Network Tecknology

Unit 3 (twisted pair Ethernet) The Ethernet physical layer is the physical layer component of the Ethernet standard. The Ethernet physical layer evolved over a considerable time span and encompasses quite a few physical media interfaces and several magnitudes of speed. The speed ranges from 1 Mbit/s to 100 Gbit/s in speed while the physical medium can range from bulky coaxial cable to twisted pair to optical fiber. In general, network protocol stack software will work similarly on all of the following types. 10 Gigabit Ethernet is becoming more popular in both enterprise and carrier networks, with 40 Gbit/s and 100 Gbit/s Ethernet now ratified. Higher speeds are under development. Metcalfe now believes commercial applications using terabit Ethernet may occur by 2015 though he says existing Ethernet standards may have to be overthrown to reach terabit Ethernet. The following sections provide a brief summary of all the official Ethernet media types (section numbers from the IEEE 802.3-2008 standard are parenthesized). In addition to these official standards, many vendors have implemented proprietary media types for various reasons²often to support longer distances over fiber optic cabling. Many Ethernet adapters and switch ports support multiple speeds, using autonegotiation to set the speed and duplex for the best values supported by both connected devices. If auto-negotiation fails, a multiple speed device will sense the speed used by its partner, but will assume half-duplex. A 10/100 Ethernet port supports 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX. A 10/100/1000 Ethernet port supports 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX, and 1000BASE-T. Xerox experimental Ethernet Name Description Xerox The original, 3 Mbit/s Ethernet implementation, which had a frame format different from the Ethernet production forms of Ethernet. Early implementations (10 Mbit/s and 1 Mbit/s) Name Standard Description Original standard uses a single coaxial cable into which you literally tap a connection by drilling into the cable to connect to the core and screen. Largely obsolete, though 10BASE5 802.3 (8) due to its widespread deployment in the early days some systems may still be in use.Was known also as Thick-Ethernet. 10 Mbit/s, Manchester coded signaling, copper RG-8X (expensive) coaxial cabling, bus topology with collision detection. 50 coaxial cable connects machines together, each machine using a T-adaptor to connect to its NIC. Requires terminators at each end. For many years this was the 10BASE2 802.3 (10) dominant Ethernet standard. Also called Thin Ethernet, ThinNet or Cheapernet. 10 Mbit/s, Manchester coded signaling, copper RG-58 (cheap) coaxial cabling, bus topology with collision detection. Operated at 1 Mbit/s over twisted pair to an active hub. Although a commercial failure, 1BASE5 defined the architecture for all subsequent Ethernet evolution. Also 1BASE5 802.3 (12) called 'StarLAN. 1 Mbit/s, Manchester coded signaling, copper twisted pair cabling, star topology. 10 Mbit/s, Manchester coded signaling, copper twisted pair cabling, star topology StarLAN 10 Proprietary evolved into 10BASE-T
Dr. Saroj Singh Page 1

copper twisted pair cabling. Industrial Ethernet applications use a star topology with no collisions so that no minimum cable length is required. Fiber connections have minimum cable lengths due to level requirements on received signals.3af Mode B" supplies power over the "spare" pairs not used by 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX. An active hub or switch sits in the middle and has a port for each node. making collisions possible. Saroj Singh Page 2 . Manchester coded signaling. ANSI recommends using Category 6 cable for new installations. Proprietary Twisted-pair Ethernet Several varieties of Ethernet were specifically designed to run over 4-pair copper structured cabling already installed in many locations. star topology evolved into 10BASE-T Runs over four wires (two twisted pairs) on a Category 3 or Category 5 cable.Network Tecknology LattisNet UTP 10 Mbit/s. In a departure from both 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX. Consequently. This applies only to 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX standards. the 1000BASE-TX standard requires a minimum cable length for collision detection to function evolution of 1BASE-5. to avoid this in Gigabit Ethernet. small frames are padded into the transmission in half-duplex mode. star topology . RJ-45 Wiring (TIA/EIA-568-B T568A) Pin Pair Color telephone 10BASE-T 100BASE-TX 1000BASE-T PoE mode A PoE mode B 1 3 white/green TX+ z bidi 48V out 2 3 green TXz bidi 48V out 3 2 white/orange RX+ z bidi 48V return 4 1 blue ring bidi 48V out 5 1 white/blue tip bidi 48V out 6 2 orange RXz bidi 48V return 7 4 white/brown bidi 48V return 8 4 brown bidi 48V return Combining 10Base-T (or 100BASE-TX) with "IEEE 802. copper twisted pair cabling. Ethernet minimum cable lengths All copper Ethernet segments that run the collision detection (CD) portion of CSMA/CD have a minimum cable length to function properly because of reflections. Manchester coded signaling.[12] Related standards Dr. 1000BASE-TX supports half-duplex mode.3af mode A" allows a hub to transmit both power and data over only two pairs.[11] Fiber ports designed for long-haul wavelengths require a signal attenuator if used within a building.3 (14) configuration used for 100BASE-T and gigabit Ethernet. Early Ethernet standards used Manchester coding so that the signal was self-clocking not adversely affected by high-pass filters. This was designed to leave the other two pairs free for analog telephone signals. 1000BASE-T uses all four cable pairs for simultaneous transmission in both directions through the use of echo cancellation. The pins used in "IEEE 802. This is also the 10BASE-T 802. The 1000BASE-TX standard is covered at the end of this section.

and no products exist. power lines and phone lines). most manufacturers now build the functionality of an Ethernet card directly into PC motherboards.16²A standard for wireless metropolitan area networks (MANs). supporting autonegotiation between 10 Mbit/s and 100 Mbit/s operation ± a feature lacking in the official standards due to the use of differing LED wavelengths. the ever-decreasing cost of the hardware needed to support it. Evolutions have included higher bandwidth. often paired with an Ethernet backbone. o LattisNet²A SynOptics pre-standard twisted-pair 10 Mbit/s defines an Application Protocol Convergence (APC) layer that accepts Ethernet frames and encapsulates them into G. and the reduced panel space needed by twisted pair Ethernet. increase reliability. but support the Ethernet frame format. o 100BaseVG²An early contender for 100 Mbit/s Ethernet. including WiMAX y 10BaseS²Ethernet over VDSL y Long Reach Ethernet y Avionics Full-Duplex Switched Ethernet y TTEthernet ² Time-Triggered Ethernet for design of mixed-criticality embedded systems y Metro Ethernet Evolution Ethernet is an evolving technology. Ethernet evolved into the complex networking technology that today underlies most LANs. each Ethernet station is given a 48-bit MAC address. o TIA 100BASE-SX²Promoted by the Telecommunications Industry Association. Its main feature is interoperability with 10BASE-FL. The MAC addresses are used to specify both the destination and the source of each data packet. Due to the ubiquity of Ethernet. Despite the significant changes in Ethernet from a thick coaxial cable bus running at 10 Mbit/s to point-to-point links running at 1 Gbit/s and beyond. y Dr. There are many variants of Ethernet in common use. Uses four pairs. 100BASE-SX is an alternative implementation of 100 Mbit/s Ethernet over fiber. and are capable of interoperating with it. Adapters come programmed with a globally unique address.3 Ethernet standard. and enable point-to-point management and troubleshooting. o 802.hn²A standard developed by ITU-T and promoted by HomeGrid Forum for high-speed (up to 1 Gbit/s) local area networks over existing home wiring (coaxial cables. The coaxial cable was replaced with point-to-point links connected by Ethernet repeaters or switches to reduce installation costs. Network interface cards (NICs) or chips normally do not accept packets addressed to other Ethernet stations. Ethernet stations communicate by sending each other data packets. it was a commercial failure. Saroj Singh Page 3 .hn MSDUs. all generations of Ethernet (excluding early experimental versions) use the same frame formats (and hence the same interface for higher layers). it is incompatible with the official 100BASE-FX standard. blocks of data that are individually sent and delivered. eliminating the need for installation of a separate network card. y Networking standards that do not use the Ethernet frame format but can still be connected to Ethernet using MAC-based bridging.11²A standard for wireless local area networks (LANs). It runs over Category 3 cabling. Commercial failure. but requires Category 6 cabling. o G. As with other IEEE 802 LANs. o 802.Network Tecknology Networking standards that are not part of the IEEE 802. o TIA 1000BASE-TX²Promoted by the Telecommunications Industry Association. and can be readily interconnected through bridging. G. 1000BASE-TX uses a simpler protocol than the official 1000BASE-T standard so the electronics can be cheaper. improved media access control methods. and changes to the physical medium. It is targeted at the installed base of 10 Mbit/s fiber network installations.

The network interface card interrupts the CPU only when applicable packets are received: The card ignores information not addressed to it. Since all communications happen on the same wire. even if that information is intended for just one destination. where damage to the wire in a single place. The methods used were similar to those used in radio systems. In the worst case. left) and twisted pair-based 10BASE-T (8P8C connector. Collisions reduce throughput by their very nature. due to token waits. Somewhat larger networks could be built by using an Ethernet repeater. A scheme known as carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) governed the way the computers shared the channel. This is in comparison with token passing LANs (token ring. when there are lots of hosts with long cables that attempt to transmit many short frames. While a simple passive wire was highly reliable for small networks. Many early researchers failed to understand the subtleties of the CSMA/CD protocol and how important it was to get the details right. right). token bus). 6. Ethernet was originally based on the idea of computers communicating over a shared coaxial cable acting as a broadcast transmission medium. and it was from this reference that the name "Ethernet" was derived. or a single bad connector. Saroj Singh Page 4 . a Xerox report in 1980 summarized the results of having 20 fast nodes attempting to transmit packets of various sizes as quickly as possible on the same Ethernet segment. so that network traffic can be very slow when many stations are simultaneously active. However. Initial repeaters had only 2 ports. and more ports. even for the smallest Ethernet frames (64 Bytes). Repeaters and hubs For signal degradation and timing reasons. any information sent by one computer is received by all. could make the whole Ethernet segment unusable. 90% throughput on the LAN was the norm. Dr. excessive collisions can reduce throughput dramatically. 8. People recognized the advantages of cabling in a star topology. which was in turn connected to the cable (later with thin Ethernet the transceiver was integrated into the network adapter). The results showed that.Network Tecknology Shared media A 1990s network interface card supporting both coaxial cable-based 10BASE2 (BNC connector. Use of a single cable also means that the bandwidth is shared. This scheme was simpler than the competing token ring or token bus technologies. and were really modeling somewhat different networks (usually not as good as real Ethernet). coaxial Ethernet segments had a restricted size. Computers were connected to an Attachment Unit Interface (AUI) transceiver. primarily that a fault in one of the legs affects operation of only the stations attached to that leg. This report was controversial. it was not reliable for large extended networks. with the common cable providing the communication channel likened to the Luminiferous Aether in 19th century physics. as modeling showed that collision-based networks became unstable under loads as low as 40% of nominal capacity. Original Ethernet's shared coaxial cable (the shared medium) traversed a building or campus to every attached machine. but they gave way to 4. all of which suffer throughput degradation as each new node comes into the LAN.

beginning with StarLAN and continuing with 10BASE-T. so bandwidth and security problems are not addressed. This changed repeaters from a specialist device used at the center of large networks to a device that every twisted pair-based network with more than two machines had to use. Saroj Singh Page 5 . Every packet is sent to every port on the repeater. primarily the Collision Enforcement signal. with only minimal activity by the repeater. Dr. The total throughput of the repeater is limited to that of a single link. was designed for point-to-point links only. The tree structure that resulted from this made Ethernet networks more reliable by preventing faults with one peer or its associated cable from affecting other devices on the network. Despite the physical star topology.Network Tecknology A twisted pair Cat-3 or Cat-5 cable is used to connect 10BASE-T Ethernet Ethernet on unshielded twisted-pair cables (UTP). and all links must operate at the same speed. in dealing with packet collisions. repeater based Ethernet networks still use half-duplex and CSMA/CD. and all termination was built into the device.

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