This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Engineered Porous Metals for Implants
B. Vamsi Krishna, Weichang Xue, Susmita Bose, and Amit Bandyopadhyay
Interest is signiﬁcant in patient-speciﬁc implants with the possibility of guided tissue regeneration, particularly for load-bearing implants. For such implants to succeed, novel design approaches and fabrication technologies that can achieve balanced mechanical and functional performance in the implants are necessary. This article is focused on porous load-bearing implants with tailored micro- as well as macrostructures using laser-engineered net shaping (LENS ), a solid freeform fabrication or rapid prototyping technique that can be used to manufacture patient-speciﬁc implants. This review provides an insight into LENS, some properties of porous metals, and the potential applications of this process to fabricate unitized structures which can eliminate longstanding challenges in load-bearing implants to increase their in-vivo lifetime, such as in a total hip prosthesis. INTRODUCTION The major drawbacks of current load-bearing implants, reducing their in-vivo life, are a mismatch of Young’s modulus and a weak interfacial bond between bone and metallic implant materials. In addition, wear-induced osteolysis and aseptic loosening in metalon-polymer implants, and absence of high recoverable strain (~2%) as well as hysteresis in biocompatible metals, similar to natural bone, are other factors that limit the in-vivo life of implants. One consideration to achieve a strong interfacial bond and also to reduce modulus mismatch has been the development of implants with porous metals. Use of porous metals can effectively reduce the modulus mismatch and provide pathways for bone in-growth through the pores for stable
2008 May • JOM
How would you…
…describe the overall signiﬁcance of this paper? The lifetimes of load-bearing metal implants in the human body can be increased signiﬁcantly via compositional and structural modiﬁcations of the implants. Advanced technologies are needed to manufacture these advanced designs. This article discusses properties of porous metals and the application of the laser-engineered net shaping process to manufacture unitized structures of load-bearing metal implants. …describe this work to a materials science and engineering professional with no experience in your technical specialty? A mismatch of Young’s modulus and a weak interfacial bond between bone and metallic implant materials are the two major concerns for current load-bearing implants, which reduce their effective lifetime when implanted. Implants with functional gradation in porosity and/or composition can potentially reduce these problems—a topic that is discussed in this article in reference to how to manufacture such structures, as well. …describe this work to a layperson? Solid metal bone implants are stiffer than bone. Because of this higher stiffness, bone becomes osteoporotic surrounding the implanted area. Moreover, the implants become loose with time and cause severe pain, which then requires surgical intervention. Engineered porous metals can be used to reduce this stiffness mismatch between bone and implant, and also provide pathways for tissue ingrowth through the pores. Therefore, porous implants have the potential to reduce bone loss in the surrounding areas when implanted and also loosening of implants. Thus the lifetime of these porous metallic implants can be signiﬁcantly higher.
long-term anchorage or biological ﬁxation of the implant.1,2 Conventional powder metallurgical processing has been used to fabricate surface-treated or fully porous metals3–8 for biomedical applications. These conventionally sintered metals are often very brittle and pore size, shape, volume fraction, and distribution are difﬁcult to control. These factors all have a major inﬂuence on mechanical and biological properties. Other fabrication techniques that use foaming agents or molten metal suffer from typical limitations such as contamination, impurity phases, limited and predetermined part geometries, and limited control over the size, shape, and distribution of porosity. In addition, to mimic multiple tissues and tissue interfaces on the same implant, implants with gradients in porosity and pore sizes that will allow on one side of the implant high vascularization and direct osteogenesis, while promoting osteochondral ossiﬁcation on the other, are difﬁcult to manufacture using those techniques. Further, the relatively higher wear rate of traditional hip replacements with ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene liner is a cause of serious concern due to osteolysis and aseptic loosening, which is one of the major factors limiting the life of hip prostheses.9 Innovative designs such as functionally graded acetabular shells with open porosity on one side (in contact with the bone) to improve cell-material interactions and a hard coating on the other side (in contact with femoral head) to increase the wear resistance can significantly improve the implant’s in-vivo life by completely eliminating the need for acetabular liners. While a wear-resistant alloy coating on metal substrates seems plausible, there is only one me45
The formation of porosity during LENS processing. formation of supersaturated solutions and nonequilibrium phases. which is extremely important during processing of materials for biomedical applications.11–13 Because it is a CAD and layer-based manufacturing process. it is difﬁcult. and Z-increment or layer thickness (t).e. shape. powder feed rate. in one operation by controlling different process parameters. A schematic of the LENS process is shown in Figure 1.tms. Net-Shaped Functional Porous Implants Novel design concepts15 have been applied to make complex-shaped functional implants with designed and functionally graded interconnected porosity. reﬁned microstructures with little elemental segregation. the ﬁnal density of a LENS processed part can be considered as an average of the density of each track/scan. to suit natural bone.org/jom. scan spacing (h). Multiple powder feeding and closed-loop melt pool control systems facilitate fabrication of materials with functional gradient in composition and/ or porosity across the section.10 Although functionally graded coatings can overcome metallurgical incompatibility. Rastering of the part back and forth to create consecutive overlapping tracks and ﬁll material in the desired area allows Figure 2. The total energy input per volume of each track/scan (E) as a function of processing paramJOM • May 2008 Figure 1. size. which is a solid or tailored-porosity object. height) until the entire object represented in the three-dimensional CAD model is produced on the substrate. which melts and solidiﬁes. The process uses an neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser. direct fabrication of metallic components using the solid freeform fabrication route from computer-aided design (CAD) ﬁles has been shown to be a viable and promising near-net shape manufacturing technology. can be introduced into the parts by controlling LENS process parameters such as laser power (P). LASER-ENGINEERED NET SHAPING Over the past few years. focused onto a metal substrate to create a molten metal pool on the substrate. which involves complete melting of metal/alloy powders using a high-power laser beam as the heating source for fabrication of near-net shape functional parts. A schematic representation of LENS. which shows metallurgical incompatibility. formation of extremely ﬁne.. particularly of porous structures.e. One such process is laser-engineered net shaping (LENS™). Many metallic. and composite powders have been successfully processed using LENS. Metal powder is then injected into the metal pool. Since the fabrication is carried out in a protective atmosphere with oxygen content less than 10 ppm. it is a reliable process that can be applied for a direct low-volume manufacturing.). The LENS process involves high solidiﬁcation cooling rates (103 to 105 K/s) leading to several microstructural beneﬁts14 such as suppression of diffusion-controlled solid-state phase transformations. Finally. and formation of very ﬁne second-phase particles (inclusions. Finally. up to 4 kW power. if not impossible. Two types of porosity. using LENS. a layer of material to be deposited. 46 www. LENS-processed materials retain the purity of feedstock powder.tallic alloy combination (i. laser scan speed (v). Since the parts are made via layer-wise deposition. The extent of powder melting in each track/scan depends on laser energy input and decides the achievable porosity in the ﬁnal part. namely inter-particle porosity and tool-path-based porosity. LENS has a signiﬁcant advantage over conventional manufacturing methods in terms of tailoring microstructure. The substrate is then scanned relative to the deposition head to write a metal line with a ﬁnite width and thickness.. this procedure is repeated many times along the Z-direction (i. carbides. Co-CrMo and Ti-6Al-4V) suitable for surgical implants. ceramic. and internal architectures. and each layer consists of a number of consecutive overlapping tracks/scans. etc.html . intermetallic. to fabricate netshaped implants/structures with spatial gradation in composition and structure with conventional processing routes.
19 Porous titanium samples enhanced bone cell proliferation by forming more extracellular matrix and a high level of alkaline phosphates expression19 than observed in fully dense titanium.%. porous NiTi alloy samples with 12–36% porosity exhibit low Young’s modulus between 2–18 GPa as well as high compressive strength and up to 4% recoverable strain. Particle bonding in this case is a direct result of localized melting and resolidiﬁcation as against solid-state sintering in the powder metallurgical route. Group III: samples with internal architecture. and scan spacing between 0. 17. An in-vitro cell-materials interactions study has been carried out on laser-processed porous titanium samples. by changing the deposition angles of laser scans for each layer.% and 60 vol.tms. These surface-melted powders join together in the presence of liquid metal at the particle-particle interfaces. functional hip stems fabricated using LENS . Moreover.76 mm and 1. Therefore. The experimental data shown in Figure 4 indicate that samples with varying amounts of total porosity can be made using LENS by changing processing parameters. can also be fabricated by optimizing the distance between two successive metal roads (laser scans) and the thickness of each metal layer. leaving some inter-particle porosity. Figure 2 shows the formation of porosity in each track. (a) LENS-processed porous titanium structures. Ti-6Al-4V. and 38 g/min.18 with laser power between 150 W and 300 W. potentially enhancing the implant properties such as fatigue. total porosities in various biomedical materials such as pure Ti.17.html . the tool path based pores can be oriented layer by layer leading to a three-dimensional (3-D) interconnected porosity.eters can be evaluated from16 E P v h t (1) At appropriate LENS process parameters one can achieve the optimal lowest energy input that ensures lower working temperatures and a small amount of liquid phase around the powder particles due to the partial melting of powder. The modulus of porous samples processed using LENS. The individual laser tracks/scans can also have inter-particle porosity depending on the laser energy input. Similarly. %. (b) Net shape.%). the inherent brittleness associated with solid-state sintered metal powders is completely eliminated. A critical pore size of 200 m 47 2008 May • JOM www. Group II: samples with tool path based porosity 50 vol.18 Moreover.org/jom.. scan speeds between 5 mm/s and 25 mm/s. Porous samples with different a b Figure 3. and 18. which can accelerate the integration of a porous implant with host bone tissue. Group I: samples with residual porosity (<40 vol. the modulus of laser-processed materials can be tailored between 2 GPa and 90 GPa to match that of natural bone by introducing total porosities in the range of 10 vol.27 mm. Figure 3 shows typical porous titanium samples and actual hip stems produced via LENS at Washington State University. The graph is constructed based on the data from References 15. and NiTi alloys have been fabricated using LENS15.15. Structures with different porosity parameters and internal architecture with a designed gradient across the part Figure 4.17.18 These porous metals with modulus similar to bone and open porosity in the range of 53% to 72% of total porosity not only reduce the stress-shielding but also have potential to signiﬁcantly improve bone cell-implant interaction. powder feed rate in the range of 15 g/min.
. 30– 34. Biomed. Journal of Materials Science—Materials in Medicine (submitted December 2007). and/or grain structure across the interface of functionally gradient materials provide unique functionality and performance for medical applications. JOM. Biomater. Res. Scripta Mater. 21 (A1) (1987). and Amit Bandyopadhyay are with W. 17.tms. Otsuka and C. pp.C.. This demonstrates that the application of LENS to fabricate novel porous and The authors acknowledge ﬁnancial support from the W. the Ofﬁce of Naval Research (Grant #N00014-1-05-0583).. 19. 1998).. The typical microstructure of such a gradient structure is shown in Figure 5.2008. W.T.02202. Dr. K. 3 (Materials Park. Vamsi Krishna et al.20 Extremely high cooling rates during laser processing prevented the formation of intermetallic compounds by limiting the interaction time between metallurgically incompatible titanium and cobalt at high temperatures. Oh et al. 49 (2003). Keck Biomedical Materials Research Laboratory. Mater. USA.. U. 38A (2007) pp..M. References 1. 16. LENS provides more ﬂexibility for designers to tailor the modulus of samples without changing their bulk density or total pore volume. Shuilin et al. 8. pp. Orthop. Alloy Phase Diagrams: ASM Handbook. unitized structures such as functionally graded acetabular shells with open porosity on one side and a hard coating on the other side signiﬁcantly improve the implant’s in-vivo life by reducing wear-induced osteolysis. 3 (2007). and mechanical properties that can mimic the complex architecture of bone-speciﬁc sites to optimize bone tissue regeneration.. J.2007. and Amit Bandyopadhyay. 188 (1994). 15 (1981). Susmita Bose. Vamsi Krishna.. the temperature ﬂuctuations in the liquid metal pool due to changes in the composition resulted in inadequate mixing and unmelted Ti-6Al4V powder in the ﬁrst few layers of the transition region.M.html JOM • May 2008 . School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering. 12. crystallinity. 1096–1103. and Amit Bandyopadhyay. Eng. one can reduce the modulus of these porous samples. B. Weichang Xue. and Amit Bandyopadhyay. 33–46. A. WA 99164-2920. Washington State University. pp. OH: ASM International. Susmita Bose.Unmelted Ti-6Al-4V Particles Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Ti-6Al-4V Alloy unitized structures with functional gradation in composition and/or porosity can potentially eliminate the longstanding issues such as stress-shielding. 997–1006. H. Susmita Bose. 119–128. 18. Willert. Because of metallurgical incompatibility a 100% Co-Cr-Mo transition from Ti-6Al-4V could not be made. Scripta Mater.com. It is apparent that this versatility will allow the fabrication of implants with different porosities.—Appl. As stated earlier. Acta Biomaterialia. 1337–1342.. and Eng. pp. Wen et al. poor interfacial bond between the host tissue and the implant. H. Biomed. Susmita Bose. 20. 1197– 1202. pp. Vamsi Krishna. B. W. 48 www. However. Independently controllable two-powder feeders in LENS enable variation of composition and porosity simultaneously in one operation to manufacture such novel implant structures. B. Typical microstructures of laser-processed Co-Cr-Mo graded coating on porous Ti-6Al-4V alloy. 5. Liu and J.. J. and wear-induced bone loss in load-bearing implants to increase the in-vivo lifetime. Bertram.E. 55 (2007). C. 3 (2007). Jardine. Pullman. J. Acta Biomaterialia. 48 (2003). J. DuPont. 34 (8) (1998)..G..: Cambridge University Press. Functionally graded structures with a hard and wear-resistant Co-Cr-Mo alloy surface on one side and a porous Ti-6Al4V alloy on the other side with a metallurgically sound interface have been produced using LENS. España et al. doi:10. Mater. The absence of intermetallic compounds in these structures is very important to retain wear resistance and biocompatibility. 53 (9) (2001). 1007–1018. Sci. 1–33. Simchi and H.U.6 mm Figure 5. W. doi:10. Acta Biomaterialia (2007). Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A.H. A.H. pp. Hofmeister et al.P.005.org/jom. Buchhorn. pp. Functionally Graded Structures The uniform and gradual changes in composition.1016/j. 3437– 3451.. Shape Memory Materials (Cambridge. 291–300. 45 (2001). crackfree structures containing up to 86% Co-Cr-Mo on one side of the structure and 100% porous Ti-6Al-4V alloy on the other side have been fabricated with excellent reproducibility. pp. 3. and the National Science Foundation (Grant #CMMI-0600739). pp. B. Pillar. The composition in the transition region of the gradient structure was varied from 100% Ti-6Al-4V alloy at the ﬁrst layer to various concentrations of Co-Cr-Mo alloy at the top layer over 5–6 layers.. pp. Susmita Bose. Int. J. Vamsi Krishna. Vamsi Krishna. 258 (1990).x. of Biomedical Research B: Applied Biomaterials (submitted April 2008). Pohl. B. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Increasing Co-Cr-Mo Alloy Concentration 0. As can be seen from the microstructure.. I. 10. Clemow et al.J. 1992). Scripta Mater. A. Keck Foundation. 13. Wayman. 7. Res.M. Mater.20 or higher has been identiﬁed for cell in-growth into porous samples.actbio.K.1111/ j. pp. International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology (on-line 29 February 2008). Vamsi Krishna can be reached at vamsi23@yahoo.N. 9. Acta Mater. pp. R. Gradient coatings with 86% Co-CrMo in the top surface showed ~184% increase in the surface hardness (compared to 100% Ti-6Al-4V alloy) with more than double the living cell density observed on 100% Co-Cr-Mo alloy. Mater. Vamsi Krishna. 15. Powder Metallurgy. 1147– 1153. Such microstructural non-uniformity can be eliminated either by increasing the laser energy input or by using a ﬁner alloy powder.M. B. and G.. A. 11. 95–107. pore sizes.10. Res. 14.1744-7402. 359 (2003). Relat. vol. 6. Weichang Xue et al. pp.M. Clin. Therefore. Hey and A. R.20 These compositionally graded structures consisted of 100% Ti-6Al-4V alloy in the ﬁrst six porous layers. and Amit Bandyopadhyay. 73–82. 2. 4. It was also shown15 that by changing the pore shape from spherical to more irregular. Sci. Félix A. Pillar.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.