Arab cuisine

Arab cuisine is defined as the various regional cuisine spanning the Arab world from Morocco & Tunisia to Yemen and Somalia, and incorporation Levantine, Egyptian and Iran , India , the Berbers and other culture of the peoples of the region before the cultural arabization brought by genealogical Arabian during the Arabian Muslim conquests.

y History Originally, the Arabs of the Arabian peninsula relied heavily on a diet of dates, wheat, barley, rice and meat, with little variety, with a heavy emphasis on yogurt products, such as labneh (yogurt without butterfat).as the indigenous Semitic people of the peninsula wandered, so did their tastes and favored ingredients. There is a strong emphasis on the following items in the Arabian cuisine:y Meat :- lamb and chicken are the most used, beef and camel are also used to a lesser degree, other poultry is used in some regions, and in coastal areas, pork is completely prohibited ±for Muslim Arabs, it is both cultural taboo as well as being prohibited Islamic law; many Christian Arabs also avoid as they have acquired a taste for it. y Dairy products:- dairy products are widely used, the most of which is yoghurt and white cheese. However acquired a taste for it. y Herbs & spices: - mint and thyme (often in mix called za¶atar) are widely and almost universally used; spices are used much less then Indian cuisine but the amount and types generally vary from region to region. Some of the included herbs and spices are sesame, saffron, turmeric, garlic, cumin, cinnamon, and sumac, spice mixture includes baharat. y Beverages: - hot beverages are used more than cold ,coffee being on the top of the bread as well as bulgur and semolina, which are also used extensively. y Nuts:- almonds pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts are often included. y Culture

however salads and maza are served as side dishes to the main meal. y Lunch Lunch is considered the main meal of the day. lentil. Meals are generally large family affairs. incorporating lamb or chicken. with various stewed vegetables. fatayer and drizzled with olive oil. a visitor might expect a dinner consisting of a very large platter. in addition to the fresh ones with the maza and salad. y Breakfast Cafes often offer a quick meal consisting of bread and dairy products with tea and sometimes with jam. The most used is labneh and cream. heavily spiced. as separate dishes. Most household would add bread. whether other grain were available or not. The latter usually consist of a portion of meat. . In an average Arab Gulf state household. bread or bagel and a portion of cooked veg. Pastries such as manaqeesh. dried mint & drizzled with olive oil. Flat bread with olive oil and za¶ter is also popular. with much sharing and a great deal of warmth over the dinner table. with a vast mountain of rice. Formal dinner and celebration generally entails large quantity of lamb & every entails large quantities of Arabic coffee. Labneh is served with-olives. a portion of rice.Essential to any cooking in the Arabian Peninsula is the concept of hospitality. sometimes with a tomato sauce. which is served on rice. traditionally eaten after the noon prayer. or both. poultry or fish. sfiha. shared commonly. The vegetables and meat are usually cooked together in sauce to make maraq. It is the meal where the family groups together rarely do meal have different courses.

Sweet and fresh fruits are served between these two meals. y Regional Arab cuisine y Persian Gulf Originally the Arabs of the Arabian peninsula relied heavily on a diet of dates. potato. is the meal taken at dusk when the fast is over. with little variety. The third course would be the main dish. an odd number of dates based on Islamic tradition. freeka. the most popular is lentil the indigenous semitie people of the peninsula wandered. mash. or fast-breaking. wheat. during Ramadan sweet are consumed much more than usual. some are made especially for Ramadan such as Qatayef. so did their tastes and favored ingredients. Although most sweet are made all year round such as knafeh. but a wide variety of soup such as chicken. barley. y Futuur Futuur. baklawa and basbousa. fist. usually eaten after an interval where Magherb prayer is conducted. such as lebhne. y Suhur Is the meal eaten just before dawn when fasting must begin. with heavy emphasis on yogurt products. .y Dinner Dinner is traditionally the lightest meal although in modern times and due to changing lifestyle dinner has become more important. y Ramadan meals In addition to the two meal mentioned hereafter. The meal consist of three course. Then soup would be served. rice and meat.

only avoided due to its higher cost. the region was a more united entity. berbere. the cuisine of Sudan is generally characterized as being stingy on rice but generous on spices. . there is some regional variation within the Levantine area. Both of which are very popular in the western world. various veg. y Maghreb Spices are used extensively in western Arabs food.y The Levant Levantine cuisine is the traditional cuisine of the lavant or greater Syria area. Though now divided into Syria. and a roll of bread. In comparison to its North African and Levantine neighbors. the most common red meat is beef. Lebanon. However. Sudanese food is a fusion cuisine of Egyptian cuisine and Ethiopian cuisine. Country to the rest of the Arab world. Jordan. y Sudan Shahan full presented alongside to olive oil. lamb is still the meat of choice. Dairy products are used less than in other courtiers in the Arab world. Iraq and Israel.


Dinner. in which common foods were decorated & flavored not for the purpose of hiding food which was turning bad. with an expensive show of table finery. the highest of Renaissance culture flourished at Florence. . incredibly. manicotti. truffles. etc. among the wealthy. theatrical comedy & ballet. daughter of Lorenzo. As the 15th century dawned. The result of the culinary expansion was to produce. a book entitled ³Le Cuisine Francois´. porcelain & precious metals. arrived in France in the 1540¶s to be the bride future king Henri II.while pasta creations became filled & layered (lasagna.) In her entourage were cooks skilled in the ways of Florence. (She would. garlic & otherwise infrequently used vegetables appeared ± some of them carved artistically. La Varenne. from a women which history a women which history would ultimately view as ambitious & duplicitous. But the French were largely ignorant of these things. She brought with her also the expectation that ladies would be in regular attendance at sumptuous feasts. Prosperity that reached beyond the very small royal population lent itself to dining as entertainment. Venetian glassware. all of it accompanied.). but for emphasizing those flavors allowed by improved storage techniques & new discoveries in food preparation. in France. Duke of Urbino. in1652. Not only did she bring fine cuisine-she brought the Italian banking system. Quite a lot. & would dress in fashionable (& revealing) attire when doing so. written by France¶s premier chef. Mushrooms. An incredible assortment of pastries & sweet things would then follow these visual feasts. produce three additional kings of France. ravioli. was to become Theatre. until Catherine de Medici (³MED-a-chee´).HISTORICAL ORIGINS OF FRENCH CUISINE The history of French ascendancy in the culinary arts can be traced to the Italians.

& instead of all the food appearing all at once (much of which would become cold.great food with a sensational presentation-carried him to many courts. pastry fashioned into Greek temples. including that of the Russian Tsar. he would put architectural methods into food and its presentation: bridges made of confection.. With the ascent of Louis XIV.Marie-Antoine Careme.Detailed instructions appeared in this book. with the introduction of new techniques. or coerces. The´fork´ began a regular appearance. With the Revolution. the meaning of sumptuous dining took another leap in extravagance at his place at Versailles. such culinary talent was no longer restricted t royalty (royalty having disappeared one way or another) and the better chefs began the practice of setting up ³Restaurants´ which went well beyond common taverns¶ and inns. where the nation of serving each guest individually (³Russian service´) first appeared. During this period the greatest of French chefs appeared . etc. and much of I done n a grand scale. The appreciation for his talent. to which all had access. . such as the use of the roux as a sauce thickener rather than the common use of bread for the purpose. Cooks became specialized and strange looking containers and instruments appeared t better prepare individual things. A Frustrated student of architecture. Louis introduced the idea of dining in a series of steps. the recipes listed alphabetically.

This is famous French veal dish. This is a very delicious dessert made from egg & cream. Baguettes form to be a major feature of French breakfast.This is a variety of bread with a crispy crust. These are very small shaped cakes which have a shell like appearance. Éclair. .STABLE FOOD WITH REGIONAL INGLENCES Baguette.The éclair is a long & thin shaped delicious pastry with a cream filling & loads of icing. Chocolate mousse. Madeleine. Blanquette de veau.The Madeleine is a traditional cake of France.The chocolate mousse although commonly available all over the world is actually a famous French food item. This contains veal meat combined with Aromatic vegetables.

was the favorite dish of local fishermen. It usually included any fish that hadn¶t sold at fishermen¶s daily market. it is usually served with slices of bread that have been spread with the Provencal spicy garlic sauce. The word bouillabaisse comes from the two French words bouillir (to boil) & abaisser (to reduce). you have to place your order the day before. The most famous local sea food dish in town. with some local shellfish added in to the mix. it will soon change your mind about Marseille. In those restaurants that serve true bouillabaisse.FRANCE (FRENCH) CUISINE SPECIALITIES Bouillabaisse from Provence A Marseille specialty For those of you that think Marseille is a somewhat scruffy. rouille. There are various regional variations based on different local fish that are used. More of a main dish then a soup. just sit down in one of the restaurants along the Vieux Port & order a bouillabaisse. Bouillabaisse. You can . originally based on local fish. It did not originally contain any of the expensive ingredients that are now added. L¶Esplai du Grand Bar des Goudes is one of them-their bouillabaisse is out of this world. unpleasant place.

your recipe may vary slightly. although some recipes call for only five kinds. this is probably your best bet! .easily purchase the accompanying rouille sauce in any local supermarket. but as long as you follow the guidelines. Depending on where you live & what is available to you that day. your bouillabaisse is sure to be a success! Here are a few recipes to consider. this Provencal dish is usually a hit when it comes to entering large groups of people. including one straight from the Marseille tourist ff site (if you can decipher the broken English translation. Although quite time consuming to prepare. There are many. many variations on the bouillabaisse recipe. leading to much debate on the subject! In Marseille they use at least seven different kinds of fish.

Loup is the Mediterranean name for sea bass. but here are a few specialty dishes that are typical of the region and an important part of any Provençal cuisine: Aïoii is the accent of Provençal cuisine. ratatouille and pesto. and is delicious grilled over a barbecue or in the oven. basil. The recipe varies from region to region. Provence has its own unique recipes and dishes. anchovies. It can be stuffed with fresh fennel or simply prepared with olive oil and a sprinkle of fresh herbs de Provence. Anchöiade is an anchovy and garlic purée typical to the south of France. rosemary. It is a mayonnaise made with olive oil and generously seasoned with crushed garlic. Vegetables.garlic and olive oil! As with any region.thyme.. Catigau is a fricassée (a dish consisting of fish or meat cut into pieces and cooked in gravy) made from grilled or smoked eels fished directly from the Rhône River.all of which are widely used in Provençal cuisine. It is an accompaniment to vegetables and fish. and others . and from family to family. known as crudités. .Provençal Cuisine A brief list of terminology Mother Nature is abundantly generous in this part of the world. And of course there are the biggest stars of all . There are far too many to include on this page. sardines. savory. It is usually served on toast or with raw vegetables. Not to mention the aromatic herbs which grow Crudités plentifully here . meat casseroles. and Provençal cooking is naturally tasty and flavorsome due to the sun-kissed produce that is readily available in this region.

but is made without the pine nuts. garlic and olive oil condiment. Ratatouille is a delicious vegetable stew composed of peppers. . It is usually served with fish and fish soup dishes. Eaten cold as a starter or hot as an accompaniment to fish or meat. The actual name comes from the French word for rust. Not every palate can distinguish the difference. Rouille is a type of mayonnaise sauce that consists of either olive oil with bread. hence the color of the sauce. ratatouille is an excellent addition to any Provençal meal. Tapenade is a purée of olives crushed with a mortar and pestle and mixed with garlic. with a mortar and pestle. capers and anchovies.Pistou is a basil. all prepared with olive oil. tomatoes and onions. though a delicate palate will certainly be able to pick up on these aromas once the meat is served. The word itself is derived from the Provençal word 'pestare' which means to pound. which is what makes this dish so tasty. It can be eaten simply with a slice of grilled bread. or served as an accompaniment to fish or meat. The basil leaves are crushed or pounded with a mortar and pestle (or a food processor in most cases these days) before being added to the olive oil. courgettes (zucchini). Tapenade Sisteron lamb are fed on wild thyme and rosemary. Many claim the only way to retain the bright green color from the basil is by pounding it the old way. It is similar to the Italian pesto. aubergines (eggplant). or breadcrumbs with spices (in which case it iss usually highly spiced with chile peppers).

Structure: full-bodied wines accompany dishes with rich textures and flavors. according to: y Style of Cuisine: following the rule that the best combinations are between complimentary styles. Analogy Food and wine can be matched by analogy in different ways. Aroma: delicate wines match foods of subtle flavors. They should not however be interpreted so rigidly that they inhibit the desire to experiment. The main exceptions to this rule are cheeses and desserts. duck. The systematic approach to matching food and wine devised by the Association of Italian Sommeliers is based on the principles of analogy and contrast. Rules about matching food and wine aim to provide guidance in this difficult art. y y y . shellfish. chicken and veal with light sauces) and red wines with dark colored foods (salami. red meats. white wines are preferred with light colored foods: (seafood.Matching Food and Wine Bringing out the best of both worlds The successful combination of food and wine at table brings out the best in both the meal and the wine. Color: following the rule of color matches. Wines with rich bouquets are needed with smoked or spicy foods. Foods with stronger flavors call for aromatic wines. refined cuisine deserves fine wines and local wines are best drunk with local specialties. game pigeon. dishes with brown sauces). country wines match country cooking.

and do not go well with dry ones. In the case of foods with overwhelming flavors it is necessary to choose a wine on the basis of analogy rather than contrast. acid. For example. mellow wines while bitter-flavored foods need soft. Desserts call for sweet wines for instance. Highly seasoned foods need strong. smooth wines with a slightly sweet vein. In gastronomy the successful matching of food and wine depends on the same principle of balancing contrasting flavors. it will cover the others and spoil the balance. especially spumanti. If one of the contrasting tastes (sweet.y Contrast: In wine tasting the sensation of balance on the palate between contrasting tastes and textures is what sets fine wines apart from everyday ones. salty/spicy or bitter) predominates. rich foods need dry or tannic wines with good acidity and an aromatic vein and sharp-flavored foods need soft wines with moderate to generous alcohol. .

black pepper Step 1: In a casserole or skillet.Chicken Fricassee Ingredients: 1 Chicken (3 lb / 1.4 kg) 1 Onion Carrots 1 oz butter (25 g) 2 tb flour 3 cups chicken bouillon or stock 1 cup dry white wine 1 parsley sprigs 1/2 lb mushrooms 2 egg yolks 1/2 cup whipping cream Lemon juice Salt. Boil the bouillon/stock and pour in over the chicken. Turn the chicken once while cooking. parsley and just enough bouillon/stock or water . Turn it every minute for 4 minutes until slightly golden yellow. cook the carrots and onion in butter for 5 minutes over moderate heat. Cut the chiken in about 10 pieces. pepper and flour on both sides of the chicken. Cover and cook slowly for 4 to 5 minutes. cover and cook very slowly. Add the wine. And turn the chicken once during the process. Add the cut-up chicken in the skillet. Step 4: Remove from heat. Step 2: Lower heat. Step 3: Add salt.

Pour the sauce in the casserole again and cook at medium to high heat. Stir the sauce all the way. Cover and maintain for 30 minutes. Step 7: Pour the sauce over the chicken and vegetabbles. Step 5: Cook the mushrooms in butter with a drop of lemon juice. enough to get 2 1/2 cups from it. Step 6: Blend the egg yolks and cream. Boil for 1 cover the chicken. Remove the fat from it. stir it well until the sauce reduces itself. Simmer the cooking juice in a casserole for 3 minutes. Then raise heat and boil. . While beating it. add the sauce very slowly. Add butter before serving. Bring to the simmer. Retrieve the cooking juice of both the mushrooms and chicken. Heat the chicken fricassee if needed. Add a drop of lemon juice and salt & pepper.

Step 4: Add meat and parsley. Chop finely the onions and egg yolk. even in a fridge. drained A few drops of Tabasco sauce 1 tsp Worcestershire sauce 2 tb olive oil 2 tsp parley. finely chopped 1 tb capers. Dijon mustard recommended 1 tb onions.Steak Tartare Ingredients: 2 lbs sirloin or filet mignon 1 egg yolk 2 tsp mustard. . Beat lightly for a few seconds. salt and pepper. Step 5: Refrigerate or serve immediately. capers. Step 2: In a bowl. Serving: Steak Tartare cannot be preserved more than 2 hours. minced Salt and pepper Step 1: Trim and grind the meat twice. Served with french fries or as a starter. Step 3: Add olive oil and beat lightly for a few seconds. onions. Tabasco sauce. Worcestershire sauce. Season with salt and pepper. mix the egg yolk. mustard.


I learned to love her with an undying passion. . the homes and the restaurants. I was a nineteen year old college student ready (or so I thought) to pursue Italian art history and language at L'Universita de Pisa. intimidating and. The ancient architecture juxtaposed with modern Italian life. devouring them as quickly as they came. its history. the endless vistas that entice artists and traveler alike. I was catapulted into the gregarious. the scents that wafted through the streets from the earth. the devastating beauty of this artistically and culturally rich and colorful country captured my heart forever in Italy's enduring embrace. When I first set eyes on Italy.Historical origin of Italy cuisine Ethnic cuisine: Italy Italy overpowered me the moment I stepped off the plane. My mind reached out to all the sensations. the foreigners of Italian life. oppressive life of Italy. language and culture in the States during my first years of undergraduate school. sometimes. I soon realized my academic studies hadn't quite prepared me for the real thing. I had studied Italy: its art and architecture. To this day I can be swiftly transported to the banks of the River Arno in Pisa if my senses are triggered by a familiar scent. From the blur of the Italian customs officials and the shouts of Italian endearments and welcome.

Roughly 55 million people live between its shores. Well known enterprises such as Fiat. The Dolomites and the Great Alps border northern Italy.000 square miles of Italy excluding the islands surrounding the country. This is about the size of Great Britain or the state of California . particularly in the north. which comprise 70% of the country. whereas the tallest mountain situated completely within Italy's borders is located in the Appenines. all located off the western coast. Its terrain is a combination of several mountainous regions. The Italian Alps boast towering peaks such as the Matterhorn and Mont Blanc. coastal plains and an abundance of rural open spaces. Unfortunately. almost 70% of the land is agricultural. Tyrrhenian. Italy's Geography There are approximately 210. Annual industrial trade shows are held each year in Milan and in Bari. with most concentrations found in urban areas. Olivetti and Baretta are located in Italy. and Mediterranean on its western shores and the Adriatic on the east. Italy is surrounded by seas on both sides: the Ligurian. hence they are known as the backbone of the country. Ischia. The largest islands of Italy are Sicily and Sardinia with smaller islands of Elba (Napoleon's isle of exile). To this day it still remains a challenge to cross the Appenines between the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic Seas using the present roadway system. economic development has taken its toll on urban areas in the form of over building and pollution. The Appenines are the largest range and run down most of the length of Italy. It is called Il Gran Sasso d'Italia (Big Rock of Italy). Capri and the cluster north of Sicily called Lipari. . The Maritime Alps are situated in the northwest. Yet.Italy Today It is surprising for many to learn that Italy ranks seventh as a world industrial power.000 square kilometers/130. despite this seemingly inhospitable terrain.

You will very likely be dealt with accordingly. relax and enjoy one of life's greatest pleasures and one of Italy's many great accomplishments! One more word of advice: Italians usually eat their dinner later than Americans do. especially foreigners who are learning about their country. I'd like to offer some advice for savoring an Italian meal. . family-run oratories. There you can get the best of the region's cooking while blending with the natives as you bask in the flavors and culture of their life. Italians eat only two main meals a day. don't be tempted to nibble on that gelato or cannoli during the day if you are planning to enjoy the experience of a full Italian lunch or dinner. don't rush through your courses: learn the art of slowly savoring your meal over a bottle or two of wine and good conversation. I made the embarrassing mistake of walking into a trattoria solo at 5 pm because I was hungry. Second. One way to accomplish this is to familiarize yourself with Italian eating customs. They generally skip what we and Britons consider breakfast and opt for a cup of cappuccino. if you do decide to dine Italian style." and when I ate in Italy. I found the restaurant was enjoying its family meal with the staff before beginning the evening's work. do as the Romans do. "When in Rome. Italians take great pleasure in serving people the food they lovingly prepare. I liked to think that I belonged there. First.Eating Customs As the old adage goes. Lots of milk in coffee is definitely a morning ritual for Italians. This is a memorable occasion for your palate and realize that eating is done with great pleasure and gusto. If you charge through a meal as if you have a plane to catch you are insulting the restaurant chef and staff and are considered gauche. I tried to behave like a native. that I didn't stand out like the touristic because I insisted in eating only at the smaller. Plan on getting to your restaurant (at the earliest) by 7pm. So.

Accomodations are even available along the Amalfi Coast. try one of our luxurious Italy hotels. workshops and professional events for those who wish to celebrate. Italy Hotels: If being pampered is your idea of traveling. anniversaries. The Italy Specialists have you covered. Italy Real Estate: More than just a vacation? Make Italy a way of life. Let us be your Italy travel headquarters. birthdays. farmhouses and even contemporary homes. Italy Vacations and Travel Guides: Need some help planning that vacation to Italy? We can help. family reunions. We not only feature some of the most beautiful accomodations in Italy. Weddings in Italy: Let us help in the coordination and planning of weddings. Florence. homes and apartments. We can assist in all your Italy real estate needs . You'll find cozy accomodations for couples and even properties large enough to host events like family reunions. Need a Rome travel guide? Just let us know. manors. and Venice (to name just a few spectacular locations).SPECIALITIES OF ITALY Italian Villas: Experience the true charm of Italy. on Capri or at beautiful Lake Como. but we can also assist in air travel and car rentals. Tours of Italy: Looking for a grand tour of Italy? Visit the historical ruins of the Hellenic era in a Sicily tour. Experience the birthplace of the Renaissance in a Florence tour. as well as biking and hiking for the more adventurous. Enjoy an unforgettable stay in Rome. including unique cooking and winery experiences. unite or gather in Italy. all available for your vacation and rental needs (the Tuscany villas are some of our most popular). We feature eclectic Italian villas.including villas. Scenic locations like Tuscany can make for everlasting memories. Or simply enjoy the beautiful countryside in a Tuscany tour. .

Leave for 5 minutes. Add sauce on top and you will have the perfect Italian.RECIPIES OF ITALY CUISINE Spaghetti Bolognese Ingredients y 300-400 grams (10. Boil a pan of water. Add the cut onion and let it brown. If bolognese sauce is ready. Add spaghetti and turn down the heat a little. drain the boiling water from the spaghetti and put the spaghetti on a plate. Serves 3-4. Stir then take lid off and.5-14 ounces) mince meat y 1 medium onion y 1 tin tomatoes y 1 pepper y 1 tablespoon tomato puree y 1 beef stock cube y 300 grams (10. put in a large pan and cook on high power until brown. Put lid on again and turn to low power. spaghetti bolognese. .5 ounces) spaghetti Prepare vegetables. if its ready. stock cube and tomato puree. Next add the cut pepper and put a lid on the pan. add the tin of tomatoes. Cut meat into chunks. Leave until the spaghetti is soft and cooked.

‡ Beat them well. peel the stem of broccoli and then chop them coarsely. Break up the flowerets. Lobster Pate Ingredients: ‡ 6 oz Cream cheese ‡ 1/2 Cup white wine (dry) ‡ 1 tsp Onion salt ‡ 1 tsp Seasoned salt ‡ 2 Cups lobster (chopped) Method ‡ Mix cheese and wine. ‡ Blend this mixture in seasoned and onion salt. Put just enough water to cover the broccoli. Cook it for about 10 minutes until the broccoli gets soft. Boil the water and then add broccoli in it. Now drain the broccoli and reserve the water. . Heat the soup and then serve it.Broccoli Soup Ingredients y y y y Broccoli ¼ pound Slivered almonds ¼ ounces Cream 2 tbsp Salt & finely grounded pepper Take broccoli. Take a pot of salted water. Add the cream to make the soup thicken. Blend the drained broccoli with a bit of its water and put it back to the pot. Add salt and freshly ground pepper according to taste. ‡ Add chopped lobster and keep it for cooling for 5 hours.

sprinkle it with pepper and salt. Bake it until brown. ‡ Add cheese and basil (chopped) in medium bowl. To make a border. Garnish it with basil leaves and serve it hot. fold over the edge of dough. fennel and red pepper (crushed). ‡ Preheat large skillet (over high heat) for 2 minutes. stretch dough to about 12x8 inch (rectangle shape). on a heavy large baking sheet unroll dough. Sprinkle the content with pepper and salt. Now spoon tomato mixture leaving some cheese uncovered. ‡ Crush tomatoes using back of fork in bowl (leaving large chunks intact).Cherry Tomato Pizza Margherita Ingredients: ‡ 1/2 tsp Fennel Seeds (coarsely crushed) ‡ 1/3 cup fresh Basil Leaves (chopped) ‡ 1 13. ‡ Add garlic. . ‡ With a metal spatula loosen pizza and shift it onto a board.8 oz Refrigerated Pizza Dough ‡ 1 tbsp Olive Oil ‡ 1 12 oz Cherry Tomatoes (stemmed) ‡ 1 Garlic Clove (pressed) ‡ 1/4 tsp Dried Crushed Red Pepper ‡ 1 4 oz Fresh Mozzarella (diced) ‡ 4 oz Whole-Milk Mozzarella (diced) Method: ‡ Preheat oven to 425°F. Spoon the content into a large bowl. ‡ Spread mixture of cheese evenly over dough. ‡ Cook until tomatoes for about 5 minutes. Now toss tomatoes and add oil.

stirring between additions till the liquid has been absorbed. stir till heated through. ‡ Add garlic to it and cook for another 1 to 2 minutes. ‡ Combine Parmesan cheese with it and stir through. ‡ Now start adding the hot stock 2 ladles at a time. . sliced ‡ 2 tbsp Olive oil Method ‡ Keep the stock to simmer. ‡ Heat oil in a big pan and add chicken. add baby spinach leaves to it and stir till wilted. ‡ After the last addition of stock. ‡ Combine the rice with it and stir till grains are coated with oil and glistening. minced ‡ 1 Cup sun-dried tomatoes ‡ 150 gm Baby spinach ‡ 2 tbsp Parmesan cheese ‡ 3/4 Cup kalamata olives. ‡ Add white wine to it and stir till it is absorbed by the rice grains.Chicken Risotto Ingredients: ‡ 500 gm Chicken breasts. cook till almost cooked through. hot ‡ 1-3/4 Cups arborio rice ‡ 1/3 Cup dry white wine ‡ 1-2 tsp Garlic cloves. ‡ Add tomatoes and olives. diced ‡ 5 Cups chicken stock.


and part of Central America. with the Olmecs. southern Mexico.040 sq km water: 49. In the 1800s The Mexican peole got independence and from that day on nobody tried to capture Mexico. The Mayas inhabited the Yucatan.972. with a small group of 555 men and 16 horses.C. Tenochtitlan. Hernan Cortes landed near Veracruz on Good Friday. He led them through fever-ridden jungles and icy mountain passes to the Aztec empires fabulous capital city. Their culture centered around La Venta. and the peak lasted till about AD 400-900.510 sq km Area²comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Texas . bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION Location: Middle America. a succession of civilizations rose and fell. between Guatemala and the US Geographic coordinates: 23 00 N.923. between Belize and the US and bordering the North Pacific Ocean. Their formative period began about 1500 BC. near modern Veracruz. 1519. They were pyramid builders and were notable for ther delicate figurines and bowls shaped like animals and people. The wily Cortes imprisoned the emperor by a trick and ruled the city. They carved enormous stone heads in jungles. The emperor Moctezuma believed that the pale-faced Spanish were of divine origin and received Cortes and his men as honored visitors.550 sq km land: 1. perhaps beginning about 1500 B.History of Mexico Long before the arrival of the Spanish in 1529. 102 00 W Map references: North America Area: total: 1.

lead.Land boundaries: total: 4.) Irrigated land: 61. zinc.000 sq km (1993 est. silver. desert Elevation extremes: lowest point: Laguna Salada -10 m highest point: Volcan Pico de Orizaba 5. desertification.330 km Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm Climate: varies from tropical to desert Terrain: high. raw sewage and industrial effluents polluting rivers in urban areas. . low coastal plains. high plateaus.326 km Coastline: 9. timber Land use: arable land: 12% permanent crops: 1% permanent pastures: 39% forests and woodland: 26% other: 22% (1993 est. gold. inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast. rugged mountains.538 km border countries: Belize 250 km.) Natural hazards: tsunamis along the Pacific coast. and hurricanes on the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean coasts Environment²current issues: natural fresh water resources scarce and polluted in north. US 3. copper. volcanoes and destructive earthquakes in the center and south. natural gas. widespread erosion.700 m Natural resources: petroleum. Guatemala 962 km. deforestation.

but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Geography²note: strategic location on southern border of US . Hazardous Wastes. Nuclear Test Ban. Wetlands. Whaling signed. Climate Change. Endangered Species. Desertification. Marine Life Conservation. Law of the Sea. Marine Dumping.Environment²international agreements: party to: Biodiversity. Ship Pollution. Ozone Layer Protection.

tortas (hollow rolls stuffed with meat.) Tortas (hollow rolls stuffed with Tacos (folded tortillas with meat). Popular foods quesadillas (tortillas fried with cheese). Picante (hot and spicy foods) are eaten with bland foods to enhance the flavors. cheese or beans) and tacos (folded tortillas with meat or refried beans). Tortillas are made of corm meal and are a frequent part of the meals. beans.STAPLE FOOD OF MEXICO Staple foods in Mexico are corn. Quesadillas (tortillas fried with cheese) meat. rice and chilies. Mexican rice .

Picante (hot and spicy foods)

Corn salad


Geographical location Location: Geographic coordinates: Area: Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain 39 30 N, 8 00 W

Map references: Europe total: 92,391 sq km land: 91,951 sq km water: 440 sq km note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south fish, forests (cork), iron ore, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, gold, uranium, marble, clay, gypsum, salt, arable land, hydropower arable land: 21.75% permanent crops: 7.81% other: 70.44% (2001) 6,320 sq km (1998 est.) Azores subject to severe earthquakes soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

Climate: Natural resources: Land use:

Irrigated land: Natural hazards: Environment current issues: Geography note:

The part of Iberia which is now Portugal was occupied by a people known as the Lusitanos. however also the region was invaded and occupied by the Romans and later the Moors. Portugal's independence was around of 12th century. it remained under the latter's control until the 11th century. . ruler of the Kingdom of Leon and Castilla (in what is now Spain) conquered much of the territory. although its tribal roots extend back beyond Roman times.History of Portugal Called as a kingdom by Alphonso I in 1139. when Ferdinand. and recognised by the Pope in 1179. The borders of Portugal as they are today were already in place by 1267.

although taste much more delicious with strong coffee. Aveiro's ovos-moles. seafood. rice. pastéis de bacalhau. the cozido à portuguesa. pastéis de bacalhau bacalhau à Brás sea food caldeirada Desserts and cakes. and the espetadas. sausages. prepared with pieces of meat.Staple food of Portugal Portugal staple food comprises of rice. and beans served with white and dry rice. all boiled. They are very well known for loving cod. meat. and bacalhau à Gomes de Sá are the most popular dishes. . and fish. are the most favorite that are consumed. wich may also be prepared with various kinds of meat. bread. which in Portuguese is called bacalhau. The famous sea food comprises of grilled sardines and caldeirada. bacalhau à Brás. Some of the other delicacies include feijoada. potato. Porto's francesinha is the dish that is popular here and is also considered as a fast food. potatoes and other vegetables. like Lisbon's pastéis de nata.

great crabs. They usually specialize in crabs. clams. An acquired taste for sure but it is worth giving it a try. .Specialty of Portugal A speciality of portuguese food is Bacalhau. clams and of course beer. tiger prawns. Seafood is central to Portuguese Food and wonderful in Lisbon. and delicious lobsters. Dried salted Cod. lobsters. People come to Lisbon for Bachalau alone. There are many seafood restaurants in every area of town but a great place to eat seafood is in one of the many Cervejarias.Lisbon restaurants offer succulent prawns. there are so many recipes to try. In a good restaurant with great wine it is truly memorable. It is a religion with the Portuguese.and less expensive than in most cities. Words become unnecessary you can often see what is on offer on display or in tanks.

thick fresh vegetable soup. Sopa de Legumes. Fish soup is usually wonderful but is only available in certain restaurants like Portugalia. (Portuguese kale soup). Salad. Caldo verde. a type of hearty cabbage and potato soup with chourico from Northern Portugal. olives. cheese. Portuguese bean soup. peppers.After soup and bread you can relax while the main course is prepared. Vegetables Soup is the way to start a meal in Portugal. The freshest ingredients from the local areas around Lisbon are used. and maybe egg. crispest of lettuce. Sopa de feijao. fresh cucumber. In Lisbon there are several possibilities and all are good. It is the heart of Portuguese food in every region. or Sopa de Alho. when served hot with good bread. Succulent tomatoes.Garlic soup with bread from the South. and sometimes tuna or prawns.Soup. City center restaurants have woken up to Vegetarian options. There also many specialist restaurants offering vegetarian and vegan options often with Indian. is also a fabulously satisfying dish. Another centerpiece of Portuguese Food is Salad. Italian or Macrobiotic influences .

Recipes of Portugal SOUPS AND STARTERS y Bread Soup y Fisherman's Soup y Clam Soup y Portuguese Green Soup y Minted Lemon Chicken Soup MAIN COURSES y Cataplana .3 recipes y Lisbon Liver y Sea Bream with Port y Portuguese Plaice y Portuguese Beef and Onions y Hot Pickled Pork y Salt Cod Pie y Portuguese Chicken with Peas y Braised Squid ACCOMPANIMENTS y Piri Piri Hot Red Pepper Sauce (Vegetarian) y Portuguese Fried Potatoes (Vegetarian) y Green Beans in Tomato Sauce (Vegetarian) y Tomato Rice (Vegetarian) y Portuguese Beans DESSERTS. SWEETS AND BAKED FAYRE y Portuguese Cream (Vegetarian) y Malasadas (Vegetarian) y Toucinho do Ceu (Vegetarian) y Sweet Bread (Vegetarian) .

cinnamon and cocoa. Grabber says. rice is the most common grain in Mexican cuisine. and variety of spices and ingredients. The most important and frequently used spices in Mexican cuisine are Chile powder. According to food writer Karen Hursh Graber. is used to make masa.cumine. and as a component of a number of dishes. Squash and peppers also play important roles in Mexican cuisine.Mexican Cuisine is a style of food that originates in Mexico. Most corn . a smoke-dried jalapeño chili. .and many other corn-based foods. traditionally Mexico¶s staple grain. on the cob. Corn . the initial introduction of rice to Spain from North Africa in the 4th century led to the Spanish introduction of rice into Mexico at the port of Veracruz in the 1520s. is also common in Mexican dishes also contain garlic and onions. created one of the earliest instances of the world¶s greatest fusion cuisines. Colorful decoration. many of which are native to the country. Mexican Cuisine Elements Chiles en nogada The staples of Mexican cuisine typically corn and beans. however. Mexican cuisine its varied flavor. Chipotle. cilantro. tortillas. Next to corn.this. oregano. a dough for tamales. is eaten fresh. goditas.

etc) are known for goat birria (goat in a spicy tomato based sauce). peanuts.while the mountainous regions of the west (Jalisco. guava. sheep. turkey and fish.History When Spanish Conquistadores arrived in the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan (now Mexico City). sapote. vanilla. huitlacoche . squash. menudo carnitas. Regional cuisine Mexican food varies by region. they found that the people¶s diet corn based dishes with chilies and herbs usually complemented with bean and tomatoes or nopales. In the 1520s. pineapple.The diet of the indigenous peoples of PreColumbian Mexico also includes chocolate. but has unique dishes such as Baracoa. they introduced a variety of animals. while Spanish conquistadors were invading Mexico. goat and ostrich production and meat dishes. mamey. Central Mexico¶s cuisine is largely influenced by the rest of the country. avocado. In the Yucatan. chicken goats. . pozole. sour sop. The north of Mexico is known for its beef. and pigs. achiote. sweet potato. tomatillos. in particular the well known Arrachera cut. The six region of Mexico differ greatly in there cuisines. In contrast. including cattle. papaya. The imported Spanish cuisine was eventually incorporated into the indigenous cuisine. natural sweetness (instead of spiciness) exists in the widely used local produce along with an unusual love for achiote seasoning. jicama. for instance. because of local climate and geography and ethnic differences among Spaniards in varying degrees. the oaxacan region is known for its savory tamales and celebratory moles .

Cooked in the Aztec or Mayan style (known as comida prehispanica) with ingredients ranging from iguana to rattlesnake. Pickly pears are as popular a food North of the border as they are south (often made into James) ingredients common to both sides include chili peppers (the genus µcapsicum¶ reaches its northern limit in Nevada) maize. However there is definite Americananization and hybridization the farther one is away from Mexico. and other kinds of insects. and very often served with Serrano-chili-blended soy sauces or complimented and chipotle peppers. thus adopting a Mexican fusion. Mexican food is widely available north of the border. there are also more exotic dishes.based dishes. The cuisine of southeastern Mexico has a considerable Caribbean influence due to its location. the latter habing a famous reputation for its fish dishes. and beef. For example. on the other hand. In pueblo or villages. tequila. is known for its spicy veg and chicken. and Chihuahua. deer. spider monkey. beans. Seafood is commonly prepared in states that border the Pacific Ocean or the Gulf of Mexico. Cultural influences left from Spanish colonization of the southwest and California remains not only in the names of places but also in the ingredients and California remain not only in the names of places but also in the ingredient in cooking. These influence are strongly reinforced today by their proximity to northern states like Sonora. resulting in Tex-Mex . grasshoppers. Nachos are most popular outside of Mexico. Mexican Cuisine outside of Mexico. Recently other cuisines of the world have acquired popularity in Mexico.Southeastern Mexico. ant eggs. tortillas. Baja Califorornia. sushi in Mexico is often made with a variety of sauces based on mango or tamarind. tomatoes. A la veracruzana.

and in many cities around the world. The Chimichanha.cuisine. is a Mexican-inspired dish popular in the United States and in order countries outside of Mexico. New Mexico. a deep-fried burrito with origins in Arizona. it¶s very normal unusual to put cheese in tacos or tostadas (unless it is the typically Mexican panela cheese). . which in effect has produced a variety of authentic Mexican restaurants. ³nacho´ cheese boarding Mexico (Texas. restaurants outside the American southwest often feature nontraditional ingredients. whereas they are windily popular in the rest of North America. In some regions of Mexico. California) and states such as Colorado and Utah have large expatriate Mexican population. While Mexican restaurant can be found in almost any town North America.however in southern Mexican dishes such as picadas and enchiladas. such as grated American style cheese. Nachos for example are rarely eaten in Mexico. Arizona.


the Celts. the Carthaginians. They were the Arab and Berber invaders. six different invaders. It also includes the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean. the Atlantic Ocean and the Cantabrian Sea.). or Costa del Sol. . Costa Dorada. From the tourist point of view. Then the good guys arrive. Spain has over two thousand beaches altogether. who called Spain 'Al Andalus'. the Romans and the Visigoths. they are grouped together under internationally famous names such as the Costa Brava. Canary Islands are on GMT.884 sq. has been invaded many times. HISTORY OF SPAIN The Iberian Peninsula.750 sq. the Greeks. It occupies the Iberian Peninsula and is bathed by the Mediterranean Sea. like most Mediterranean countries. now popularly known as the Moors. Its total surface area is 504. mi. take us only to the year 711.GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION Spain is situated in south western Europe. Time zone: Spanish mainland and Balearic Isles-local time is 1 hour ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) in winter and 2 hours ahead in summer. km. the Canary Islands in the Atlantic and the cities of Ceuta and Melilla. many of them of great beauty and enjoying a pleasant climate. (194. The Phoenicians.

fruit. some red meat. We also drink wine but not too much and also cava (spanish champagne). .STAPLE FOOD OF spain The Spanish have a very varied and healthy diet. It¶s called the Mediterranean Diet and consists of lots of vegetables. rice. pork. chicken. salads. legumes. eggs. We always use olive oil when we cook and for the salads. pasta. fish. dairy produce and bread.

but seriously rick. and as many of them start work seriously early due to the heat. Above all. Churros are basically long straight sticks of deep-fried batter. Chocolate con churros The Spanish like to eat out at breakfast. which are so well beloved that some cafes devote themselves to serving them and nothing else. Here are some gems which you shouldn¶t overlook when on holiday in Spain. so be careful not to overdose. the Spanish are seriously addicted to snacks. . A great way to start the day. One of the early morning favorites is chocolate con churros. but starting at breakfast time and continuing right throughout the day. a lot of people have a midmorning snack as well. paella perhaps being the most well-know example. not only tapas in the evening. But there are an awful lot of others which many visitors perhaps never get to hear about and so miss out on sampling. about 2cm thick and anywhere up to 30 cm long. SPANISH FOOD SPECIALITIES 1. and you will see cafes everywhere crowded. The liquid chocolate which you dip them into is piping hot and thick enough to stand a spoon.Everybody knows the famous classic dishes of Spanish cuisine.

sometimes up to 6 or 7 cm thick. available almost everywhere. it can be served hot or cold and make s a great quick filler to give you energy if you are flagging on the sightseeing trail. then toasted. cut open and spread with olive oil.2. garlic. 3. Tostada Catalana This is another staple café food. It is a small bread roll. Perfect with a glass of freshly squeezed orange juice. even in the smallest café. Tortilla de patatas This is another staple tapa. fresh tomato and jamon serrano. . Spain¶s marvelous air-dried ham. A huge wedge of potato omelet.

Delicious.4. especially with a bottle of ice-cold San Miguel. It isn¶t a common dish though. covered in batter and deep fried. and with a fire burning on top. The fish are gutted and cleaned. but it tastes wonderful. some of them quite sizable building. Sardinas a la plancha If you are anywhere near the beach. . then threaded onto the long metal skewers on which they are cooked. you will see lots of beach cafes. some of them little more than huts on the sand. Outside many of them you will see a small wooden boat. These serve as barbecues for the freshly caught sardines for which the area is famous. filled with sand. and this is one of my absolute favorites. but if you can track it down then it is well worth the effort. It sounds strange. Thin slices of eggplant. 5. particularly on the Costa del Sol. Berenjenas fritas con miel Spanish cuisine sometimes produces some odd but wonderful combinations. so it may take a bit of asking around until you find a place which serves it. then served with a jug of honey which you can dribble all over them.

Dusseldorf (568.821 sq.2 million).000).). (137.000). km.000). Climate: Temperate. Cities: Capital--Berlin (population about 3. and basins in the center and east. Essen (603.000). Dortmund (592.Terrain: Low plain in the north.000). mi. Stuttgart (582. Bremen (543. high plains. about the size of Montana.7 million). hills. Munich (1.GERMAN CUISINE GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION:Area: 357.Other cities--Hamburg (1.000). Frankfurt (644.000).000) Hanover (516.000 sq.4 million). Cologne (964. mountainous alpine region in south. . cooler and rainier than much of the United States.

presents and homemade entertainment. with food specialties.HISTORICAL BACKGROUND:Germany is a land full of culinary delights. it¶s at the same latitude as Newfoundland. which can be attributed to the lack of variety in the rural German countryside until the last 200 years. Cozy gatherings with food and drink are the essence of German Gemuetlichkeit (comfort and coziness).German cuisine has often been labeled as stodgy and fatty. The Christian calendar is a map for German social events and there is always a celebration happening somewhere. Located in the middle of Western Europe. STAPLE FOOD:1) 2) 3) 4) Sauerkraut White Asparagus Apples Whole Grain Rye Bread . always with a German twist. which means the summer nights are long and inviting while wintertime is cold and snowy. But Germany has benefited from a close association with Italy and France and adopted many of their spices and cooking methods.

a cheese sandwich with onions. a wheat bear known as Weinzenbier and knodel. Bayern or Bavaria offers delicacies like Schweinsbraten. a cabbage roll. 1. 5. 4. 3. regional delicacies over the years. and herbs. potroasted pork. a strong cheese made from curdled milk served in a dressing. Leipziger Allerlei is also another popular cuisine. Frankfurt am Main and Hessen offer specialities like Frankfurter sausage. Pulsnitz is the most popular Lebkuchen Saxony offering. Handkäs mit Musik. dumplings from white bread. vegetables. Potato fritters with black bread. Halve Hahn. white sausage. Labskaus made from corned beef. dried fruits. Hamburg region offers specialities like Aalsuppe. Rheinischer Sauerbraten. andJükääg. a smoked sausage made from pure pork. Rheinland has characteristic cuisines like Reibekuchen. Blood sausage. a speciality from Munich. traditionally horse meat dish. . Saxony region offers the delicacies like gingerbread known as Lebkuchen. 2. a sweet and sour soup of meat broth. Green Sauce made from minced and an abundant amount of seven fresh herbs.SPECIALITIES: Traditional German Cuisine is characterized by some famous.

During the whole day. Saarland offers specialities like Geheirote. a soup (Suppe). "Nachspeise" are after-meal treats. Starting from an appetizer (Vorspeise). they love to drink drip coffee with majestic "Torte" or "Kuchen" (cake).6. followed by a main course (Hauptspeise) with one or two either raw or cooked side dishes (Beilagen). . and baked in a Dibbe A typical German meal consists of around six to seven courses. a potato hash prepared from raw grated potatoes. bacon and leeks. Potatoes and dumplings made of flour served with a creamy bacon sauce and Dibbelabbes.

then carefully drain. tomato and avocado between the plates. Arrange 2 slices of ham on four large plates. 2. Simmer for 3 minutes and have a large bowl of iced water ready. Allow to stand for 10 minutes then drizzle with another third of the dressing and mix in the basil. Slice the tomatoes thinly and season. Place immediately into the iced water and leave for 5 minutes. Season with coarsely ground pepper and serve. Slice the avocado and mix gently with a third of the dressing. Divide the asparagus. Using a large slotted spoon. 3. Bring a large pan of salted water to a boil and drop in the asparagus. lift out the asparagus spears carefully. Drizzle the last of the dressing over the asparagus and sprinkle over the chives. Trim the bases of the asparagus and peel with a vegetable peeler. Season well.Recipes:White Asparagus with Black Forest Ham (Weisser Spargel mit Schwarzwälder Schinken) Ingredients y y y y y y y y 1 lb fresh white asparagus 1 large ripe avocado 1/2 cup Basic Oil and Vinegar Dressing (see recipe below) 4 ripe round or plum tomatoes. . skinned 4 large fresh Basil leaves. shredded 8 wafer-thin slices German imported Black Forest ham 1 tablespoon chopped fresh chives sea salt and freshly ground pepper Preparation 1. 4.

Add croutons if desired. Put the cabbage into a large bowl and toss in the sliced onion. 3. sliced thinly 1/2 small green pepper. green pepper and poppy seeds. cored and sliced thinly 1 teaspoon poppy seeds 2 Tablespoons rapeseed oil 5 oz Bavarian smoked cheese Sea salt and freshly ground black pepper Green lettuce Croutons (optional) Preparation 1. Cut the cheese into small cubes and mix lightly in the bowl. . drained well 1/2 small onion. 2. Line a platter with salad leaves and pile on the cabbage salad. Season to taste then mix in the oil.Red Cabbage Salad with Bavarian Smoked Cheese :(Rotkohlsalat mit Räucherkäse) Ingredients 1 lb German pickled red cabbage.

and bread rolls supplemented with jam. toast.Again a . For children.Generally. Besides noodles. Lunch has been the main meal of the day which is usually eaten around noon. but mashed and fried potatoes also are traditional. whereas people in the South like Bavaria prefer Lager or wheat beer. Potatoes entered late in German cuisine (18th century) and were the most ubiquitous in the 19th and 20th centuries. marmalade.Breakfast:Germans prefer breakfast menu consisting of bread. potatoes and dumplings are very common. eggs over a cup of strong coffee or tea. especially Spätzle contain large amount of egg yolk. with many local and regional breweries offering a wide variety of beers. honey. They. Of late. popular concept and can be perfect occasions to invite friends and guests. But. last 50 years have seen a quite radical shift in those eating habits. Breakfast is still a very elaborated. DRINKS:Association of German Cuisine with Beer is quite old one. Delicacies like deli meats. LUNCH AND DINNER:Traditionally. Dinner is always a smaller meal which is made of sandwiches sometimes. Pils is most popular name today. such as ham. In comparison. Potatoes are often served boiled in salt water. most of the people prefer a small lunch around noon and like to enjoy a hot relaxed dinner in the evening. salami are also common on breakfast menu. usually milk or cocoa is prefered. and french fries have now become very common part of side dishes. In most of the country. Side Dishes:Noodles make the important part of German side dishes.

turnips. VEGETABLES:Vegetables are usually preferred in form of vegetable soups or stews. They also make good side dish. "Rhabarbergrütze" . and usually eaten for breakfast and as sandwiches in the evening. plums. . not as a side dish for the main meal. red fruit pudding is another popular dessert in northern Germany. becoming widespread in the 1920s. a rhubarb pudding and "Grüne Grütze". are very common. German doughnuts. Apples. Bread is a big part of the German diet. Italian-run ice cream parlours were the first large wave of foreign-run eateries in Germany. Cabbage. carrots. is particularly enjoyed in Germany as a side dish or as a main meal. ranging from white wheat bread to grey bread and black rye bread. a gooseberry pudding are some popular variations of the "Rote Grütze". strawberries. Berliner or Krapfen are also very popular desserts. Fried onions are a common addition to many meat dishes throughout the country. Potatoes. are usually not counted among vegetables by Germans. Cheesecake. beans. especially white asparagus known as spargel. Bread is served with almost every meal. and cherries are used regularly on cakes. BREAD:The country boasts more than 6000 different types of bread. "Rote Grütze". DESSERTS:A great variety of cakes and tarts made with fresh fruit are enjoyed throughout the country.Ice cream and sorbets are also very popular. spinach.number of regions have a special kind of local beer.Wine is also popular throughout the country. peas. Most types of bread contain both wheat and rye flour. A popular ice cream treat is called Spaghetti Eis. while a major part of the diet. Asparagus.

Chinese cuisine Chinese cuisine originated in china and has become widespread in many other parts of world ±from Asia to America Australia. Western Europe and southern Africa. American Chinese cuisine and Indian Chinese cuisine are prominent example of Chinese cuisine that has been adapted to suit local palates. connoisseurs of Chinese cuisine have also sprouted in Eastern Europe and south Asia. In recent years. .

Vegetables stay bright and crisp by cooking them for a short time over high heat. with an emphasis on vegetarian and halal-based diets respectively. Beijing cuisine and shanghai cuisine are also cited along with the classical eight regional styles as the ten great traditions.Regional Regional cultural differences very greatly within china. Sometimes four of the eight great tradition are given greater culinary heritage of china. Many elements that have influenced its development. The Chinese people enjoy eating good food at all levels of society so cooking has developed into a very sophisticated art. Hunan. . There are also featured Chinese Buddhist cuisine and Muslim sub-cuisines within the greater Chinese. Cantonese. Recipes of famous dishes Beijing duck. Shanghai noodles. giving rise to the different styles of food across the nation. In modern times. Traditionally there are eight main regional cuisine. or eight Great Traditions Anhui. Regional cuisine Chinese cuisine is one of the greatest methods of cooking. Many Chinese dishes are cooked with less meat and more vegetables. East to West. Fujian. Sichuan and Zhejiang. Jiangsu. This method retains most of the vitamins and minerals. Shandong. so the foods contain lower calories and are less rich than Western style food. either in their own juice or in a small amount of water. Sichuan soup and Guangdong dumplings actually are not sophisticated. There are many kinds of Chinese food from North to South.

so wheat is the primary grain consumed. The northern part of China has a cold climate unsuitable to grow rice. you will find all the cuisines of China pretty much. Beijing Duck is a time consuming dish to prepare of oven roasted duck with a crispy brown skin. Cantonese Food Cantonese food or Guangdong food is typically steamed. Thin slices of the skin are cut off and put onto a plate where it is wrapped with a fresh flour tortilla with plum sauce. "the Cantonese eat everything that flies except planes. and green onion. The most famous Sichuan dish is the Gongbao (Kung Pao) chicken. everything on the ground except cars. You need white rice to accompany the meal to make it complete unless it is a special banquet.Beijing Food Beijing food is the most famous food of China. It is a very healthy food since it uses minimum of oil. The main ingredients of this type of Chinese food are seafood. Many Sichuan dishes are prepared using chili pepper oil. but could include almost anything. where rice predominates. cucumber. particularly known for Beijing Duck. boiled or stirfried. and everything that is in water except boats. Much of this fame comes from the fact that the Imperial cuisines were based out of there. which gives a special taste to the food. pork. In the morning you could have Dim Sum for breakfast and Beijing Duck for dinner. The rest of the duck is used with additional dishes. but Cantonese cooking predominates. Sichuan Food what is typical of this southwestern province of China is the spicy taste of its food. fried with peanuts and chili pepper. It is said. . chicken and vegetables. Northern Chinese eat more breads than those in the south." In Hong Kong.

The Chinese were the first to discover the tea leaf and have been drinking tea ever since in many varieties. Yet some of the soups are filling enough to be a meal by themselves. . Rice flour noodles are often found in Singapore-style noodle dishes and use rice vermicelli noodles cooked with curry powder. wheat noodles. There are many different types of Chinese soups.Some noodle knowledge there are egg noodles. There are two types of noodle dish. Chinese make their soups with chicken. Chinese soups are very tasteful and can be light in both texture and flavor. Sweet corn and hot/sour soups are the most popular soups to westerners. Soup Chinese soups have been part of Chinese meals for a long time. or stir-fried in a dish. meat or vegetable stock. shrimp. Egg noodles are often found in Cantonese restaurants as noodle soup (like won ton mian). Wheat noodles are often found in Shanghai noodle dishes. barbecued pork and ham. and rice flour noodles. meat. Tea is believed to be good for you. The second is Chow mian in which the noodles are pan fried and then mixed with stir-fried vegetables. The first is lo mian which is a plate of cooked (boiled) noodles with some barbeque pork or duck and some vegetables on the side of the plate. and accompanied with a bowl of broth. pork and shrimp. and seafood. Chinese Tea Tea drinking is an integral part of Chinese life and the Chinese food experience. These are round wheat noodles that are cooked then stir-fried in a savory sauce with chicken.

Denmark lead the rest of Scandinavia in shaping its . The earlist evidences of human settlement in scandinavia are older than ten ± thausand years. Scotland and Ireland ± which from 1018 to 1035 fell completely into Viking hands. Greenland and North America. Conquests and trade routes to the east led to the enventual origin of the Russian State and created links to Constantinpole and the Mediterranean. Denmark has historical records dating back to 829. which made its introduction during the Middle Ages. Though only a modestly literate people .While Viking reputation for barbaration is asignification history. Not much is known about the two hundred year period (c. Written account of Scandinavia¶s history appear with the introduction of Christianity. little is we do have come from their day ±to ±day lives. Because of its geographical proximity to Western Europe.SCANDINAVIA GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION OF SCANDINAVIA: HISTORY OF SCANDINAVIA: - Think of Scandinivia¶s History &what comes to mind? Intrepid Viking bravely faring Northrn seas in in prparation for pillage. The first Scandinavian country to embrace Catholicism. it beligs the relatively peaceful formation of it¶snations-countries whose individuality rose from distinct differences in tribe. as did large parts of France & Germany. Therefore . Tae Orkney and Shetland Island. whose settlements dotted the Nourth Atlantic and include Iceland. wtth some evidence of agrarianism in present day Sweden. The few written accounts we do have come from their victims ± England. culture and religion as first witnessed and condified around 98 BC by Roman explorations of µGermania¶ . The legendary seafaring adventurousness of these people belonged primarily to the Norwegian Vikings. primary sources of information legacy is composed primarily of folklore.850 AD to 1050 AD) of the Vikings. These early peoples developed a sophisticated living through hunting and fishing . Viking conquests made extensive inroads by land as well.

swedes had settled. Queen Margaret. which led to the estableshment of an autonomus Swedish/ Finish monarch. Despite alleged accounts of Swedesh conquests of Finland sweden and Finlandwere never in conflite. becomes king of all 3 nations. This union sa broken in 1521-53 in arevolt led by Gustavus Vasa. made use of a Norwegian claim to swedens throne in 1388. her grandnaephew and hair . daughter of king Denmark and wife to the king of Norway.To contrary. hunted and traded in Finland for centuries. Erik . STABLE FOOD WITH REGIONAL INFLUENCES: Mom¶s Danish potato salad Swedish turckey Mataballs Scandinavian Cucumbers Grilled Salmon with dilled Musterd Glaze Blueberry Yogurd Pie .society towards a European model. Actingon Margrat¶s advice . her implemented a 123 year period of political unity that acknowledged Denmark as the political capital of Scandinavia. & allow Fans to participate in the election of king as in 1544.

We offer a full selection of Scandianvian imported foods & in our store you can buy all the homemade goodies as well. etc. Home décor. especially in warmer months. Equipment was brought over from Norway to make all the sausages. in addition to all the Scandinavia Gift items that we are in the process of additing to our website. A small café was also added an now Scandinavia open faced sandwiches & yellow pie soup are served 6 days a week. The gift items have grown to include Scandinavian sweaters.00 handling fee. Place pay attention to the items that are marked PERISHABLE because they have to be shipped by air freight to most areas. All products are shipped from our warehouce on Seattle & we are dedicated to bringing you tha freshest products and treat each customer with tha personal touch. with the addition of a $3.SPECIALLITIES OF SCANDINAVIA :We cary a full line of Scandinavia food products from Norway. Books. They opwrated out of a very small space in Seattles¶s Ballard area. Sweden. Jewelry. & actual cost will be charged. Denmark & Finland. Scandinvian spialties first opened its door in april of 1962 under the name of Norwegian sausage company. The current owners felt it was time to expand the store & moved to a larger location close by. . and many souvenir type items. All UPS price on your website are appx. & lot of Ole & Lena fun items.

. Decorate with candied cherries & almonds if desired. Cover & let rise until doubled.Put on greased cookies sheet . scalded ½ butter ½ tsp salt 1 egg beaten ¾ tsp cardamom Appx. Bake at 350 F for 30-40 min. Sugar icing mixed with almond flavoring. Add egg & yeast to the milk butter mixture. Let rise until nearly double. . Cool to lukewarm. Add sugar. Mix fruit with a little to the remaining flour so it doesn¶t stick together & add . Knead on floured cloth until smooth . placed in greased bowl. Beat in 2 cups flour & mix well. while still warm.Recipes of Scandinvia Julekake(Norwegian Christmas Bread) 2 packages dry yeast ½ cup warm water 1 tsp suger 1 cup milk. stir in rest of flour. Divide in to 2 parts & form round leaves. 5 cup flour ½ cup candied cherries ½ cup white raisins Method:Dissolve yeast & a little sugar in a warm water. Scald milk then add butter. brush with soft butter or decorate with pwd. salt & cardamom.

salt or goat cheese Method:Peel raw potatoes & great finally. Bringing water to boil & add 2 tsp. make fine. Served with melted butter salt or goat cheese ! . salt cut salt pork/bacon in to small cubes. raw potatoes 2Boiled cold potatoes ½ -3/4 cups barley flour ¼ cup wheat flour ¼ lb. From dough in to large potatoes ± sized dumping. after the dumpling first float to the top. Push cube of salt pork into center of each dumpling. Simmer 15-20 min. smooth dumpling. Mash boil potatoes & combine with other ing. Place dumpling in the boil water. salt pork or bacon Butter. salt/quart a water. Add 1 tsp.Klubb or Respeballer 1½ lb.

covered. remove bowl from heat. salt 2 ¼ cups chilled heavy cream 2 cups Lingonberry sauce or preserves Stirred Special equipment: an instant.Sabayon Lingo berry Mousse 2 1/2 tsp. then remove from heat . until set. stirring. 10-12 min. Brandy 1/8 tsp. brandy. then beat in gelatin mixture until just combined.unflavored gelatin ¼ cup cold water 10 large egg yol1/2 cup plus 2 tsp. sugar. Stir one forth whipped cream in to sabayon into lighten. at least 2 hr. Beat together yolks.Cookes¶ note : Mousse can be chilled upto 1 day . about 1 min. then fold in remaining cream gently but thermometer Garnish: whipped cream &lingonberry sauce or preserves Method:Sprinkle gelatin over cold water in a small saucepan & let soften 1 min. Cool sabayon 5 min. salt and ¼ cup cream in a metal bowl with a handheld electric mixer at medium high speed until very thick & register 160 F on thermometer. Beat remaining 2 cups cream with clean beaters until to just holds stiff peak. until gelatin is dissolved. Cook over low heat. Spoon layers a mousse & lingonberry sauce alternatively into 8 (6-8 -ounce) stemmed glasses and chill. ½ cup plus 2 tsp sugar 3 tsp .

Bake for 50 min. add milk & yeast. at 400 degrees. Grease one longer or two small rectangular baking pans. Fill pan evenly with dough. golden syrup ¾ cup chopped almonds Method:Dissolved yeast in milk in large bowl.Long pan cake from jaeran 4 tsp. Add remaining flour & raisins. the longer the butter. Let rise until double. Cool on grill. Beat sugar & egg together. raisins Fill: ¼ lb. Prepare fill & spread over dough. 45 min. Add butter & appx. sugar ¼ lb. Sprinkle with almonds. Mix well. Let rise for appx. sugar 3 eggs ½ lb. . yeast ¾ cup lukewarm whole milk 2 tsp. 2 cups of flour. soft butter 1 lb flour ¼ lb. soft butter 3 tsp.

Aleppo was a major culture and commercial centre in this region. Southern Turkey near Adana. Northern Iraq. Gaziantep. Antakya. Lebanon. Levantine cuisine y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Olives Hummus Tabbouleh Muhammara Manakish Fattoush Shawarma Baklava Labaneh Matbucha Baba ghanoush Shashlik Lentil soup Burekas Dolma . Israel. Perhaps the most distinctive aspect of this cuisine are mezzeinculding tabbouleh. known in Arabic as the Bilad ash-sham. hummus and baba ghanoush. It covers the modern states of Syria. Jordan. This region shared many culinary under the Ottoman Empire which continue to be influential today.Levantine cuisine Levantine cuisine is the traditional cuisine of the Levant. and Mardin and the Palestinian territories.

Kader.Store-bought pita bread and roti (bread rolls like French bread)are also common.which is expensive.and other dairy products are-less common in the Yemeni diet.Laxoox.Fattah.Shakshouka Yemeni bread varieties Tawa.Faha.Yemen cuisine has heavy Ottoman Turkish influence due to the Ottoman occupation.Jachnun.Yemeni cuisine also differs slightly from region to enjoyed almost daily in some villages where it is most available.Lahm Mandi.Kudam.Samak Mofa.Shafut.K hamira Flat bread is usually baked at home in a tandoor called taboon.however.Bint AlSahn.Fateer. .fish is also eaten especially in the coastal areas. Ingredients Chicken and lamb are eaten more often than beef.and semn(clarified butter) is the choice of fat used in pastries. Other Yemeni dishes Aseed.butter.Buttermilk.Oshar.Thareed.Yemeni Cuisine The cuisine of Yemen is entirely distinct from the more widely known Middle Eastern cuisines.Rashoosh.Tameez. Cheese.khubz.and khamira are popular homemade breads.The most commonly used lipids are vegetable oil used in savory dishes.Malooga.

Malaysia. Indonesia. and the Philippines. East Asia. Viet Nam. Brunei. North Asia. Oriental is comprised of central Asia. north-western India. The South Asian is derived the states that once made up British India. South Asia. Laos. Kyrgyzstan. Thailand. The Southeast Asian is encompassed of Cambodia. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan (five former Soviet republics). is a term which means ³The East´. and Western Asia. there are Burma. The East Asian is origins in Imperial China and now encompassing modern Japan and the Korean peninsula. Sri Lanka and Pakistan as well as several other countries in this region of the continent.ORIENTAL CUISINE GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION:Oriental. Qinghai. and western parts of the People¶s Republic of China such as Xinjiang. India. Central Asia is consisted of the Kazakhstan. Singapore. north-eastern Iran. Tajikistan. Southeast Asia. Gansu and Inner Mongolia. Afghanistan. . northern-Pakistan. Mongolia. South-western and middle China such as Tibet Autonomous Region.

and Yemen (include mountainous terrain). foods of each region are distinctly different. European colonization. It is very colorful cuisine that includes local herbs. there is use of very strong spices like hot peppers and cloves to enhance their foods. Laos. food from this region is emphasis on much more mild spices along with citrus juices and light herbs such as Cilantro and Basil. Basically. Western Asia is contained of Turkey. then come to independent of country. spices and marinades such as Fish Sauce in Vietnam. . cultures. developed and influenced through ancient kingdom. Viet Nam. The history of Oriental cuisine is started from civilization. Food in this region is very aromatic and tends to be very colorful. Historical Background:Oriental cuisine can be broken down to several regional. Iran. At Southwest Asia and the countries of India. Due to historical tragedies. Sri Lanka and Myanmar (formerly Burma). The history of oriental cuisine is difficult to describe in overall because it is varies widely from region to regions. food from this region has a lot of Persian or Arabic influences. Cambodia.and southern parts of Siberia. Singapore. Japanese colonization on World War II. At Southeast Asia which includes the countries of Thailand. Indonesia. and Malaysia. Each region has their roots. history in the peoples. and decolonization. Pakistan.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful