Ep It Helium


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Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the epithelium as it relates to animal anatomy. For the fungal structure of the same name, see Pileipellis.

Types of epithelium In biology and medicine, an epithelium is a tissue composed of cells that line the cavities and surfaces of structures throughout the body.[1] Many glands are also formed from epithelial tissue.[2] It lies on top of connective tissue, and the two layers are separated by a basement membrane.[3] In humans, epithelium is classified as a primary body tissue, the other ones being connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue. Epithelium is often defined by the expression of the adhesion molecule e-cadherin (as opposed to n-cadherin, which is used by cells of the connective tissue).

Functions of epithelial cells include secretion, selective absorption, protection, transcellular transport and detection of sensation and they commonly as a result present extensive apical-basolateral polarity (e.g. different membrane proteins expressed) and specialisation.

[edit] Classification (structural)
Epithelial tissue can be structurally divided into two groups depending on the number of layers of which it is composed. Epithelial tissue that is only one cell thick is known as simple epithelium. If it is two or more cells thick, it is known as stratified epithelium. However, when taller simple epithelial cells (see columnar, below) the variably placed nuclei of are viewed in cross section, they can be confused with stratified epithelia. This kind of epithelium is therefore described as "pseudostratified" epithelium.

Regardless of the type. giving the misleading (hence "pseudo") impression that the epithelium is stratified when the cells are viewed in longitiudinal section. The wafting effect produced causes mucus secreted locally by the goblet cells (to lubricate and to trap pathogens and particles) to flow in that direction (typically out of the body). Each cell has a spherical nucleus in the centre. They also constitute the germinal epithelium. flat plates. Squamous Classically. Goblet cells (unicellular glands) are found between the columnar epithelial cells of the duodenum. elliptical nuclei because of the thin flattened form of the cell. cuboidal cells are roughly cuboidal in shape. Their nuclei are elongated and are usually located near the base of the cells. every cell is in contact with the underlying basal lamina. These are simple columnar epithelial cells whose nuclei appear at different heights. They secrete mucus. low-friction surface over which fluids can move easily. The basement membrane provides structural support for the epithelium and also binds it to neighbouring structures. ears and the taste buds of the tongue. Description Squamous cells have the appearance of thin. Cuboidal epithelium is commonly found in secretive or absorptive tissue: for example the (secretive) exocrine gland the pancreas and the (absorptive) lining of the kidney Cuboidal tubules as well as in the ducts of the glands. The shape of the nucleus usually corresponds to the cell form and helps to identify the type of epithelium. but is also found in Type . In this case. As their name implies. any epithelium is separated from the underlying tissue by a thin sheet of connective tissue. basement membrane. which acts as a lubricant. Columnar epithelium forms the lining of the stomach and intestines. Ciliated epithelium is found in the airways (nose. that is. [edit] Simple epithelium Simple epithelium is one cell thick. Squamous cells tend to have horizontally flattened. appearing square in cross section. Some columnar cells Columnar are specialised for sensory reception such as in the nose. providing a smooth. squamous epithelia are found lining surfaces utilising simple passive diffusion such as the alveolar epithelium in the lungs. which produces the egg cells in the female ovary and the sperm cells in the male testes. Simple epithelium can be subdivided further according to the shape and function of its cells. Specialised squamous epithelia also form the lining of cavities such as the blood vessels (endothelium) and heart (mesothelium) and the major cavities found within the body. Columnar epithelial cells are elongated and column-shaped. Pseudostratified epithelium can also possess fine hair-like extensions of their apical (luminal) membrane called cilia. They fit closely together in tissues. bronchi). Cilia are capable of energy dependent pulsatile beating in a certain direction through interaction of cytoskeletal microtubules and connecting structural proteins and enzymes. the epithelium is described as "ciliated" Pseudostratified pseudostratified epithelium.

Stratified epithelium differs from simple epithelium in that it is multilayered. it is found in tissues that stretch and it can appear to be stratified cuboidal when the tissue is not stretched or stratified squamous when the organ is distended and the tissue stretches. Secretion: In glands. Specialised epithelial tissue containing sensory nerve endings is found in the skin. It is sometimes called the urothelium since it is almost exclusively found in the bladder. epithelial tissue is specialised to secrete specific chemical substances such as enzymes. ears and nose and on the tongue. Excretion: Epithelial tissues in the kidney excrete waste products from the body and reabsorb needed materials from the urine. instead contain a tough. though in their most basal layers the cells can be squamous. harmful chemicals and pathogens and excessive water loss. cuboidal or squamous type) can have the following specialisations: Specialisation Description In this case. so is found in the mammalian skin. This specialisation makes the epithelium waterproof. where the cilia propel the ovum to the uterus. y y y y . The lining of the oesophagus is an example of a non-keratinised or "moist" stratified epithelium.the uterus and Fallopian tubes of females. stratified epithelia (of columnar. Sensation: Sensory stimuli are detected by specialised epithelial cells. cuboidal or columnar. ureters and urethra. hormones and lubricating fluids. Absorption: Certain epithelial cells lining the small intestine absorb nutrients from the digestion of food. Keratinised Transitional [edit] Functions y Protection: Epithelial cells protect underlying tissue from mechanical injury. Sweat is also excreted from the body by epithelial cells in the sweat glands. the most apical layers of cells are dead and lose their nucleus and cytoplasm. It is therefore found where body linings have to withstand mechanical or chemical insult such that layers can be abraded and lost without exposing subepithelial layers. Cells flatten as the layers become more apical. Transitional epithelium. is almost a class of its own. like pseudostratified epithelium. In addition though. eyes. resistant protein called keratin.

g. the epidermis). They consist of protein complexes and provide contact between neighbouring cells. walls of capillaries and lungs)..y Diffusion: Simple epithelium promotes the diffusion of gases. the lining of the gastrointestinal tract). and mediation of fluid flow if the cilia are motile. a secretory role in which a soluble protein is released to have an effect downstream of the fluid flow. However. Additional information [edit] Cell junctions Main article: Cell junction A cell junction is a structure within a tissue of a multicellular organism. they are ideal for the diffusion of gases (e. Endocrine glands are glands that secrete their product directly onto a surface rather than through a duct. from endoderm (e. whereas true epithelial cancers are called carcinomas. or they built up the paracellular barrier of epithelia and control the paracellular transport."[4] [edit] Embryology In general. Cell junctions are especially abundant in epithelial tissues.. and they commonly exist as a sheet of polarised cells forming a tube or tubule with cilia projecting into the lumen. thermosensation and mechanosensation of the extracellular environment by playing "a sensory role mediating specific signalling cues. For that reason. secretion is one major function of epithelial cells. Glands are formed from the invagination / infolding of epithelial cells and subsequent growth in the underlying connective tissue. the inner linings of body cavities). Also. This group contains the glands of the Endocrine system. There are two major classifications of glands: endocrine glands and exocrine glands. including soluble factors in the external cell environment.. it is important to note that pathologists do not consider endothelium and mesothelium (both derived from mesoderm) to be true epithelium. there are epithelial tissues deriving from all of the embryological germ layers: y y y from ectoderm (e. Because they form such a thin lining.g. [edit] Sensing the extracellular environment "Almost all epithelial cells are ciliated. [edit] Secretory epithelia As stated above." Primary cilia on epithelial cells provide chemosensation. from mesoderm (e. between a cell and the extracellular matrix. pathologists label cancers in endothelium and mesothelium sarcomas.g.g. This is because such tissues present very different pathology. the filaments that support . liquids and nutrients.

these mesoderm-derived tissues are very distinct. Outside of the field of pathology. it is. in general. . accepted that the epithelium arises from all three germ layers.

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