Plant Hormones and their Functions

Introduction to plant hormones and their functions: Hormones in animals cooordinate body functions by moving from one place and acting in another. Plants do not have a circulatory system . They are molecules that are not directly involved in metabolic or developmental processes but they act at low concentrations to modify these processes. The control and coordination in plants is done by plant hormones or Phytohormones. The plant hormonnes coordinates the activites of the plant by controlling one or the other aspect of the growth of the plant. So, the plant hormones are also known as plant growth substances. The growth of a plant can be divided into three stages : cell division, cell enlargement and cell differentiation. These three stages of plant growth as well as promotion of dormancy, breaking of dormancy, stomata control, falling of leaves, fruit growth, ripening of fruits and ageing in plants are controlled by the various plant hormones. There are five major types of plant hormones. 1. Auxins 2.Gibberellins. 3.Cytokinins 4.Abscisic acid. 5.Ethene.

Functions of Different Plant Hormones:
There are various types of hormone and they have different functions: 1. They are present in Embryo of seed, young leaves, meristems of apical buds. Auxins were the first plant hormones discovered. Auxins are the plant hormones which promote cell enlargement and cell differentiation in plants. They also promote fruit growth. 2.Gibberellins are present in Meristems of apical buds and roots, young leaves, embryo Gibberellins are plant hormones which promote cell enlargement and cell differentiation in the presence of auxins. Gibberellins help in breaking the dormancy in seeds and buds.They also promote growth in fruits. 3.Cytokinins are synthesized in roots and transported to other organs. They have been found in almost all higher plants as well as mosses, fungi, bacteria. Cytokinins are the plant hormones which promote cell di vision in plants. Cytokinins also help in breaking the dormancy of seeds and buds. They delay the ageing in leaves. They promote the opening of stomata.They promote fruit growth.

Ethene is a plant hormone which promotes ripening of fruits. It also helps and functions in breaking of bud dormancy. . the plant species. nodes of stems. and also the stage of development. .4 ABA is a naturally occurring compound in plants.Abscisic acid is a plant hormone which promotes the dormancy in seeds and buds. It also promotos closing of stomata. Abscisic acid promotes the falling of leaves . Ethylene is produced in all higher plants and is produced from methionine in essentially all tissues. senescent leaves and flowers. Production of ethylene varies with the type of tissue. which is called Abscission. 5 Ethylene is present in tissues of ripening fruits.