Holography (from the Greek hólos, "whole" + graf , "writing, drawing") is a technique that allows the light scattered

from an object to be recorded and later reconstructed so that when an imaging system (a camera or an eye) is placed in the reconstructed beam, an image of the object will be seen even when the object is no longer present. The image changes as the position and orientation of the viewing system changes in exactly the same way as if the object were still present, thus making the image appear three-dimensional. The holographic recording itself is not an image - it consists of an apparently random structure of either varying intensity, density or profile - an example can be seen below. The technique of holography can also be used to store, retrieve, and process information optically. While it has been possible to create a 3-D holographic picture of a static object since the 1960s, it is only in the last few years[1] that arbitrary scenes or videos can be shown on a holographic volumetric display HISTORY Holography was invented in 1947 by the Hungarian-British[4] physicist Dennis Gabor (Hungarian name: Gábor Dénes),[5] work for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1971. Pioneering work in the field of physics by other scientists including Mieczys aw Wolfke resolved technical issues that previously had prevented advancement. The discovery was an unexpected result of research into improving electron microscopes at the British ThomsonHouston Company in Rugby, England, and the company filed a patent in December 1947 (patent GB685286). The technique as originally invented is still used in electron microscopy, where it is known as electron holography, but holography as a light-optical technique did not really advance until the development of the laser in 1960. The first practical optical holograms that recorded 3D objects were made in 1962 by Yuri Denisyuk in the Soviet Union[6] and by Emmett Leith and Juris Upatnieks at University of Michigan, USA.[7] Advances in photochemical processing techniques to produce high-quality display holograms were achieved by Nicholas J. Phillips.[8]

Holography is a technique which enables a light field to be recorded, and reconstructed later when the original light field is no longer present. It is analogous to sound recording where the sound field is encoded in such a way that it can later be reproduced. Though holography is often referred to as 3D photography, this is a misconception. A photograph represents a single fixed image of a scene, whereas a hologram, when illuminated appropriately, re-creates the light which came from the original scene; this can be viewed from different distances and at different orientations just as if the original scene were present. The hologram itself consists of a very fine random pattern, which appears to bear no relationship to the scene which it has recorded. To record a hologram, some of the light scattered from an object or a set of objects falls on the recording medium. A second light beam, known as the reference beam, also illuminates the

e. the color of the holographic reflection. artists saw the potential of holography as a medium and gained access to science laboratories to create their work. green and blue lasers to write a series of dots. HOLOGRAPHY INFOMETRY Holographic interferometry (HI)[31][32] is a technique that enables static and dynamic displacements of objects with optically rough surfaces to be measured to optical interferometric precision (i. It uses red.recording medium. for example. It can also be used to detect optical-pathlength variations in transparent media. Today it is commonly used to study electric and magnetic fields in thin films. The machine can cost up to half a million dollars and is about the size of a small room. across a holographic medium. SENSORS The hologram is made with a modified material that interacts with certain molecules generating a change in the fringe periodicity or refractive index. so that interference occurs between the two beams. Holographic art is often the result of collaborations between scientists and artists. which enables. as magnetic and electric fields can shift the phase . therefore. APPLICATION ART Early on. The figure on the right is a photograph of part of a hologram .[ NON OPTICAL HOLOGRAPHY In principle.the object was a toy van. It can also be used to generate contours representing the form of the surface. it is possible to make a hologram for any wave. which is recorded in the hologram. Electron holography is the application of holography techniques to electron waves rather than light waves. and foocusing on the surface of the plate. The photograph was taken by backlighting the hologram with diffuse light. The resulting light field generates a seemingly random pattern of varying intensity. Electron holography was invented by Dennis Gabor to improve the resolution and avoid the aberrations of the transmission electron microscope. or holopixels. to fractions of a wavelength of light). fluid flow to be visualized and analyzed. although some holographers would regard themselves as both an artist and a scientist. HOLOPRINTERS holoprinter is a holographic printing device that can print out full-colour digital holograms from a rendered 3D model or a video series.

Phase-coherent holography is a type of holography. most notably those of transportation. The general idea of acoustic holography has led to different versions such as near-field acoustic holography (NAH) and statistically optimal near-field acoustic holography (SONAH).[37] The principle of electron holography can also be applied to interference lithography. by digitally computing a holographic interference pattern and printing it onto a mask or film for subsequent illumination by suitable coherent light source. For audio rendition. The image is made of many specularities and has the appearance of a 3D surface-stippling made of dots of light. and NVH.[38] Acoustic holography is a method used to estimate the sound field near a source by measuring acoustic parameters away from the source via an array of pressure and/or particle velocity transducers. photographic media. this includes the numerical reconstruction of object data from the recorded measurement data. A holographic image can be generated e. typically via a CCD camera or a similar device. in which undiffracted beams are deflected phase-coherent. TYPES OF HOLOGRAPHY Specular holography is a technique for making three dimensional imagery by controlling the motion of specularities on a two-dimensional surface. in distinction to an optical reconstruction which reproduces an aspect of the object Computer Generated Holography (CGH) is the method of digitally generating holographic interference patterns.of the interfering wave passing through the sample. specular holograms do not depend on wave optics. Measuring techniques included within acoustic holography are becoming increasingly popular in various fields. or lasers. the wave field synthesis is the most related procedure. Digital holography is the technology of acquiring and processing holographic measurement data. Unlike conventional wavefront holograms. vehicle and aircraft design.g. In particular. .

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