Ex: No: Date: Aim

:

HEAT TRANSFER IN FORCED CONVECTION

To determine the heat transfer co-efficient by using forced convection Apparatus.

Apparatus Required:

(i) (ii) (iii)

Experimental setup Thermocouples U – tube manometer

Theory:

Apparatus consist of blower unit fitted with the test pipe. The test section is surrounded by Nichrome band heater. Four thermocouples are embedded on the test section and two thermocouples are placed in the air stream at the entrance and exit of the test section to measure the air temperature. Test pipe is connected to the delivery side of the blower along with the orifice to measure flow of air through the pipe. Input to the heater is given through a immerstat and measured by meters. It is to be noted that only a part of the total heat supplied is utilized in heating the air. A temperature indicator with cold junction compensation is provided to measure temperatures of pipe wall at various points in the test section. Air flow is measured with the help of orifice meter and the water manometer fitted on the board.

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Specifications: 1. Pipe diameter out side (Do) 2. Pipe diameter inner (Di) 3. Length of test section (L) 4. Blower = 33 mm = 28 mm = 400 mm = 0.28 HP motor

5. Orifice dia(d) = 14 mm, connected with to water manometer. 6. Dimmerstat 7. Temperature Indicator = 0 to 2 Amps. 260 Volts, A.C. = Range 0 to 3000C. Calibrated for chromel alumel thermocouple. 8. Voltmeter 9. Ammeter 10. Heater = 0 -100/200 V, = 0-2 A = Nichrome wire heater wound on test pipe (Band type) – 400 watt. Precautions: 1. Keep the dimmerstat at zero position before switching ON the power supply. 2. Start the blower unit. 3. Increase the voltmeter gradually. 4. Do not stop the blower in between the testing period. 5. Do not disturb thermocouples while testing. 6. Operate selector switch of temperature indicator gently. 7. Do not exceed 200 watts. Procedure:

1. Start the blower and adjust the flow by means or gate valve to some desired difference in manometer level. 2. Start the heating of the test section with the help of dimmerstat and adjust desired heat input with the help of voltmeter and ammeter.

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3. Take readings of all the six thermocouples at an interval of 10 minutes until the steady state is reached. 4. Note down the heater input. Formulae Used: 1. The rate at which air is getting heated is calculated as qa = m x Cp x ∆T kJ / hr.

Where, m = mass flow rate of air (Kg / hr) Cp = Specific heat of air (kJ/ kg.k ∆T = Temperature rise in air ( oC) = T6 – T1. 2. m = Qa Where, a = density of air to be evaluated at (T1 + T6)./ 2 Q = Volume flow rate. Q = Cd x (π/4) di2 √2gH x (ρw / ρa) 3. ha = qa /A(Ts- Ta) w / m2 k = π x Di x L = (T1 + T6)./ 2
o

Kg / hr.

m3/hr

qa = Rate of which air is getting heated. A = Test section area Ta = Average temperature of air Ts = Average surface temperature Cd = 0.64 H = Difference of water level in manometer ρw = Density of water = 1000 kg/m3 ρa = Density of air = 1.03 kg/m3 d = diameter of orifice meter = 0.014 m g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m/s2 using this procedure obtain the value of ‘ha’ for different air flow rate. m m2 C
o

= (T2 + T3 + T4 + T5)./ 4

C

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4. Reynold’s Number:

Re = VDi/ υ

Dimensionless number

Where, V = velocity of air = Q/ (π xDi2) /4 υ = Kinematics viscosity to be evaluate at average of bulk mean temperature. (T1 + T6)./ 2
o

C

5. Nusselt Number:

Nu = (ha x Di )/ k

Dimensionless number

K = Thermal conductivity of air at (T1 + T6)./ 2 w/m-k Plot the values of Nu V/s Re on a log – log plot for the experiment readings.

5. Prandtl Number:

Pr = Cpµ / k Cp = Specific heat of fluid kJ/kg.k µ = Viscosity Ns/m2 k = Thermal conductivity of fluid w/m2.k Nu = 0.023 (Re) 0.8 (Pr) 0.4 Bulk mean temperature = (T1 + T6)./ 2

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Tabulations:

Voltage & current S. No setting V ( volts) I ( Amps) T1 0 C T2 0 C

Temperature in 0C T3 0 C T4 0 C T5 0 C T6 0 C

Manometer reading of water in h in meter

Results:

Thus the heat transfer coefficient in forced convection was determined by using forced convection apparatus. hactual = -------------- w/m2k htheoritical = -------------- w/m2k

Faculty signature:

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The temperature and pressure of the air compressed is indicated by a thermometer and pressure gauge. SPECIFICATION: 1. * Effective radius = 0.193m 2. * Stop watch. diameter. The input to the motor is recorded by an energy meter. Coefficient of discharge C d.33m3 d0 : πd02 / 4 = 0. A0 5. = 700rpm = 0. * HP Bore. The outlet of the compressor is connected to the receiver.6 = 200 rev / kWh. 4. N = 88.Ex: No: Date: AIM LOAD TEST ON AIR COMPRESSOR To conduct a load test on the 2 . DLP = 89. Orifice. Air receiver capacity 3. Energy-meter constant ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 6 . The suction is connected to air tank with a calibrated orifice plate through a water manometer.9mm.0mm. * Stroke. The test rig consist of a base on which the tank is mounted.85 x 10-5 m2 = 0. Air compressor : * LP Bore.stage reciprocating air compressor to determine the isothermal and volumetric Efficiencies at various delivery pressures. Orifice area. DHP = 63. L * Speed.01m = 7. APPARATUS REQUIRED: * Air compressor with accessories.. 6. DESCRIPTION: Two stage air compressors is a reciprocating type driven by a prime mover.5mm.

3. The pressure is maintained constant by adjusting the outlet valve.PRECAUTIONS: 1. Stop the compressor motor and release the pressure in receiver. Check whether manometer is filled with water up to the required level. 2. 6. in m. Repeat the same procedure for various pressures. The compressor is started. 5. (h1. Note down the manometer reading and time taken for 3 revolution of the energy meter disc.h2) x ρ water ρa RTP Where. The maximum pressure in the receiver tank should not exceed 12 Kg / cm2 PROCEDURE: 1. The receiver pressure gauge is read for a particular pressure. FORMULAE USED: 1.h2) = Difference in manometer liquid. Density of air at RTP: ρ RTP = ρ NTP X 273 Kg/ m3 (273 + Room Temp) Where density of air at NTP = 1. Air head causing flow: ha RTP = (h1 . m ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 7 .293 Kg/ m3. 2. 4. 2. Ensure zero gauge pressure in the tank.

Actual volume at NTP: Va NTP = Where. L = Stroke length = 88. 4.01 m. A o = Area of orifice = π(d0)2 m2. C. Theoretical Volume of air: VaRTP x T NTP T RTP (at intake conditions) V T = πD2 x L x Nc 4 x 60 D = LP Bore diameter = 88.5 mm.3. Nc = Compressor speed rpm.d.d x Ao x √ 2 g ha RTP Where. 2.θc (273 + TROOM ) 1. Actual volume at RTP: Va RTP = C. m3 / sec. T NTP = Normal temp .9 mm. Volumetric Efficiency: (for LP stage) ηvol = Va NTP x 100% ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 8 .6. 4 Diameter of orifice d o = 0.273θk T RTP = Room temp . = Coefficient of discharge = 0.

R = (Pressure gauge reading + atmospheric pressure) atmospheric pressure. t = Time for 'n' revolution of energy meter disc. = 0. of rev.95. Isothermal efficiency: η ISO = Isothermal power x 100% Shaft input RESULT: The valves of isothermal and volumetric efficiency at various delivery pressures have been studied & graph between ♦ Pressure Vs Volumetric efficiency. 4. Ec = Energy meter constant η m = Efficiency for motor = 200 rev / kWh η t = Efficiency for transmission = 0.01325 x 105 N / m2. ♦ Pressure Vs Isothermal efficiency is drawn. of Energy meter disc. Isothermal power: = Pa x Va RTP x log e (R) 1000 Pa = Atmospheric pressure in N/ m2 = 1.90. kw. 9. watts ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 9 .Vt 3. Shaft Input through Energy meter: = 1 x n x ηt x ηm x 3600 ( Ec x t ) Where. n = no.

Faculty Signature: ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 10 .

of energy meter disk.UNIT S. Time taken for 3 rev. Actual vol. 11 Delivery pressure.No Kgf / cm2 h1x 10-2 h2x10-2 m m ^hx10-2 m Manometer read ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual x10-3 m3/s x10-3 m3/s x10-3 m3/s x10-3 m3/s kw kw % Shaft Input Isothermal efficiency. VT Isothermal power. . Actual vol. at RTP. at NTP. Theoretical Vol.

convection and radiation or by the combination of these three. saw dust is filled. The assembly is inside an MS pipe. The experimental set-up in which the heat is transferred through insulation by conduction is understudy in the given apparatus. Heat is transferred through insulation by conduction. The apparatus consisting of a rod heater with asbestos lagging. There is no insulation which is 100 % effective to prevent the flow of heat under temperature gradient. Between the asbestos lagging and MS pipe. Apparatus Required: (i) Experimental setup (ii) Lagged pipe apparatus (iii) Thermocouple (iv) Ammeter (v) Voltmeter Theory: The insulation is defined as a material which retards the heat flow with reasonable effectiveness. ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 12 .Ex: No: Date: Aim: HEAT TRANSFER TO LAGGED PIPE APPARATUS To determine the heat transfer through lagged pipe using lagged pipe apparatus.

The effective length of the above Precautions: = 500 mm. Use the proper range of Ammeter and Voltmeter. before starting the experiment (if needed) 6. The ID of the outer MS pipe = 80 mm 3. Adjust the temperature indicator to ambient level by using compensation screw. L = Length of the cylinder.Specifications: 1. ∆T = Temperature drop across lagging k1 = Thermal conductivity of Asbestos lagging material k2 = Thermal conductivity of Saw dust. Never exceed 80 watts. Keep dimmerstat to zero volt position and increase it slowly. The diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos and Saw dust lagging. 5. ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 13 . Diameter of the heater Rod 2. 8. 7. Formulae Used: The heat flow through the lagging materials is given by Q = k1 2πL∆T / ln(r2/r1) (OR) k2 2πL∆T / ln(r3/r2) Where. Diameter of the heater Rod with Asbestos lagging = 20 mm. = 40 mm 3. knowing the thermal conductivity of one lagging material the thermal conductivity of the other insulating material can be found. ie.

Voltmeter reading which gives the heat input. 4.Procedure: 1. 4. The thermal conductivity of resistive material = _________________ w /m2-k Faculty Signature: ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 14 . The temperatures are measured by thermocouples (Fe/Ko) with multipoint digital temperature indicator. Switch ON the units and check if all channels of temperature indicator showing proper temperature. 7 and 8 temperatures on the saw dust lagging. Switch ON the heater using the regulator and keep the power input at some particular value. 6. 3. Allow the unit to stabilize for about 20 to 30 minutes.2 and 3 the temperature of heater Rod. 2. Tabulation: S. No V I Heater Temperature T1 T2 T3 Average Asbestos Temperature T4 T5 T6 Average T7 Saw dust Temperature T8 Average Results: The heat transfer through lagging material = ____________________ w. Now note down the Ammeter. 7. 5.5 and 6 temperature on the asbestos layer. Temperature 1. The experiment may be repeat for different heat inputs. The average temperature of each cylinder is taken for calculation.

ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 15 . The air flow rate is measured by an orifice meter fitted on the delivery side of the blower. while the details of the pin fin are shown. Temperatures at five points along the length of the fin are measured by chrome alumel thermocouples connected along the length of the fin. Schematic diagram of the set up is shown in fig. One end of the fin projects outside the duct and is heated by a heater. The other end of the duct is connected to the suction side of a blower and the air blows past the fin perpendicular to its axis.Ex: No: Date: HEAT TRANSFER IN A PIN FIN (NATURAL ANDFORCED) APPARATUS Aim: To determine the pin-fin efficiency and heat flow of pin-fin forced convection Apparatus required: (i) Experimental setup (ii) Thermocouples (iii) U – tube manometer Theory: A brass fin of consist of circular cross section is fitted across a long rectangular duct.

Coefficent of the discharge cd 8. single phase motor. 2. Dimmersatat for heat input controls 230 V. Centrifugal blower 9. =5 10.56 HP. Start the blower unit. Do not disturb thermocouples while testing. Duct size 2. Keep the dimmerstat at zero position before switching ON the power supply. 13. 14. = 0. Do not stop the blower in between the testing period. Increase the voltmeter gradually. Diameter of the orifice 5. 5. No. 0C. = 0 – 100 / 200 V.7 mm = 12. = 0 – 2 Amps. With compensation of ambient temperature upto 50 0C. Operate selector switch of temperature indicator gently. Voltmeter 16. 2 Amps.D) 7. Thermal conductivity of fin material (Brass) =110 w/m. = 42 mm.64 = 0. ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 16 . Do not exceed 200 watts.Specifications: 1. Diameter of the fin 3. Heater suitable for mounting at the fin end outside the duct = 400 watts (Band type) 15. 6. 11. of thermocouples on fin = 150 mm x 100 mm. Diameter of the delivery pipe (I. 4. Thermocouple (6) reads ambient temperature inside of the duct. Effective length of fin 4.5 cm = 18 mm = 46 mm. Diameter of the delivery pipe (O. 8. Ammeter Precautions: 1.D) 6. 12. 3. Temperature indicator = 0 – 300 0C. 7. = 12.

Start heating the fin by switching ON the heater element and adjust the voltage on dimmerstat to say 100 volts. 5. 2. Formulae Used:(Forced Convection) 1. Note down the thermocouple readings 1 to 5 at a time interval of 5 minutes. 3. Forced Convection: 1. 4. When steady state is reached. Note down the thermocouple readings 1 to 5 at a time interval of 5 minutes. 4. Tα = surface temperature (T6) Tw = (T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5) / 5 (average temperature of fin) ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 17 . Start heating the fin by switching ON the heater element and adjust the voltage on dimmerstat to say 80 volts (increase slowly from 0 onwards). Repeat the same experiment with different manometer readings. record the final readings 1 to 5 and also record the ambient temperature reading 6. 3. Film Temperature Tf = ( Tα + Tw) / 2 Where. record the final readings 1 to 5 and also record the ambient temperature reading 6. When steady state is reached.Procedure: Natural Convection: 1. Start the Blower and adjust the difference of level in the manometer with the help of gate valve. 2. Repeat the same experiment with voltage 100 volts & 120 volts.

ha (head of air) = (ρw / ρa) x H H = Difference of water level in manometer m ρw = Density of water = 1000 kg/m3 ρa = Density of air = 1. Heat transfer coefficient.2. V = Q/A m/s Where Q = discharge of air A = area of the duct m 4. h = Nu k / D Where Nu = Nusselt Number ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 18 . Discharge of air Q = Cd x {(π xD2) /4}√2gha m3/s. Reynold’s Number: Re = VD/ υ Dimensionless number Where.165 kg/m3 g = acceleration due to gravity = 9. V = velocity of air = Q/ (π xD2) /4 D = diameter of the fin υ = Kinematics viscosity to be evaluate at average of bulk mean temperature. (T1 + T6) / 2 o C 5. Velocity of air. Where.81 m/s2 Cd = Coefficient of discharge = 0.64 D = diameter of the orifice 3.

6. Heat flow. η = {tan h (mL)}/ mL Tabulations: (i) Forced convection: S.33 7. Q = √hpkA x (Tw – Tα) tan h (mL) h = heat transfer coefficient. Efficiency. p = perimeter in m k= 386 w/mk m= √(hp/kA) A = area of fin = (π xD2) /4 L = Length of the fin Tw – average temperature Tα – ambient (surface) temperature (T6) 8. No V I Manometer reading h1 h2 T1 Fin Temperatures T2 T3 T4 T5 Ambient Temp T6 ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 19 . Where. Nusselt Number: Nu = CRem (Pr)0.

η = ___________ % Heat transfer.(ii) Natural convection: S. No V I T1 Fin Temperatures T2 T3 T4 T5 Ambient Temp T6 Results: Thus the experiment was conducted and results found were Pin fin Efficiency. Q = ___________ w Faculty Signature: ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 20 .

and forms an enclosure and serves the purpose of undisturbed surroundings. One side of the duct is made up of Perspex for visualization. An electric heating element is kept in the vertical tube which in turn heats the tube surface.Ex: No: Date: HEAT TRANSFER IN NATURAL CONVECTION Aim: To find the surface heat transfer co-efficient for a vertical tube losing heat by natural convection. Apparatus Required: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Experimental setup Thermocouple Ammeter Voltmeter Theory: The apparatus consist of a brass tube fitted in a rectangular duct in a vertical fashion. ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 21 . The duct is open at the top and bottom. The heat is lost from the tube to the surrounding air by natural convection. The temperature of the vertical tube is measured by seven thermocouples. The heat input to the heater is measured by an Ammeter and a Voltmeter and is varied by a dimmerstat.

6. heat is transferred to surrounding fluid by natural convection. Thermocouple No. Dimmerstat 10. 5. Keep dimmerstat to zero volt position and increase it slowly. 7. / 230 Volts. Multichanel type. Ammeter 8. No. Operate the changeover switch of Temperature Indicator gently from one position to other. of thermocouples (d) (L) = 38 mm. before starting the experiment (if needed) 2. The fluid layer in contact with the hot body gets heated. The process is continuous and the heat transfer takes place due to the relative motion of hot and cold fluid particles. 3. Adjust the temperature indicator to ambient level by using compensation screw. Use the proper range of Ammeter and Voltmeter. = 200 mm x 200 mm x 750 mm. rises up due to the decrease in its density and the cold fluid rushes in from bottom side. Specifications: 1. = 0 – 2 Amps. i.When a hot body is kept in a still atmosphere. Length of the tube 3. = 7 and are shown as 1 to 7 and as marked on Temperature indicator switch. Temperature Indicator = 0 – 3000C. Heater Precautions: 1. Duct size 4. Never exceed 80 watts. = Cartridge type (400 watts) ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 22 . calibrated for chromel – alumel thermocouples. from 1 to 8 positions. 4. Diameter of the tube 2. = 500 mm. 5.e. Voltmeter 9. = 0 – 100 / 200 Volts. = 2 Amps. 6 reads the temperature of air in the duct.

h = average surface heat transfer coefficient As = Area of heat transfer surface = π x d x l w/m2 k m2 0 Ts = Average of surface Temperature = (T1 + T2 + T3 + T4 + T5 + T6 + T7) / 7 q = heat transfer rate w 0 C Ta = T8 Ambient temperature in duct. the constant A and n of equation have been determined and the following empirical correlation obtained. G = Acceleration due to gavity. hL / k = A { g L3 β ∆T Cp µ / 2 ν2}n Where. A and n are constants depending on the shape and orientation of the heat transferring surface. 0 K-1 ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 23 . L = A characteristic dimension of the surface.Formulae Used: 1. µ = Dynamic viscosity of fluid. ν = Kinematics viscosity of fluid. ∆T = Ts – Ta For gas. hL / k are called Nusselt Number. Where. β = Coefficient of volumetric expansion of the fluid. Cp = Specific heat of fluid. C L3 g β ∆T / ν2 is called Grashof number µCp / κ called Prandtl Number. 2. Heat transfer coefficient is given by h = q / {As (Ts – Ta)} Where. K = Thermal conductivity of fluid. β = 1/ (Tf + 273) Where Tf = (Ts + Ta )/ 2 For a vertical cylinder losing heat by natural convection.

Note the ambient temperature ( T8) 5.25 for 104 < Gr. L = Length of the cylinder.Pr.Pr.Pr)0.hL / k = 0. Procedure: 1. No Power V I T1 T2 Temperature of Thermocouple TS ( average) Ta 0 C T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 Results The surface heat transfer coefficient of a vertical tube losing water by natural convection is fount as Theoretical = ______________ w/ m2k Experimental = ______________ w/ m2k Faculty Signature: ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 24 .<1012 Here. Repeat the experiment at different heat inputs. 4. Wait till the fairly steady state is reached. 2. Tabulation: Input S.13 (Gr.<108 hL / k = 0. Put ON the supply and adjust the dimmerstat to obtain the required heat input. Note down surface temperatures at the various points. which is confirmed from temperature readings ( T1 to T7) 3.56 (Gr.Pr)1/3 for 108 < Gr.

Dimmerstat for (1) & (2) 0 – 2 Amps.Ex: No: Date: Aim : EMISSIVITY MEASUREMENT APPARATUS To measure the property of emissivity of the test plate surface at various temperature. 0 – 260 V ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 25 . The plates are mounted on brackets and are kept in an enclosure so as to provide undistributed natural convection surroundings. Plates (1) is blackened by a thick layer of lamp black to form the idealized black surface whereas the plate (2) is the test plate whose Emissivity is to be determined. = 0-2 Amps 8. Diameter of the plates (Aluminum) = V1 x I1 watts = V2 x I2 watts = 160 mm (Test plate and Black plate) 4. 5. The temperatures of the plates are measured by thermocouples. Heater input to test plate W2 3. Apparatus required: (i) Experimental setup (ii) Thermocouples (iii) U – tube manometer Theory: The experiment set up consists of two circular aluminum plates identical in size and are provided with heating coils sandwiched. The heat input to the heater is varied by separate Dimmerstats and is measured by using an ammeter and voltmeter with the help of double pole double throw switch. Heater input to black plate W1 2. Capacity of heater 6. Heater for (1) & (2) Nichrome strip wound on mica sheet and sandwiched between two mica sheets. Specifications: 1. Ammeter = 200 w each = 0 -100/200 V. Voltmeter 7.

See that the black plate is having a layer of lamp black uniformly. 2. 6. D. Temperature Indicator 12. 4. Do not disturb thermocouples while testing. Gradually increase the heater inputs. Keep the dimmerstat at zero position before switching ON the power supply.T switch Precautions: = 580 mm x 300 mm x 300 mm. W1 – W2 = (Eb – E) σ (Ts4 – Ta4) A Eb – E = (W1 – W2) / σ (Ts4 – Ta4) A E = Eb – {(W1 – W2) / σ (Ts4 – Ta4) A} Where. 3. 5. Formulae Used: Under steady state condition.P. Use proper voltage range on Voltmeter. = Chromel Alumel – 3 Nos. 1. W1 = Heater input to black plate W2 = Heater input to test plate A = area of plates T = Temperature of black plate. k Ta = Ambient temperature of enclosure Ts = surface temperature of the discs (or T1) Eb = Emissivity of black plate = 1 E = Emissivity of Test plate σ = Stefan boltzman constant = 5. Thermocouples 11. Operate selector switch of temperature indicator gently.D. Enclosure size 10. = 0 – 3000C.9.67 x 10-8 w/m2 k4 = V1 x I1 watts = V2 x I2 watts = 2 (π/4) xd2 m2 = (Ts + Ta) / 2 ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 26 .

Tabulation: Test Plate Sl. No V1 I1 T1 V2 Black Plate I2 T2 Enclosure Temp. The same procedure is repeated for various surface temperatures in increasing order. 30.Procedure: 1. This will require some trial and error and one has to wait sufficiently (more than one hour or so) to obtain the steady state condition. Faculty Signature: ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 27 . Gradually increase the input to the heater to black plate and adjust it to some value viz. 2. 75 watts. 35. Etc. 50. Check the temperature of the two plates with small time intervals and adjust the input of test plate only. (T3) Results: The Emissivity of the test plate surface is found to be _____________ . 4. Voltmeter and Ammeter readings for both the plates. 3. by the dimmerstat so that the two plates will be maintained at the same temperature. After attaining the steady state condition record the temperatures. 55 watts. 5. And adjust the heater input to test plate slightly less than the black plate 27.

The heater plate assembly together with cooling plates and specimen held in position ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 28 .5 and No. The primary and guard heater are made up of mica sheets in which is a would closely spaced Nichrome wire and packed with upper and lower mica sheets. Apparatus Required: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Experimental setup Thermocouple Ammeter Voltmeter Theory: The heater plate is surrounded by a heating ring for stabilizing the temperature of the primary heater and to prevent heat jobs radially around its edges. These heaters together form a flat which together with upper and lower copper plates and rings form the heater plate assembly. Two more thermocouples are used to check balance in both the heater inputs. Thermocouples No.Ex: No: Date: Aim: THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF GUARDED HOT PLATE METHOD To find the thermal conductivity of a given plate using two slab guarded hot plate method. 6 measure the temperature of the upper cooling plate and lower cooling plate respectively. Two thermocouples are used to measure the hot face temperature at the upper and lower central heater assembly copper plates. Specimens are held between the heater and cooling unit on each side of the apparatus.

Specifications: 1. Diameter of the specimen 8. (Chromel Alumel) = 375 mm x 375 mm (Approx) = 0 – 2000C. Voltmerter 15.by 3 vertical studs and nuts on a base plate are shown in the assembly drawing. Specimen thickness (L) 21. = 0 – 2 Amps. Inside diameter of the heating ring 4. Temperature indicator 19. Mean temperature range 9. = 2. Maximum thickness of the specimen 6. 14. = 0 – 2 Amps.5 mm = 12. Out side diameter of the heating ring 5. Maximum temperature of the hot plate 10. The cooling chamber is a composite assembly of grooved aluminum casting and aluminum cover with entry and exit adaptors for water inlet and outlet. Thermocouples 17.5 mm = Press wood. Width of gap between two heater plates (x) 20. Guarded Heater Ring: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 watts) 13. Width of the heating ring 3. Central Heater: Nichrome strip type sandwiched between mica sheets (400 watts) 12. = 180 mm 11. Minimum thickness of the specimen 7. = 1700C. Diameter of the cooling plates = 100 mm = 37 mm = 106 mm = 180 mm = 25 mm (12 mm) = 6 mm (12 mm) = 180 mm = 400C – 1000C. Ammeter 16. = 6 Nos.) – 240 Volts. ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 29 . Dimmerstat 2 Nos. Insulation Box 18. Specimen used = 0 – 100 / 200 V. Diameter of the heating plate 2.

the cooing water valve is open and enough cooling water is passed through the cooling plates 3. = V1 I1 = V2 I2 = (π/4) (10 + x)2 = (T1 + T2) / 2 = (T5 + T6) / 2 Cm2 0 0 C C = W1L / {2A(TL – Tc)} W/mk ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 30 . Keep the loosely filled insulation (Glass wool) packets gently and remove them slowly so that they do not disturb the thermocouples terminals and heater wires. uniformly touching the cooling plates. A 4. TL 5. Keep the heater plate undisturbed and adjust the cooling plates after keeping the samples with the help of nuts gently 5. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters and adjust the flow rate so that practically there is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid.Precautions: 1. Area. Keep dimmer stat to zero volt position before start. Increase the voltage gradually. Then the outer container is filled with loose fill insulation such as glass wool. Before switch ON the apparatus. 4. Central heater input (W1) 2. Tc 6. The specimens are placed on either side of the heating plate assembly. Guarded heater input (W2) 3. k Procedure: 1. 2. Formulae Used: 1. Give correct heat input to the Central and guarded plates for adjusting the immerstat switch. Switch ON the apparatus and Heat input to the Central and guarded heaters through separate single phase supply lines with dimmerstat. 2. 3. 4.

No V1 Central heater I1 T1 T2 V2 Guarded heater I2 T3 T4 Cooling Plate T5 T6 Result: Thus the experiment was done and thermal conductivity of given material was found to be k = ___________________ w /mk. Finally the final steady state values are taken for calculations.5. 6. The guarded heater input is adjusted in such a way that there is no radial heat flow which is checked from thermocouple readings and is adjusted accordingly. Tabulation: S. The input to the Central heater (Current and Voltage) and the thermocouples readings are recorded after every 10 minutes till a reasonably steady state condition is reached. 7. 8. The readings are recorded in the observation table. Faculty Signature: ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 31 .

Ex: No: Date: STEFAN BOLTSMAN APPARATUS Aim: To determine the Stefan Boltzman Constant by using boltzman apparatus. The disc D. The hemispherical shape of B is chosen solely on the grounds that it simplifies the task of draining water between B & C. Four chromel alumel thermocouples are attached to various points on surface of B to measure its mean temperature. ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 32 . When the disc is inserted at the temperature T5 ( T5 > T i. The thermocouple is mounted on the disc to study the rise of its temperature. which is mounted in an insulating bakelite sleeve S is fitted in a hole drilled in the centre of base plate A. A chromel alumel thermocouple is used to measure the temperature of D (T5). The outer surface of B is enclosed in a metal water jacket used to heat B to some suitable constant temperature. Apparatus Required: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Thermometer Electric Heater Stop watch Geyser water Theory: The apparatus is centered on flanged copper hemisphere B fixed on a flat nonconducting plate A.e the temperature of the enclosure ). the response of temperature change of disc with time is used to calculate the Stefan Boltzman constant. The base of S is conveniently supported from under side of A.

Immersion water heater of suitable capacity = 1.10C L. 12. Precautions: 1. Sleeve size. Formulae Used: 1. of thermocouples mounted on D = 4 Nos. Base plate.1 Kcal / kg C 9. s of the test disc = 200 mm = 240 mm = 44 mm = 20 mm = 0. No. No. Specific heat. Tank for hot water. 11.005 kg = 0. Test disc. 13. Hemispherical enclosure diameter 2. Suitable sized water jacket for hemisphere.C 0 .Specifications: 1. diameter 7.4 kw. of thermocouples mounted on B 10. diameter 5. bakelite diameter 4. Mass of test disc 8. 3. = 1 No.41868 Kj / Kg 0 0 C (or) 0. Fixing arrangement for sleeve 6. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters (geyser) and adjust the flow rate so that practically there is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid. to display temperature rise of the disc. Temperature indicator digital 0. Stefan Boltzman constant = σ = {mcp ( dT / dt)t = 0} / A ( Te4 – Ta4) ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 33 .2000C with buil-in cold junction compensation and a timer set for 5 sec.

The enclosure will soon come to thermal equilibrium conditions. The water in the tank by the immersion heater up to a temperature of about 900C. The hemispherical enclosure B and A will come to some uniform temperature T in short time after filling the hot water in the jacket. D is removed before pouring the hot water in the jacket. Temperature T in Y axis. ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 34 . 4. 5.Where. 3. T2. The disc D is now inserted in A at a time when its temperature is saying T5 (to be sensed by a separate thermocouple). Procedure: 1. 2. T3 & T4) Ta = Absorber temperature = T0 dT / dt find the slope from the graph. The disc. A = area of the disc Te = Emitter temperature (average of T1. The thermal inertia of hot water is quite adequate to present significant cooling in the time required to conduct the experiment. 6. and time t in X axis. The hot water is poured in the water jacket.

Tabulations: S. No T1 T2 T3 T4 T0 (T5) Time (Sec) Result: The Stefan Boltzman constant was found out to be = _______________________ m/m2k4. Faculty Signature: ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 35 .

COUNTER FLOW in which fluids flow in opposite direction.Ex: No: Date: PARALLEL FLOW COUNTER FLOW HEAT EXCHANGER Aim: To determine the values of effectiveness of heat exchanger for parallel and counter flow. Apparatus required: (i) (ii) (iii) Experimental Setup Stop watch Thermometer Theory: Heat exchangers are classified in three categories: 1. ii. In practice. Direct contact type. A transfer type of heat exchanger is one which both fluids pass simultaneously through the device and heat is transferred through separating walls. ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 36 . most of the heat exchangers used are transfer type one. iii. The transfer type exchangers are further classified accordant to flow arrangements as: i. Transfer type 2. PARRALLE FLOW in which fluids flow in the same direction. Storage type 3. CROSS FLOW in which fluids flow at right angles to each other.

5 mm = 33.5 mm 2. Specifications: 1. Start the cooling circuit before switching ON the heaters (geyser) and adjust the flow rate so that practically there is no temperature rise in the circuiting fluid. = 27.2 Nos.8 mm = 1650 mm = 0 – 500C . Measuring flask 8. Geyser: single phase type to obtain hot water supply 9. Thermometers (for cold water) 6. ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 37 . = 0 – 1000C .I Internal diameter (O.D) 4. Inner tube material – copper Internal diameter (I. Thermo Cole insulation for outer pipe.I Internal diameter (I. Precautions: 1. The hot fluid is not water which is obtained from an electric geyser and it flows through the inner tube while the cold fluid is cold water flowing through the annulus. Length of the heat exchanger (L) 5. Outer tube material – G. Inner tube material – copper Internal diameter (O. This is done by valve operations.D) 3. Thermometers (for hot water) 7. The hot water flows always in one direction and the flow rate is controlled by means of a gate vale.The apparatus consist of a tube in tube type concentric tube heat exchanger. The cold water can be admitted at one of the ends enabling the heat exchanger to run as a parallel flow apparatus or a counter flow apparatus. = 0 – 1000 CC.D) = 10. Outer tube material – G.D) 2.2 Nos.5 mm = 12.

∆To) / In (∆Ti/∆To) Where. E = Qα / {mcp (Thi – Tci)} w Where. Effectivesness. D = inlet diameter of the outer tube d = outlet diameter of the inner tube L = Length of the tube 2. m = mass flow rate Cp = Specific heat of capacity Tco = Temperature of cold water inlet Tci = Temperature of cold water outlet 4.187 kJ/kg -k Thi = Temperature of hot water inlet Tho = Temperature of hot water outlet 3. Heat transferred from hot water Where. ∆To = Tho – Tco ∆Ti = Thi – Tci ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 38 . ρ = density of water and t = time taken for hot water Cp = Specific heat of capacity 4. Heat transfer from cold water Qc = mcp (Tco – Tci) w Where. Logarithmic mean temperature difference( L M T D) ∆Tm = (∆Ti . m = mass flow rate Qa = mcp (Thi – Tho) w kg/ sec. Area of the pipe Where. Qα = (Qa + Qc) / 2 5.Formulae Used: (Parralle flow & Counter flow) A = π (D – d) L 1. m = ρv/t.

Keeping the flow rates same. Adjust the flow rate on hot water side. Start the flow on hot water side. Over all heat transfer coefficient h = Qα / ∆Tm A w/m2k where Qα = (Qa + Qc) / 2 Procedure: 1. 8. 5. Correct the temperatures by suitable correction obtained from initial readings of thermometers. 3. Adjust the flow rate on cold water side between ranges of 3 to 8 L/min. 9. ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 39 . 2. 6.5 to 4 L/min. 10. 7. Record the temperatures on hot water and cold water side and also the flow rates accurately. Repeat the experiment with a counter flow under identical flow conditions. This is required to correct the temperature. between the ranges of 1. Put ON the geyser. Place the thermometers in position and note down their readings when they are at room temperature and no water is flowing at either side. wait till the steady state conditions are reached.6. 4. Start the flow through annulus and run the exchanger as parallel flow unit.

Cold Fluid 0 C of hot fluid kg/sec Parallel flow Thi (T1) (Tho T2) Thi (T3) (Tho T4) Time for collection of cold fluid kg/sec 1 2 Counter flow Result: 1. Faculty Signature: ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 40 .Tabulations: Time for S. 2. Over all heat exchanger (heat transfer coefficient) (i) (ii) Parallel flow = ________ . The values of effectiveness of heat exchanger were found as (i) (ii) Parallel flow = ________ . Counter flow = _________ . No collection Flow Hot Fluid 0 C. Counter flow = _________ .

The chilled water calorimeter consisting of a refrigerated stainless steel vessel placed inside an insulated wooden box and provided with (i) Evaporative coil. 2. indicator and isolating valve (iii) Drier cum strainer and sight glass. The front panel of the test rig consist of (i) Capillary expansion tube with isolation valve. solenoid switch. ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 41 . Apparatus Required: (i) Thermometer (ii) Electric Heater (iii) Stop watch (iv) Experimental setup Description: 1. (ii) Thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid thermostat. (ii) Stirrer. 3. (v) A high temperature thermostat and (vi) A thermometer to measure the temperature of chilled water. (iii) Electric heater. (v) Pressure gauge at inlet and outlet of evaporator and condenser. The above unit is located on the trolley behind front panel.(vi) Main switch and compressor safety high pressure / low pressure (HP/LP) cut-out. (iv) Sensing bulb of a low temperature thermostat. (viii) Energy meter to measure the power consumed eithr by hater or by compressor. (vii) Heat power regulator switch and regulator. (iii) Cooling fan for condenser and (iv) Liquid receiver. (iv) Thermostat at inlet and outlet of both evaporator and condenser.Ex: No: Date: REFRIGERATION TEST RIG Aim: To conduct a load test on refrigeration test rig and determine the coefficient of performance of refrigeration system. condenser unit placed inside trolley and fitted with (i) Freon-12 (CCI2F2) reciprocating compressor (ii) Air cooled condenser. The test rig consist of compressor.

A. Stirrer 7.Specifications: A. Evaporator coil 6. A compressor condenser unit placed inside trolley and fitted with 1. Freon-12 reciprocating compressor 2. 12. 0. Main switch and compressor safety high pressure / low pressure (HP/LP) cut-out 17. Electric heater 230 V. Heat power regulator switch and regulator 18. A high temperature thermostat. indicator and isolating valve 13.5 hp. 9. Condenser 3. Thermostat at inlet and outlet of both evaporator and condenser 15.S vessel of ample capacity placed inside a well insulated wooden box and provided with 5. Capillary expansion tube with isolating valve. single phase capacitor start induction motor with condenser cooling fan 4. Pressure gauge at inlet and outlet of evaporator and condenser 16. 10. The sensing bulb of low temperature thermostat. Thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid thermostat. Drier cum strainer and sight glass 14. A Thermometer to measure the chilled water temperature C) The front panel on which are mounted the following 11. A receiver with angle check valve B) Chilled water calorimeter consisting of a refrigerated S. ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 42 . 8. solenoid switch. Energy meter to measure the power consumed either by hater or by compressor.C. 220 V.

The heater regulator should be switched off whenever not in use. The space near the condenser should permit good ventilation to aid proper fan performance. Reliable pressure gauges for Freon-12 use. to cut off the heater beyond 300C. ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 43 . The solenoid thermostat is adjusted to cut at 150C and cut in at 100C of the chilled water. Do not alter the same.Check the setting of the same before operation. 3. 4.7 and dividing by 145 to obtain the pressure in MN/m2. Heating water beyond 400C may lead to permanent damage of the entire system. Hence the reading should be converted into absolute (psia) units by adding 14.Precautions: 1.e. 7. The (low pressure) LP cut-off is adjusted to cut on reading 10 psig. Make sure that the three pin main cable is properly earthed to avoid any electrical shocks.g. 6. 5. 2. are not available. Do not alter this setting. The water in the chiller is to be stirred properly for some time before taking readings T4 & T5. A high temperature cut off thermostat is provided in the water chiller. P = x psig = (x + 14. The (high pressure) HP cut-off is adjusted to cut at 280 psig.7) / 145 MN/m2 (MPa) 10.) 9. 8. The same has to be rewired if blown of. Do not alter this setting. The main switch contains a fuse unit inside. calibrated in SI units. The pressure gauges used are calibrated in psig: (the corresponding saturation temperature are marked in 0 F on the dial for Freon-22 and is irrelevant here.7) psia = (x + 14.

Actual C. State 1 indicates the entry of compressor.P = (h1 – h4) / (h2 – h1) 7. State 4 indicates the entry to evaporator P = Pressure (bar) T = Temperature (0C) H = Specific enthalpy (KJ/Kg) v = Specific Volume (m3/kg) n = Number of revolutions of energy meter disc. Pc = (P2 + P3) / 2 3.58 x 10-6 m3 1.P = Heater input / Compressor input = Qe / W = t2 / t1 ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 44 . W = (n / t2) x (3600 / k) 6. i.. m = Qe / (h1 – h4) kg/s bar bar kW kW 5.O.Formulae Used: Let. Refrigeration flow rate. Qe = (n / t1) x (3600 / k) 4. Average evaporator pressure. Average condenser pressure. Heater input. Theoretical C. Compressor input. State 2 indicates the exit of compressor.O. State 3 indicates the exit from condenser.e. s1 = s2 h3 = Specific enthalpy at Pc and T3 (kJ/kg) h4 = h3 Stroke volume of compressor = (π/ 4) d2l = 12. t1 = Time taken for ‘n’ revolutions of energy meter disc for heater (sec) t2 = Time taken for ‘n’ revolutions of energy meter disc for compressor (sec) K = Energy meter constant = 3200 lmp / kWh N = Speed of compressor = 2840 rpm h1 = Specific enthalpy of vapour at Pe and T1 (kJ/kg) h2 = Specific enthalpy at Pc and T2 (kJ/kg) assuming isomeric compression. Pe = (P1 + P4) / 2 2.

2. 3. Note down the pressure and temperature readings at locations 1. Select the capillary tube line by opening the shut-off valve on this line and closing the one on the thermostatic expansion valve line. Fill the chilled water calorimeter with pure water so that the evaporative coils are fully immersed. 6.3 & 4 as mentioned. Load Test with Capillary tube as expansion device: 1. Fill the chilled water calorimeter with pure water so that the evaporative coils are fully immersed. Select the thermostatic expansion valve line by opening the shit-off valve on this line and closing the one on the capillary line. Start the compressor and run for some time so that the chilled water temperature is lowered to the given test temperature. Switch on the heater and slowly increase the power. 3. 2. Note down the pressure and temperature readings at locations 1. The solenoid switch is switched ON. The solenoid switch is switched OFF. Load test with Thermostatic Expansion valve as expansion device: 1.Procedure: I.2. 4. 8. 3 & 4 as mentioned. ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 45 . 2. 7. 5. Connect energy meter to motor and heater by the selector switch one after another and note down the time taken for 10 pulses of the energy meter disc. Switch OFF the heater and the mains. The temperature in water calorimeter is allowed to reach the equilibrium temperature. The temperature in water calorimeter is allowed to reach the equilibrium temperature. Start the compressor and run for some time so that the chilled water temperature is lowered to the given test temperature. Switch OFF the heater and the mains. 5. 8. Switch on the heater and slowly increase the power. Connect energy meter to motor and heater by the selector switch one after another and note down the time taken for 10 pulses of the energy meter disc. 6. 7. II. 4.

P P1 P2 P3 kW kW Theoretical ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 46 . No temperature of water (0C) Pressure (Bar) Temperature (0C) P4 T1 T2 T3 T4 Specific enthalpy (kJ/kg) h1 h2 h3 h4 Pressure (Bar) Pc Pe Time (Sec) t1 t2 Qe W Actual C.O. No temperature of water (0C) Pressure (Bar) Temperature (0C) P4 T1 T2 T3 T4 Specific enthalpy (kJ/kg) h1 h2 h3 h4 Pressure (Bar) Pc Pe Time (Sec) t1 t2 Qe W Actual C.P P1 P2 P3 kW kW Theoretical Observation Table: II Expansion Device = Thermostatic Expansion (Solenoid) Amps: ------------.O. Volts: ____________ Equilibrium S.Observation Table: I Expansion Device = Capillary tube Amps: ------------. Volts: ____________ Equilibrium S.

Volumetric Efficiency =____________. Faculty Signature: ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 47 . of the system 3. 1.O. Rhetorical C. Actual C.P. = ___________.Result: The load test on a refrigeration test rig was conducted and the results are as follows. = ___________.P.O. of the system 2.

after sprayer or before cooing coil. 2. Apparatus Required: (i) Thermometer (ii) Electric Heater (iii) Stop watch (iv) Digital anemometer (v) Experimental setup Description: The test rig consist of 1. 4.e. A Blower to set up air flow through the duct along with a speed control to vary the velocity of air. after cooling coil). (iii) Cooling fan for condenser and (iv) Liquid receiver. An air duct support of stand 2. Water spray. (i. reservoir with gauge pump. The test rig consist of compressor. 3. collecting tray.3 &4. of refrigeration system. ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 48 . Wet and dry bulb bi-metallic dial type thermometer at stations 1.O. condenser unit placed inside trolley and fitted with (i) Freon-12 (CCI2F2) reciprocating compressor (ii) Air cooled condenser. after heater or before sprayer.P.Ex: No: Date: AIR CONDITIONING TEST RIG Aim: To conduct a performance test on air conditioning test rig and determine the C. before heater. 5. A heater to rise the air temperature with regulator and energy meter.. 4.

fan and cooling air from other test rigs are directly incline with the duct. otherwise the duct will be damaged. get heated up and the coils may be burnt up. 3. 7. Do not operate heater without operating cooler also. 2. Any cross currents should only aid the condenser fan and should not oppose it as otherwise the delivery pressure of the refrigerating systems will increase beyond 240 psi. If necessary use a stabilizer of 2 kw only for the motor circuit. 4. Do not open the gate valve fully otherwise water may be splashed outside and the waster measurement may be in error. Never exceed dry bulb temperatures of 400C after the heater (station 2) otherwise the air duct may be damaged. 6. Natural air currents in the room if in the direction of air duct may defect the experimental results and hence the duct should be placed such that no wind from doors. After completing experiments always allow the fan only to operate for at least 15 minutes so that their duct is cooled to room temperature and is also dried. otherwise pump seals will be damaged. Never run the pump without water in the reservoir. 8. 5. In case of low voltage motor may be overloaded. otherwise the vapour pressure thermometer may exceed its maximum of 320C and calibration may be affected. This may have to the cleaned when necessary. Hence avoid operation at voltage less than 220 V.Precautions: 1. ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 49 . Fan is connected to the main switch so that it is always in operation. Never operate when fan is not running this will lead to rise in temperature at the heater and may damage the heater and the air duct. windows. A strainer is placed inside the reservoir at the top.

9. 13. If the low pressure cut out comes in to action.. 10. If it cools and moisture condenser on it. ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 50 . After some months of operation the compressor may have to be topped up with oil and some quantity of Freon-22 may have to be charged by an experienced mechanics. These thermometers will show correct readings only when the fan is in operation. See that distilled water is filled up in the plastic dishes provided under the wet bulb thermometers and that the wicks are in tact otherwise erroneous readings may be obtained. Corresponding to the dry and wet bulb temperature at all the stations obtain the specific enthalpy and specific humidity values from psychrometric chart. 11. however if the room temperature is above 250C the condenser may be heated up and the delivery pressure may rise. Pour one or two glasses of drinking water over the fins of the condenser in order to reduce the delivery pressure. Do not exceed 240 psi. The refrigerating system can work continuously for 2 hours.e. i. The suction pressure should never go below 2 psi as otherwise the compressor seals will be damaged and air and moisture may enter the system. then the strainer might have to be charged by an experienced refrigeration mechanics. it means that the Freon charge is insufficient and may have to be filled up. h1 and w1 at tb1 and tw1 and so on. 12. The refrigerant strainer placed on the front panel should always be warm. 14. Formulae Used: 1. The inside of air duct and all metal parts should be painted at least once a year to avoid moisture and corrosion damage.

A = Area of duct at outlet in m2 (0. mw1 = ma (w3-w2) kg / sec. mcl = ma (w3 – w4) Where.46 m x 0. Where.P = Cooling effect produced on air / Compressor power. of pulses of energy meter disc t = Time taken for ‘n’ no. Moisture added from psychrometric chart. Cooling effect produced on air. kJ/kg kJ/kg kg/sec ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 51 . h1 = Specific enthalpy at station 1 h2 = Specific enthalpy at station 2 Where.O. w3 = Specific humidity at station 3 w2 = Specific humidity at station 2 5. of pulses (sec) 4. Heat added.2. n = No. Air flow rate. ma = (A x V) / v4 V = Air velocity ( m / sec) kg / sec Where. kW. Draw the psychrometric process. h3 = Specific enthalpy at state 3 h4 = Specific enthalpy at state 4 8. Q1 = ma (h2 – h1) kW kJ/kg kJ/kg Where. k = Energy meter constant (3200 lmp / kW-hr) 6. Moisture condensed. Compressor power.086 m) V4 = Specific volume of moist air at station 4 using psychrometric chart m3/kg 3. 7. Qe = ma (h3 – h4) Where. W = (n / t) x (3600 / k) kW. w3 = Specific humidity at station 3 w4 = Specific humidity at station 4 9. Actual C.

Start the blower and run it the required speed by keeping the speed regulator at position. tdb3. Start the main. ts Surface temperature of cooler. twb3. Start the spray pump and open the gate valve suitably. 2. Start the heater. (ix) Time in second ‘SH’ for 10 pulses of the energy meter disc connected to the heater. Start the cooling compressor. in a measuring jar at cooler tray during a run of 5 minutes at constant conditions. 6. 4. ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 52 . twb4. 3. Pressure gauge reading.O. wait for some time till thermometers shown practically constant readings and note down the following readings: (i) Dry bulb temperatures tdb1. Compound gauge reading.P of the refrigeration system is to be found out. tdb2. Fill water in the wet bulb temperature probe trays. (viii) Amount of condensate collected ‘lc’. tm ( at control panel) pd ( at control panel) Ps ( at control panel) Level reduction’l’ in spray reservoir (mm) during 5 min. Select the expansion device (Capillary tube / Thermostatic expansion valve) 7. 8. twb2. 5. tdb4. (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Spray water temperature.Procedure: 1. (x) Time in seconds Sc for 10 pulses of the energy meter disc connected to cooler compressor if C. (ii) Wet bulb temperatures twb1.

then switch off the spray and repeat as above.4 & 5). Caution: Heater regulator should not be adjusted beyond the position where dry bulb temperature at station 2 may exceed 400C.3. 9. (xii) Mean velocity of air at outlet duct using digital anemometer. (xiii) Switch OFF all the mains. If the atmosphere is cool.2. If more readings are required for cooling below dew point and dehumidification switch off heater and repeat procedure. Repeat the above procedures for four more different settings of the fan Regulator (Position 1. ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 53 . If sensible cooling range is narrow.(xi) Time taken for 10 pulses of energy meter disc for compressor. the heater may be set for greater dissipation.

V (m/s) Mean velocity Vm (m/s) Specific enthalpy (kJ/kg) Sp. No Station1 (0C) Station2 (0C) Station3 (0C) Station4 (0C) Velocity of moist air. W kW C. Volts: ____________ S. Qc kW Compr essor power.O.P S. Volume V4 Mass flow rate. V (m/s) Mean velocity Vm (m/s) Specific enthalpy (kJ/kg) Sp. m (kg/s) Heat added. Volume V4 Mass flow rate. Qc kW Compr essor power. W kW C.P tdb1 twb1 tdb2 twb2 tdb3 twb3 tdb4 twb4 h1 h2 h3 h4 (m3/kg) ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 54 . Volts: ____________ Velocity of moist air. m (kg/s) Heat added.Observation Table: I Expansion Device = Capillary tube Amps: ------------. No Station1 (0C) Station2 (0C) Station3 (0C) Station4 (0C) tdb1 twb1 tdb2 twb2 tdb3 twb3 tdb4 twb4 h1 h2 h3 h4 (m3/kg) Observation Table: II Expansion Device = Thermostatic Expansion (Solenoid) Amps: ------------.O. Q1 kW Cooling effect produce d. Q1 kW Cooling effect produce d.

Actual C.O.P of the system = ______________ .Result: The Load test on the AIR CONDITIONING TEST RIG was conducted and the results are as follows. 1. Faculty Signature: ME 1355 VI Semester Thermal Engineering Lab Manual 55 .