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THE DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT (z Z 2) QUASARS NEAR ACTIVE GALAXIES HALTON ARP
Max-Planck-Institut fur Astrophysik, Karl Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, 85740 Garching, Germany Received 1998 November 10 ; accepted 1999 June 22
ABSTRACT Two Ðelds uniformly searched by the Westerbork radio telescope are discussed. They contain four blue radio galaxies brighter than F \ 16.9 mag and eight quasars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with 1.84 ¹ z ¹ 2.397. The latter objects group in the vicinity of the blue galaxies. In the case of the violently disrupted blue radio galaxy, 53W003, there are, within about 2@, Ðve AGNs of 2.389 ¹ z ¹ 2.397. Mixed into this same small region are about 18 less compact Lya emitters of similar redshift. It is shown that the distribution of all the known high-redshift objects in the two Ðelds follows the same rules of association with active galaxies as have been observed since 1966. In particular, there is another exactly aligned triplet of quasars of z \ 1.84 and 2.14 across a radio quasar of z \ 0.55 which almost exactly matches the Arp/Hazard triplet conÐgurations found in 1980. Subject headings : galaxies : active È galaxies : Seyfert È quasars : general È radio continuum : galaxies
Within a few arcseconds of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) of z \ 2.390 (53W002), a faint galaxy of similar redshift was serendipitously discovered. This led to the direct imaging of the area by Hubble Space T elescope in redshifting Lya and ultimately to the identiÐcation of 18 faint objects within a few square arcminutes, all of closely the same redshift (Windhorst et al. 1991 ; Pascarelle et al. 1996 ; Keel et al. 1998, 1999). Figure 1 shows this extraordinary grouping of high-redshift objects. Perhaps even more surprising, however, is the fact that no one has so far suggested as an origin for these objects the disturbed, blue radio galaxy (53W003) only about 1@5 to the north (Windhorst, . van Weerde, & Katgert 1984). If this disturbed galaxy were closer by about 5 mag in modulus, its apparent magnitude would be V \ 11.5 mag. The separation of the cluster of high-redshift objects would then be about 15@Èwhich is about the separation of z Z 2 quasars from bright apparent magnitude, nearby active galaxies (see NGC 3516 [Chu et al. 1998] and NGC 5985 [Arp 1998b, 1999]). Moreover, two of the AGNs in Figure 1, z \ 2.384 and 2.393 (Keel et al. 1999), are separated from the cluster of high-redshift objects and are aligned exactly across the active galaxy. These are like the similar-redshift quasars across NGC 2639 (Burbidge 1997) and IC 1767 (Arp 1968). Since the pair is highly unlikely to be a chance arrangement of background objects, it must represent an association with the disturbed galaxy, as does the cluster of similar-redshift objects at a similar distance to the south-southwest1.
an active galaxy. It is in this respect similar to Seyferts and spiral galaxies with blue nuclei, the latter being designated as the ejection origin of companion galaxies by Holmberg (1969). But, in addition to this, Figure 2 shows that in 53W003 there are large plumes coming o† a central body which is broken into at least three district pieces. We will comment in the summary on this disturbed morphology and the disposition of the quasars. The Ðrst important point for this paper, however, is that such galaxies are rare, and Ðnding one this close to a very unusual grouping of highredshift objects is clearly noteworthy.2 The signiÐcance is conÐrmed by the fact that numerous investigations have shown active galaxies to be physically associated with quasars and other higher redshift companion objects (Arp 1997a ; Radecke 1997).
BLUE RADIO GALAXIES IN THE TWO WESTERBORK SURVEY FIELDS
THE BLUE RADIO GALAXY 53W003
A galaxy that emits radio emission and at the same time is blue in color has two of the attributes that categorize it as
1 Three of the most important properties that have characterized previous associations of quasars with active galaxies are (1) closeness, (2) alignment across the galaxy, and (3) similarity of redshifts in the pairs. Even if we make the unlikely assumption that quasars of exactly z \ 2.389 ^ 0.005 are uniformly and densely spread over the entire Ðeld of Fig. 1, we still have the alignment across 53W003 which is within about ^ 1¡ and therefore gives a probability of only p \ 0.01 to occur accidentally. The chance of Ðnding the galaxy across which they are paired to be active (disturbed) is only about p \ 0.05 (Arp 1998b, p. 190), so that the total probability of accidentally Ðnding a pair across a galaxy like that in Fig. 1 is less than 5 ] 10~4.
Figure 3 shows a plot of all blue radio galaxies in the two overlapping Hercules Ðelds (Kron, Koo, & Windhorst 1985). The limit in these Ðelds is taken at a 7 db attenuation radius of 0¡46 as marked in the Ðgure. In the entire Her II . Ðeld there is only one blue radio galaxy, the one marked as an open square, with redshift z \ 0.05 and apparent magnitude F(6100 A)\16.1 mag. It is 53W003, the galaxy sur rounded by the high-redshift quasars and allied objects in Figure 1. In the adjoining Her I Ðeld there is a blue radio galaxy of z \ 0.02, F \ 15.1 mag, which has as a companion a blue radio galaxy of z \ 0.29 and F \ 20.9 mag. The latter object is in the nature of a high-redshift companion to the brighter galaxy (and has a quasar-like redshift). Also in this Her I Ðeld is a blue radio galaxy of z \ 0.09, F \ 16.9 mag, which has a companion in the form of a z \ 0.55, V \ 18.3
2 There are two methods one could use to compute the chance of accidentally Ðnding a galaxy like 53W003 within 1@4 of the dense cluster of . quasars in Fig. 1. One notes that there were only six blue radio galaxies as bright as 53W003 in the nine Westerbork survey Ðelds (Kron, Koo, & Windhorst 1985). Only one of them was interacting (disturbed). That would give a probability of 3 ] 10~4. Alternatively, one could adopt a galaxy density for R [ 16 mag of B1 per square degree (Reimers & Hagen 1998). Then, using the morphologically disturbed fraction of 0.05, one derives 1 ] 10~4 for accidentally Ðnding an active galaxy like 53W003 so close to this unusual group of quasars.
DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASARS NEAR AGNs
FIG. 1.ÈPart of a 4 m PF-CCD Ðeld in the F410M Ðlter (4150 A, Ðlter width 150 A). The WFPC2 search Ðelds are outlined ; plus signs show non-AGN Lya emitters (see Keel et al. 1998 ; 1999). Quasars in the cluster are circled with z marked.
mag radio quasar. Finally, there is a blue radio galaxy of z \ 0.03, F \ 15.6 mag. The latter might be the origin of the preceding pair of objects or might be related to the z \ 0.02 blue radio galaxy. We do not consider this galaxy further.
MEDIUM-REDSHIFT QUASARS IN THE TWO FIELDS
Since it has been shown that quasar redshifts decrease as they increase their separation from their galaxy of origin (Chu et al. 1998 ; Arp 1998a), it is important to plot quasars of lower redshifts in these Ðelds. The open circles in Figure 3 show the location of all cataloged quasars in these Ðelds. There are only two in the Her II Ðeld, and they fall noticeably close to the active galaxy which is in the midst of the z \ 2.4 quasars. At about 9@ from 53W003 they are just about the place one would expect quasars of this redshift to fall with respect to a galaxy of origin of the redshift and apparent magnitude of 53W003. The same is true of the z \ 0.55 quasar in the Her I Ðeld with respect to the z \ 0.09 active galaxy.
had been associated with the blue radio galaxy in the eastern part of the Ðeld. The obvious result is that all the high-redshift (z Z 2) quasars fall very close to the blue radio galaxies in these two Westerbork Ðelds. It should be noted that the CFHT searches to fainter apparent magnitudes than usual and detects high-redshift quasars that are normally not strong in radio or X-ray emission. The highredshift quasars that are detected in the Her I and Her II Ðelds are unusually faint and therefore more distant than most cataloged high-redshift quasars. As a consequence these quasars appear conspicuously close to the galaxies with which they are associated. We will discuss this last point further in ° 8. But Ðrst we should comment on the new quasar triplet discovered in the Her I Ðeld.
ANOTHER ARP/HAZARD TRIPLET
HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASARS IN THE HER I FIELD
The Her I Ðeld turns out to be one of the 20 Ðelds searched with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) grens for quasars in the range 16È21.5 mag (Weedman 1985). The analyzed Ðeld covered a 27@ radius, was centered on the Her I Ðeld center, and consequently covered just about the 28@ Westerbork radius pictured in Figure 4. There were only three quasars discovered. As shown in Figure 4, one quasar of z \ 2.31 fell only about 6@ from the blue radio galaxy at the top of the Westerbork Ðeld. The other two, with z \ 2.14 and 1.84, fell almost exactly aligned across the z \ 0.55 radio quasar that
Figure 5 shows the two adjacent pairs of three aligned quasars which occasioned considerable interest when discovered on a UK Schmidt objective-prism plate some years ago (Arp & Hazard 1980). The exact alignment and repetition of redshift values in these two triplets made it extremely unlikely that these were chance projections of unassociated quasars. Now, in the Her I Ðeld, we have another, almost identical triplet conÐguration. Notice the remarkable close numerical similarity of the redshifts involved in all three of these examples (for calculations of probabilities see the Appendix). In the interval between the discovery of the original two triplets and the present one, we have made progress in understanding the signiÐcance of these conÐgurations. First of all, the central quasars are strong radio sources of
FIG. 2.ÈEnlargement of z \ 0.05 galaxy in Fig. 1. Note that this blue radio galaxy, 53W003, has multiple components. Image courtesy of W. Keel.
FIG. 3.ÈThe adjoining Ðelds of Her I and Her II were searched by the Westerbork radio telescope. Blue radio galaxies are indicated by open squares, radio quasars by open circles, and quasars identiÐed in Fig. 1 with 2.39 ¹ z ¹ 2.40 by small Ðlled circles. Redshifts and apparent magnitudes are written to the right of each object.
FIG. 4.ÈEnlargement of the Her I Ðeld showing the only three highredshift quasars discovered in the CFHT grens search by Weedman ( Ðlled circles).
FIG. 5.ÈThe Arp/Hazard triplets discovered in 1980. Note the similarity in the alignment and the numerical values of the quasars to the new triplet in Fig. 4. Panel at the side indicates toward and away ejection velocities, in z, from quantized values of redshift.
598 medium redshift. This marks them as being similar to BL Lac objects, objects in a particularly active state (Arp 1997a, 1997b). For example, note particularly the line of fainter X-ray quasars discovered coming out of the BL LacÈtype quasar 3C 345 (Arp 1997c). The redshifts in the newest triplet indicate that one of the high-redshift quasars has been ejected away from the observer with *z \ 0.15 and the other ejected toward the observer with *z \ 0.15. This is very close to the ejection velocities demonstrated in the Ðrst two Arp/Hazard triplets (as noted in the side panel of Fig. 5).
QUANTIZATION OF REDSHIFTS
It has been well established by now that quasar redshifts occur in certain preferred peaks (Arp et al. 1990 ; Chu et al. 1998). These peaks are given by the Karlsson (1977) formula : (1 ] z ) \ 1.23(1 ] z ) , 2 1 which yields z \ 0.061, 0.30, 0.60, 0.96, 1.40, 1.96, . . . . n The two high-redshift quasars in the new triplet obey this rule closely. If we average their redshifts to remove the component of ejection velocity, we obtain z \ 1.99, very close to the major formula peak of z \ 1.96. The central quasar is close to the formula peak of z \ 0.60. The same quantization Ðts are apparent in the original Arp/Hazard triplets. For the remaining objects in the two Hercules Ðelds it has already been mentioned that the companion to the z \ 0.02 blue radio galaxy has z \ 0.29. This is very close to the z \ 0.30 quasar peak. The two medium-redshift quasars near 53W003 apparently belong to the z \ 0.96 peak. The z \ 2.4 redshift objects near 53W003 and the z \ 2.31 redshift quasar near the z \ 0.02 blue radio galaxy are not close to the extrapolation of the next formula peak above z \ 1.96. However, it is apparent that both of these associations are near the edge of the Westerbork Ðelds and a search in a complete area around them which would be sensitive to a wide range in redshift would be very valuable.
THE DISTRIBUTION OF BRIGHT APPARENT MAGNITUDE, HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASARS
FIG. 6.ÈApparent V magnitude vs. redshift for (a) all Parkes and 3CR radio quasars from Hewitt & Burbidge (1980) within area southwest of M33 and (b) all Parkes and 3CR radio quasars over a large area in the Local Supercluster direction (NGH). From Arp (1984).
It is commonly believed that high-redshift quasars are homogeneously distributed over the sky. This is not true, however, if one looks at quasars in di†erent intervals of apparent magnitude. The reason is that quasars of a given intrinsic redshift appear brighter the nearer they are to the observer (Arp 1987a, p. 68). This is shown by a plot of the brightest radio quasars over the sky, which reveals that there are 3È4 times as many z D 2 quasars in the half of the sky toward the Local Group of galaxies than there are toward the more distant Local Supercluster center (Arp 1987a, Fig. 5-5). This can only be reasonably interpreted in the sense that as we look toward the center of our Local Group (r D 0.7 Mpc) we see most of the z D 2 quasars concentrated there. Since our Galaxy is located near the edge of the Local Group, we see few such quasars in the opposite direction. When we look to more distant galaxies, near the Local Supercluster center (r D 20 Mpc), we do not see z D 2 quasars until we go much fainter in apparent magnitude. For example Figure 6 shows that in the direction of the line
of quasars emerging from the Local Group galaxy, M33, the z D 2 quasars are numerous around the bright apparent magnitude level V \ 18. In the opposite direction of the sky, in the direction of the Local Supercluster center, quasars of this redshift are essentially absent and clearly will not be seen at these greater distances until one goes at least 3 mag fainter. This behavior is demonstrated strikingly here in Figures 1È4. The z Z 2 quasars in the two Westerbork Ðelds are faint in apparent magnitude and fall close to their blue radio galaxies of origin as if they were seen at greater distances. Possibly the nearest example of an ejecting galaxy surrounded by a cluster of high-redshift quasars is shown here in Figure 7. The galaxy, 3C 120, is one of the more intense radio sources in the sky and is centered on a very disturbed galaxy noted for superluminal (at its redshift distance) ejections and jets. The indications are that it lies somewhere between M31 and our own Milky Way, perhaps quite close to the latter (Arp 1987a, pp. 126È131). There are seven
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DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASARS NEAR AGNs
typical alignment of quasars across an active galaxy would result, in this case again approximately along the minor axis of ejection. Therefore, it would be rather decisive to check for another concentration, on the other side of 53W003, which was like the one to the south discussed here.
COMMENTS ON SEVERELY DISTURBED GALAXIES
FIG. 7.ÈFilled circles denote all quasars with S º 0.3 and z º 1.35 6 from Veron-Cetty & Veron (1984). Isocontour lines represent low-redshift H I clouds. The arrow on 3C 120 represents main jet directions. Open circles indicate low surface brightness galaxies with 4500 ¹ cz ¹ 5300 0 km~1. From Arp (1987b).
quasars of 1.35 ¹ z ¹ 2.5 clustered around 3C 120 within about 7¡. Hence we see that the quasars are bright, 16.5 mag ¹V ¹ 20.0 mag, and at quite large angular separation as if they were nearby. If moved out to the distance of the blue radio galaxies in the Hercules Ðelds, it is suggested that we would see something similar to the association of quasars with 53W003. Figure 8 here shows the only other very close grouping of mostly high-z quasars (four in the range 2.04 ¹ z [ 2.29). The group is only 8@ from the ejecting, disturbed, starburst galaxy M82. Excluding quasar 5, which is very faint and of uncertain redshift, the remaining Ðve, within a circle of radius 2@, reach a density of 1.4 ] 103 quasars deg~2. This is about 30 times the average density of quasars of D21 mag. In the area south of 53W003 there are about 1.4 ] 103 quasars deg~2 for the three designated as quasars, or 8.4 ] 103 if we count all emission-line objects in the area. Of course, the latter quasars are much fainter in apparent magnitude and close to the disturbed galaxy, as if the 53W003 conÐguration was seen as a greater distance. One comment on M82 is that the X-ray map (Dahlem, Weaver, & Heckman 1998) shows Position Sensitive Proportional Counter sources southeast of M82 which are easily identiÐed with the quasars pictured here in Figure 8. This obviously implies that the pictured X-ray sources northwest of M82 would also be identiÐed with quasars. A
Actually, in the case of 53W003 the disrupted nature of the ejecting galaxy enables us to account for the closeness and similarity of redshifts of the many surrounding ejecta. This is because the most common cases of ejected quasars are along the minor axis of fairly symmetrical galaxies (NGC 4258, NGC 2639, NGC 4235, NGC 3516, NGC 5985 ; see for review Arp 1998a, 1998b, 1999). We would argue, however, that occasionally ejections do not go o† along the axis of rotation but try to penetrate the material in the disk of the parent galaxy. In that case there is evidence that the galaxy is ripped apart. (See, e.g., 3C 227 ; Prieto et al. 1993.) Moreover, the pieces that would ordinarily have ejection velocities of ^ 0.1c have been stopped in the close vicinity of the disrupted galaxy. With their ejection velocity dissipated, their redshifts then reÑect the agerelated, intrinsic redshift of their constituent matter. The more recently created matter has low particle masses, which accounts for the redshifted photons in transitions within these younger atoms (Narlikar & Arp 1993). But in the beginning of its condensation into high-redshift quasars, the plasma has low-mass particles with large cross sections. This would predictably cause large interactions with the gas of a galaxy through which the plasmoids are trying to travel. This expected behavior could possibly predict the breaking up of the emerging protoquasar into numerous smaller pieces, some of which are not compact but give the appearance of small galaxies. Such a mechanism might be invoked to explain the curious mix of high-redshift quasars and galaxies in the immediate vicinity of 53W003. It is pertinent to point out that 53W002 was originally discovered as a radio galaxy because it was noticeably extended (Windhorst et al. 1991). But it has, at the conventional redshift distance, a luminosity M \ [24 mag and a Seyfert V spectrum. Therefore it would Ðt the arbitrary deÐnition of a quasar except for the asymmetrically extended nebulosity. The high-redshift objects around the disturbed, blue radio galaxy, 53W003, then are all very much like quasars with varying degrees of compactness. Of course if we associate these high-redshift objects with the relatively nearby 53W003, they are all very low rather than high luminosity. Their luminosity as z Z 2 quasars is already very low, and after being scattered and broken up on their passage out of the disturbed galaxy they will form many even lower luminosity objects of varying density. The irregular, nonequilibrium shapes of these high-redshift AGNs, which are generally extended, attest to their dynamical youth. Their high intrinsic redshift attests to the young age of their constituent matter. All our empirical experience would indicate that the most luminous galaxies are massive, relaxed, equilibrium forms. But in the 53W003 Ðeld, as in the typical Hubble Deep Field, there is a preponderance of blue, irregular-shaped objects, which I would argue is prima facie evidence for low-luminosity, intrinsically redshifted young matter in various stages of compactness.
The dense group of z B 2.39 objects 1@4 south of 53W003 . has been interpreted as very distant, large-scale structure
FIG. 8.ÈIdentiÐcation of faint, mostly high-redshift (z [ 2) quasars near the bright starburst galaxy M82. From Boller et al. (1989).
forming early in cosmic history (Keel et al. 1998, 1999). We would not expect such groups to be unique, and the discovery of more such groups which were not near to disturbed or active galaxies would be evidence against the interpretation advanced here. So far, however, the only groups of high-redshift quasars we know are brighter and more loosely spread southwest of M33 (Fig. 6) or the group of Ðve quasars very close to the disrupted galaxy M82 (Burbidge et al. 1980 ; Arp 1987a, Fig. 4-12 ; Boller et al. 1989) and the tendency of high-redshift quasars to exist closer to the ejecting galaxy than the lower redshift quasars (Fig. 3 of this paper and Arp 1999). Discretized values of redshifts have been observed for galaxies (e.g., Broadhurst et al. 1990 ; Steidel et al. 1998). They have generally been interpreted as sheets or Ðlaments of galaxies. The quantized redshifts discussed by Ti†t (1980), Arp (1987b), and Napier & Guthrie (1993), however, are small and very regular. The quasar periodicities, with the
smallest peak going down to z \ 0.061, are also very regular, following the empirical Karlsson formula and suggesting that our Galaxy is located at the center of a universe of concentric shellsÈif the redshifts are interpreted as velocity. Gravitational lensing has been invoked to explain various redshift anomalies, but for the separations we are discussing here the lensing masses would have to be unprecedentedly large. Much the same considerations would probably be involved in topological or geometrical distortions of space.
Two Ðelds completely surveyed by the Westerbork radio telescope are analyzed. It is found that there is a close spatial association between the blue radio (active) galaxies and the quasars. The association follows the rules previously observed, namely, that the medium-redshift quasars
No. 2, 1999
DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASARS NEAR AGNs
are brighter and fall farther from the active galaxies. The higher, z Z 2 quasars are fainter and fall closer to the active galaxies. When the active galaxy is severely disturbed, the quasars fall closer, are more numerous, and are fainter and more similar in redshift. All of these properties can be attributed to the ejection of the protoquasar material in a direction that disrupts the parent galaxy and is invoked as an explanation for the very unusual cluster of high-redshift
objects within 1@5 of the disturbed blue radio galaxy . 53W003. Another triplet, consisting of a pair of high-redshift quasars across a medium-redshift quasar is discovered in the Hercules I Ðeld. The quantization of redshift values for which evidence has been accumulating since 1967 is again conÐrmed for all but the highest redshift quasars in these Ðelds.
APPENDIX CALCULATION OF PROBABILITY OF ALIGNED QUASAR TRIPLETS The Arp/Hazard triplets in Figure 5 and the new triplet discovered in the Her I Ðeld are listed in Table 1, where the distances r from the central objects, are listed in arcminutes. The density of quasars in the Ðrst two Ðelds is taken from the discussion in Arp & Hazard (1980). The density of quasars in the Her I Ðeld is taken from the three quasars found in the Ðeld by Weedman (1985). The P probability is taken from the combined probability that the quasars would accidentally fall as align close to the central object as they do and have an alignment to within ^ 1¡. The p(z [ z ) probability is the probability that the second and third triplets would have quasars falling so close in redshift to the quasars0in the Ðrst triplet. (For quasars near z \ 2 the available range is taken as z \ 1.5È2.5 ; for quasars near z \ 0.5 the available range is taken as z \ 0.05È2.5.) The P*z probability is then taken as the combined probability that the quasar redshifts in the last two triplets would come so close by accident to those in the Ðrst triplet discovered. The Ðnal probability, P , is the probability that the triplets would be so well aligned and have such similar redshifts. tot None of the triplet properties are a posteriori. As early as 1968 a number of pairs of quasars across active galaxies had been identiÐed. As years passed some higher redshift central objects were observed to be at the centers of even higher redshift pairs (see Arp 1998b for a review). The P values in Table 1 are really more signiÐcant than calculated because the balanced separations of the pairs and the align similarity of the quasars (other than redshiftÈsay, apparent magnitude) have not been factored in. By now the existence of dozens of pairs across active central objects with P values in the 10~3 to 10~5 range, however, makes their physical align existence quite certain. The reason for such extremely low accidental probabilities found here for the triplets, P B 10~8 to tot 10~9, is that the redshifts of the quasars come out so close to previously predicted values. This reinforces the previously identiÐed property of quantization of redshift. Physically the alignments are conÐrmed by the evidence for ejection of material in opposite directions from nuclei of active galaxies. There is a clear tendency for these ejections to be along the least obstructed direction, the minor axis of rotating galaxies. The evidence in the current paper is used to examine the question of what happens when the ejection is not in the direction of minimum resistance.
TABLE 1 THREE-QUASAR TRIPLETS r (arcmin) ... 5.9 10.3
Quasar 0.51 . . . . . . 2.15 . . . . . . 1.72 . . . . . .
Number ... 6 6
p(r , r ) 1 2 ... 0.18 0.54
P align ...
p(z [ z ) 0 ... ... ...
1 ] 10~3 0.54 . . . . . . 2.12 . . . . . . 1.61 . . . . . . ... 2.8 7.0 ... 6 6 ... 0.04 0.24 1 ] 10~4 0.55 . . . . . . 2.14 . . . . . . 1.84 . . . . . . ... 9.6 12.0 ... 4.4 4.4 ... 0.35 0.57 2 ] 10~3 0.016 0.01 0.12 0.012 0.03 0.11
1 ] 10~3
4 ] 10~5
4 ] 10~9
2 ] 10~5
4 ] 10~8
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