips. Thus, it is possible to support multi-standard, multi-band and multi-mode solutions and easy to enhance and reconfigure wireless communication. In this paper, we propose an SDR-based wireless communication gateway for vehicle networks. It integrates multiple wireless devices into one single wireless gateway reducing maintenance costs of hardware chips and improving flexibility, adaptability and connectivity of wireless communication. In order to provide the proof of concept, we present its application to digital multimedia broadcasting service. electronics [5]. Generally, these wireless protocols are implemented in the corresponding dedicated hardware chips which have some disadvantages such as increased maintenance costs of multiple wireless devices. Support of new wireless technologies is expensive in terms of deploying time and costs. Configuring wireless communication require unavoidable modification of hardware. This hardware dependent implementation has been a hindrance to the adoption of telematics and infotainment services. Software defined radio (SDR) is the next generation radio communication technology which offers several benefits to traditional wireless communication systems, enabling multi-band and multi-standard solutions. Many of the signal processing is moved from hardware chips such as ASIC (application-specific integrated circuits) to software components running on a generic hardware platform. In this way, SDR equipment and network devices can be controlled by programming its waveform software and be reconfigured and updated in order to improve its features, security protocols, performance and services. In this paper, we propose a novel wireless communication gateway for vehicle networks. It is based on SDR technologies to support wireless communication occurring in vehicles. The proposed gateway can reduce the maintenance costs of multiple wireless devices and improve flexibility, adaptability, portability and connectivity of wireless communication services. In order to provide the proof of concept, we present its application to digital multimedia broadcasting service. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 introduces AMI-C, which is one of the representative modern vehicle network standards, and presents an overview of the SDR technology. Section 3 describes the proposed wireless communication gateway based on SDR technology for vehicle networks. Section 4 provides the proof of concept for

1. Introduction
As telematics and infotainment services become more and more prevalent, vehicle networks need to extend their communication range out of local vehicle devices [1]. Among those services, wireless communication protocols play an important role [2] [3]. For example, long-range wireless protocols such as Mobile WiMAX and HSDPA are essential for one to connect to the internet; short-range wireless protocols such as WAVE and DSRC implement vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicleto-roadside communication [4]; and Zigbee and Bluetooth are popular wireless protocols to make connection among in-vehicle devices and consumer
978-0-7695-3473-2/08 $25.00 © 2008 IEEE DOI 10.1109/APSCC.2008.61

2. The AMI-C software architecture is based on the capability of Java to provide a platform independent program execution environment and its software interfaces are defined in Java. SCA (Software Communication Architecture) provides SDR platform developers with an open common specification standard and component-based software framework. in-vehicle networks and multimedia networks.e. which has great potential to be used amongst a wide range of applications. civil and commercial. AMI-C host is a computing platform that can execute software other than embedded software that is provided with the device. security protocols. 1 shows the AMI-C specified vehicle networks. An AMI-C host is a host that contains a specific software architecture that enables it to execute generic AMI-C application software. SDR equipment and network devices can be controlled using dynamic programming of its waveform software. It has released a complete series of technical specifications for vehicle communication networks. Its primary goals is to promote the standardization of common automotive information and entertainment system interfaces. AMI-C networks consist of two types of networks. AMI-C has chosen to specify the OSGi framework as part of the execution environment. Finally.2. and architectures to reduce Figure 1. AMI-C Network Overview 1618 . 2. including the AMI-C and VCSI (Vehicle Consumer Services Interface) [9] [10]. and assist vehicle networks to be easily integrated with the emerging telematics and infotainment services. define a uniform set of interfaces to services offered by modules in the vehicle systems to provide high degree of flexibility in tailoring systems [11] [12]. we will introduce vehicle network standards designed by automotive multimedia interface collaboration (AMI-C) [6] [7] [8]. SDR offers inexpensive and efficient solutions to constraints and financial viability present in current hardware-based systems [13]. i. previously implemented in dedicated hardware chips. The software architecture provides a common execution environment that allows application to be written to run on the host platforms. SDR moves lots of signal processing. In addition to using Java. Fig. to provide standardized interfaces to in-vehicle modules and to promote multimedia services for vehicle telematics. such as vehicle services. Software Defined Radio (SDR) Software Defined Radio (SDR) is an emerging technology particularly within the wireless industry. involving worldwide automotive OEMs and suppliers. AMI-C has declared its mission met and has been dissolved.vehicle networks integrated with the proposed wireless gateway. and audio service. frameworks. which is composed of the following components: Vehicle interface (VI) plays a central role as an in-vehicle gateway to unify the services of invehicle modules and to provide their service interfaces for external multimedia devices. Our main concern is those service-oriented vehicle networks.1. VI should accommodate currently deployed in-vehicle network protocols. performance and services. to waveform software components running on a generic hardware platform equipped with one or more programmable processors such as GPP (General Purpose Processor). DSP (Digital Signal Processor) or FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array). In terms of the communication requirements posed by the different applications such as the military. conclusions are given in Section 5. power management services. Many of the current vehicle network standards. VI connects in-vehicle networks to a manufacturer’s proprietary services and multimedia networks to multimedia devices such as car navigation system and bluetooth hands-free kit. and can be reconfigured and updated in order to improve its features. It facilitates waveform portability between different platforms and supports commercial standards. Related Works In this section. Automotive Multimedia Collaboration (AMI-C) Interface AMI-C is one of the largest collaborative efforts. 2. All AMI-C technical specifications have been transferred to the other standards organizations. HMI services. Currently. considering a usage scenario of DMB (digital multimedia broadcasting) service.

The CF is the essential set of open application-layer interfaces and services to provide an abstraction of the underlying software and hardware layers for software application designers. encryption and signal processing. previously performed in hardware chips. such Mobile WiMAX. In order to resolve these problems. update and remove. Fig. the SDR-based wireless communication gateway communicates with external devices. are established to transfer waveform data such as audio. They are easy to install. SDR-based Wireless Communication Gateway In order to accomplish those goals. 2 shows an SDR platform based on the SCA framework. called streams. POSIX real-time operating systems support multithreading so that it is possible to run waveform software applications simultaneously. which fulfils the following goals: To provide external devices with an uniform interface to wireless communication services To support multiple wireless communication services simultaneously To dynamically install. we propose an SDR-based wireless communication gateway.development cost and improve reuse [14]. Figure 3. as which we define waveform services. DSRC. the proposed gateway transfers major communications functions such as waveform generation. in order to provide them with the wireless communication services. to waveform software applications by exploiting the SDR technology. i. Every external device should implement a uniform set of waveform service APIs. an application host. A waveform software application of SCA means a software application that manipulates input data and determines the output of the system. This dependency incurs significant costs of the employment of new wireless protocols and the reconfiguration of the currently installed chips. Fig. Bluetooth and so on. 3. SDR Platform Overview The SDR platform requires one or more programmable processor such as GPP. update and remove wireless communication services To guarantee robust and seamless wireless communication links in the mobile vehicular environment Figure 4. we propose an SDR-based wireless communication gateway for vehicle networks. Virtual communication channels. Conventional wireless communication services are dependent on the particular hardware chips dedicated to the corresponding wireless protocols. Figure 2. are implemented as the waveform software applications. 4. in the form of SCA waveform software applications. SCA core framework (CF) is based on CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture) middleware and POSIX real-time operating systems. Communication between The Gateway and External Devices As described in Fig. Different wireless standards are implemented in a same hardware platform. 3 describes the overview of the SDRbased wireless communication gateway.e. which is used to communicate with the waveform server through the SDR message set. DSP and FPGA. Wireless protocols. SDR-based Wireless Communication Gateway for Vehicle Networks In this section. 1619 .

A vehicle using DMB service is traveling from the urban area to the suburbs. and it reduces wireless devices and improves reuse of a single wireless hardware platform. As a result. modification of hardware. In the urban area. Audio and video is multiplexed in MPEG-2 TS and is broadcast. instantiation. in rural areas where there is no base station around the vehicle. benefits: it facilitates incorporation of new wireless communication standards with minimum.g. The waveform server also manages waveform software components. It manipulates stream objects to realize the streams to be used for waveform data transfer. running on the AMIC host and the wireless gateway respectively. However. The waveform server is located on an SDRbased wireless communication gateway. i. DMB Part 10 (H. Telematics software uses the waveform proxy object to implement their wireless communication services. Proof of Concept In this section. Its primary goal is to provide external devices with the desired waveform services. revocation.264) is used for video codec and MPEG-4 Part 3 BSAC or HE-AAC V2 is used for audio codec in DMB. CORBA and RMI can be used to support SDR message transactions between AMI-C hosts and external devices by implementing the functionalities as a set of methods and objects. 4. They offer the waveform service interfaces to telematics software. Waveform Service APIs are implemented in external devices. it improves vehicle connectivity for mobile consumer electronics such PDAs and cell phones through flexible support of new emerging wireless technologies. It has two kinds of transmission mode: SDMB and T-DMB. DMB [15] is one of the existing mobile TV technologies in Korea that use the one-way dedicated broadcast network. a T-DMB wireless protocol is exploited to provide the vehicle with DMB service. it achieves true mobility enabling to seamlessly roam across operator boundaries and optimally tune parameters of wireless communication. e.video and data. start. it provides ability to reconfigure its waveform software components or itself over the air. the proposed gateway brings the following 1620 .g. 6. This usage scenario shows that the vehicle selectively uses T-DMB or S-DMB according to the environment: T-DMB is mainly used Figure 5. The SDR Message Set is a uniform set of network messages exchanged between external devices and waveform servers. TCP or UDP. we consider a usage scenario of DMB (Digital Multimedia Broadcasting) services to provide the proof of concept. 5 describes the AMI-C networks incorporated with an SDR-based wireless communication gateway. It can transmit multimedia stream to mobile devices via digital radio transmission while moving at high speed. the quality of the service provided by T-DMB deteriorates. The wireless devices providing telematics services are replaced with telematics software applications and waveform software applications. waveform proxy objects are available from the APIs to make waveform data transfer with the desired steam objects located in the gateway. Usage Scenario of DMB service Let us consider the usage scenario of DMB service shown in Fig. S-DMB can offer better quality of service. Figure 6. AMI-C Networks Incorporated with SDR-based Wireless Communication Gateway Fig.e. Each stream object is linked with the corresponding waveform software through ports. E. stop and configuration. S-DMB uses satellite while TDMB uses terrestrial transmission. resulting in decreased maintenance costs. or even without. because satellites have a better line of sight to transmit their DMB data stream.. Those streams are implemented based on OSI transport layer protocols.

we can increase the quality of the service. connects the streams with that of S-DMB. and configures its properties in accordance with that of TDMB. The AMI-C host fetches the list of waveform applications and decides which waveform application to be exploited. 7 illustrates the architectural overview of the DMB service integrated with the SDR-based wireless communication gateway under the usage scenario. Each procedure contains several transactions of AMI-C common messages [16] and SDR reference messages. which in turn delivers it to in-vehicle display and audio devices The usage scenario comprises two procedures: starting a DMB application and substituting S-DMB for T-DMB. or selectively S-DMB. Available resources of display. After the DMB application is started. waveform software application. By using two kinds of DMB services adaptively. is instantiated and started. T-DMB in this scenario. an S-DMB waveform application. which will be a substitute for that of T-DMB. Starting DMB service Figure 9. are allocated to the AMI-C host by the AMI-C vehicle interface. Figure 7. In order to control a DMB application on the AMI-C host. already fitted to the vehicle. Architectural Overview of DMB service Fig. These waveform software applications transmit DMB multimedia stream to the DMB application. i. Figure 8. Subsequently. Fig. HMI (Human Machine Interface) and audio devices. it accesses the wireless gateway to execute a T-DMB. Seamless substitution of T-DMB by SDMB 1621 . Seamless substitution is accomplished by a series of operations: the wireless gateway disconnects the DMB data streams from the T-DMB waveform application. The TDMB waveform application is instantiated and started in the wireless gateway.e.in the urban areas and S-DMB is used in the suburbs. and its properties are configured. 8 and 9 show UML sequence diagrams describing the messages exchanged during those two procedures respectively. a user uses HMI devices such as buttons or touchscreens. When the vehicle enters into the suburbs. the AMI-C host occupies resources of in-vehicle display and audio devices and connects them with the DMB data streams.

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