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A job analysis is the process used to collect information about the duties, responsibilities, necessary skills,
outcomes, and work environment of a particular job. You need as much data as possible to put together a job
description, which is the frequent outcome of the job analysis. Additional outcomes include recruiting plans,
position postings and advertisements, and performance development planning within your performance
management system.

Job Analysis is the process of describing and recording aspects of jobs and specifying the
skills and other requirements necessary to perform the job.

One of the main purposes of conducting job analysis is to prepare job description and job specification
which in turn helps to hire the right quality of workforce into the organization. The general purpose of job
analysis is to document the requirements of a job and the work performed. Job and task analysis is
performed as a basis for later improvements, including: definition of a job domain; describing a job;
developing performance appraisals, selection systems, promotion criteria, training needs assessment, and
compensation plans. [1]

In the fields of Human Resources (HR) and Industrial Psychology, job analysis is often used to gather
information for use in personnel selection, training, classification, and/or compensation. [2]

The field of vocational rehabilitation uses job analysis to determine the physical requirements of a job to
determine whether an individual who has suffered some diminished capacity is capable of performing the
job with, or without, some accommodation.

Professionals developing certification exams use job analysis (often called something slightly different, such
as "task analysis") to determine the elements of the domain which must be sampled in order to create a
content valid exam. When a job analysis is conducted for the purpose of valuing the job (i.e., determining
the appropriate compensation for incumbents) this is called "job evaluation."

Job analysis aims to answer questions such as: 1. Why does the job exist? 2. What physical and mental
activities does the worker undertake? 3. When is the job to be performed? 4. Where is the job to be
performed? 5. How does the worker do the job? 6. What qualifications are needed to perform the job? 7.
What are the working conditions (such as levels of temperature, noise, offensive fumes, light) 8. What
machinery or equipment is used in the job? 9. What constitutes successful performance?


Job descriptions are written statements that describe the:

• duties,
• responsibilities,
• most important contributions and outcomes needed from a position,
• required qualifications of candidates, and
• reporting relationship and coworkers of a particular job.
• Job analysis methods
• Methods of collecting job analysis information include:
• Methods of observation includes direct observation, work methods analysis, critical incident
• 1. Direct observation
• Direct Observation is a method of job analysis to observe and record behavior / events / activities /
tasks / duties while something is happening.
• 2. Work methods analysis
• Work methods analysis is used to describe manual and repetitive production jobs, such as factory or
assembly-line jobs. Work methods analysis includes time and motion study and micro-motion
• 3. Critical incident technique (CIT model).
• Critical incident technique is a method of job analysis used to identify work behaviors that classify in
good and poor performance.
• Interview method is a useful tool of job analysis to ask questions to both incumbents and supervisors
in either an individual or a group setting. Interview includes structured Interviews, unstructured
interview, open-ended questions.
• Questionnaire methods includes 6 techniques as follows:
• 5. Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ model)
• PAQ model is a questionnaire technique of job analysis. It developed by McCormick, Jeanneret, and
Mecham (1972), is a structured instrument of job analysis to measure job characteristics and relate
them to human characteristics. It consists of 195 job elements that describe generic human work
• 6. Functional job analysis (FJA model)
• FJA model is a technique of job analysis that was developed by the Employment and Training
Administration of the United States Department of Labor. It includes 7 scales (numbers) that
measure: 3 worker-function scales: measure % of time spent with: data, people, things; 1 worker-
instruction scale; 3 scales that measure reasoning, mathematics, language.
• 7. Work Profiling System (WPS model)
• WPS model is a questionnaire technique of job analysis, is a computer-administered system for job
analysis, developed by Saville & Holdsworth, Ltd.
• 8. MOSAIC model
• MOSAIC model is a questionnaire technique of job analysis used to collect information from
incumbents and supervisors. It contains 151 job tasks rated in terms of importance for effective job
performance and 22 competencies rated in terms of importance, and needed proficiency at entry.
• 9. Common Metric Questionnaire (CMQ model)
• CMQ model is a technique of job analysis that was developed by Harvey as a “worker-oriented” job
analysis instrument designed to have applicability to a broad range of exempt and nonexempt jobs. It
includes 41 general questions of background section, 62 questions of contacts with people, 80 items
of decision making, 53 items of physical and mechanical activities, 47 items of work setting.
• 10. Fleishman Job Analysis System (FJAS model)
• FJAS model is is a technique of job analysis that describe jobs from the point of view of the
necessary capacities. It includes 52 cognitive, physical, psycho-motor, and sensory ability, each of
the categories consists of two parts – an operational and differential definition and a grading scale.


11. Task Inventory

A task inventory is a list of the discrete activities that make up a specific job in a specific organization.

12. Job element method

This method is same the critical incident technique. It focuses on work behaviors and the results of this
behavior rather than more abstract characteristics. Job element method developed by Ernest Primoff.

13. Diary method

This method is a useful tool of job analysis to ask worker maintaining and keeping daily records or list of
activities they are doing on every day…
14. Checklists and rating scales

Checklist is job analysis method base on an inventory of job elements. You can ask question about purose of
position; key responsibility areas; organization; relationships; decision making; authority; Skills, knowledge,
experience; working conditions

15. Competency profiling

Competency modeling is the activity of determining the specific competencies that are characteristic of high
performance and success in a given job. Contents of competency modeling include skills, knowledge,
abilities, values, interests, personalities.

16. Examining Manuals/reference materials

Manuals/reference materials such as quality manual, human resource manual, procedures, instruction, forms,
job description…are useful for analyst in job analysis. These documents are available for organizations
applied to ISO 9000 standard.

17. Technical conference

Technical conference is a useful tool of job analysis base on Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). SMEs conduct
brainstorming sessions to identify job elements. SMEs can use all job analysis methods in here.

18.Threshold Traits Analysis System (TTAS model)

Threshold Traits Analysis System (TTAS model) is a method of job analysis, was developed in 1970 by
Felix Lopez. Threshold traits analysis system include a standard set of 33 traits: ability traits are “can do”
factors and attitudinal traits are “willing to do” factors.

Combination of methods

In process of job analysis, analyst can use and associate all methods to collecting job information. For
example, when you use direct observation, then you always do interview method.

Purpose of job analysis

why is job analysis important ?

Directly outcomes / results of job analysis are job description and job specification. Apart from job
description and job specification, Functions / benefits of job analysis include elements as below.

1. Purpose of job analysis in Recruitment and Selection:

Job analysis is very important for contents as:

• Job duties that should be included in advertisements of vacant positions;

• Appropriate salary level for the position to help determine what salary should be offered to a candidate;
• Minimum requirements (education and/or experience) for screening applicants;
• Interview questions;
• Selection tests/instruments (e.g., written tests; oral tests; job simulations);
• Applicant appraisal/evaluation forms;
• Orientation materials for applicants/new hires
2. Purpose of job analysis in Job evaluation

• Judges relative worth of jobs in an organization

• Sets fair compensation rates

3. Purpose of job analysis in Job design

• Reduce personnel costs, streamline work processes,

• Increase productivity and employee empowerment,
• Enhance job satisfaction and provide greater scheduling flexibility for the employee.
• Simplify job with too many disparate activities
• Identifies what must be performed, how it will be performed, where it is to be performed and who will
perform it.

4. Purpose of job analysis in Compensation and Benefits:

Job Analysis can be used in compensation to identify or determine:

• Skill levels
• Compensation job factors
• Work environment (e.g., hazards; attention; physical effort)
• Responsibilities (e.g., fiscal; supervisory)
• Required level of education (indirectly related to salary level

5. Importance of job analysis in Performance Appraisal:

Job Analysis can be used in performance review to identify or develop:

• Goals and objectives
• Performance standards
• Length of probationary periods
• Duties to be evaluated
• Evaluation criteria

6. Importance of job analysis in Training and development:

Job Analysis can be used in training needs assessment to identify or develop:

• Training content
• Assessment tests to measure effectiveness of training
• Equipment to be used in delivering the training
• Methods of training (i.e., small group, computer-based, video, classroom…)

7. Job analysis increases productivity

How a job analysis increases productivity?

• Job analysis also identify performance criteria so that it promote worker for best performance.
• Job analysis can use methods of time and motion study or micro-motion analysis in order to time and
motion for job.

8. Importance of job analysis in Compliance with labor law:

• Identify requirements in compliance with labor law.

• Compliance with Civil Rights Legislation in US.
• EEO (Equal Employment Opportunity) compliance in U
Classification of job analysis methods
1. Classification based on property

Classification of property include 2 types of qualitative job analysis techniques and quantitative job analysis

Qualitative job analysis techniques

• Interview
• Observation
• Participant Dairy / logs
• Questionnaire

Quantitative job analysis techniques

• Functional job analysis
• Department of Labor Procedure (DOL)
• Position analysis questionnaire

2. Classification based on orientation

Classification-oriented include 2 types of job-oriented and worker-oriented.

Job-Oriented: focus on work activities, focus on describing various tasks that are performed on the job,
very specific task description

• Job Element Method

• Task Analysis
• Functional Job Analysis


focus on traits and talents necessary to perform the job, examine broad human behaviors involved in work

• Position Analysis Questionnaire

• Critical Incident Technique

Information sources of job analysis

Sources of job information to conduct a job analysis are:

1. External sources of job analysis

• Job analysis information from competitor such as job description and specification…
• Dictionary of Occupational Titles
• U.S. Standard Occupational Classification System
• Other on-line job descriptions

2. Internal sources of job analysis

• Job incumbents: observation, interview, questionnaire

• Supervisor of job: interview, questionnaire
• Job analyst
• HR information management system
• Existing job descriptions
• Manuals, publications
• Experts
• Records/file/manuals
• Plans and blueprints
• SMEs (Subject Matter Experts): people who have in-depth knowledge of specific job under analysis, job
skills, and abilities
• Outside consultant

I/ Job information of HR officer

1. Job tile:

2. Job Code:

3. Department:

4. Report to:

5. Job purpose:

II/ Key tasks of HR officer

1. Recruitment and selection

• Analyze, plan, manage recruitment programs and the hiring process to ensure that HR service provided
meets the needs of company’s business.

2. Compensation and Benefit:

• Ensure compensation and benefits are in line with Company policies and updated Government
• Control Payroll Calculation, compulsory Insurances and other HR reports as required by authorities.

3. Performance appraisal

• Coordinate with HR in Head Office to conduct annual employee performance appraisal.

4. Administrations:

• Follow procedures related to Expatriates working of company: visa, passport, work permits, medical

5. Employee Relations:

• Maintain discipline for the southern factory as well as create motivation for all employees.
• Supervise HR team, solve employee conflicts and improve HR administration; develop strong relationships
with HO and effective communication between Company & employees.

6. Other assignments:

• Understand the local employment laws.

• Maintain, update and expand the company policies,

III / Job specification of HR officer

1. Degree/Diploma in human resources management, business administration.

2. At least 3 to 5 years’ relevant experience.

3. Proficient in HR matter.

4. Able to communicate well with all levels of people.

5. Good writing skills.

6. Meticulous, detailed, well-organized and able to work independently to meet datelines.

7. Expert user of MS Excel and numerically inclined.

8. Excellent communication and interpersonal skills.

9. Ability to start in short notice a strong advantage.

10. Strong IT and skill.

Definition of job description at wikipedia

A job description is a list of the general tasks, or functions, and responsibilities of a position. Typically, it
also includes to whom the position reports, specifications such as the qualifications needed by the person in
the job, salary range for the position, etc. …

Purpose of job description

why are job descriptions important ? Functions / benefits of job description include 5 elements as follows:

1. Purpose of job description for human resources department

Functions / benefits of job description include elements as follows:

Recruitment and Selection:

• As a mechanism for recruitment (determining qualifications)

• Recruit for vacancies
• Counsel people on career opportunities and their vocational interests
• provide guidelines for the recruitment process;

Training and development:

• For advising on employee training and development

• Identify training requirements;

Performance Appraisal:

• For establishing and updating performance standards

• Establish performance requirements
• Identify a performance standard of work that can be measured in terms of quality, quantity, time and
Human resource planning

• For reorganization/realignment/reductions in force planning.

• For succession planning or organizational development (for example, what additional tasks can be
applied for the growth of the organization as a whole?).

Human resource information system

• Clearly define channels of communication;

• Assign occupational codes, titles and/or pay levels to jobs
• For developing internal and/or external announcements

People management

• Obtain mutual agreement between supervisors and subordinates with regards to the functions, job
content and the performance standard attached to a specific post.
• For assigning jobs.


Job description can be used in compensation to identify or determine:

• Job factors of compensation.

• Work environment (e.g., hazards; attention; physical effort) etc

Compliance with labour law

• For determining Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) status (exempt or nonexempt).
• Check for compliance with legal requirements related to equal opportunity, equal pay, overtime
eligibility, etc.

2. Purpose of job description for employee

An employee uses a position description:

• For understanding and establishing training objectives and developmental goals / objects.
• As a tool to understand his/her area of responsibility.
• For understanding new assignments and/or working conditions
• As a jump start for recommending improvement to work

3. Purpose of job description for supervisor or manager

A supervisor or manager uses position descriptions:

• Introduce new employees to their positions

• To clearly delineate work assignments and detect overlaps or gaps in those assignments
• As tools to manage their organizations
• Basis for developing performance plans
• Assist employees to acquire a greater understanding of their assigned duties
• Reassign and/or fix functions and responsibilities of their assigned organization
• Evaluate work performance.
• Assist in hiring and placing employees in positions for which they are best suited
• Improve work-flow and technical for work accomplishment
• Make decisions concerning reorganizations / realignments / reductions in force
ontents of a job description
Job description include 9 components as follows:

1.Contents of Job identification

• Job title: The title should be chosen carefully as it provides importance and status for the employee.
• Reporting relationships.
• Department.
• Job location
• Manager / Supervisor’s title: persons to whom the jobholder reports
• Job code (if applicable)
• FLSA status (exempt or non-exempt).
• Purpose and objective of the job: to identify nature of job.

2.Contents of Job duties

Duties: List of main task.

Responsibilities is the level of responsibility the job holder for examples:

• The amount of discretion allowed to make decisions;

• The difficulty, scale, variety and complexity of the problems to be solved;
• The quantity and value of the resources controlled; and
• The type and importance of interpersonal relations.

Employee Empowerment:

Organization should supply employees power to initiate change, thereby encouraging them to take charge of
what they do.

Power can be:

• Participation and autonomy
• Innovation and acceptance of risk-taking
• Access to information
• Accountability for results
• Cultural openness to change

Employee relations

Employee relations includes internal relations and external relations

• Internal relations include with co-workers, supervisor / manager / subordinates.

• External relations include with “input” or “output” people for example: employees from other departments,
customer, suppliers…


• Extent of supervision
• Number of subordinates
• Job title of employee

Key result areas

Key result areas are the results or outcomes for which the job holder is accountable.
Standards of performance

Standards of performance lists the standards the employee is expected to achieve under each of the job
description’s main duties and responsibilities.

3.Contents of Job Specifications

• Knowledge is an organized body of information that a person mentally possesses as a result of formal
education, training, or personal experience.
• Skill requirements: skills include on the job skills and any specialized competencies.
• Experience: describe minimum experience required to perform job satisfactorily; may include
preferred/desired experience).
• Abilities. Ability include physical ability, metal ability, aptitudes.

4. Contents of working conditions

Working conditions or job context refers to the conditions under which work is performed and the demands
such work imposes on employees for example:

• Environmental conditions
• Job hazards / safety
• Machine, tools and equipments

Job specification should be avoided:

When conduct a job description, you should be avoided from elements as follows in compliance with labor
law: race, color, religion, age, sex, national origin or nationality, or physical or mental disability…

Job specifications
1. Definition of job specification

Nature of a job specification is a statement of knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to perform the job. It
are minimum acceptable qualifications to perform a particular job. It is the same job criteria.

2. Definition of job specification of (UAB)

“Job Specification – definition of knowledge, skills, and abilities and the associated education, training, and
experience required to successfully perform a job. These also constitute the minimum recruiting criteria or
minimum qualifications for the job”

3. Meaning of job specification in job advertisement.

Job specification includes knowledge, skills, and abilities but in fact, It also includes job purpose, main
duties, compensation etc when it is used for job advertisement.

4. What is the differences between job description and job specification?

a. Job description are task, duties, responsibilities this mean job description are what you must “do”. Job
specification are knowledge, skills, abilities etc this mean job specification are what you must “have” to
perform “job description”.

b. Job description belong to organization and job specification belong to you.

Purpose of job specification
why are job specifications important ? Functions / benefits of job specification include 5 elements as

1. Find out prospective candidate

Job specification pay a important role in finding out prospective employees to a particular job.

The specifications you prepare will help you evaluate curriculum vitae more speedily and ruthlessly, as well
as providing a list of pertinent questions for interview.

2. The importance of job specification also reflect in attracting candidate.

A job specification will be the first introduction to candidate. It is therefore crucial that it is professional and
portrays the right image. So that when yơu write a dynamic, accurate job specification, you will be attracted
the appropriate candidate.

3. Set up competency of organization

Organization should set up their core competency and job specification will help them to implement
competency programs.

4. Job specification pay a important role in identifying competencies of employee

Employer can identify the exact duties and competencies of the position.

5. Orientation to candidate

Candidate can determine if his / her experience and qualifications suit the job specification

Contents of an Job specification

1. Contents of a job specification:

include 9 components as follows:

1.1 Job information:

• The title should be chosen carefully as it provides importance and status for the employee.
• Describe the location of the job in the organizational structure and working location.
• How many hours a week and a comment about flexibility if this is offered (beyond your legal
• Who will the post holder report to?

1.2 Job Purpose: to identify nature of job.

1.3 Main duties: to identify key duties of job (limited to 7 or 10 tasks).

1.4 Knowledge / qualification:

• Knowledge can include the educational or vocational qualifications and other related knowledge
gained from learning or
• Knowledge is an organized body of information that a person mentally possesses as a result of
formal education, training, or personal experience.

1.5 Skill requirements: skills include on the job skills and any specialized competencies.

1.6 Experience: describe minimum experience required to perform job satisfactorily; may include
preferred/desired experience).

1.7 Abilities. Ability include physical ability, metal ability, aptitudes.

• Physical specifications includes health, strength, age range, body size, weight, vision, poise etc.
• Mental specifications include ability to perform, arithmetical calculations, to interpret data,
information blue prints, to read etc.

1.8 Licenses/Certification:

1.9 Requirements due to working environment

2. Related elements to job specifications

Apart from contents of a job specification above, the following elements also affects recruitment process of
2.1 Behavior / Attitude Specifications:
Behavioral specifications include judgments, research, creativity, teaching ability, maturity trial of
conciliation, self-reliance etc.

2.2 Aptitudes:
Aptitudes is a capacity for learning (e.g. ability to learn correctional institution policies and procedures.) It is
very difficult to measure aptitudes and it do not belong in job specifications.

3. Job specification should be avoided:

When conduct a job specification, you should be avoided from elements as follows in compliance with labor

• Age
• Sex
• Race
• Religion
• Ethnicity
• National Origin
• Sexual Orientation
• Marital Status
• Disability/Health
• Dependent Care Responsibilities
• Unnecessary criteria

4. Types of job criteria:

There are two criteria of candidate selection: essential and desirable criteria.

• Essential criteria are those absolutely necessary to do the job.

• Desirable criteria are those not necessary but it it criteria preferred.
Reasons For Conducting Job Analysis
A sound job analysis system is extremely critical for numerous reasons.
• Staffing—All areas of staffing would be haphazard if the recruiter did not know the qualifications needed
to perform the jo
• Training And Development—if the specification suggests that the job requires a particular knowledge,
skill, or ability—and the person filling the position does not possess all the qualifications required—training
and/or development is probably in order.
• Compensation and Benefits—The relative value of a particular job to the company must be known before a
dollar value can be placed on it. From an internal perspective the more significant its duties and
responsibilities, the more the job is worth.
• Safety and Health—Information derived from job analysis is also valuable in identifying safety and health
See below for more information.

Importance of Job Analysis

Posted: Aug 29, 2009 |Comments: 0 | Views: 8,140 |

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Job analysis helps in analyzing the resources and establishing the strategies to accomplish the business goals
and strategic objectives. Effectively developed, employee job descriptions are communication tools that are
significant in an organization's success.

The main purpose of conducting job analysis is to prepare job description and job specification which helps
to hire right quality of workforce.

Job Analysis can be used in training to identify or develop, training content, and assessment tests to measure
effectiveness of training, equipment to be used in delivering the training and methods of training.

Job Analysis can be used in compensation to identify or determine: skill levels, compensable job factors,
work environment, responsibilities and required level of education.

Job Analysis can be used in selection procedures to identify or develop job duties that should be included in
advertisements of vacant positions, appropriate salary level for the position to help determine what salary
should be offered to a candidate, minimum requirements for screening applicants, interview questions,
selection tests/instruments (e.g., written tests; oral tests; job simulations), applicant appraisal forms and
orientation materials for new hires

Job Analysis can be used in performance review to identify or develop goals and objectives, performance
standards, evaluation criteria, length of probationary periods, and duties to be evaluated

An ideal job analysis should include

Duties and Tasks: The basic unit of a job is the performance of specific tasks and duties. This segment
should include frequency, duration, effort, skill, complexity, equipment, standards, etc.

Environment: This segment identifies the working environment of a particular job. This may have a
significant impact on the physical requirements to be able to perform a job.

Tools and Equipment: Some duties and tasks are performed using specific equipment and tools. These
items need to be specified in a Job Analysis.

Relationships: The hierarchy of the organization must be clearly laid out. The employees should know who
is under them and who they have to report to.

Requirements: The knowledge, skills, and abilities required to perform the job should be clearly listed.

There are several ways to conduct a job analysis, including: interviews with incumbents and supervisors,
questionnaires (structured, open-ended, or both), observation, critical incident investigations, and gathering
background information such as duty statements or classification specifications.

It is important for organizations to hire the right candidates who suit their work environment and
requirements otherwise they will end up stagnating. It also important for the job seekers to pick up a job that
suits their personality and interest as the first step will play a deciding role in shaping their career and
position in life. This can be possible only when job seekers and organizations are able to communicate their
requirements to each other., the world’s leading International job portal which offers an
interactive medium to job seekers and providers in the domain of plastic industry worldwide.

What is a job description?

A job description is a written statement that includes the job title, FLSA status, purpose of the job,
specific responsibilities of the job, reporting structure, experience and skills required, specific strengths
and/or characteristics that are needed to perform the job, and any physical requirements of the
position. By detailing the essential functions that each employee is responsible for completing, job
descriptions help to define roles and relationships among employees and departments within a
company, clarifying who is responsible for what. This helps eliminate wasted time that can occur if
employees don't understand what their role is. And new hires can transition more smoothly into the
company if they understand their designated role.

Besides the legalissues, there are a number of other reasons why job descriptions are important to
both employees and employers.


The process of writing a job description helps you mentally process and document exactly what you
need and want out of your current employees as well asfuture employees and how and where they will
fit into your team, company and strategic plans. With a complete job description, you'll know exactly
what you want at the outset of the recruiting process, rather than discovering it through trial and error
while interviewing candidates.

Recruiting and Hiring

Job descriptions help to provide accurate information to include in job postings and advertisements,
and spell out the requirements necessary to achieve a good match between the candidate's
qualifications and the demands of the job. Without a clear, accurate job description, you may attract
candidates that are clearly not qualified for the position, but are responding to anything and everything
they see listed as available because the job title sounds like something they can do. For example, if you
advertise for a "Trainer" without any specifics as to what kind of Trainer you need, you may get
resumes from animal trainers or fitness trainers and you'll have to filter through all of that to find
candidates who have the qualifications you're seeking. Anyone who is interviewing and hiring needs a
job description for the position in hand in order to effectively screen and select prospective candidates.
If interviewing isn't one of your strengths,a job description functions as a foundation for developing
interview questions and youcan use the job description to explain the position to candidates.

And prospective employees need to know what they job requirements are so they know if they're
qualified and if they're interested in applying. A job description outlines the expectations and
requirements of the position so that you can attract the candidates who not only CAN do the job, but
WANT to do the job.


When determining the compensation for a position, jobs must be categorized and evaluated in order to
make comparisons and to determine a fair market value for a position, and a job description services as
a reference guide for this purpose. This helps you to make sound financial decisions and ensure that
your current employees are compensated at the market rate, and that you're hiring new employees at
a fair rate. Not knowing where your pay rates are compared to the market can mean you are
overpaying your employees, or you're at risk of losing key employees because you're paying below

Performance Management

Job descriptions discourage employees from refusing to do something because "it's not my job."
Additionally, they can be used as a basis for employee reviews, salary increases, setting goals and
development plans. Job descriptions ensure that your employees know what is expected of them, so
they can meet and hopefully exceed your expectations. If you don't tell them what is expected, how are
they supposed to know? Job descriptions can be used to establish the difference between bad, good
and outstanding performance, so you can appropriately recognize your star performers and address
poor performance. And when you come across employees who are not meeting the standards of the
job, you have an effective tool in place to document what is not getting done and to provide support for
any disciplinary action or termination decisions that you make. This documentation is essential in the
event an employee files a discrimination lawsuit against the company.

Career Planning

Job descriptions can help to determine upward mobility within a company by creating a hierarchy of
positions. Employees need to know they have a future at the company and that the future is interesting
and attainable. Accurate job descriptions for all positions in the company provide information such as
what positions are available or may become available, what each job entails, and what qualifications
are needed, so employees can work on getting any skills, knowledge or abilities that they're lacking.
For managers, knowing what the job requirements are for each position can help them work with each
employee to develop their skills and grow in their careers.

Employee Relations

Job descriptions clarify roles and responsibilities so that everyone on a team, in a department or
division, and throughout the company is very clear about what is required ofthem and how their roles
work together.

Whether you're hiring someone new, evaluating a current employee, or determining compensation, a
job description provides consistency and clarity for everyone involved. Taking the time to write
accurate job descriptions now will save you time, money and energy in the future. And once written,
keep them updated. Review your job descriptions during your performance review process to ensure
they accurately reflect each employee's current job responsibilities.

Need help writing job descriptions for your company? Contact Instant HR Solutionstoday.
The Importance of Job Descriptions

All employees like to know what is expected of them and how they will be evaluated. Job descriptions can also be a
great value to employers. Creating a job description often results in a thought process that helps determine how
critical the job is, how this particular job relates to others and identify the characteristics needed by a new employee
filling the role.

A job description typically outlines the necessary skills, training and education needed by a potential employee. It will
spell out duties and responsibilities of the job. Once a job description is prepared, it can serve a basis for interviewing
candidates, orienting a new employee and finally in the evaluation of job performance. Using job descriptions is part of
good management.

Components of a Job Description

1. A summary statement. These one or two sentences include a general statement of duties and mentions who
the employee would report to.
2. Functions of the position. Usually this section is the most lengthy. It details what the job actually entails and
can be quite specific. It should detail any supervisory functions in addition to being as specific as possible
describing tasks the employee will face every day. This is also the best place to indicate whether the person
will deal with customers, the public or only internal employees. You can also use this section to place priorities
on the activities.
3. Attributes needed for the position. If the position involves the use of machinery (or computers), spell out
what type of machines or software the employee will use. Also detail any technical or educational
requirements that may be critical or desired. This is also the place to provide some insights into the type of
work environment you are attempting to maintain. Is it pure business, or must the person be able to contribute
to an overall spirit of the organization?
4. Reporting. Provide details on the reporting and organizational structure. This will help the employee better
understand how their activities fit into the total organization.
5. Evaluation criteria. The more specific you can get the better. Writing this section will probably enable you to
define what is most important for the organization as well as the employee. Try to make sure the evaluation
criteria of the position will promote the type of activities to enhance the success of the business. Also provide
details on when evaluations will take place.
6. Compensation. Including a range instead of a specific figure will give you more flexibility, but most people will
feel they should be at the top of the range. It is usually better to have a specific dollar amount, especially if
you are giving the job description to the employee. If your organization uses salary grades, use that.
7. Physical location and surroundings.

Using job descriptions will help an organization better understand the experience and skill base needed to enhance
the success of the company. They help in the hiring, evaluation and potentially terminating of employees. All too often,
there is a misunderstanding of what a position entails and a well-prepared job description can help both sides share a
common understanding.