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Composed, Condensed and Interpreted By V.D.N. Rao, Former General Manager India Trade Promotion Organization, Pragati Maidan, New Delhi Union Ministry of Commerce, Govt. Of India
PURANA SARAAMSHA (Quintessence of Puranas) Contents Preface to Puranas ‘Srishti Vidhaana’ Matter, Space and Time Brief on Planets-Sun, Moon, Sisumara and Bilwa Swarga Surya and Surya Vamsha Chandra and Chandra Vamsha Common Coverages in Puranas Sandhya Vandana-‘Mantraardha’ and Scientific Explanation Daanas and Tirtha Yatras Some interesting references and episodes from Puranas a)
Page 3 4 5 7 7 10 12 14 15 17 17 18 18 19 20 20 22 23 23 25 26 34
Avadhuta Dattatreya Why Draupadi was married to all the ‘Pancha Pandavas’? Play of Vishnu Maya- Veda Vyasa and Narada share experiences
c) d) e) f) g) h) i)
Significance of Rudraakshaas Eight-folded Approach to Lord Venkateshwara Narada’s questionnaire to deserve Brahma’s charity of Maha Tirtha Anecdotes of Kartika and Ganesha Special Implication of Ekadasha Vrata-the example of Rukmangada The famed Shata Rudriyam Observance of Maha Shiva Ratri and its significance
Over-view of Ashtaadasha Puranas Epilogue-Vedic Faith is Everlasting despite pulls and pressures
‘PURANA SAARAAMSHA’ (QUINTESSENCE OF PURANA S)
Avikaaraya Shuddhaaya Nirtyaaya Paramaarmaney, Sadaika Rupa Rupaaya Vishnavey Sarva Jishnavey/ Namo Hiranya Garbhaaya Harey Shankaraayacha, Vasudavaaya Taaraaya Sarga sthityanta karmaney/ Ekaaneka Swarupaaya sthula sukshaatmaney namah, Avyakta Vyakta bhutaaya Vishnavey Mukta Hetavey/ Sarga sthiti vinaashaaya Jagetoyojaraamarah, Mula Bhuto Namastasmai Vishnavey Paramatmaney/ (My obeisances to you Vishnu Paramartma! You are the ‘Hiranya Garbha Brahma’, Hari, Shankara, Vaasudeva and Sarva Deva Jyoti Swarupa; you are the ‘Avikaara’ devoid of the six characteristics of Existence, Birth, Growth, Evolution, Decay and Destruction; the Symbol of Purity and Transparency; the Everlasting, Supreme, Unique and All-Pervading Vishnu. My reverences to you as the Integrated and Resplendent Entity of Brahma, Hara, Shankara and Vaasudeva who is the Root Cause of Creation, Presence and Termination; the Substance of the Miniscule to the Maximum Magnitude and the Undefined yet Visionable Being of Paramatma). Preface to Puranas In ‘Hindu Sampradaaya’, the very first thought goes to Vedas and Puranas.When one thinks of Puranas, the mind-set gets invariably tuned to Naimisharanya and Suta Maha Muni. Even a child witnessing or participating in a Vrata like Ganesh Chaturthi or Saynanarayana Puja would have surely heard of Naimisharanya. This Forest had become a Symbol of Hindu Dharma for the reason that while Dwara Yuga was almost over and Kali Yuga was being entered into, Brahma released the Kala Chakra called Manonmaya Chakra or Maya to assess the impact of its Entry from one Yuga into another. This Chakra (disc /wheel) appeared to have travelled round the entire Universe and finally got broken as the prescribed circumference of the Chakra viz the ‘Nemi’ fell short of the measure and Brahma felt that that was a ‘Safety Zone’where he could take up ‘Panah Srishti’ and also devote that Extremly Hallowed Land for the use of Yagnas and other Sacred Activities; this was the Place where Veda Vyasa was famed to have executed the division of Vedas and scripted Puranas and this was also the Place where Suta Maha Muni disseminated knowledge of Puranas, Vedangas and various other Scriptures.This large segment of Land called the Naimisharanya still exists till date some 80 km away from Lucknow in Uttar Pradesh, leaving vestiges of the Past of some 5000 years at the cross point of the Yugas. There is a Chakra Tirtha even now where lakhs of Rishis were stated to have bathed and performed Yagnas. This Tirtha is supposed to be fathomless where a huge Hanuman Idol of 18feet-believed to be self-manifested-is in position; the local fables reveal that Rama and Lakshmana were rescued from Patala by Hanuman where the latter were hidden by Ravana and came up from Chakra Tirtha; the Britishers wished to disprove this belief that Chakra Tirtha was fathomless and sent a cable of 1000 meters (30,000 ft depth) and gave up the experiment! Till date, there is a Vyasa Gaddi (Seat) under a Banyan tree; a Shiva Temple where Shiva Linga’s eyes look east in the morning and gradually look west at the Sunset and a Lalitha Devi’s Temple of reputation. Even now, Yagnas and Homas are conducted at Naimisha and thousands take bath on Full Moon days, Solar/ Lunar Ecilpses etc. Puranas are the Panchama Vedas but in a way are stated to be more practical than Vedas; Vedas themselves were perhaps apprehensive that those Pandits who no doubt recite and
Triambika. Chatusshasthi Kalas. Suvela ande Gandhamaadana. Shat-Vedangas viz Siksha including Sangeeta and Nyaya. Hara.even know the literal meaning of Vedas well. In Prati Sarga. Paramatma (Supreme Shakti) and alternative Power called Prakriti materialised Maha Tatwa (Great Awareness). Kusha. Manvantaras. Vishnu. Sapta Parvatas viz. Ksheera. Sugar cane juice. Kapila. Sapta Rishis (Marichi. Chatur Vedas . Vedas command that one should be truthful and virtuous: Satyamvada Dharmamchara. Jayanta.Garuda and Brahmaanda. Pulastya. Main Ashtaadasa Puranas are Brahma Purana. the space in between was Aakaasha. Samba. Markandeya. Kurma. Kalpa Grandha. Charaachara jagat –moveable and immobile Universe. Sanandana. Moreover. Sanaka. Ushna (by Sukracharya). Sura. Sapta Dwipas (Jambu. Raivata. For instance. Ithihaasa Puaanaabhyaam Vedam samupabrumhayet/ (Vedas might get concerned that Panditas capable of their recitation might not succeed to explain them well and hence Puranas could interpret their purport clearly. Ekadasa Rudras (Ajaikapaada. Pulaha. Curd. Brahmanda II. Vedas prescribed rules and regulations expecting posterity to follow without raising questions as to why the rules must be followed but did not explain why and what would be the consequences otherwise. Ananta Shesha was at the root of Meru. Skanda II. and Aparajita). Dahi. ‘Srishti Vidhana’ Pancha Lakshanas (Five broad features) of Puranas are: Sarga. Varaha. Udyachala. Kaalika. Brahma created Dasa Dishas. milk. Classified Butter . Maricha etc. Grita. The language. Vaamana. Vamshas and Visarga. Manvantaras. Narasimha. Ascharya (Durvasa). Shoura. Himalaya. Plaksha. might not be able to interpret the implication of Vedas well enough. Virupaaksha. Shiva. Shiva Dharma. Salmaali. Angirasa. and sweet water). illustrative episodes when various personalities acted in good ways or otherwise and the resultant fruits that they reaped etc.Salt water. Malaya. Sanaatana and Sanat Kumara brothers.Narada. Bhavishya. Kratu. Jyotisha including Jataka Skandha. Thus Guide lines are provided and dos and dont’s are clarified and perfected. Narada II. Kaalamaana (Concept of Time). Buddhi. Brahma also created Eight 4 . Bahurupa. Arishad -vargas.and Vasishtha). Matsya. Maha Tatwa generated Ahamkara (Ego in abstractness or Self-Consciousness) which enabled the Creation of Pancha Bhutas. Padma Purana. but would not explain why. Varuna. Prajapatis. Abhirbudhnya. Parashara. Krouncha. Brahma Vaivarta. Ashtaadasha Puranas. Agni. no doubt based on Vedas.Ikshurasa. Puranas are easily understandable in simpler form describing past happenings. Sura. Prati Sarga. Narada. style and diction of Vedas too are complex with hidden meanings. Maheswara.Atri.Upa Puranas include Sanatkumara. Chandas Shastra. Pinaki. The floating Narayana through his Virya / virility produced a Golden Egg and Brahma the Hiranya Garbha was inside the Egg which had two parts. Nirukta. Saavitra. On the other hand. thus warning humanity or facilitating to perform and motivating human beings to act and take initiative. Agastyachala. Sumeru. Kailasa. Shaka and Pushkala) and Sapta Samudras (Lavana. The very First Creation was of Narayana created by Apo Naara or the Radiant Water. the upper part being the Urthva Loka and Bhuva the lower part. Manu Smriti stated: Bibhetyalpa shrutaad Vedo maamayam prataaryeyditi. Bhagavata. Vyakarana. and Suswada ie. Linga. Skanda.
Patala and Rasatala. Talaatala. Normally the span of human life is hundred years. Vitala. Some of Prajapatis born of Brahma like Daksha made contributions in expanding their progeny and he begot from his wife Ashkini sixty daughters of whom seventeen were given to Kashyapa Muni. Agni. A human year is a day to Devas. Yama. Sapta Patalas viz. Atiratra. Chaturaashramaas.. Moon. Brahma’s present age is now fifty years plus. and Kadru (serpents). Kaa1rashava and Bhuta.Sun. the sum of Space occupied and the movement of Matter determined is the Paramaanu Samaya (atomic time). second Parartha in the reign of the Seventh Manu Vaivaswata. five nimeshas one kashta or eight seconds. Purushi. two months a Ritu /season. Dakshinayana is the movement of Surya from top to bottom and Uttarayana is the movement of Sun from bottom to top. Agnishtoma. three nimeshas one kshana. and to each to Angira. Tamra and Ira (Trees. (Cows. fifteen laghus one nadika or danda. six-seven dandas one fourth of a day or night. two pakshas a month. Danu (Danavas). Bhuvarloka. Ukta. Yagnas and Yagaas. Kashyapa’s wives included Aditi (Daityas). Sutala. Swarloka. buffalos and oxen). We are now in the Third Kalpa (Varaha Kalpa). Sisumara and Bilwa Swarga Now about the Planets: Bhu Loka as Planet resembling the form of a lotus flower comprises the Sapta Dwipas and Sapta Samudras over an area of one million yojanas or 8 5 . three lavas make one nimesha or blink of an eye. Diti (Devas). Mahatala. The Time Units were arrived as per the mix of these Entities called Transerenus or celestial atoms and the duration of integrating these entities. Treta Yuga 3600 Divine years. six months one Ayanam or two complete movements of a year by Sun. Maharloka. Agni Homas like Shodasi. Each Manu rules for 71 Maha yugas. Kali Yuga 1200 years. Brahma further created Chaturvarnas. one Maha Kalpa is half of Brahma’s life span. Vayu and Ishana. Aptoryama. Surabhi. 1000 Maha Yugas make one Kalpa or a day to Brahma and two Kalpas one day and night to Brahma. Space and Time are measurable. while the rest were given to Yamadharma Raja. Nirruti. Thus the Matter. Satya Yuga is stated to have a span of 4800 Deva Years. and Satya loka. Brahma is 51 year old having lived for 155 trillion years. Vinata (Vihangas).Dwapara Yuga 2400 years. Sapta Lokas viz. (Gandharvas and Kinnaras) Surasa. Brief on Planets. creepers). hundred tritis make one vedha. Muni (Apsaras) and so on. Arishta. fifteen kashtas one laghu or two minutes. 12000 divine years one Maha Yuga. Matter. Vishva (Yakshas and Rakshasas). four praharas or yamas make one day and night. The smallest unit of three transerenus is called ‘triti’. Kadru (Serpents).Lokapaalakaas viz. Indra. Varuna. twenty seven to Chandra. Kali Yuga is calculated to have commenced on 17th February 3102 BC of Julion Calendar. Atala. the calculation was done on the basis of Padardha (Matter) and Parithi (Space). We are now in the 28th Kaliyuga of the First Day of the First Year of Sweta Varaha Kalpa. 365 combinations of a day and night make a year. Brahma’s life span is 100 Brahma Years or two Pararthas. Tapoloka. Space and Time As regards the concept of time. Vajapeya and Goshava.Bhuloka. three vedhas make a lava. Janarloka.that is how our daily prayer states: Dwiteeya Parthaey! One Maha Kalpa there are a mind-boggling 311040 crore of human years.
His set route is from the East of Sumeru to Devaloka of Indra. Chandrama travels faster and the distance between this Planet and Surya is of a lakh yojanas (800. Trishthup. genitals Saturn. Mangala is not considered as favourable. Agni.8 million miles long and seven lakh miles wide. lower thin Yama Raja. Usnik. which is a helpful Planet providing prosperity. Bruhati. and Pankti. Manomaya (mind alerter). Pushkarachuda. Upper chin Agasthi. Yet. Yama. and the body hair pores various Stars on the Sky etc. on the top of the tail as Prajapati. The Planet of Sun is in between Bhurloka to Bhuvarloka. breasts Ahwini Kumars. Jupiter is generally helpful. mind Moon. It is coiled with its head down. Sun travels from Manasarovara Mountain in a circle. From Meru to Lokaloka is billon miles and an equal distance from there is Bhurloka. its mouth Mars. neck-back Guru. in other words. Surya’s chariot would have travelled 16000 miles! Surya’s chariot has 2. heart Vasudeva himself. with the Pole Star as its tail. the daughter of Kashyapa Muni) controls the horses looking to Sun God and driving on the opposite direction. chest Sun. Amritamaya (source of life) and Sarvamaya (all pervading).By the time one could utter the words Bhur Bhuvassuvah. Sun’s movement in the Antariksha (outer space) from North to South Dishas is Dakshinayana over six months and from South to North over another six months influencing fortunes of one and all is called Uttarayana. neck Rahu. Surya Deva’s Chariot called ‘Trayimaya’ thus performs Parikrama of the four Lokas of Indra. Moon fall day (Amavasya) and Moon rise day (Purnami) have their own significance in the Solar and Lunar Calendars. to his loka towards South is Yamaloka. Varuna and Chandra and would have travelled 760 million miles approx. 6 . Budha (Mercury) is also as distant from it to Shukra and is helpful except in nearness to Sun. Arunadeva (Brother of Garuda and younger son of Kadru. called Antariksha overseeing half of the Universe like a grain of wheat. each Planet is away by a distance of 16 lakh miles but the distance from Saturn is halfway to Sapta Riushi Mandala or the Constellation of the Great Bear (Ursa Major) the Great Well Wisher of the Universe connecting humans and Gods. life-air Mercury. 000 miles). at the hip position Sapta Rishis. Lokaloka is the border of Bhuloka controlled by four Gajapatis viz. Anushthup. Distance from Stars to Shukra and is the same. The Seven horses are named Gayatri. Chandra is known as Jeeva (Praanadaata). the body with various Stars. and to North to Vibhavati the Chandra loka. Above the Constellation is the Pole Star (Dhruva) and Sisumara Planetary System or the Sisumara Samsthaana which has the shape of a Dolphin and represents Vasu Deva Himself. Sun takes a year to travel through all the Rashis or Zodiac Signs while Moon takes a month for the Parikrama. herbs and plants). The distance between Moon and the twenty seven Stars is two lakh Yojanas. Saturn is invariably unhelpful. The Ratha Sarathi. Rishabha. days become longer. navel Venus. nights become longer and from South to North. Jambu Dwipa has an area of one lakh yojanas with Sumeru Mountain as the pericarp.million miles. Vamana an Aparajita. Moon passes through a month of the Sun and hence the difference of Solar and Lunar calculations. As Sun travels to North from South. Normally. to the West is Nimkolani of Varuna. in two and quarter days. Thus Sisumara Chakra is a view of Bhagavan Himself! Beneath Sun are Rahu and Ketu the Sub-Heaven Planets. Indra and Dharmja. Annamaya (potency provider from foodgrains.
Brahma suggested the name of Balarama (Krishna’s elder brother) and by the time Raivata and Revati returned to their Kingdom. Danavas. Swarochisha. Andha kupa and Raktakta Bhojana. Gandharvas milked Sugandha . and Ashwini Kumars from Sanjana Devi (daughter of Vishvakarma) and Saavarni Prajapati the future Manu and Shani Deva from Chhayaa Devi. Pitru Devatas milked ‘Swadha’. Twenty eight Narakas exist like Tasmira. Arthamishra. Kuberas milked Antardhana Vidya. Uttama. Mahatala. and Raivata. From Naabhaga the lineage included Ambarisha. Yamuna. having no illnesses as they all enjoy ‘haataka’ or herbal juice and blessed with prosperity and wealth.From Swayambhu Manu’s lineage was born Dhruva the son of Uttanapada. Sutala. Vaivaswata Manu had nine sons among whom Ikshwaku the eldest was the most famed followed by Naabhaga. Taamasa. Kumbhipaaka. Danu to Danavaas and so on. Surya and Surya Vamsha In the context of the current Manu called Vaiwasvata. the names of the rest of the Manus to follow would be Saavarni. Talatala. Manvantaras Then the Theme of Puranas invariably covers Fourteen Manvantaras and Vamshas. Rouchya and four more Saavarnyas. Ila was born and wedded Budha and they gave birth to Puru. as he was given partial/unfair treatment to his cousin brother and step-mother. human beings milked foodgrains. he performed exceptional Tapasya to Narayana under the Guru Narada Maharshi as Vishnu himself appeared and granted Dhruva a unique position of the Sky as a Pole Star. Asi Patra. Kalasutra. Parvatas milked Auoshadhis. Daksha Prajapati had given seventeen of his daughters to Maharshi Kashyapa and Aditi gave birth to Vaivasvan (Surya Deva) and other Devatas. Rasatala and Pataala. Bhoutya. Yamadharma Raja. Raivata. women and food. Nagas milked Visha / Poison. the shadow created by Sanjana Devi. Vrikshas milked the milk-cut white gum etc thus satisfying all the species. Rishis milked Tapomaya Brahma. and the residents of these Lokas being Daityas. The past Manus were Swayambhu. An interesting episode was that Raivata along with his daughter Revati visited Brahma who was then enjoying Gandharva Songs and by the time Brahma asked for the purpose of their visit and got the reply from Raivata that he desired to secure suitable husband to Revati.Under the Earth is Bilwa Swarga of over an equal expanse comprising Seven Lokas called Atala. Vitala. Rourava. Asuras milked Maya or Illusions. and Nagas are all fond of luxurious life with material enjoyments like wine. Rakshasaas milked blood. a King figured out in Puru Vamsha named Vena and his illustrious son Prithu Chakravarti who chased Prithvi in the form of a cow and after controlling her forced her to yield ample milk to various species in the Universe under his Sovereignty in the way desired by them. where retribution of justice is rendered against sins committed by various Beings. A descendant of Swarochisha Manu viz. Chakshusa and the current one is Vaiwasvata. they found themselves strangers as they discovered that a full Yuga lapsed from Treta Yuga to Dwapara Yuga and destiny brought Balarama and Revati together although Revati is older 7 .Vaivaswan gave birth to Vaivaswata Manu. since this Manu performed one Yagna with the desire of begetting a daughter. Diti to Daityas.
Vasishtha discovered that the Prince stole the Yagnya Pashu. kill it and to let a Rishi’s family to eat. Krishna enticed into the cave a Yavana King-an associate of Jarasandha the father-in-law of Kamsa whom Krishna killed-and made him face the tired eyes of Muchukunda and the powerful rays of his vision burnt the Yavana! In Purukutsa’ lineage was a King named Tridhanva whose son Satyavrata as a Prince kidnapped a commoners’s daughter who was about to be married and this created a great social resentment and the King banished the Prince him out of the Kingdom on the advice of Sage Vasishtha the Raja Guru. his wife and children fell on days of misfortune and utter poverty and the Prince as a chandala took care of the Sage’s family. it was his destiny which finally let his son get back life and secure Swarga to himself and his wife. there was another illustrious King called Kuvalaashva whose Kingdom was for long pestered by a powerful Daitya named Dundhu who secured boons of invincibility under water. to steal a Sacrificial Cow. when Maharshi Vishwamitra went away on a long time Tapasya. besides selling off his wife and son. However. It was in Harischandra’s lineage that King Sagara ruled . The King instructed his hundred strong sons to drench out water from the Ocean-banks and pulled out the Daitya. he was born with poison (Sa + Gara) as his step-mother. The Prince adopted the ways of a Chandala and took to excessive drinking and immoral life-style. Vishwamitra on return from his long Tapasya asked Satyavrata for a boon and the latter desired to visit Indra loka but in his mortal body. the King’s war tactics were stated to be unprecedented. By the power of his Tapasya Viswamitra no doubt made the request of Satyavrata possible and sent him upto Swarga – dwara but the gates of Swarga did not open up and as a retaliation the Maharshi created a Trishanka Swarga nearby the original Swarga and fulfilled Vasishtha’s curse to Satyavrata as Trishanka or the latter committed three sins viz. Truthfulness and Sacrifice. He was harassed by Vishwamitra to such an extent on flimsy grounds that he lost his Kingdom and his personal freedom. Mandhata Chakravarti was reputed to have built the ancient Temple of Omkareswara Linga near Ujjain near Narmada River as also discovered Manasa Sarovara on Himalayas and Jambu Dwipa thereunder. killed it and fed the cow’s meat to Vishwamitras’s family to lessen the pangs of their hunger and unsuspectingly the Sage’s wife and children ate the cow meat. killed it and ate the cow meat and even fed it to the Sage’s wife and family. Vasishtha further cursed the Prince for three kinds of serious sins viz steatling a cow. Mandhata. and finally desired Vishwamitra to seek and fulfil an absurd boon of reaching a human body to reach heavens! King Satyavrata’s son was Harischandra who unlike his father was a Symbol of Virtue. to kidnap a bride and adopt a corrupt life. killing it and feeding its meat to a Brahmana family of a Great Sage Vishvamitra.to Balarama by a full yuga! In the Ikshvaku Vamsa. leading to abject poverty and son’s death. As his mother tried to immolate herself. Out of gratitude. Muchukunda was stated to have slept off through Kalpaas in Dwapara Yuga in Yoga Nidra in a mountain cave. tried to poison his mother during the latter’s pregnancy and his father was short lived due to immoral life. who when exposed out of water lost his invincibility and was killed. once he stole away the Sacrificial cow of one Yagna being done by Vasishtha. Sage 8 . Purukutsa and Muchukunda were the other famous sons of in the Vamsha.
Sagara regained his throne after defeating his several enemies like Haihayas. oils etc. the wife with one seed delivered Asamanjas (and his son is Anshuman) and another who desired lot of sons gave several embriyos. the sixty thousand Sagara Putras were despatched and as suddenly it disappeared dug of the sea shores to search for it. one wife opted for a single son and another to have lot of sons. besides teaching him ‘Agneyastra’. Deva Guru suggested that the illegal child must be born in Chandra’s residence 9 . Auoshadhis / herbs and Vegetables and. In the long lineage of Bhagirath in the Surya Vamsha that followed. His mentor Sage Ourvi offered two choices to the King’s two wives: one to secure sixty thousand sons or just one who would be the next King. creepers. Anshuman pleaded mercy to the dead sons of Sagara and the kind Kapila Muni gave the boon of redemption of the dead souls provided the Holy River of Ganges could flow all over the place where the ashes of the dead were purified. It was Bhagiratha that finally succeeded through relentless Tapasya to Bhagavans Ganesha. Such was the most glorious chapter of Surya Vamsha and Ikshvaaku Vamsha which dominated the Global Scene in the History of Mankind through the two significant Satya and Treta Yugas! Chandra and Chandra Vamsha Maharshi Atri performed Tapasya for thousand Divya years and pushed up his virility upward in his body during that long period. On realising this development. but in course of time he changed his attitude from modesty to honesty and acquired arrogance and pride which culminated in committing the worst of sins viz. Thus along the Sacrificial Horse. the Sage taught him Veda Vedangaas and martial arts and made him an expert in warfare. Dasharatha and the Epic Hero Shri Rama who stood tall in the Immortal Ramayana. In the process of digging up. Brahma made Chandra as the Chief of Brahmanas. Sage Kapila was found by the sons in Tapasya underneath the Sea and having suspected him to have robbed the horse. Yavanaas and others. Shakas. Ganga Devi came to be reputed as Bhaagirathi. the Guru’s warnings and Brahma’s admonitions. Vishnu. Tara got pregnant and confessed that the child would be of Chandra’s. Besides. He performed Ashwamedha Yagna to celebrate his victories. the illustrious personalities included Raghu. The Sage offered a fruit with one seed and a pumpkin with 60. Brahma provided a Chariot to that unique illumination which came to materialse as Chandra and he did twenty one ‘Pradakshinas’ from Prithvi to Samudra and in the process his radiance germinated ‘Anna’(food grains). enticing the wife of his own Guru Brihaspati named Devi Tara despite the interventions of Brahmanas and Maharshis. vegetables. Kapila Muni opened up his fiery eyes and all the Sagara Putras were converted as ash! As the misadventure took place.000 seeds. insulted him and man-handled. roots.Ourvi rescued her into his Ashram and after bringing up the child. hence the name of Saagara as dug-up of deep sea by Sagara Putras. various other food and source materials presumably pulses. Anshuman and his son Dilip tried Tapasya but failed. Shiva and Devi Ganga herself. that magnificent deposit got converted into eye drops and spread over all the Ten Directions. Since Bhagirath was wholly instrumental in this most distinguishing act. For long time Chandra continued in a highly virtuous and ideal manner. Aja.
Indra was pleased to have gifted a divine chariot with such powerful horses that Yayati was able to cover the whole world within six days and nights. When in Dwapara Yuga Pandavas were suffering ‘Aranyavasa’ following Yudhishter’s losing fake chess game and one day in the Forest life Draupadi longed for a Saugandhika flower in a pond and asked Bhima to fetch to her. he got tired of her and drank her up. then Nahusha got Shapa Vimochana (Relief from Agastya’s curse). since Indra killed Vritrasura a Brahmana with the help of the backbone of Maharshi Dadhichi converted as Vajraadutha and disappeared as a fugitive in a lotus stem in Manasarovara. Shukracharya the Danava Guru gave his daughter Devayani to Yayati who also married Sharmishtha the daughter of Vrishaparva. Nahusha got a reprieve in the next Yuga when Yudhister would provide relief to the Ajagara’. Nahusha and his wife Viraja gave birth to Yayati among four other brothers. Chandra named the boy as Budha. As Nahusha got his python’s form. Pururava’s another son was Ayu and Ayu’s eldest son was the famed Nahusha. while Sharmishtha had Druhya. Brahma appointed Nahusha as proxy Indra. Nahusha pushed aside a Palki of Maharshis and commanded Agastya Muni to lift the Palki quickly. a Rakshasa. on the ground that though by birth Vritrasura was a Brahmana. Devayani gave birth to Yadu and Turvasu. meaning thereby Quick Quick. he was an unpardonable demon responsible to commit countless killings of thousands of innocent persons. Nahusha gradually became arrogant and egoistic and asked Sachi Devi to serve him as his keep. Sachi Devi wanted to escape Nahusha and on his insistence asked Nahusha to come to her house by his own carrier as Iravata used to go to her by Indra and thus Nahusha also should come to her by his own distinct Carrier. it was at that time the Ajagara coiled Bhima’s body and when Draupadi ran for Bhima’s rescue. On praying the Muni. In fact. Agastya Muni purposively misunderstood Nahusha’s Sarpa Sarpa and converted Nahusha as an Ajagara (python) and dropped and cursed the arrogant Nahusha from Indraloka to the thick forests in Bhuloka. Agastya Muni felt that not only Nahusha blatantly took away his Palki and even had the audacity say Sapa Sarpa to the Muni to reach Sachi Devi’s home. who was an outstanding Scholar of Vedas and Shastras and impressed by his erudition and virtue. who performed ninty nine Aswamedha Yagnas and nearly got the eligibility to Indratva. the Maharshis present begged of Jahnu who agreed to revive her as his daughter and that was why the River was known as Jahnavi.and then only Tara would be allowed into his house without the child. Since Ganga insisted to marry Jahnu. Devi Ganga approached Jahnu with a proposal to wed him and flooded the Yagna Shaala but Jahnu desired to marry Kaveri the daughter of Yavanaashva. Agastya helped Sachi Devi to search for Indra who hid himself in a lotus stem in Manasa Sarovara and brought Indra back to Swarga and sought Brahma’s exoneration of committing Brahmahatya dosha. Anu and Puru. In the lineage of Amaavasu was born Jahnu who performed Sarpa Yagna. 10 . Yayati became the famed Emperor who defeated all the Kings in the World. Yudhistara gave correct replies to the difficult questions asked by the Ajagara. Brahma appointed Budha as a ful-fledged Planet positioned right opposite Chandra and perhaps correctly so! Budha’s son was Pururava who was a highly virtuous King and Apsara Urvashi enticed him and gave birth to Ayu. Amaavasu and six other sons. Nahusha said Sarpa Sarpa.
unfortunately for Agni and Kartaveerya the Ashram of Vasistha Maharshi was burnt off too and the Maharshi gave a curse to Kartaveerya that soon enough there would be an incarnation of Vishnu as Parashurama who would not only kill Kartaveerya but also exterminate the contempory Kshatriya Kings who had become so haughty and cruel towards Rishis. In the lineage of Yadu. He and Devi Ganga gave birth to Deva vrata. Meanwhile.yielded to the Maharshi’s request and he granted the boons to her that her body smell of fish would change to that of a Yojana-wide fragrance. neither his elderson Devavrata nor his progeny should claim rights of Kingship to the 11 . countless other Scriptures and of course the Immotal Epic. It was against this background that Shantanu fell for Satyavati who insisted that in the event of her wedding to the King Shantanu. His valour was such that in an encounter with Ravanasura the Epic Villian of Ramayana. no human being could ever be satisfied with food. Brahmanas and the Subjects in gereral. He proved to be an ideal ruler providing shield and contentment to his citizens that was rare in human history. As a result of this happening. But finally he returned from his travels having found out that the ephemeral joys were endless like the Agni in a homakunda assuming larger proportions as per the ghee served into it. ornaments and women and the more that a human being got lured into the whirlpool of life the worse that he would be dragged into it. Yayati cursed Yadu and the others and accepted Puru’s offer which enabled him to travel around and unravel the earthly pleasures for long. Kartaveerya became too vainglorious and killed Jamadagni Maharshi since he did not give away his kamadhenu. he returned his youth to Puru and left for Vanaprastha / forest life in seek of Paramatma. He was so named since took a unique vow of celibacy and against the institution of marriage to facilitate the wedding of his father’s deep desire to wed Satyavati alias ‘Matsyagandhi’ renamed by Maharshi Parashara as ‘Yojanagandhi’. since he was getting old already. He approached his edest son Yadu who declined the offer and so did all other sons except Puru who readily agreed.Having conquered the Earth. popularly called Bhishma Pitamaha. Indeed the Curse of Vasishtha became a reality and Parashurama had uprooted the Kshatriya Kings in as many as twenty seven battles! In the centuries-long ancestry of Kuru Vamsha. Maha Bharata. he divided the Seven Dwipas into five divisions and distributed among his sons.figure. ther Maharshi took fancy for her while crossing a River as she-a fisherwoman. a Vishnu Swarupa was born to Satyavati and Parashara as the most reputed Maharshi Veda Vyasa who had the singular distinction of scripting Ashtaadasha Maha Puranas. he imprisoned the Asura and Maharshi Pulastya had to request him to be released! But in course of time. he was tempted to get back his youth again. Thus he realised that there could nerver be a better satisfaction than that of a spiritual life. gold. that her virginity would be intact and that she would be the Queen a famous King. As he got a boon that he could regain his youth if any of his sons would agree to exchange their youth against his olde age. Agni Deva approached Kartaveerya to let him satisfy his thirst and gift a huge forest so that he could consume it. By so confessing. King Shantanu bore the brunt of the Kaurava dynasty as its key. there was on offshoot branch of Haihaya Vamsa into which the illustrious Kartaveerarjuna who too became a powerful Chakravarti having secured thousand mighty hands from Indra Deva.
Narada Purana and Bhavishya Purana have mines of Vrata details.Linga Purana and so on. Stutis and phalas in observing the Pujas as illustrated in the ‘Kathas’. and so on. Satyanarayana Vrata. Dharma Samsthaapanaartdhaaya Sambhavaami Yugey Yugey! Common coverages of Puranas Common coverages on most of the Puranas are related to Srishti. So does Matsya Purana which provided an overview of Sixty Four Vratas plus Ananta Triteeya. Vratas are highlighted in almost all the Puranas and great emphasis is laid on the methods of performing the Vratas. treatment of Krishna is strong in some Puranas and is highlighted. Details of Dakshayagna. Shantanu’s son was named Vichitraveerya died an untimely death and as there was a threat of non. Of course. In fact. Narada. Manvantaraas and Vamsas. Bhima from the Amsha of Vayudeva and Arjun from the Amsha of Indra while Kunti bore a child even before her marriage by the Amsha of Surya Deva but out of fear left the child in a floating basket in a water flow which was found by a childless woman called Radha and brought him up thus known as Radheya or Karna since he was born with Karna-kundalas or ear-rings. Bhishma was invited to copulate his cousin’s wives as per the exceptionally approved Niyoga Practice in vogue then. fanned by Dhritarashtra on one side and Shri Krishna siding the virtuous Pandavas on the other. Shiva Chaturdasa and more Vratas in full details. Vamana. both the women planned to depute their maid and normal and virtuous Vidura was born to her in the third attempt). Varaha Purana is yet another Purana specialising in Vratas in respect of each and every Avatara of Vishnu from Matsya to Kalki! 12 . Brahma. Mangala Gauri. Dhritarashtra married Gandhari and gave birth to hundred sons headed by Duryodhana and Pandu’s wife Kunti gave birth to Yudhishtara from the Amsha of Yama Dharma. Varalashshmi Vrata and so on. immolation of Sati Devi and the aftermath as also Shiva Parvati’s wedding preceded by ‘Kamadahana’.birth of Skanda Kumara leading to Tarakasura Vadha by Kumara are repeated often by many Puranas like Shiva Purana. Agni. an inevitable Maha Bharata Battle climaxed and ended with bloodbath of Good and Evil forces with Krishna Bhagavan assumed a historic role. mediation by Sapta Rishis between Himavanta and Shiva. Bhagavata Purana. Vichitraveerya’s widows Ambika and Ambalika begot Dhritarashtra (born blind as Ambika closed her eyes in the union out of fright of Veda Vyas) and Pandu (since Ambalika got pale out of horror at the sight of the Maharshi). Matsya Purana. Saarasvata. emphasis is laid on Dasaavataras in general and focussed attention besides the specialised Avataras say like Matsya. and so on. the details of Mantras. shodashopacharas. exemplifying his assurance of : Paritraanaaya SaadhunaamVinaashaaya Dushkrutaam. Kurma. as a result.and Vaastu Puja are given in great detail in the same Purana. As the Kauravas and Pandavas grew up with mutual ill feelings. say in Bhagavata. Radha saptami. Subsequently. Skanda Shasthi. Ganesha Chaturthi. Padma.Padma Purana. Madhana Dwadashi. Brahma Vaivarta.throne of Kaurava dynasty and thus the fierce vow taken by Satyavrata which got him the renown of Bhishma. Varhaha. Naga Panchami. Bhima Dwadasi. Skanda Purana. Nava Graha Puja.incumbency to the dynasty throne.
Nageswara near Dwaraka (Gujarat). Daanam (Charity) and Ishvara Pranadaanam (total dedication). Mantra and Vedas accompanied by practice and penance. Triambika in Maharashtra. Omkara near Ujjain.Vyakarana Shastra. Visweswara. Padma Purana provides a compendium of endless Tirthas through out the length and breadth of Bharata Varsha. Varnaashrama Dharmas: In Maha Bhagavata. and by virtue of Vidya or knowledge he is called a Vipra. (M. Pitru Tarpana. Jyotisha Shastra / Jataka 13 . and Ghishneswara in Aourangabad (Maharashtra). Rameshwara. BUT. There are also niyamas or optional duties like Bahyantara Suchi. During the day he performs Swadhyaya of Scriptures. and Shudras as Labourers and Artisans. regardless of birth. Kedara in Himalayas. austerity. sacrifice. considerable importance is given to Tirtha Darshanaas. Niruka Varnana. Kashi. Vaishyas with the duties involving Finance. the Regulative Principles do prescribe that the concerned ‘Vidhis’ or definite duties be performed too like refraining from meat (Ahimsa). Badari/ Kedara. Surya Namaskaras. Indeed perfect Brahmins in our contemporary world are becoming very few and far between. hospitality and worship. BUT. renouncing intoxicants (Purity of consciousness). Dwaraka. Kashatriyas to perform Administration and Defence. Yad anyapraapti drusyata tatteniva vinirdisat’’ “(If a person reveals symptoms of being a Brahmana. Venkatachala. in Kasi. Outstanding examples of Puranas devoting prominence to Tirthas are Skanda Purana devoting chapters after chapters covering Arunachala. Surya Namashkara. A Brahmana is one by birth. Somanadha in Sourashtra. Siva Purana highlights Dwadasha Linga Darshana viz. fifty one Shakti Peethas spread over the length and breadth of Bharata. Srishaila in Andhra. Mahakaalka in Ujain. Ayodhya. the division should be made on the basis of aptitude. Tapas. Manasa Tirtha. Vaisya or Shudra even if he / she may be accepted by the symptoms. Rameshwara in Tamilnadu. Such an ideal Brahmana wakes up in the Brahma Muhurta. resorting to illicit relations with women/men (loyalty and faithfulness) and gambling (illegal acquisition). Santosha (contentment).Yoga. A fulfledged Brahmana is Vidya.P). Sahasra naama puja and Madhyahna Sandhya. besides general services. the Veda base was given in Bhagavata allowing persons to accept symptoms of propensity and talent: ‘’Yasya yallakshanam proctum pumso varnaabhivyanjakam. (Shoucham. meditation. Swadhyaya or study. there is a Chapter titled Uddhava Gita. Satsanga. performs Sandhya Vandana. Agnihotra homa. There are innumerable Upalingas mentioned in Koti Rudra Samhita! Similarly. Chaanads Shastra. Kalpa Grandha. Puroshotthama Khsetra. Avanti. Thus the features of a proper Brahmana are Janma (birth). dependability. Vedanga Pathana/ Practice of Siksha / Sangeeta. And so does Varaha Purana ranging from Vishnu Para and Shiva Para Tirthas.etc. Samskara (tradition and training) and Vidya. Prabhasa Khetra. Vaidyanatha at Deogarh (Bihar). Business and farming. Kshatriya. Bhimashankara in Maharashtra. in which Bhagavan Krishna preached to his special devotee named Uddhava that the basic principles of Varnashrama Dharma required a fourfold classification of Brahmanas with the duty of Spiritual and Intellectual pursuits. by virtue of Samskara or training or practice he becomes a Dwija.Similarly. practice of Yoga. Japam. after prayers to Ishta Devatas of Vishnu-Shiva-Shakti and after morning ablutions takes Snaana rendering Purusha Sukta.
Apaana. Yo (who). Krikara. Pingala. the Destroyer of Sorrow. called Akshaya Ganga having some 100. a sound is produced due to the fast movement of Bhumi. and Udaana (the External Energy). Evening Snaana. Vyana. and Shankhini. In sum the meaning states: Oh God. Samaana (the Balancing Energy).TAT SAVITUR VARENYAM ( the Third Face)-BHARGO DEVASYA DHIMAHI (the Fourth Face) –and DHIYO YONAH PRACHODAYAT (the Fifth Face). That Entity (God) who manifested in the Form of Radiance (Sun or Savitur) is worthy of bowing or of reverence. In the human body there are ten important veins which create Prana Vayu viz.Vishnu (the Sustainer) and Maheswara (the Liquidator) with the three Gunas or Attributes are together absorbed in the Prayer to Devi Gayatri. may we receive your Supreme Light to demolish our sins and guide us in our intellect in the right direction)!’ [Scientific explanations were offered by modern Scientists about the Gayatri Mantra. Vyaana or the Central Energy. Apart from Prana Vaayu. Savitur (Bright like Sun). Sandhyavandana and Evening Puja. Udaana. Prachodayaat ( let it be inspired in the right direction). possibly thrice a day. Sushumna. Gandhari. there are nine other forms of breathing viz. Devasya (The Divine Force). Yor are the Creator of Life. Devadutta. The least that one could perform is daily Gayatri Vandana. May he (Yo) guide us in the right Direction (Prachodayaat) our intellect (dhiyo)!] Chanting the Gayatri Mantra by understanding the meaning and purport even a few times a day would demolish sins and the more number of times one recited would secure multiplied fruits. Yasha. and Dhananjaya. 14 . Samaana. Na ( our). Thus Devi Gayatri is stated to possess Five Faces representing Five Portions of the Sacred Gayatri Mantra: OM (the Central Face)BHURBHUVASSASAHAH (the Second Face).000 miles per second produce a Super Sound and Rishis named it as OM. integration of the human body who renders the Mantra and Paramatma takes place instantly via the Three Murtis and the best conduit is the Gayatri Mantra. the Bestower of Happiness and the Creator of the Universe. Alambusha. the Planets (Bhuvaha) and the Galaxy (Swahah) are rotating on their axis at a great velocity as a Unique Sound is made which was a Formless Entity. Ida.. Bhur (the Embodiment of Vital Energy). the Planets and the Galaxy or the Milky Way. Sandhya Vandana-Mantrartha and Scientific Explanation Sandhya Vidhi is explained in various Puranas especially Agni Purana. Bhargo (the Destroyer of Sins).Tat ( that God). It is rather improbable that such ideal Brahmanas are ordinary. Apaana (Internal Energy). Huhu. Dhimahi ( May Receive). Hastijihva. the inner Soul and the Supreme Force. The total Kinetic Energy generated by the movement totalled or balanced the total Energy consumption of Cosmos and this was named as Pranava or the Body Energy (mass of Galaxy multiplied by velocity and further multiplied by two: Mass x Velocity x 2).000 million Stars.Skandha. The sum of Gayatri is as follows: The Earth (Bhur). Dhiyo (Intellect). The Galaxy. Padma Purana. According to Astro Physics and Astronomy. Prutha. Varenyam (The Magnificent). Naga. This seeks to optimise (‘Nyasa’) of the integration of the body. Swaha (the Form of Hapoiness). The literal meaning of the Gayatri is: Om (Hey Paramatma!). The Trimurtis Brahma (the Creator). the Moon and the Earth-all revolving around Suneach moving on their own axis at a mind boggling velocity speed of 20. Bhavishya Purana and Narada Purana. We should meditate (dheemahi) upon the light (bhargo) of that Entity (Devasya) as also perform the chanting of OM. Bhuvaha (the Destroyer of Sufferings). there are Five forms of Life’s breathing process which are of utmost importance: Prana (The Principal Energy). Most importantly. Kurma.
Cash and such other gifts. Tirthas are everywhere like Sarovars of Manasa status.TapasyaDana-Swadha /Shraadha-Swaha / Agnihotra or homa. Sarayu. especially since Arjun made the ‘Panchaapsara Tirthas’ accessible once again. In this context. ‘Dhana Daan’ or the charity of money is more popular than ‘Vastu 15 . Mountains like Meru. Vena was sent on Tirtha Yatras and performed Tapasya and Lord Vishnu appeared and got him back on the moral track to refresh in his memory of the values of what were vehemently opposed by him earlier. once Arjuna visited the Ashram of Sage Narada and secured blessings. Vedika. Pournamis. Somavati Amavasya. Bhumi. all targetted for the success of the desired tasks. there are countless such Tirthas dotting the Punya Bhumi of Bharat in which Snaana and Daana karmas yield excellent results and all such Tirthas are dotted all ove the Punya Bhumi of Bharat in which Snaana and Daana karmas yield excellent results and all such Tirthas are called Vishnu Tirthas. Vastra (Clothes). In fact. Charmanvati. Taamboola. Gold and such other items after worshipping Devas and Pitras. Vaidika Swadhyaaya Mandirs. Kaamya Daanaas are in the context of Vratas. where Veda Shravana is heard. Goshaalas. Samkranti days or when Sun’s directon changes towards Uttarayana. Other types of Danaas of Praya nature are oriented to ‘Mrityu’ and targetted to provide to Peace to departed Souls in ‘Paralokas’. Krishaanga. Deva Pujas. The two ‘hethus’as normally perceived are about the size of the charity-small or big. where Guru lives and each and every Place of Worship! As regards the unique significance of ‘Daan’ (Charity)-its Profile and Fruits. Upanayanas. and these are effective and highly propitiating. Temple Pujas. Again.as also of the quality. Bhimarathi. two ‘Parinaams’ (end results or fruits). Yamuna. and so on. Ghaghra. Saptarshis tried their best to rescue from the evil grip of the misleading belief of ‘Arhan’. Naimitthika. Describing the significance of Tirtha Yatras to King Vena. Bhagavan Siva would be pleased only by the sincerity and pure heart that is attached to the charity rather than any other aspect. where Puranas are recited and heard. Jaata karmas.Bhagavan Vishnu Himself extolled the supremacy of Daan and advised King Vena to perform Daan as the sure destroyer of sins and promoter of fame and happiness. But such ‘hethus’ are not as important as the ‘shraddha’ or dedication and devotion are. its two ‘hethus’ (varieties). Pitru Tithi etc. Ekadashis. In fact. Thus the Rishis and the majority of the wise and God-fearing masses churned the body of Vena and cleansed it as described earlier and installed Pruthu as the King. Vishaala. Tungabhadra.But in course of time. Kaveri. residences of Somayaaji Brahmanas. Sarovars etc. Nithya. Aswin Krishna Trayodasi. Vena. Deva Mandirs. Bhu-sthapana karyas or Earth breaking tasks of housing. besides other Rivers like Sarasvati. where Pita and Mata live. Gold. Kaamya and Praaya. Abhushana (Jewellery). one unclad. Naimitthika daanas are performed on Amavasyas. wells. broad-chested and Kamandal dhari Jain Muni arrived in Vena’s court and brain-washed him in a belief that had no role for Yajan. weddings. Homa Shalas. especially of Tirtha Yatras and charities. Agnihotra Homa Places. three bhedas (classifications) and three ‘Vinas Saadhanas’ (negative results). Bhagavan Vishnu emphasised River Ganga as the most sacred. Yagna Bhumis. Narada described to Arjun about ‘daan’ (charity). clothes. Cows. Ashadha. Godavari. viz. fruits and flowers. Shraddha Bhumis. Bhagavan further described that there were four kinds of Danaas.Yaajan-Vedadhaayan. Narmada. six ‘Adhishtaans’ (Reasons). six ‘Anks’ (Parties).‘Daanas’and ‘Tirtha Yatras’ On becoming a King. Himalayas and Vindhya. Nitya Daana is in the form of Anna (food). Taapi (Tapati). Vena was intially an exemplary King of high virtue. Vaishakha and Kartika months. Kapila. Pournamis of Magha. Vishnu affirmed that He would readily reward whoever gave charity with a clean heart to a well-deserving Brahmana of foodgrains.
Apaatra Daan should be avoided to an undeserving Brahmana who is bereft of ‘Vidya’. ‘Pavitra’ or Symbols of Purity and ‘Anindaneeya’ or the blemishless. earners of rightful way of life or of Satvik Life. gold and ornaments and the best of course is to give away one’s own life itself as ‘Daan’. Kamya Daan is to fulfill one’s own desires like victory. ‘Vahan’ etc. ghee his manliness. say Vidya Daan.Daan given to the Virtuous or Dharmatmas. ‘Paschattaap’ or regret of having given the Daan. The latter ‘Dannas’ or for the use of Ihalok are of four types viz. Kamya and Naimittika. wood. sells his/her conscience if his Bhumi is accepted. Daan at auspicious occasions like weddings. Naimittika Daan is like Samkranti Daan. evil minded. The worst Daan is ‘Paisacha Daan’ or the charity duly given is returned under duress or due to the bad behaviour of the receiver or the donor. Incidentally.. fear or avoidance of risks. a horse that might destroy the receiver’s eyes. construction of Temples. who has ‘Vidya’ or good Education. The second category of receivers of donations is of pleasant visage. ‘Jitendriya’ or of Controlled Emotions and finally of excellent parenthood. Trika. curd. Dhruva is for public use like digging wells. might etc.Trikha is for daily utility like ‘Nithya Daan’. umbrellas. The donors of charity must have the perspective of what kind of material is required or useful to the receiver or otherwise the purpose of charity would be defeated. or Kriyapeksha Daan like Shraadh. Bhumi (farms / fields). deepa or Light. Now. the best types are charity of houses. utensils. til seeds that might harm his children and so on. indolent. Vraths etc. there are three kinds of ‘Daan Naashak’ reasons viz. Ashraddha Daan is Rakshasa Daan and Apaatra Daan is as bad as not giving it away.Daan’ or charity of material. schools etc. Dhruva. persons who swear to support the Evil and persons who are sleepy! Among the Good Receivers of Charity are those of good ‘Kula’ or caste. Dattatreya was a mystic Saint and an Avadhuta (‘Ava’ stands for bad materials and Dhuta stands for ‘washed 16 . the ‘Vyasana rahit’ or devoid of bad habits. Choultries. Vastra to harm his wife. Paschattapaya Daan indicates as to why the Daan is given at all.The two ‘Parinams’or end results/fruits are either gain of ‘Punya’for the ‘Paralok’ or after death or for use in ‘Ihalok’ or the current life to the receiver. Wells. stones etc. The six ‘Anks’ or donor/receiver parties are as follows: The Positive Donors are ‘Daatas’ by nature. gardens. cows. Grahana (Eclipse) Daan. and ‘Bhaya daan’ out of compulsion. if he accepts a cow to kill it or sell it. ‘Vastra Daan’or charity of clothes etc. Then the six ‘Adhishtaans’ or reasons of Daan are: ‘Dharma Daan’ without strings attached ie. cantankerous or mean. ‘Artha Daan’ keeping in view some purpose or utility. The Secondary Variety of charity relates to Anna (Food grains). Vishnu and Maheswara. Vastra (Clothing). honey. temples. Three ‘Bhedas’or types of Daan are classified. Gunapeksha Daan like Vidyabhyas and so on. of kind heart. wealth. ‘Kaama Daan’ like favours for women. representing the three Gunas of Sat-Rajas and Tamas. the ‘Dharmatmas’ or the Virtuous. ‘Harsha Daan’ is made on receiving good news and out of happiness. since charity of money would buy back Vastu or Vastra. of sincerity and thankfulness but not of demanding nature. good ‘Aachaar’ or family bearing / tradition. Some Interesting References and Episodes from Puranas Avadhuta Dattatreya: Known as a Three Headed Avatar of Brahma. ‘Lajja Daan is due to compulsions of Public or Society. Vratas etc. ‘Asan’ or seating. buildings. those desirous of donating willingly and happily. persons of bad habits. ‘Apaatra Daan’ or charity to the wrong and unserved person or ‘Ashraddha Daan’is to a person on account of laziness. The tertiary kind of Daan is to donate footwear.The Negative Donors are ill mannered. if he accepts gold to encash it. wine or such other benefits in view.
The latter appeared and blessed Kunti. Radha a childless wife of a charioteer in the King’s Court adopted the child and since the latter was born with Kundalas on his ears was named as Karna or Radheya. a fish got attracted by a bait. his son Yamadharma. He was a kind of TravellingYogi always on the move. a moth taught him not to rush into flames but to weigh the pros and cons. Asana (Right posture). Tejas / Fire provided cooking simple and healthy food. water taught the need for washing off external and internal cleanliness. the Avadhuta saw a child without any a care and concern and imagined that one should be like him. winds and storms and an instant awareness of the all-pervading. a prostitute got easy money realising too late there were thousands of other ways of living. Pranayama (Control of Life Force). and Samadhi (Alignment of Self with the Supreme). an arrows-man concentrating to hit the target fully unmindful of a King passing by. besides immunity from disease. Once a Yadu King came across Dattatreya and asked him as to how did he learn so much in life and the reply was that he learnt everything from Prakriti (Nature) which bestowed full knowledge and there was no need for ‘Adhyayana’ or formal learning from one Guru but as many as twenty four Gurus viz. a pious Sage awarded a boon to Kunti even when she was a Kanya (Virgin).Prithivi taught patience and service to all. After her wedding with King Pandu the latter was cursed by a mating deer coulpe which were hurt an forest hunt that the moment he tried to meet his wives in bed. and finally realising the example of a wasp which entered a larva’s (insect) hive and as the insect stayed put out of fear finally became the wasp itself thus meditation making a human being converting himself into God!’ (Source: Maha Bhagavata) Why Draupadi was wedded to Pancha Pandavas? Bhu Devi requested Indra to lessen the burden of Evil Forces on Earth. a spider weaving threads from its mouth to catch flies and after the catch. from Sea. saw a girl husking rice at her home and on seeing a stranger removed her bracelets making lot of noise and thus avoided embarrassment. preserving and destroying. an elephant got killed due to reckless competition with another elephant. Sighting a child in a box. Sun and Moon and Nature’s species. the Pancha Bhutas (Five Elements). Dhyana (Meditation). coolness of temper and equanimity. Avadhuta learnt helplessness against fate and the futility of excessive attachment when its female companion was trapped in a net and when tried to save got caught itself. Indra asked Surya. a bee hive taught him not to store too much lest one day the bee hive keeper would take it away by force. She got conceived and had to suffer the situation by keeping the child in a floating box left it on a water body nearby. destroyed the threads reminding the Almighty’s ways of creating. periodicity. eternal and infinite Supreme Power. Niyama (Discipline). Kunti pacified King Pandu that she knew a Mantra by virtue of which she could invoke Devas and that was how Yudhishtar was born of Dharma 17 . and Sky taught immunity from rains. a deer got attracted by music and got caught by a hunter. motivation to worship by homams and burning off the Arishad Vargas. He carried four dogs representing four Vedas. and Vayu Deva to pass on his own virility to Devi Kunti thrice and once to Devi Madri. Vayu taught Yoga by controlling breathing and vital energy and spreading fragrance or Virtue against bad odours of wordly attractions. Pratyahara (withdrawal of senses from worldly desires). From Sun he learnt discipline. a honey bee taught him diligence to collect honey by flying from flower of flower and thus to acquire knowledge. from a python. He was an Avatara mainly to propagate Ashtanga-Yoga comprising Yama (Morality). a hawk got a piece of meat and had momentary pleasure but a bigger hawk snatched away the piece. out of curiosity Kunti desired to test the boon and invoked Surya. Dharana (Concentration). he learnt the profundity and depth. he learnt extreme patience and persistence till the python finally secured its prey.away’). he would die. self-lessness and Spiritualism and Moon taught the inevitability of waxing and waning. From a pigeon. Simultaneously.
asked Narada to get into the water so that Krishna too would do likewise and as Narada had a dip and popped up he forgot who he was. suggested that they might refresh on way to a lake near the Capital of Kannouj. Hence there was no sin involved at all! (Source: Markandeya Purana) Play of Maha Maya-Veda Vyasa and Narada share their experiences: Veda Vyasa narrated his experiences of Maha Maya to Narada. since Kinnaras also had horse-faces. especially his unparalleled knowledge of Sangeeta and his expertise in playing Veena. Parvata did not approve. The King asked his youthful daughter Damayanti to make the necessary arrangements for their pujas. Another instance that Veda Vyasa highlighted was that at his mother’s insistence he had to go to bed with his dead younger brother’s wives to beget two sons Dhritarashtra and Pandu as also a servant woman’s son Vidura. ‘Narada’ re-emerged from the lake as original Narada and the so-called elderly woman took the form of Krishna again! Narada realised that Maha Maya (Krishna) did have the last laugh at Narada’s costly encounter! (Source: Skanda Purana) 18 . In another context. Parvata made a visit to the Narada couple and the former withdrew his curse against Narada. married ‘her’. He obstructed Daksha Prajapati’s sons Haryasvas to enter marital life by advising them to perform Tapasya instead and gave them the Mantra Om Namo Narayanaaya. Vyasa was so passionately fond of his son that the latter when refused to marry was sent to Videha King Janaka of high wisdom and convincing power and prevailed on the son to finally got him married! Narada (‘Nara’ stands for knowledge and ‘da’ means giver) the Loka Sanchari (Universal Traveller) who had a penchant for interference with other’s affairs -albeit for Loka Kalyana. parted his company and even cursed him with a monkey face. In course of time both Narada and Maharshi Parvata fancied to visit Bhuloka and since they had to spend the rainy season agreed during the pilgrimage to accept the hospitality of King Sanjaya. Daksha cursed Narada that the latter would soon be a Grihasta. while Madri the younger wife of Pandu gave birth from Ashwini Kumars-but all the Devas carrying Indra’s own veerya. Draupadi was Indra’s wife Sachi Devi herself as she was born as Yagneshani emerged from Agni and Yana Purusha was Indra who divided his radiance among his own progeny of Karna and Pancha Pandavas.Raja. that she would be the Queen of a great King Shantanu and that she would be a key figure in the furtherance of Kuru Vamsha.Narada too reciprocated her amoral approaches. Narada bragged that he was not a victim of Maha Maya to Krishna who quietly took him by his Garuda vahana for an outing. Damayanti got attracted to Narada for his erudition. Yet another impact of Devi Maya was that he got attracted to Apsara Ghritachi in the form of a parrot (Suka) and spilt out his virya near an Agni Kunda and thus gave birth to Suka Maha Muni an epitome of Brahmacharya and unique knowledge of Vedas and Scriptures. King Sanjaya and his wife sought to hurry up and Damayanti did not mind his monkey face either. an elderly woman (Krishna) escorted ‘Narada’ to another lake near Kannouj meant for bathing women after the obsequies and after the bath. that a Maha Purusha of Narayanaamsha would be born of the union (none else other than himself). After their wedding. begot sons and grandsons. Bhima was born of Vayu. After long lapse of time. he described that his father Maharshi Parasahara was enticed with Devi Satyavati a fisher woman while he was travelling by her boat driven across a River and in a lonely island had his union with her who had the epithet of a Matsyagandhi. He gave her boons that her ‘Kanyatwa’ (virginity) would be intact. Arjun of Indra himself. in fact Narada became a charming woman and Krishna left by Garuda leaving Narada as woman was attracted the King of Kannouj.fell flat against Maha Maya. that her body odour would instantly change as a Yojanagandhi spreading fragrance a yojana all around. Gradually. grandmother Narada was bereaved since her sons died in a war against enemies.
Marichiman. see (Vision). praise / sing / recite. tongue. It is said that close contact of Rudrakshas with body parts like head. the DwiMukhi represents Deva and Devi which has the power of committing two of Maha Patakas. Chaturmukhi represents Brahma terminating the evil of any kind. by taking the shelter of Srinivasa. Goblins and the like. Wearing Eka Mukhi. psychological and spiritual nature. one could imagine the far-reaching impact of the Eight-folded dedication! As fire is capable of pulling down a huge mansion within minutes. viz. A Trayo. neck. love of materialism.) Eight-folded approach to Venkateswara: Sage Suta prescribed an Eight-folded Bhakti route to Lord Venkateswara: 1) To display and ensure Sneha Bhava (feeling of friendship) towards his Bhaktas (devotees). Dasha Mukhi manifesting Janardana controls the negative effects of Planets and destroys the evil effects of Piscachas. Eka Mukhi Rudraksha represents Shiva himself by wearing which a person gets immunity from killing a Brahmana. (Source: Padma Purana. The long chase of the Asura who was fortified with Brahma’s boons tired out Maheswara and this tedious task ended up with profuse tears from his right eye signifying Surya Netra and from the streams thus materialised emerged Rudraksha Trees yielded twenty kinds of yellow seeds. Lord Bhairava is represented in the Nava Mukhi meant for providing contentment and demolition of several sins. Devi Bhagavata. Ravi. and heart always and 8) To surrender and dedicate Him absolutely and seek unreserved refuge from Him. Arka. Pancha Mukhi. Savitr. wearing Ekaadasha Mukhi is as potent as executing Ashwamedha and Vajapeya Yagnas as also charity of several cows. Shanmuki representing Shanmukha washes off even Brahma hatya. 6) To hear ( Shravana). while from his left eye called Soma Netra came sixteen varieties of white coloured beads and from the third eye on the forehead called Agni Netra came black beads. heart / blood related diseases. Bhanu.dasha Mukhi is stated to be normally a rarity which represents Kartikeya and if available could ward of the worst possible sins of patricide and matricide besides bestowing Ashta Siddhis. 7) To keep his ‘namaas’ on his lips. diabetes. approach to life and morality. of physical. A Chaturdasha Muhkhi is stated to be the rarest of the rare as its possession is like carrying Maha Deva Shiva Himself. Hiranyagarbha. vastras and all-round prosperity besides the sin of illicit relationships. describe and cogitate about him. Dwadasha Mukhi is a manifestation of Twelve Adityas (Mitra. Human life which is indeed difficult to secure compared to myriad forms of creations 19 . 2) To perform service to his Bhaktas and satisfy them. Tri Mukhi represents Agni Deva which could ward off the sin of killing a woman. snakes etc. cruel animals and poisonous reptiles. hands. fear or casual occurrence do undergo a definite transformation of outlook. Those who are fortunate to have a glimpse of the fantastic Idol of Srinivasa do experience the awe and lasting memory that leaves behind a familiarity and nearness. touch. To those who think of Srinivasa. cancer. thoughts. If such casual approach has a multiplier effect. Bhaskara) yielding the Punya of performing Gomedha and Ashwamedha Sacrifices and fearlessness from enemies. Pushan. Khaga. 5) To generate Bhakti and Love in the eyes. Saptamukhi stands for Manmadha wearing which removes the sin of stealing gold and other valuables. Ekadasha Mukhi or Chaturdasha Mukhi bestows the best of the best effects. Panchamukhi is like Rudra demolishing the sins of consuming all kinds of material including poison. 4) To direct all actions to him by the self. Skanda Purana etc. 3) To perform puja to him with sincerity. ears. Aditya. legs and mind towards him. the Ashta Mukhi stands for Ganesha bestowing plenty of food grains. the stockpile of sins gets ablaze into ash as fast. finally pulled out his ‘Ajagava’ dhanush and despatched the unique Vikaaraal arrow and killed him. Surya. mental. Siva Purana. stress.Significance of Rudrakshas: Maha Deva was tired in tracking the tricky and invincible Demon Tripurasura. either out of curiosity or greediness. heart and hands protect the wearers with medical values against depression.
Anuswaraas. is stated to be well spent and appropriately lived through. Buddhi (Thought). The second question was about the twenty five materials for domestic / personal utility and the reply was Pancha bhutas of Prithvi. Bhima. and Purusha (Almighty). Tejas. Pratyasha and Prabhasa.Dhruva. Raivat. Eyes. Tamas. Radiance. Virupaksha. Rudra Savarni. reactions and impulses. Suthanu read out his ‘pravara’ or introduction about his Vamsha and himself : Chatussagara Paryantam Gobrahmanebhyassubham bhavatu-his Rishis of three generations. Shambhu. Ajaka. Shabda (Sound).Nala. Vyamoha (enticement) and Lobha is despite the awareness that death is 20 . and Akash (Earth. Kapila. But the Sage was disappointed at the innumerable replies received. letters Sa and ha represent to Ashwini Kumars. Antaraatma (Consciousness). they looked amused and said that the answers were so ridiculously simple that an elementary school boy would be adequate to reply. Narada visited the village and met the elders there who were great experts in Vedas and Shastras. Roucha and Bhoutya.Finally he was advised that there was a Village called Kalaap where a small Brahmana Community lived. Swedaja (born of sweat) and Udbhuja (born from Earth). Narada’s questionnaire to deserve Brahma’s charity of Maha Tirtha Land: Sage Narada framed a questionnaire and circulated all over Bharata Desha to elicit best replies so that Brahma would allot a large Maha Tirtha Land in charity. Varuna. Brahma Savarni. Anus and . from letters Bha to Sha are eight Vasus viz. Amshu. Having said this. Twashta. they selected a boy named Suthanu who was considered to be rather dull. Shasana. Jihva muleeya or to tongue ended voice. Genital). Hands. Wind and Sky respectively. Dhata. Ghora. The fourth question related to a person who knows the scripting of sentences connected to strange fiction and that is what a ‘Sansara Bandhan’ or the lure of life all about! The fifth query was about a learned Brahmana living in an ocean with the full awareness that a ferocious crocodile is around always. Vilohita. In his preface before giving the replies to the questionnaire. and said ‘ Ahambho abhivaadaey. Daksha Savarni. Sowmya.ranging from animals to insects or even as inanimate species. Visargas. and Vishnu. Five Jnanendriyas (Ears. from Ka to tha are Twelve Adityas viz. Vishnum (All-pervading). Rasa (Taste). Shasta. Ajam (Unborn) and Avyayam (Indestructible) called Venkateswara! (Source: Skanda Purana). Prakriti (Nature / Maya). Nose and Skin) and the corresponding reactions viz. Chanda. Anantam (Endless). Rig-Yajur or Saama-his name etc. it is Buddhi that assumes myriad kinds of feelings. Saashvatam (Everlasting). Vaiwasvan. Pusha. from da to ba are Eleven Rudras viz. if one takes asylum of the Supreme Power which is Avyaktam (Unknown). Veda Sakha ie. the boy said that some times Brahmanaas recite Mantras without knowing the meaning and such Brahmanas were like two legged animals. Mitra. Aryama. Vayu. Andaja (born of egg). Savarni. Shakra. The Swaras from ‘A kar’ to ‘Auom Kar’ represent Manu Swarupas viz. thirty three ‘Vyanjanaas’. and Bhava. Rupa (Vision). Tongue. Pingala. Vaivasvata (the present Manu). Savita. Water. Auttam. Chakshu. Jihva Muliya and Upadhaneeyas stand for Jarayuja (born by Yoni). Vedaangas and Puranas. Swayambhu. and Sparsha (Touch) and Pancha Vishayas are Manas (Mind). Visarga. Dharma Savarni. The third question related to the art of converting several women as one entity and the reply is Buddhi or mental condition which is comparable to the capricious womanhood. Sutanu composed himself before giving his replies: The first question was about ‘Matrikas’and ‘Aksharas’. the reply was there were twenty Matrikas each constituting twenty letters in a Matrika. Five Karmendriyas (Mouth. Apa. Bhaga. Vamsha. The reply is that the joy of living by way of Moha (obsession). Ghraana ( Smell). besides which there are fourteen Swaras. Apas. Feet. As the questionnaire was provided to them. Ahamkara (Ego). and prostrated before Narada. and the Anuswara. Swarochish.
a peacock. Brahmana. As a result. especially when old age sets in and the long journey is awaited. the two anecdotes about Kartikeya and Ganesha. He is qualified as a Srotriya. The reply is that a human being who has to crave for daily food has a similar doubt that a serpent has for daily death. the question arose as to who should be married first and the parents decided that whosoever could circumambulate the entire Universe first would get the choice. Kartikeya flew off by His carrier. while those of Manvantaras aforementioned (vide Question one above) are Ashviyuja Shukla Navami. Rishi Kalpa. Ashadha Dasami. indeed are there any other routes open to human beings. Charities and penances. All these days are worthy of Homas. Kartika Purnima. If he follows Vedic Achara like practising truthfulness and Piety then becomes a Brahmana. Dwapara and Kalki Yugas respectively. Sage Narada was thrilled and recommended the Kalaapa village to receive the Daana of Mahi Sagara Sanganma Maha Tirtha. a Rishi Kalpa is an Ashrama dweller.the Illustrious Sons of Siva and Parvati. A higher class of Brahmana is an Anuchaana who could practise.’ The seventh and eighth queries were about the first days of each Yuga and Manvantaras and these are Kartika Shukla Navami. The tenth question was about the tremendous anxiety and stress that human beings always have like a black serpent experiences. some thirty thousand Brahmanas of immense quality who were versatile in ‘Vedaadhyaana’ and Anushthaana (Ritualistic Meditation) were transferred to Mahasagara by the grace of Kartikeya. As both the Brothers came of marriageable age. Having received the replies to the questions. situated from Klaapa Village some hundred yojanas by Akasha Marga away from the Kedara Mountains.were narrated by Lord Brahma to His Son Devarshi Narada. The final question sought a suitable reply: what are the two most significant means of Salvation? The boy Sutanu replied promptly: One is the Karmic and Dharmik way and another is the Vihanga Marg or the Sky Route involving Nishkarma and Jnaana Marg. Marga Krishna Amavasya and Bhadra Krishna Trayodasi are in respect of Satya. if he performs rituals and is proficient in atleast one Veda Sakha. Bhruna. Magha Saptami. besides six Vedangas. Ashadha Purnima. Rishis are meditation centric and Munis possess Yogic powers.without even waiting for a minute. Shrotriya. both the species suffer from the daily uncertainty of food and death. The ninth query was about the first ever ride by Surya Deva had on his chariot and the reply is that it was on Ratha Saptami day on Magha Sukla Panchami when austerities and charities must be observed to secure Surya Deva’s blessings of long life of wealth and excellent health. (Source: Kartikeya Purana) Anecdotes of Kartikeya and Ganesha: There were different ‘Avatars’ (incarnations) of Kartikeya and Ganesha in various Kalpas. The sixth query was about the eight-fold Brahmanatwa and the reply is that the latter is classified as Matra. Rishi and Muni. Ganesha who applied His mind and recalled what Vedas stated that a single ‘Pradakshina’of one’s parents would yield the 21 . Phalguna Amavasya. Puasha Ekadasi. Chaitra and Bhadra Tritiyas. teach / preach and a Bhruna has Tatwa Gyan. The eleventh qurery was about the most intelligent person in life and the reply was that the most practical person would be a person who prepares dfaily updates of the balance sheet of Papa-Punya. Anuchan. and Phalguna/Chaitra/ Jeyshtha Purnimas respectively.round the corner. Kartika Dwadasi. In ‘Sveta Varaha Kalpa’. Vaishakha Sukla Triteeya. Shravana Krishna Ashtami. A normal Brahmana by birth has the advantage of Upanayana and Gayatri Upadesha without Vedic Karmas and is only a Matra type. Treta.
Nandi no doubt prevented but Bhagavan still entered and She was not amused. When Nandi was asked to bar entry into the Interior Place of Parvati as She was taking bath. persons suffering from diseases or with disturbed minds. Maharshi made a trip to Yamaloka and enquired of Dharmaraja as to why the hells which were always busy. The severed head of the boy was fixed with that of the elephant and He was revived. Gaya.Then both Dharma Raja and Chitragupta approached 22 . The Pramadha ganas were asked to teach a lesson to the boy by Siva but they were defeated in no time. She decided to create an idol of a boy which was infused with life and empowered Him to challenge anybody with the necessary powers. Sage Narada intercepted Kartikeya and conveyed that Ganesha’s wedding with Siddhi and Riddhi was in progress already (they were blessed with two sons Kshema and Labha eventually). As the law was enforced with strictness. Kartikeya felt cheated by the parents and retired at Krouncha Mountain and the parents brought Him back by cajoling the dear son who felt hurt! It is on this day of Kartika Pournami. To signify the import of the Vrata. as the paths leading to Yama loka which were normally over crowded had very few sinners in thin streams. Siva suggested locating anybody sleeping in the northern direction and the Sivaganas were able to trace only an elephant.fruit of ‘Bhu pradakshina’. Even half way through the full circle of the World. Yamuna and Chandrabhaga that are of importance but performing the Vrata. an irritated Bhagavan snapped the boy’s head and Parvati became furious and Her angry manifestations surprised Siva Himself. besides avoiding Yama Darshana. Pushkar. The assembly of Deities who first fought with the boy and witnessed the entire scene earlier decided that any function in the World ought to be commenced with worship of Ganesha foremost as He is the Lord of preventing impediments and of providing success. Siva Himself decided to force His entry but to no avail. Narmada. Kashi. Ganesha’s worship on Bhadrapada Sukla Chathurdhi is a must all over Bharatadesa as one is dreaded of becoming a victim of undeserving blames since Moon God received a curse from Ganesha that whoever saw the Moon on the particular Chaturdhi night without worshipping Him would become a sure target! Special implication of Ekadashi Vrata-the legend of King Rukmanga: As Ekadashi Vrata is stated to be the special day of Vishnu. The boy followed the instruction and did not allow entry even to Siva.In fact. The Story of Ganesha’s birth is indeed popular. It is not the bathings in Sacred Ganga. Kartikeya’s ‘darshan’ is considered as most auspicious. Kurukshetra. Devika. observance of Upavasa (fasting). She insisted that the boy be brought to life forth with. there were bee-lines by the citizens to Vishnu dhaams and Lord Yama Dharma was had free time and Chitragupta was jobless. Finally. King Rukmanga of Surya Vamsha was in the regular habit of publicising the Vrata by announcements on elephant tops to alert all the citizens that one and all in the age groups of eight to eighty five years must observe fasting. Puja and Vrata on this day is stated to be one of the pre-requisites to qualify the abolition os sins and attainment of Vaikuntha. the advantage of performing the Vrata in full faith and devotion as prescribed would ensure the fruits of executing several Assvmedha and Rajasuya Yagnas. Kumari Kanyas. Puja and penances on Ekadashi with exceptions of expectant mothers. Dharmaraja took Narada ton Chitragupta to see the accounts of arrivals which revelaled telling figures as per the Records. noisy and bristling with tremendous activity became suddenly quiet and motionless! Dharma raja informed Narada that King Rukmang enforced Upavasa and Puja compulsory on Ekadashas extended to Dwadashis too.
41) Ganesha made a Siva Linga made of Wheat Flour worships it by the name of Kapardi 42) Mangala 23 . 37) Sivaganas made a Linga of Bhagavan Siva and provided penance to Rudra. That was how Brahma averted the crisis as Mohini demanded the annulment of the Ekasha Vrata Rule! Shata Rudreeyam:1) Brahma dedicated a golden Linga to Bhagavan Siva named Jagat Pradhana and prays it at His feet 2) Sri Krishna set up a black coloured Linga called Urjit and prays to Siva’s head 3) Sanaka and other Manasa Putras of Lord Brahma pray to Siva Hridaya (Heart) Linga as Jagadrati 4) Sapta Rishis pray to ‘Dharbhaankura maya’ (Dharbha made) Linga called Viswa Yoni 5) Devarshi Narada conceived Siva Linga as an all pervasive ‘Aakash’ (Sky) and prayed to Jagatvija 6) Devaraj Indra prays to a Diamond Linga called Vishvatma 7) Surya Deva prays to a copper Linga called Vishwasruga 8) Chandra performs Puja to a Pearl Linga known as Jagatpathi 9) Agni Deva prays to an Indra Nila Mani Linga named Viswesvara10) Brihaspathi prays to a Pushparajamani with the name Visva Yoni 11) Sukracharya pays penance to a Padmaragamani Linga called Viswakarma 12) A golden Linga is worshipped by Kubera called Iswara 13) Viswa Deva Ganas perform puja to a Silver Linga called Jagatgati 14) Yama Dharma raja pays his obeisance to a peethal (brass) Linga named Shambhu15) ‘Ashtavasus’ execute ‘Aradhana’ to a Glass made Linga called Shambhu 16) Maruganas performed regular puja to a Triloha Linga (three kinds of metals) called Umesh / Bhupesh 17) Raakshasas pay penance to an iron Linga and named Siva as Bhuta Bhavya Bhavodbhava 18) Guhyaka Ganas perform puja to a mirror-made Siva Linga named Yoga 19) Muni Jaigeeshva does Upasana to Brahmarandhramaya Linga named Jaigeeswara Yogeeswar 20) The famed King Nimi considers the Ugal Netra or the Two Eyes as Parameswara Linga called Sharva 21) Dhanvanthari worships Gomaya Linga (cow dung) in the name of Sarva Lokewswareswara 22) Gandharvas perform Puja to wood based Siva Linga named Sarva Sreshtha 23) Lord Rama did intense ‘Japa’ to ‘Vidyunmani’ Linga in the name of Jyeshtha 24) Banasura paid homage to Marakathamani Linga named Varishtha 25) Varuna Deva offers reverence to a Sphatikamani Linga named Parameswara 26) Lokatrayankara is the name given to a Linga made of Munga (Black Pearl) by Nagagana 27) Devi Saraswathi pays reverence to Suddha mukta maya Linga named Lokatrayashrita 28) Sani Deva performs ‘Japa’ on Saturday Amavasya midnight at Maha Sagara Sangama the Bhavari ( Honey Bee) Swarupa Linga named Jagannadha 29) Ravana implored to a Linga made of Chameli flower and named it Sudurjaya 30) Siddhaganas paid respects to Manasa Linga called Kama Mrityu Jaraatiga 31) Raja Bali worshipped Yashamaya (Famed) Linga named Jnanatma 32) Marichi and other Maharshis pray to Pushpamaya (flowerful) Linga with the name Jnana gamya 33) Devathas who performed noble deeds made approbation to Shubhamaya Linga (Propitiousness) named Jnaanajneya 34) Maharshi Phenaj (foam) who drank Phena did Upasana to Phena Linga called Sarvavid 35) Sage Kapila performed Japa to Balukamaya Ling named Varada. 36) Saarasvat.Lord Brahma to sensitise him of the developments as the Order Books were getting thinner by the day. 40) The Two Ashvini Kumars pray to Muktikmaya Parthiva Linga named Suvedha. On the arrival of Mohini on the scene Brahma Maya overcame the King Rukmanga and decided to marry her any cost. 39) Budha prays to Shankhamaya (conchshell) Linga by the name of Kanishtha. the son of Devi Sarasvathi did Upasana to Vanimaya Linga named Vaageeswara.Lord Brahma then created a highly charming woman named Mohini and fully briefed her about the purpose of her creation. 38) Devathas made a Jambu River golden Linga to pray to Sitikantha. She agreed but said although she might not ask for any thing including his entire Kingdom but whatever was desired by her should be agreed by him without objection. Brahma having examined the accounts and the Reports and decided some instant action since the subordinate officials were helpless and were having to face action as per the Rule Book.
55) Brahma Raakshasa Ganas pray to Asthimaya (Bones) Linga named Deva Deva. 61) Guru Deva performs puja to Brahmachari Linga named Ushnivi.45) Sachi Devi. 90) The entire Animal Kingdom prays to Bhasmamaya Linga known by the name of Maheswara. 84) The clan of Cows utilises a Dugdhamaya Linga (full of Milk) for paying their respects and sincere devotion to Nethra sahasrak. 64) Dakinis perform puja to Lingas made of Mamsa or Meat and call Siva by the name of Sumidhsha. 88) Birds pay their homage to Vyoma Linga in the name of Sarvatmaka. 85) Pathivrata Sthrees (Women devoted to their husbands) worship to Bhatrumaya Linga called Viswapati. 80) Yama worships ‘Kalaaya samaya’ Linga called Dhanvi. 74) Pitruganas made Tilamaya (Sesame seeds) Linga and worshipped Siva as Vrishapathi. 81) Parasurama prays to Yavaankura Linga named Bhargava. the Consort of King Indra paid reverence to a Salt-made Linga Buddhakesha. 44) Kamadeva Manmadha prays to a jaggery made Linga called Rathida . 46) Visvakarma prayed to a Prasaadamaya (or of the shape of a Mahal / Building) Linga called Yamya. 89) Prithivi prays to Gandhamaya Linga named as Dvithanu. 73) Yaksharaj made Maashamaya Linga and performed puja to Bhutapathi. 83) Mandhata paid admiration to a Sugary Linga by name Bahuyug. 92) Brahmanas do penance to Brahma Linga in the name of Siva as Jyeshtha. 86) Nara and Narayana worship Siva in the form of Mounji Linga named Sahasra Sirsha. 49) Rahu made a Hing (asafoetida) made Linga named Gamya to worship. 99) Siva Devi worships Parama 24 . 94) Vasuki Nag prays to Visha (poison) Linga with the name of Shankara. 75) Gouthama Muni worships Godhulimaya Linga named Gopathi. 43) Garuda prays to an Odanamaya Linga named Haryaksha. 56) Charanas worship dantamaya (full of Teeth) Linga called Ramhas. 69) Pratardan prays to Baana Linga named Hiranyabhuj. 91) Rishiganas perform Upasana to Jnanamaya Linga called Chirasthan. 60) Apsaras perform Archana to Kumkuma Linga called Abhushana. 87) Pruthu worships Thaaksharya Linga known as Sahasra Charan. 97) Shringi prays to Vishamaya Linga by the name of Dhurjati. 53) Nakshatras (Stars) pray to Tejomaya (full of Radiance) Linga called Bhaga / Bhaskara. 76) Vanaprastha ganas display veneration to a phalamaya (full of fruits) Linga named Vrikshavrita 77) Karthikeya is highly devoted to Siva in the form of a stone Linga called Senanya 78) Ashtavatar Nag worshipped Dhanya linga called Madhyama. 59) Celestial Damsel Urvasi prays to Sindhura Linga named Priya Vasan. 50) Devi Lakshmi made a Lehya Linga named Harinetra and worshipped it. 98) Puthras (Sons) perform in the name of Pitrumaya Linga (Fathers) called Vishwarupa. 62) Yoginis offer their obsequiousness to Alakthak Linga by name Suvabhruk. 54) Kinnaras make a Dhaatumaya Linga by the name of Sudeepth for Japas. 63) Siddha Yoginis worship Srikhanda Linga named Sahasraaksha. 57) Sadhya ganas pray to Saptaloka maya Linga titled Bahurupa. 65) Manna Ganaas worship Annamaya Linga called Girisha. 47) Vibhishana made a dustfulof Linga called Suhrutam to pray. 70) Daityagana made Rayi made Siva Linga and prayed to Ugra. 58) Ritus worship Doorvaankura maya Linga named Sarva. 95) Takshaka Nag prays to Kaalakutamaya Linga called Bahurup. 68) Valmiki Muni made a Linga of Valmikas and prayed to Chira Vasa. 96) Karkotaka Nag pays esteem to Halahalamaya Linga named Pingaksha. 48) Raja Sagar who brought Ganga from Siva’s Head made a ‘Vamsamkura’ Linga called Sangat. 79) Yagna Kartha prayed to Purusha Linga named Sthruva hasta. 66) Agasthya Muni worships Vreehimaya Linga to Siva named Sushanth. 82) Pururava prays to Ghritamaya (Gheeful) Linga by name Bahurupa. 51) Yogi Purush prays to Sarvabhuthatha Linga called Sthaanu. 52) Human beings prepare a wide variety of Lingas and worship them by the name of Purusha. 67) Muni Devala made Yavamaya Linga and called Siva with the name of Pathi. 71) Daanavas worship a Nishpaavaj Linga known as Dikpathi. 72) Baadal (Clouds) pray to Neeramaya (waterful) Lingas called Parjanya.Graha ( The Planet of Mars) made a Buttermade Linga called Karaala to pray. 93) Sesha Nag worships to ‘Gorochanamaya’ Linga named Pashupathi.
the sister deer made a similar request and the hunter let the animal leave as he did to the earlier one. Abhisheka. He entered a forest on the eve of Sivarathri and waited for any animal to kill and satisfy the hunger. Happiness in the current phase of Life and Attainment of Salvation threafter! In the early morning of Sivarathi day. Brahmanas who should also be satisfied with ‘Dakshinas’.The deer which was very sensitive even to small sounds of leaves and water falling from the tree noticed that the hunter was ready to kill it. After observing ‘Sivarathris’ for fourteen consecutive years. the husband of the original deer came in search of the female deer and the kids and the earlier happenings repeated once again and the earlier Prahara puja too was executed successfully. thus accomplishing the worship of the third Prahara. this was illustrated by an incident said Sutha Muni at the congregation of Sages at Naimisaranya: There was a poor hunter named Gurudruha who became extremly hungry along with his family members on a whole day and that night happened to be a Sivarathri. Arti etc. Phalasruti : Whoever recites Siva Shata Rudreeyam in the morning. let alone proper and systematic worship. Those who utter the hundred names of Parama Siva and make Salutations to Him as many times would instantly secure mental peace and contentment. In the night or Sivarathri. As the third Prahara was closing.100) Matsya and such other Jeevas pray to Shastramaya Linga named Vrishakapi. some bel leaves fell on the Siva Linga and some water in a vessel carried by the hunter got spilt down on the Linga.(Source : Skanda Purana) Observance of Maha Shiva Ratri and its Significance: Austerities by way of day/night fasts and dedicated devotion on Maha Sivaratri falling on Krishna Paksha or dark fortnight of Phalguna month every year are considered as the sure steps to ‘Iham and Param’ viz. But the sister of the earlier deer approached the pond along her kids and the happenings of the earlier Prahara repeated viz. diseases and fatigue get dissolved. he waited near a waterbody over a bel tree nearby under which there was a Siva Linga as a coincidence. He pulled out his bow and an arrow ready to aim at the mother deer and by a twist of fate the branch of the bel tree on which he sat moved. thus performing the first Phahara puja. the hunter agreed and let the animals leave. a devotee should take a vow to observe day/night austerities. Very reluctantly. Japa and full fledged worship either at a Temple or at home depending on convenience. The animal made a sincere and convincing request to the hunter that if allowed it desired to leave the deer kids to their father and definitely return bach to be killed by him. he was lucky to have sighted a female deer along its kids approaching the water body to quench its thirst. the Puja may be repeated every three hours during the night along with Laghu Nyasa Abhisheka. tongue and action get vanished. Having waited for the first ‘Prahara’ (three hours) of the night. The night long austerity must be followed by ‘Punah Puja’ on the following morning and Bhojan (meals) along Brahmanas. It was a great sight of all the deers of both the families approached during the final Prahara and the hunter was delighted that he could have a feast any time but the earlier happenings repeated and the fourth Prahara worship 25 . the sins committed by the mind.maya Linga named Vyambak. Archana. actually the worship by way of continuous ‘Maha Nyasayutha Abhisheka’with Archana along with ‘Shodasopacharas’ or the sixteen types of Services and Arti.the hunter pulled out his bow and arrow. The second Prahara was closing but there was no trace of the mother deer. but for the sake of convenience. one could perform ‘Udyapan’ or successful completion of the Sivarathri Vratha.Observance of Maha Sivarathri even by mistake could yield fruits. there must be Archana. the bel tree leaves as also the water drops from the hunter’s vessel fell on the Siva Linga. and worries and anxiety disappear. fear and apprehension evaporate.
Daksha Yagna and Parvati’s wedding with Maha Deva. Vayu Purana. Sapta Rishis and Pitras and so on besides of Pushkara and other Tirthas. Artha. the interesting examples of Nahuha. Garuda Purana and Brahmaanda Purana. Brahma Yagna. it is stated that the Single Mother Purana continues to be in position in the Deva Lokas. about the activities in ‘Narakas’. after the fourth worship. ‘Swarga Khanda’. Shri Krishna. Padma Purana has five ‘khandas’ symbolising ‘Panchendriyas’wherein Maharshi Pulastya delineated to Bhishma the details in ‘Srishti Khanda’of Creation of Brahma as well as by Brahma of Eight Vasus. 26 . The Purana’s ‘Vakta’ was Suta Maha Muni and the ‘Shrota’was Shaunaka Muni. the higher lokas and of the Lower Lokas of ‘Pataala’. But. Narada Purana. ‘pramaana’ (means of knowledge / contents). Vamana Purana. there actually was stated to be one Single Purana comprising one hundred crore ‘Shlokas’ (stanzas) with the ‘Four Purusharthas’ of Dharma. The four-lakh shlokas are sub-divided among the Eighteen Puranas viz. Bhagavan Siva revealed Himself before Gurudruha as a transformed person and blessed him that in his next birth. Linga Purana. Kama and Mokshas as the ‘bijas’. Varaaha Purana. ‘lakshana’ (characteristic). Shri Rama and of the Epic of Ramayana. Matsya Purana. This Purana described about the creation of Devatas. and charities especiallyof a cow and gold ornament would assure attainment of Brahma loka. Forty Nine Maruganas. Pitru Bhakti and the illustration of Shiva Sharma were cited. ‘vakta’ (Acharya) and ‘shrota’ ( the Listener) of the main line Puranas which provide the knowledge of the ‘Charaachara Jagat’ or the moveable and immoveable Universe. description of ‘Sapta Dwipas’ as also of ‘Bhugola’. was about Tirtha Yatras especially to the neighbouring places of Narmada. Kurma Purana. Significancre of Tirthas etc. Vritrraasura vadha. Pitraas and Shraaddha Vidhana. Bhavishya Purana. Gurudruha’s psychology was transformed. (Source: Shiva Purana) Over-View of ‘Astaadasha Puranas Brahma ‘Maanasa Putra’ Maharshi Marichi approached Lord Brahma to describe the ‘beeja’ (seed). Vishnu Purana. Even reading or listening to the ‘Anukramanika’or the Contents of the Purana would result in the control of ‘Indriyas’or physical and internal organs. Mahatma Vyas first produced Brahma Purana with the underlying message of Dharma. Skanda Purana. Its ‘pramana’ and ‘lakshanas’are of ‘Bhoga’ (Worldly Pulls and Pressures) while the principal objective is ‘Moksha’. ‘Tirtha Yatras’ were detailed with special reference to Purushotthama Kshetra. about Chandra Vamsa and of another incarnation of Vishnu viz. Among all the ‘Kalpas’. Twelve Adityas. Fourteen Manus. Kama and Moksha and ten thousand ‘Shlokas’. too were covered. Chyavana Muni and Parrot Kunjal. while its reading or hearing of it on a Vaishakha Purnima by honouring a Brahmana with Bhojan. Eleven Rudras. Prudhu / Vena and Sunita’s tales.too was implemented. Brahma Vaivartha Purana. Brahma Purana. Agni Purana. In fact. Yayati. Markandya Purana. Veda paath lakshanas. and ‘Brahmavaada Digdarshana’ were explained. ‘Ashrama Dharmas’ were highlighted and Principles of ‘Vaishnava Dharma’. but Bhagavan Vishnu created Vyasa Muni in each Yugas and the latter in turn condensed the Single Purana with only four lakh Shlokas and distributed it among Eighteen Puranas with varied number of Shlokas among these. Yoga / Shankhya Siddhanta. In ‘Bhumi Khanda’. Artha. Asuras and Prajapatis like Daksha. about the ‘Vamsa’ (clan) of Bhagavan Surya. In the ‘Uttara Bhaaga’ of the Purana. he would be Nishad during Rama’s incarnation and the latter would give him the boon of attaining Vaikuntha. Bhagavat Purana. he repented for his evil thoughts and took a vow to eschew his erstwhile acts of violence. Padma Purana. the incarnation of Lord Vishnu viz.
If a devotee would write down or get it transcribed by others and donate a cow to a Vishnu Bhakta Brahmana on a Purnima of Ashadha Month would be readily qualified for Vishnu Loka after the end of his/her life!Even a mere perusal of the Contents of Vishnu Purana would help with encouraging results. the Vayu Purana yields the fruits of propitiousness by its reading. besides the descriptions of the different ‘Manvantaras’ and Kingships especially of Gayasura and of his extermination. The third Amsha referred to Manvantyaras. the Purana gives an effective delineation of the means of obtaining Salvation. narrations about Prithvi. Pataal.Kurukshetra. ‘Devotpatthi’. In the Poorva Bhagaa. Vishnu Purana comprising twenty three thousand ‘Shlokas’ is considered as a demolisher of past and present sins. Mantras and all other ‘Sadhanas’(means). hearing and meditating of Padma Purana. and Kashi. With twenty four thousand Shlokas scripted into it by Vayu Deva himself. declaring that the month of ‘Maagha’ as the best. the thirtyfifth sangam is said to be at the Maha Sangam of Narmada and the Sea. narratives of Dhruva. Vedanta. Pruthu. Shraddhas etc. From the famed Omkareshwara Kshetra towards the west leading to the Sea. In fact. and Prahlada. The Second ‘Amsha’ described the account of Priyavrata who demarcated the Earth into Sapta Dwipas. four kinds of Pralayas and Gyanopadesha of Brahma Tatwa were the underscores of the Sixth Amsha. Dishas and Aakaash have been made in some detail in the Poorva Bhaaga. Dharma Shastra. In the ‘Uttara Bhaga’ of Vishnu Purana. Praachatesa. Portrayal of Surya vamsha and Chandra Vamsha Kings was attempted in the fourth Amsha. ‘Daana Dharmas’ and ‘Raja Dharmas’ have been dilated at length. Veneration of a Brahmana on a Jyeshtha Purnima with Bhojan and daanaas bestows the fruits of reading. the movements of ‘Grahas’Planets). It is further stated that the northern bank of Narmada comprised the devotees of Rudra and the southern bank of the River by Vishnu Bhakas. ‘Bharata charitra’. In the ‘Poorva Bhaaga’. youthful acts of ‘Dushta Sikshana’ and ‘Sishta Rakshana’. Kalindi. Yama-Niyamas. In ‘Patalala Khand’. overnight transfer of the residents of Mathura to Dwarakaa etc. importance of Karma kanda. vivid accounts were given on Shri Krishna’s childhood ‘leelaas’. as also of Seven Swargas. six major ‘Amshas’ or aspects were covered of which the First Amsha concerned with ‘Adi karana Sarga (Primary Creation). there are as many as four hundred Tirthas on either side of the banks including those at the Sangamas. Stotras. Also. A picture of Kali Yuga. his weddings. the highlights were of Ramayana and Krishaayana. It is stated that this River was materialised from Bhagavan Shiva’s Body and was the confluence of Brahma and Vishnu too.The Uttara Bhaaga of the Vayu Purana contains ‘Shiva Samhita’ and is fully depictive of the Sacred River of Narmada and surroundings. Artha Shastra. while Bhagavad Gita Mahatmya and of the rest of Avataaraas of Vishnu were vividly depicted in ‘Uttara Khanda’. ‘Mukti Marga Nidarshana’ etc. the features of Sarga (Creation) are vividly expressed. This Vishnu Purana tries to cover all significant ‘Siddhantas’ of Shastras which Veda Vyasa considered fit for attaining Moksha. Vamsha Varna Prakarana. although there really were stated 27 . In the Fifth Amsha. or having it read. The significance of ‘Masaas’ has been discussed. The naarator of the Purana was Shakti Nandan Muni Parashara and the ‘Shrota’ was Maharshi Maitraya. ‘Samudra Madhana’. Those who read or hear the Vishnu Purana with reverence and earnestness would both secure the ‘Ihika’ or Worldly and ‘Amushmika’ or Other Worldy desires most certainly. there are as many as thirty five ‘Sangamas’ of which eleven are positioned on the nothern bank and twenty three on the southern bank. depiction of the under-sea worlds of Pataala etc. Comprising two parts of ‘Poorva’ and ‘Uttara’. Suta Maha Muni gave narrations to Shounaka Muni concerning various chronicles on Dharma titled ‘Vishnu Dharmottaraas’such as Punya Vratas. Jyotisha.
the analysis of ‘Maha Tatwas’. Markandeya Tapasya. Stotras etc. Diksha. demarcation of Sapta Dwipas. Vasishtha-Mandhata Samvada. to preach as much knowledge of Dharma and awareness of the Supreme Power as possible within a week’s time since the King was cursed by Samika Rishi’s son that Parikshit would die within a week due to snake bite. King Prutha all in the context of Manus and Prajapatis and happenings during these time-frames. extermination of Adharma and revival of Dharma. The fifth Skanda covered the history of Prajapati Priyavrata and progeny. Gajendra Moksha. Sincere study 28 . the magnificence of Surya Deva and winding up by Suta Maha Muni by the aspects of Moksha prapti. King Rukmanga and Mohini. the illustrious son of Veda Vyasa.the Causes of ‘Srishti’(Creation). The Ninth Skanda dealt with Surya vamsha and Chandra vamsha Kings.The sixth Skanda covered the Story of the illustrious Brahmana called Ajamila. Narada Purana comprised twenty five thousand Shlokas based on Brihad Kalpa Katha. Samudra mathana. Those desirous of higher achievements of Bhakti would do well by organising Maha Bhagavata ‘Pathana’/ ‘Pravachana’ and ‘Shravana’ by a virtuous Brahmana on Bhadrapada Purnima and perform ‘Puja’to the Vakta along with Suvarna Daana/ Vastra daana. Brahma Deva informed Maricha Maha Muni about the excellence of Shrimad Bhagavata Purana which had eighteen thousand Shlokas and assured that it was like a ‘Kalpa Vriksha’ with twelve branches represented by each ‘Skanda’or Chapter. The ‘Uttara Bhaga’ of the Purana gave details of Ekadasha Vratas. the Purana was basically conceived by Brahmarshi Narada himself but preached by Sanaka Brothers to Narada. the end of Parikshit. Prahlada charitra and varnashrama dharma as also the’dos’ and don’t’s by way of ‘Karma’ were discussed in the seventh Skanda. his extraordinary role on Bharata Battle. the termination of Vritrasura and creation of Marudganas. the King did the indescretion of hanging a dead serpent around the neck of the Muni who was in Tapasya. Puja procedures. Veda Vyasa was the author of the Purana and ‘shrotas’ or listeners were several. Sanandana described at length the Six Vedangaas as Moksha Sadhanas and about the illustration of Suka Deva in this context. escapades of Youth. her revival and her exposure to Tirtha Yatras. The fourth Skanda depicted the process of ‘Visarga’(Secondary Creation) and referred to the Stories of Devi Sati and Daksha Yagna. The final and the Twelfth Skanda described the accounts of subsequent Kings.to have existed sixty crore and odd dotting along the River lines! Those who write the Vayu Purana in full and donate a cow alongwith jaggery on Sravana Purnima to a Vedic Brahmana and his family would reside in Rudra Loka during the ensuing fourteen Indratvas. dealt with King Parithkshit’s request to Suka Muni. Prabhasa Kshetra. The Third Part gave ‘Upadeshas’ to Narada by Sanat Kumara about ‘Pashu paasha vimoksha’ and Mantras concerning major Deities. Happenings at Dwaraka. Udbhava Geeta and the end of Yadu Vamsha. of Dhruva. curse to Mohini. The earlier part of the Purana dealt with ‘Pravritti Dharma’ and the second part was devoted to ‘Moksha Dharma’. description of Planets and Narakas etc. as reported by Suta Maha Muni to a congregation headed by Shounaka Muni. Daksha Prajapati’s creation. The Opening Skanda.The second Skanda explained the concept of the Gross and Minute manifestations of Paramatma. King Bali and his control through Vishnu’s Avatara as Vamana and Matsyavatara were described in the Ashtama Skanda. Narrated by Suta Maha Muni to Shounaka Muni. The fourth Part provided details of tithi-wise and Maasa-wise Vratas as also an Index of ‘Ashtadasha Puranas’. The third Skanda described the dialogues between Vidura of Maha Bharata fame and Maharshi Maitreya about the procedure of Creation by Brahma as well as of Kapila Maharshi’s narrative of Sankhya Yoga. The Tenth and Eleventh Skandas depicted the totality of Krishna’s Avatar covering the Bala Leelas.
clothing and bhojan. clothing and so on would surely pave the way to Salvation. Shankara and Ramanuja Acharyas. Having been satisfied by the replies of the Birds. Yoga Siddhis. shraaddha vidhi. the Muni cursed the sons to turn as birds as they refused his instruction to be eaten by Indra who appeared as a bird and demanded human flesh at the Muni’s Yagna. Ratha Saptami. Agni Homa vidhi. Pathana. Victoria and British Rule and finally various Vratas in prevalence. writing and Pravachana on Pousha Purnima and paying respects to learned Brahmanas along with daanas of gold ornaments. DikshaVidhanas and Abhishekas. the learned son of Dronaacharya. ‘Vaishnava Parva’. Griha Yagnas. Swapna/ Shakuna phalas. Chhandas. Sahitya. the great examples of Kaushiki and Anasuya as Pativratas. Bhavishya Purana which contained fourteen thousand Shlokas was originally recited by Brahma to Narada to Veda Vyasa to his disciple Sage Sumantu. Bhugola and Khagola Varnana. Yantra. and writing. Those who read. Markandeya Purana has nine thousand Shlokas and the various ‘Dharma Sandehas’ or doubts related to the practice of Virtue-oriented Principles raised by the Sage Jaimini to Mahatma Markandeya were referred by the latter to Holy Birds. retributions and rewards of human deeds. Sandhya / Gayatri Vandana. Then the details of Mandala Lakshanas. Veneration to the Purana is best done by reading. Ayurveda. Varnashrama Dharmas. ‘Brahma Parva’. Sukrish and Thumbaru in their past life.on Margasirsha Purnima and daana of ‘pratimaas’/ idols of golden lotus and cow with tilas would yield the ‘Punya’to secure fulfillment of desires in ‘Iham’ or the on-going life and ‘Param’ / Swarga Prapti thereafter. Shrouta Smaarta Karmas. Mantras. Sage Jaimini sought to be enlightened by several other topics related to the exemplary Harischandra who stood firm to follow Dharma and Satya. classification of hells and their experiences. Naga Panchami. the Story of Dattatreya and Kartaveeryarjuna. 29 . Shat prakara Nyasa. Koti homa vidhi. Sage Jaimini’s doubts were cleared by the Holy Birds as to why Devi Draupadi consented to marry all the Pandava brothers. its recyclings. It provided an account of ‘Dashavataras’at length followed by Agni Karyas. the story of the better enlightened ‘Jatismara’ Sumati with the knowledge of previous birth than his father Mahamati and the son’s ‘pravachana’or teachings about the aftermath of life. cogitating. The Purana is divided into five Parts viz. Revival efforts of Hindu Dharma. Yoga and Vedangas like Vyakarana. Devalaya vidhi. Vratas including Ganesh Chaturthi. Manana and Lekhana-hearing.The highlights of the Purana are Sacred Rites. Shalagrama puja. why Bala Rama had to atone for the sin of ‘Brahmahatya’and why were the defenceless sons of Draupadi killed by Ashvatthaama. the Accounts of Fourteen Manus. Deva Pratishtha. who were the sons of Sage Vipulaswan viz. Mantra. Satya Narayana Vrata. Rajyabhisheka vidhi.and ‘shravana’ of the Purana on Ashwin Purnima followed by Puja to a Brahmana with daanas of seven cows. Dhanur vidya.Vaara-Nakhatra Vratas. Agni Purana Vachana. Maasa-Tithi. Skanda Shashthi. the rivalry of Sages Vasishtha and Vishwamitra resulting in mutual curses to become birds. Jyotisha etc. Agni Purana was addressed by Agni Deva himself to Sage Vasishta through fifteen thousand Shlokas describing Ishaana-Kalpa. Devi Mahatmya and Surya Deva Mahatmya/ Surya Vamsha headlights. King Alarka and Queen Mother Madalasa. hear and annotate the Purana and pay reverences to a virtuous Brahmana on a Kartika Purnami day by gifting a golden ‘Pratima’ with an enbossed elephant would qualify Shiva Loka. Shatkarmas. Suryoraadhana. the advent of Jesus Christ and Prophet Muhammad. ‘Soura Parva’and ‘Prati Sarga Parva’. over-view of Yugas. ‘Shaiva Parva’. various Shant Mantras and Procedures. Mughal Empire. reading.
Yaaga. the blazing of Manmadha and the wedding of Shiva and Parvati were covered. the Story of Muni Dadhichi. The topics of Shiva Vrata. Suta Maha Muni commenced with ‘Srishti Varnana’. Shraaddha and Shiva Puja ‘Mahimas’. Charity to a Vidwan by way of Pratyaksha Godaan would grant the donor with Brahmaloka praapti and cotentment as long as one lived on Earth. Dwadasi on Vishnu and ten incarnations. This Sacred Purana is highly worthy of reading. Naga Devatas on Panchami. Gayatri Mahima. Shri Krishna Khanda was totally devoted to Krishna’s childhood leelaas. ‘Linga pradurbhaav’ (emergence of Linga) and procedure of worship was explained later on. Ganesha on Chaturthi. reproduce. Surata. Parashurama. his key role on the context of Maha Bharata etc. the Mahatmyas of Devis Durga. his adventures in destroying evil forces and saving the virtuous. Prakriti Khanda. concising. apart from the description of Ganesha Mahatmya and Shiva Tandava. Ganesha Khanda and Shri Krishna Khanda. exposition of ‘Yuga Dharma’. and Creation of animate and inanimate beings. Kartikeya on Shashthi. In fact Narada prayed to Bhagavan Saavarni and the fact of one-ness of Shiva and Vishnu was overemphasised. his youth and romantic accounts. Ganga Mahatmya. Surabhi. as also details of Surya Vamsha and Chandra Vamsha were scripted. Pratishthaapana mantras. Gopas and Gopikas. In the Uttariya Bhaga. This was followed by the depiction of ‘Linga Pratishtha’or formal set-up of Linga with Mantras as also the discussion of ‘Pashu-paasha vimokshana’ or salvation of human bondage. Vajresdwara Maha Vidya. Then followed the coverages of the significance of Snaana. background of Radha. In Ganesha Khanda. Surya Deva on Saptami. the supremacy of Ganesha was extolled at length. and Kartaveeryarjuna. Swaha and Sudha. If these deeds were accompanied by charity of ‘tila dhenu’ (cow) either as a Pratima. Aswini Kumars on Dwitiya.Those Shiva Bhaktas who would read. After ‘Shraddha’ Kalpa.Brahma Vaivarta Purana scripted by Veda Vyasa consisted of eighteen thousand Shlokas and divided into four ‘Khandaas’ viz. Devi Gauri on Triteeya. Initiated with a conversation between Bhagavan Varaha and Devi Prithvi. Addressing the congregation of Munis. it underlined the identity of Shiva and Vishnu. Ashta Matrikas on Ashtami. Triambika Mahatmya and such other topics too got extensive coverage. The devastation of ‘Daksha Yajna’. Dharma Purusha on Trayodasi. ‘prayaschitta’and ‘Shrishaila’ Temple visit were also covered. Origin of Vishnu from the body of Shri Krishna. the Purana covered the exemplary devotion displayed by Kings Priyavrata. writing and worshipping especially on Magha Puranami. Subsequently. At the commencement of the Purana. In Prakriti Khanda. Highlighting Bhagavan Shiva’s extraordinary magnificence. Brahma Khanda. Ashwasira. 30 . the Vishnu and Shiva Mahatmyas were given. daana. Durga on Navami. accounts of concerned Deities governing specified days were described for instance Agni on Pratipada. The destruction Andhakasura and Jalandhara were described as also the ‘Avataras’ of Vishnu as Varaha and Nrisimha. Aghora kirtana. one would definetely accomplish ‘Shiva Sayujya’. ‘Dasa Dishas’ on Dashami. besides narrations of and Savitri Satyavan. Ramayana and worship of Lakshmi. reflect and render the most auspicious Linga Purana on any day but most certainly on Phalguna Purnima day would certainly yield considerable returns. Radha. Varaha Purana scripted by Veda Vyasa with twenty four thousand stanzas divided into two Parts and was dominted by high Vishnu-consciousness. besides covering the accounts of Jamadagni. or better still in a live form. ‘Sadaachara’. Creation of Universe was depicted followed by ‘yogaakhyaan’ and ‘kalpaakyaan’. The sacred ‘Shiva Sahasranaamaas’ were rendered. Linga Purana was written by Veda Vyasa but as conceived by Maha Deva Himself with some eleven thousand ‘shlokas’. Lakshmi and Sarasvati were given. and Vasuas well as Sages like Raibhya and Gomukh. description of ‘Bhuvana kosha’ or the World.
Rameswara. Kaushiki. Amavasya on Pitaras. Those who reproduce the entire Skanda Purana as scripted by Veda Vyasa and gift it to a deserving Vedic Pandita along a golden ‘Trishul’(Trident) on a Magha Purnima day should indeed be blessed with ‘Shivaloka prapti’. The portrayal of Bhu Devi’s rescue from the clutches of demon Hiranyaksha by Varaha Murti. Shiva Linga Puja. Artha. Prahlada-Narayana battle. and Jnaneswari. Kumara. the former Part opened with the coverage of slitting Brahma’s fifth head. there were the significant explanations about the extraordinary powers of Ganesha and Bhagavan Shankara. while Vyasa imparted it to his disciple Romaharshana with the instruction of reciting it at the congregation of Munis at Naimisharanya headed by Maha Muni Shaunaka. Trivikrama etc. Then various ‘Vratas’. ‘Daanas’. the Stories of Gauri. In the Ganeswari Samhita. along with ‘daana’ of a golden ‘Garuda’ should help secure Vaikuntha to Bhaktas. Perhaps the best coverage of Tirthas all over Bharat was attempted in Skanda Purana. which indeed was the main Subject matter of the Purana. Prabhhasa and Dwaraka. the tales of King Bali. Kaamya Vrata. Reproduction of the text of Vamana Purana during ‘Sharat kaala’ and perform ‘ghrita dhenu’daana would redeem ‘Pitras’from ‘narakas’to Swarga and the devotee himself would reach ‘Vishnupada’after his end of life. Its veneration on Chaitra Purnima with its reading. Tapati Charitra. The subsequent contents included ‘Madana Dahana’. Panchalinga Sthapana. and of the Mahatmya of Ayodhya. Lakshmi. Durga Charitra. and Jabala. Maheswara Khanda. writing. Badari Kshetra. Avantya Khanda. Daksha Yagna. the wedding of Tapati. In the ‘Uttara Bhaaga’. A bird’s eye-view of the entire Purana includes Kedara Mahatmya. Shiva MantraShiva Ratri-Shiva Pradosha and Shiva Kavacha etc. Nagara Khanda and Prabhasa Khanda. 31 . Bhagavan Surya’s Mahatmya was explained from the view point of destruction of sins. the Story of Sukeshi and Surya. Kurukshetra.Chaturdasi on Rudra Deva. and Moon on Purnima. Brahma introduced this Purana to Maharshi Marichi about several Principles of Virtue targetting the attainment of the Four Purusharthas of Dharma. there was a vivid description of Shri Krishna and his devotees. Brahma Khanda. birth of Skandha. Kasi Khanda. Kama and Moksha. Bhagavati. Vishnu Khanda. was described very effectively. Samudra Mathana. significance of various Tirthas like Arunaachala. In the Maaheswari Samhita. In the Bhagavati Samhita.The Purana was indeed the Kalpa Vriksha of Vratas and Tirtha Yatras aside from ‘Daana Mahimas’. Containing ten thousand ‘Shlokas’Vamana Purana was originally conceived by Maharshi Pulasthya and advised Narada about it and the latter passed it on to Veda Vyasa. Shiva-Parvati’s wedding. Kurma Purana with seventeen thousand ‘Shlokas’divided into four Samhitas was essentially a Vishnu dominated ‘Grandha’ of great significance. The largest and one of the most popular of Puranas which was dominated by Bhagavan Shiva viz. of the months of Kartika. there are four ‘Samhitas’ pertaining to Maaheswari. Kashi. the Skanda Purana also called as Kartika Purana has eighty one thousand Shlokas. and Dharmaranya. Margashira and Vaishakha. divided by Veda Vyasa into Seven ‘Khandas’viz. Venkataachala. Avanti. Appearance of Maha Kaal. the birth of Parvati. Siva’s battle with and killing of Andhakasura and former’s request to Shiva to provide him with full-fledged Ganatwa. In the ‘Poorva Bhaaga’of the Purana there were covrages of Bhagavan Kurma and Maharshi’s conversation. while in the Souri Samhita. the big conflict of Devas and Danavas. and Tirtha Yatras/ Punya Khestras were discussed in the Purana. Jagadamba’s delineation was provided. Purushottama Kshetra. This Purana has two Parts. Souri. Kapala mochana and destruction of Daksha Yagna. carnage of Tarakasura. birth of Marudganaas. and memorising contents.
Mrityunjaya Puja. Vaishya and Shudras and their respective duties. Yuga dharmas. Shravana. Sandhyopaasana. Ashrama. Gaya Mahatmya. the Story of Nrisimha. and continued with description of Brahmanda (Universe). This Purana is an excellent exposition of the established Principles of Dharma and a comprehensive Guide to the pure and devout Hindus seeking ‘Uttama Gati’ or the most appropriate Route to Salvation. Yoga. Maalaa Mantra. Shraadda Puja. King Yayati. emergence of Marud Ganaas. Ayurveda. Deva Puja. Martandashayana Vrata. extension of life. Pitaropaakhyaana. Garuda Purana was Vishnu Deva’s sermon to Mahatma Garuda. This Sacred Purana is best read. Yogaadhyaaya. securing fame and name. King Pruthu. Gopala Puja. Vaishnava Panjara. Kshatriya. there are five Parts. This highly virtuous Purana is conducive to excellent health. Maheswara Puja. Vyasa-Pandava Samvad. Shashthi Vrata Mahatmya. Niti Shastra. Devas. Kaartaveeryaarjuna. Sankrasti Snaan. Manvantaras. Bhaaraataakhyana. outline of the method of ‘Kaala Sankhya. Snaana Vidhi. Parvati Sahasra naama. Vishnu’s ten incarnations. heard and written on a day of Solar Movement from Southern direction to Northern (Uttaraayana day) or vice versa called Dakshinaayana and give away charity of a golden ‘Kurma’ to a Vedic Brahmana. Praise of Puru Vamsha. Chikitsa. Creation of Universe. Atri Vamsha. Ramayana. 32 . Bhrigu’s curse. The third Samhita called ‘Souri Samhita’ which teaches ‘Shat-karma bodha’ and the Fourth one entitled ‘Vaishnavi Samhita’ is a Guide to accomplishing ‘Moksha’. Shiva Chaturdahi. Vaaranasi / Narmada Mahatmya. Daksha Srishti. Pitru Vamsha. Diksha Vidhi or procedure of assuming Diksha or disciplined way of life. besides Graha Shanti. Shri Krishna-Markandeya Samvad (conversation). Shankara Charitra. creation of Soma and his vamsha. Creation of Brahma. and the effectiveness of ‘Vaidika Shaakhaa’ or the Following of Veda practioners. Tarakaasura’s extermination. Nutana Ratna pariksha. At the beginning of the Purana in the ‘Purva Bhaaga’. Durgaarchana. Vishnu-Archa. Prashna chudaamani. Jyotisha. Purusha Vrata. Vishnu Dhyaana. Antariksha gamana. Nava Vyuha Puja. Manana and Kirtana of this Purana as well as daana of a golden Pratima of Matsya to an erudite Brahmana also with Go-daana at ‘Vishuva Yoga’ would result in ‘Vishnu dhaama praati’. and Instructions on Dharmic Principles. of ‘sankara’ or mixed origin was also prescribed of duties by following so that the persons concerned might be shifted to higher levels in future births. Praayaschitta vidhi. Mahatmya of Kasi and Prayaga. Vyakarana. Surya/Chandra Vamsha. Ashtaanga Yoga. Dhruva Mahima. there were the Ishwariya Gita and Vyasa-Gita. Saamudrika Shastra. the fifth Varna viz. Pathana. This was followed by ‘Brahma Samhita’ covering ‘Prati Sarga’or Universal Destuction and Renewal. Lekhana. Muni Kashyapa and progeny. Creation of Swayamshu Manu and lineage. Surya Puja. there was brief introduction of ‘Srishti’and was followed by the Puja of Surya Deva and other Deities. Trailokya mohana Shridhara Puja. Shraadhha kaal. Creation of Surya and Vaivaswata Muni. Ananata Triteeya Vrata etc.In the ‘Uttara Bhaaga’of the Purana. Tirtha Mahaatmya. Roga naashakaVishnu Kavacha. Shrihari Avataara katha. Varna Dharma. Vaastu Vidya. Kishnaashtami Vrata. and fulfillment of wishes. Asuras. Bhrigu Vamsha. Dahsha Yagna and its destruction. Pancha Tatwaarcha. Preta shuddhi. Garuda Kavacha. Kartika’s birth. Swara Jnaana.Varnaashrama Principles. Deva Mandira Nirmaana. In ‘Bhagavati Samhita’. future Kings etc. Chhanda. the first four Parts being devoted to the four Varnas of Brahmana. Dravyaguna. Sarva Phala tyaaga. Shiva-Parvati wedding. Vishnu Sahasra naama kirtana. Matsya Purana again scripted by Veda Vyasa over fourteen thousand ‘Shlokas’ commenced with the discussion between Matsya Deva and Manu. Hutaashana Vamsha. Hari Vamsa. Nakshatra Vrata. as conveyed by Brahma to Maharshi Marichi and it contained nineteen thousand ‘Shlokas’. Sarva Deva Pratishtha. Daanadharma. Shreshtha Pitara Mahima. Vratha katha (story). Naraka varnana. Traipura Mantra.
Tarpana. Priyavrata’s vamsha. Madhya shodasda shraaddha. ‘pretatwa mukti’. Yama loka varnana. emergence of Vaiwaswata Muni. Rishi Sarga. Pralayas. The Uttara Khanda starts off with Preta Kalpa varnana. Brahma Gyana. Yana pravartana. Vishnvarchana stotra. Sandhya. proactive deeds to enable ‘swarga prapti’ of the deceased. the tale of Yayati. Bhurbhuvah like upper Lokas. The Purana also gives accounts of the seven under worlds. Vedanta / Saankhya siddhanta. hear. Bali Vaishva Deva. the erstwhile deeds of help rescuing the Preta from various torments. effectiveness of follow-up deeds by progeny performing the rites after the death under reference. etc. Rishi pravara varnan. Reading.The Second Part gives a picture of Kalpas and Manvantaras. ‘Preta’s’ features. Sapta Dwipas. annotate and assimilate all the Eighteen Puranas in full as written by Veda Vyas should have no rebirth into this ‘Samsara’once again. These were sketched for ‘Loka Kalyan’ and even these highly abridged versions are apparently tough to digest. Sagara charitra. description of ‘Naimisha’or the popular Forest Place of the Congregation of Rishis. details of Grahas (Planets) and their features. Then were scripted the route to Yamaloka. The first two Paadaas are considered as ‘Purvi Bhaga’ and the latter two as ‘Uttari Paada’. the under-world of seven regions like Atala. Atmaananda. and depiction of future Kings on the Earth. thinking and imagining of post-life experiences of the contents of Purana during ‘Vishuva’ Yoga time along with charity of a golden swan to a Brahmana would help reduce the severity of sins. Bali Vamsha. Vishnu Bhakti. Shraadha Kalpa. Agni Vijaya. Praayaschittha (atonement of sins). Who should read Puranas! Lord Brahma told Maharshi Marichi that basically Bhagavan Vishnu bestowed a Single Purana to him which was of the volume of crores of Shlokas. Kaala sadbhaava. Bharata Varsha. Swayambhu Manu’s details. It is believed that a person who could read. there are the detyails of Sapta Rishis. Vrishotsarga Mahatmya. Devagraha anukeertana. Pitru Kalpa. Brahma passed on to Vasishtha Maharshi who in turn gave away to Parasara Muni and the latter pronounced it aloud and Vayu Deva carried it to Veda Vyasa. Kaartaveerya. criteria for Swarga Prapti. Parashu Rama. formation of Lokas. Amavasya varnana. Adityavyuha’s description. practice of virtue and attainment of ‘Shiva dhaam’. Kashyapa’s progeny. the chronicle of the rest of Manus. Prajapatis. In the ‘Upodghaata Paada’. should practise the Sacred Principles enunciated among them. karma phala. Creation of human beings. account of Fourteen ‘Bhuvanas’/ worlds. and ‘Upa samhaara paada’. Creation of Hiranyagarbha. Marudganaas. Paarvana Karma. everrepetitive cycles of birth and deaths etc. ‘daanaas’etc. Sutala. Lokagyana. Yadu Vamsa. Nitya Shaaddha. Yogashastra. Patala etc. Vitala. the incident of how Shiva became ‘Neela Kantha’. Asked about Dharma. determination of sins or good deeds. ‘Anushanga paada’. features of human beings as per Yugas. the lineage of Manus. Vyasa selected only four31lakh stanzas and disrtibuted these among Eighteen Puranas. Ikshvaku Vamsha. Vrishni Vamsha. Rasatala. hearing. Atri Vamsha. sins and the resultant hells. Sapindana. writing. there are descriptions of Upasamhaara Paada including ‘Pralaya’ (The Great Dissolution). reproduce. and Geetaasaara. Krishnaavataara. Prithvi’s length and breadh. Time measurements. In any case. ‘sutaka dina sankhya’or the number of ‘Asuchi’ depending on the relationship to the deceased. Creation by Rudra. In the Uttara Bhaaga of the Brahmaanda Purana. Rishi Vamsha. Dharmasaara. Amaavasu Vamsha. ‘Upodghata paada. Bhagavan Vishnu explained about the route to ‘Urthwa lokas’ or the higher destinations and the performance well defined acts of Virtue including Shodasa Shraaddhas. Yuga tatwa. the wreched experiences on way. ‘sapindikarana’. Besides. etc. five upper worlds as also of Brahmanda Charitra. Brahmanda Purana with twelve thousand ‘Shlokas’ has four Parts titled ‘Prakriya paada’. the contents of any or all Puranas should 33 . Narayana bali karma. Nishidha karma tyaga. The Prakriya paada narrrates Instructions on Duties. etc. this kind of ideal person. Nrisimha Stotra.
Mlecchhas. life-style and even language. Epilogue-The Vedic Faith is Everlasting despite pulls and pressures! Even as extension of Dwapara Yuga there had been threats to Arsha Samkstiri / Hindu Culture.not be preached to a ‘daambhik’ (vainglorious). Ramanujacharya. (Source: Narada Purana). In the weak lineage of the Kings. Purib Sharma. Chinese. so did the cultures but the core remained intact. In the initial period of Kaliyuga. and continue in its Core Form for ever till the existence of humanity! Om Purnamnadah Purnamidam Purnaat Purnamuduchyatey. Chaitanya Maha Prabhu. the King Pradyot performed Mleccha Yagna and Kali along with his wife was stated to have made an appeal to Bhagavan Narayana not to create hurdles in the spread and might of Kali Yuga and Narayana assured Kali that soon a man named ‘Aadam’ and woman named ‘Havyavati’ would promote the cause of Mlecchas and speed up the spread of Kali Yuga. Kamarupas.Shatavahanas controlled Shakas. albeit incorporating and absorbing external and internal influences in the process of evolution. The role of Regional Kings like Shivaji and even Kings of alien Dharamas like Akbar-as Hindu influence in reverse-was evident on the large canvas of Hinduism. There was continuous storm for forty days and Oceans overflowed and submerged Earth. As the Rulers changed. Bahmikas. Jayadeva. ‘Paapaachari’ (sinful).But Pathans overpowered Prithviraja and thus the Bharata Varsha witnessed dissipation of Hindu Dharma. good-featured and God-fearing should be specially invited and inspired to inculcate interest in the Puranas and their contents. Thus like the ‘Jeeva Nadis’ (ever flowing Rivers of Bharata Varsha) as Ganges. The strength and glory of the eras of Panadava clan declined after Parikshit. Vikramaditya resisted the onslaught of Barbarians like Shakas. Gurus and the Virtuous and to ‘shath’ (stubborn) persons. Sanskrit or Sanskrit based Prantiya Bhashaas and various Dravidian languages got adapted to ‘Gurundika’ (English) and other Mleccha (Alien) Bhashas. the Vedic Dharma witnessed change and evolution. the illustrious such Acharyas included Ramananda. Madhavachray. Buddha/ Ashoka created a new verion of Hinduism. In the process. King Bhoja resisted the cult of Prophet Mahammad. earlier languages got corrupted and new expressions emerged: Vraja Bhasha. Dundi Raja and so on. Shankaracharya and his great followers like Giri Sharma. unbearable of Devas. Vedic Culture will indeed survive. Bharata Varsha gradually adopted Videsha Samskrti. Only those who are selfcontrolled. Vana Sharma. vide Shi Krishna’s efforts to decimate the Yavana King who joined hands with Jarasandha of ‘Maha Bhagavata’. and Hunas. Yavanas. matured. Rome and Ishaamashih (Jesus Christ). Nimbaditya. new culture. and so on. Varnashrama became a virtual non-entity excepting in very feeble form. For instance. It was in such extreme situation. Janamejaya and Shataanika. Vishnu himself appeared to have advised a Mleccha King named ‘Nyuh’to build and launch a huge Ship (Novah’s Ark?) to save Believers of God. Purnasya Purmamadasya Purnameva vasishyatey/ 34 . Tursharas. Parasikas (Persians). Praakruti. the glorious contribution made by renowned ‘Acharyas’ to revive and sustain Hindu Dharma.
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