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com
1300 Math Formulas






























ISBN 9949107741

Copyright © 2004 A.Svirin. All Rights Reserved.
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ii
Preface
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iii
Contents




1 NUMBER SETS
1.1 Set Identities 1
1.2 Sets of Numbers 5
1.3 Basic Identities 7
1.4 Complex Numbers 8

2 AIGEBRA
2.1 Factoring Formulas 12
2.2 Product Formulas 13
2.3 Powers 14
2.4 Roots 15
2.5 Iogarithms 16
2.6 Equations 18
2.7 Inequalities 19
2.8 Compound Interest Formulas 22



3 GEOMETRY
3.1 Right Triangle 24
3.2 Isosceles Triangle 27
3.3 Equilateral Triangle 28
3.4 Scalene Triangle 29
3.5 Square 33
3.6 Rectangle 34
3.7 Parallelogram 35
3.8 Rhombus 36
3.9 Trapezoid 37
3.10 Isosceles Trapezoid 38
3.11 Isosceles Trapezoid with Inscribed Circle 40
3.12 Trapezoid with Inscribed Circle 41
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iv
3.13 Kite 42
3.14 Cyclic Quadrilateral 43
3.15 Tangential Quadrilateral 45
3.16 General Quadrilateral 46
3.17 Regular Hexagon 47
3.18 Regular Polygon 48
3.19 Circle 50
3.20 Sector of a Circle 53
3.21 Segment of a Circle 54
3.22 Cube 55
3.23 Rectangular Parallelepiped 56
3.24 Prism 57
3.25 Regular Tetrahedron 58
3.26 Regular Pyramid 59
3.27 Frustum of a Regular Pyramid 61
3.28 Rectangular Right Wedge 62
3.29 Platonic Solids 63
3.30 Right Circular Cylinder 66
3.31 Right Circular Cylinder with an Oblique Plane Face 68
3.32 Right Circular Cone 69
3.33 Frustum of a Right Circular Cone 70
3.34 Sphere 72
3.35 Spherical Cap 72
3.36 Spherical Sector 73
3.37 Spherical Segment 74
3.38 Spherical Wedge 75
3.39 Ellipsoid 76
3.40 Circular Torus 78

4 TRIGONOMETRY
4.1 Radian and Degree Measures of Angles 80
4.2 Definitions and Graphs of Trigonometric Functions 81
4.3 Signs of Trigonometric Functions 86
4.4 Trigonometric Functions of Common Angles 87
4.5 Most Important Formulas 88
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4.6 Reduction Formulas 89
4.7 Periodicity of Trigonometric Functions 90
4.8 Relations between Trigonometric Functions 90
4.9 Addition and Subtraction Formulas 91
4.10 Double Angle Formulas 92
4.11 Multiple Angle Formulas 93
4.12 Half Angle Formulas 94
4.13 Half Angle Tangent Identities 94
4.14 Transforming of Trigonometric Expressions to Product 95
4.15 Transforming of Trigonometric Expressions to Sum 97
4.16 Powers of Trigonometric Functions 98
4.17 Graphs of Inverse Trigonometric Functions 99
4.18 Principal Values of Inverse Trigonometric Functions 102
4.19 Relations between Inverse Trigonometric Functions 103
4.20 Trigonometric Equations 106
4.21 Relations to Hyperbolic Functions 106

5 MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
5.1 Determinants 107
5.2 Properties of Determinants 109
5.3 Matrices 110
5.4 Operations with Matrices 111
5.5 Systems of Iinear Equations 114

6 VECTORS
6.1 Vector Coordinates 118
6.2 Vector Addition 120
6.3 Vector Subtraction 122
6.4 Scaling Vectors 122
6.5 Scalar Product 123
6.6 Vector Product 125
6.7 Triple Product 127

7 ANAIYTIC GEOMETRY
7.1 One -Dimensional Coordinate System 130
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vi
7.2 Two -Dimensional Coordinate System 131
7.3 Straight Iine in Plane 139
7.4 Circle 149
7.5 Ellipse 152
7.6 Hyperbola 154
7.7 Parabola 158
7.8 Three -Dimensional Coordinate System 161
7.9 Plane 165
7.10 Straight Iine in Space 175
7.11 Quadric Surfaces 180
7.12 Sphere 189

8 DIFFERENTIAI CAICUIUS
8.1 Functions and Their Graphs 191
8.2 Iimits of Functions 208
8.3 Definition and Properties of the Derivative 209
8.4 Table of Derivatives 211
8.5 Higher Order Derivatives 215
8.6 Applications of Derivative 217
8.7 Differential 221
8.8 Multivariable Functions 222
8.9 Differential Operators 225

9 INTEGRAI CAICUIUS
9.1 Indefinite Integral 227
9.2 Integrals of Rational Functions 228
9.3 Integrals of Irrational Functions 231
9.4 Integrals of Trigonometric Functions 237
9.5 Integrals of Hyperbolic Functions 241
9.6 Integrals of Exponential and Iogarithmic Functions 242
9.7 Reduction Formulas 243
9.8 Definite Integral 247
9.9 Improper Integral 253
9.10 Double Integral 257
9.11 Triple Integral 269
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vii
9.12 Iine Integral 275
9.13 Surface Integral 285

10 DIFFERENTIAI EQUATIONS
10.1 First Order Ordinary Differential Equations 295
10.2 Second Order Ordinary Differential Equations 298
10.3 Some Partial Differential Equations 302

11 SERIES
11.1 Arithmetic Series 304
11.2 Geometric Series 305
11.3 Some Finite Series 305
11.4 Infinite Series 307
11.5 Properties of Convergent Series 307
11.6 Convergence Tests 308
11.7 Alternating Series 310
11.8 Power Series 311
11.9 Differentiation and Integration of Power Series 312
11.10 Taylor and Maclaurin Series 313
11.11 Power Series Expansions for Some Functions 314
11.12 Binomial Series 316
11.13 Fourier Series 316

12 PROBABIIITY
12.1 Permutations and Combinations 318
12.2 Probability Formulas 319




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1
Chapt er 1
Number Sets




1.1 Set Identities

Sets: A, B, C
Universal set: I
Complement : A


Proper subset: B A⊂
Empty set: ∅
Union of sets: B A∪
Intersection of sets: B A∩
Difference of sets: B \ A


1. I A⊂

2. A A⊂

3. B A = if B A⊂ and A B⊂ .

4. Empty Set
A ⊂ ∅

5. Union of Sets
{ } B x or A x | x B A C ∈ ∈ = ∪ =

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CHAPTER 1. NUMBER SETS
2


Figure 1.

6. Commutativity
A B B A ∪ = ∪

7. Associativity
( ) ( ) C B A C B A ∪ ∪ = ∪ ∪

8. Intersection of Sets
{ } B x and A x | x B A C ∈ ∈ = ∪ =



Figure 2.

9. Commutativity
A B B A ∩ = ∩

10. Associativity
( ) ( ) C B A C B A ∩ ∩ = ∩ ∩

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CHAPTER 1. NUMBER SETS
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11. Distributivity
( ) ( ) ( ) C A B A C B A ∪ ∩ ∪ = ∩ ∪ ,
( ) ( ) ( ) C A B A C B A ∩ ∪ ∩ = ∪ ∩ .

12. Idempotency
A A A = ∩ ,
A A A = ∪

13. Domination
∅ = ∅ ∩ A ,
I I A = ∪

14. Identity
A A = ∅ ∪ ,
A I A = ∩

15. Complement
{ } A x | I x A ∉ ∈ = ′


16. Complement of Intersection and Union
I A A =

∪ ,
∅ = ′ ∩A A

17. De Morgan∞s Iaws
( ) B A B A ′ ∩ ′ =

∪ ,
( ) B A B A



=



18. Difference of Sets
{ } A x and B x | x A \ B C ∉ ∈ = =

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CHAPTER 1. NUMBER SETS
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Figure 3.

19. ( ) B A \ B A \ B ∩ =

20. A B A \ B ′ ∩ =

21. ∅ = A \ A

22. A B \ A = if ∅ = ∩B A .



Figure 4.

23. ( ) ( ) ( ) C B \ C A C B \ A ∩ ∩ = ∩

24. A \ I A = ′

25. Cartesian Product
( ) { } B y and A x | y , x B A C ∈ ∈ = × =


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CHAPTER 1. NUMBER SETS
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1.2 Sets of Numbers

Natural numbers: N
Whole numbers:
0
N
Integers: Z
Positive integers:
+
Z
Negative integers:

Z
Rational numbers: Q
Real numbers: R
Complex numbers: C


26. Natural Numbers
Counting numbers: { } K , 3 , 2 , 1 N= .

27. Whole Numbers
Counting numbers and zero: { } K , 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 N
0
= .

28. Integers
Whole numbers and their opposites and zero:
{ } K , 3 , 2 , 1 N Z = =
+
,
{ } 1 , 2 , 3 , Z − − − =

K ,
{ } { } K K , 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 , 1 , 2 , 3 , Z 0 Z Z − − − = ∪ ∪ =
+ −
.

29. Rational Numbers
Repeating or terminating decimals:
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
≠ ∈ ∈ = = 0 b and Z b and Z a and
b
a
x | x Q .

30. Irrational Numbers
Nonrepeating and nonterminating decimals.

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CHAPTER 1. NUMBER SETS
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31. Real Numbers
Union of rational and irrational numbers: R.

32. Complex Numbers
{ } R y and R x | iy x C ∈ ∈ + = ,
where i is the imaginary unit.

33. C R Q Z N ⊂ ⊂ ⊂ ⊂



Figure 5.






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CHAPTER 1. NUMBER SETS
7
1.3 Basic Identities

Real numbers: a, b, c


34. Additive Identity
a 0 a = +

35. Additive Inverse
( ) 0 a a = − +

36. Commutative of Addition
a b b a + = +

37. Associative of Addition
( ) ( ) c b a c b a + + = + +

38. Definition of Subtraction
( ) b a b a − + = −

39. Multiplicative Identity
a 1 a = ⋅

40. Multiplicative Inverse
1
a
1
a = ⋅ , 0 a ≠

41. Multiplication Times 0
0 0 a = ⋅

42. Commutative of Multiplication
a b b a ⋅ = ⋅


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CHAPTER 1. NUMBER SETS
8
43. Associative of Multiplication
( ) ( ) c b a c b a ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅

44. Distributive Iaw
( ) ac ab c b a + = +

45. Definition of Division
b
1
a
b
a
⋅ =



1.4 Complex Numbers

Natural number: n
Imaginary unit: i
Complex number: z
Real part: a, c
Imaginary part: bi, di
Modulus of a complex number: r,
1
r ,
2
r
Argument of a complex number: ϕ,
1
ϕ ,
2
ϕ


i i
1
= i i
5
= i i
1 n 4
=
+

1 i
2
− = 1 i
6
− = 1 i
2 n 4
− =
+

i i
3
− = i i
7
− = i i
3 n 4
− =
+

46.
1 i
4
= 1 i
8
= 1 i
n 4
=

47. bi a z + =

48. Complex Plane

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CHAPTER 1. NUMBER SETS
9


Figure 6.

49. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )i d b c a di c bi a + + + = + + +

50. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )i d b c a di c bi a − + − = + − +

51. ( )( ) ( ) ( )i bc ad bd ac di c bi a + + − = + +

52. i
d c
ad bc
d c
bd ac
di c
bi a
2 2 2 2

+

+
+
+
=
+
+


53. Coniugate Complex Numbers
bi a bi a
_______
− = +

54. ϕ = cos r a , ϕ = sin r b

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CHAPTER 1. NUMBER SETS
10


Figure 7.

55. Polar Presentation of Complex Numbers
( ) ϕ + ϕ = + sin i cos r bi a

56. Modulus and Argument of a Complex Number
If bi a + is a complex number, then
2 2
b a r + = (modulus),
a
b
arctan = ϕ (argument).

57. Product in Polar Representation
( ) ( )
2 2 2 1 1 1 2 1
sin i cos r sin i cos r z z ϕ + ϕ ⋅ ϕ + ϕ = ⋅
( ) ( ) | |
2 1 2 1 2 1
sin i cos r r ϕ + ϕ + ϕ + ϕ =

58. Coniugate Numbers in Polar Representation
( ) ( ) ( ) | | ϕ − + ϕ − = ϕ + ϕ sin i cos r sin i cos r
_ __________ __________


59. Inverse of a Complex Number in Polar Representation
( )
( ) ( ) | | ϕ − + ϕ − =
ϕ + ϕ
sin i cos
r
1
sin i cos r
1

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CHAPTER 1. NUMBER SETS
11
60. Quotient in Polar Representation
( )
( )
( ) ( ) | |
2 1 2 1
2
1
2 2 2
1 1 1
2
1
sin i cos
r
r
sin i cos r
sin i cos r
z
z
ϕ − ϕ + ϕ − ϕ =
ϕ + ϕ
ϕ + ϕ
=

61. Power of a Complex Number
( ) | | ( ) ( ) | | ϕ + ϕ = ϕ + ϕ = n sin i n cos r sin i cos r z
n
n
n


62. Formula °De Moivre≤
( ) ( ) ( ) ϕ + ϕ = ϕ + ϕ n sin i n cos sin i cos
n


63. Nth Root of a Complex Number
( )
|
.
|

\
|
π + ϕ
+
π + ϕ
= ϕ + ϕ =
n
k 2
sin i
n
k 2
cos r sin i cos r z
n
n
n
,
where
1 n , , 2 , 1 , 0 k − = K .

64. Euler∞s Formula
x sin i x cos e
ix
+ =


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12
Chapt er 2
Algebra




2.1 Factoring Formulas

Real numbers: a, b, c
Natural number: n


65. ( )( ) b a b a b a
2 2
− + = −

66. ( )( )
2 2 3 3
b ab a b a b a + + − = −

67. ( )( )
2 2 3 3
b ab a b a b a + − + = +

68. ( )( ) ( )( )( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4
b a b a b a b a b a b a + + − = + − = −

69. ( )( )
4 3 2 2 3 4 5 5
b ab b a b a a b a b a + + + + − = −

70. ( )( )
4 3 2 2 3 4 5 5
b ab b a b a a b a b a + − + − + = +

71. If n is odd, then
( )( )
1 n 2 n 2 3 n 2 n 1 n n n
b ab b a b a a b a b a
− − − − −
+ − − + − + = + K .

72. If n is even, then
( )( )
1 n 2 n 2 3 n 2 n 1 n n n
b ab b a b a a b a b a
− − − − −
+ + + + + − = − K ,
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CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
13
( )( )
1 n 2 n 2 3 n 2 n 1 n n n
b ab b a b a a b a b a
− − − − −
− + − + − + = + K .



2.2 Product Formulas
Real numbers: a, b, c
Whole numbers: n, k


73. ( )
2 2 2
b ab 2 a b a + − = −

74. ( )
2 2 2
b ab 2 a b a + + = +

75. ( )
3 2 2 3 3
b ab 3 b a 3 a b a − + − = −

76. ( )
3 2 2 3 3
b ab 3 b a 3 a b a + + + = +

77. ( )
4 3 2 2 3 4 4
b ab 4 b a 6 b a 4 a b a + − + − = −

78. ( )
4 3 2 2 3 4 4
b ab 4 b a 6 b a 4 a b a + + + + = +

79. Binomial Formula
( ) , b C ab C b a C b a C a C b a
n
n
n 1 n
1 n
n 2 2 n
2
n 1 n
1
n n
0
n
n
+ + + + + = +


− −
K
where
( )! k n ! k
! n
C
k
n

= are the binomial coefficients.

80. ( ) bc 2 ac 2 ab 2 c b a c b a
2 2 2 2
+ + + + + = + +

81. ( ) + + + + + + = + + + + +
2 2 2 2 2 2
v u c b a v u c b a K K
( ) uv bv bu bc av au ac ab 2 + + + + + + + + + + + K K K
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CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
14
2.3 Powers

Bases (positive real numbers): a, b
Powers (rational numbers): n, m


82.
n m n m
a a a
+
=

83.
n m
n
m
a
a
a

=

84. ( )
m m
m
b a ab =

85.
m
m
m
b
a
b
a
=
|
.
|

\
|


86. ( )
mn
n
m
a a =

87. 1 a
0
= , 0 a ≠

88. 1 a
1
=

89.
m
m
a
1
a =



90.
n m
n
m
a a =





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CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
15
2.4 Roots

Bases: a, b
Powers (rational numbers): n, m
0 b , a ≥ for even roots ( k 2 n = , N k∈ )


91.
n n n
b a ab =

92.
nm n m
m n
b a b a =

93.
n
n
n
b
a
b
a
= , 0 b ≠

94.
nm
n
m
nm n
nm m
m
n
b
a
b
a
b
a
= = , 0 b ≠ .

95. ( )
n mp
p
n m
a a =

96. ( ) a a
n
n
=

97.
np
mp n m
a a =

98.
n
m
n m
a a =

99.
mn m n
a a =

100. ( )
n m
m
n
a a =

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CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
16
101.
a
a
a
1
n 1 n
n

= , 0 a ≠ .

102.
2
b a a
2
b a a
b a
2 2
− −
±
− +
= ±

103.
b a
b a
b a
1

=
±
m




2.5 Logarithms

Positive real numbers: x, y, a, c, k
Natural number: n


104. Definition of Iogarithm
x log y
a
= if and only if
y
a x = , 0 a > , 1 a ≠ .

105. 0 1 log
a
=

106. 1 a log
a
=

107.
¹
´
¦
< ∞ +
> ∞ −
=
1 a if
1 a if
0 log
a


108. ( ) y log x log xy log
a a a
+ =

109. y log x log
y
x
log
a a a
− =
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CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
17
110. ( ) x log n x log
a
n
a
=

111. x log
n
1
x log
a
n
a
=

112. c log x log
a log
x log
x log
a c
c
c
a
⋅ = = , 0 c > , 1 c ≠ .

113.
a log
1
c log
c
a
=

114.
x log
a
a x =

115. Iogarithm to Base 10
x log x log
10
=

116. Natural Iogarithm
x ln x log
e
= ,
where K 718281828 . 2
k
1
1 lim e
k
k
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
∞ →


117. x ln 434294 . 0 x ln
10 ln
1
x log = =

118. x log 302585 . 2 x log
e log
1
x ln = =





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CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
18
2.6 Equations

Real numbers: a, b, c, p, q, u, v
Solutions:
1
x ,
2
x ,
1
y ,
2
y ,
3
y


119. Iinear Equation in One Variable
0 b ax = + ,
a
b
x − = .

120. Quadratic Equation
0 c bx ax
2
= + + ,
a 2
ac 4 b b
x
2
2 , 1
− ± −
= .

121. Discriminant
ac 4 b D
2
− =

122. Viete∞s Formulas
If 0 q px x
2
= + + , then
¹
´
¦
=
− = +
q x x
p x x
2 1
2 1
.

123. 0 bx ax
2
= + , 0 x
1
= ,
a
b
x
2
− = .

124. 0 c ax
2
= + ,
a
c
x
2 , 1
− ± = .

125. Cubic Equation. Cardano∞s Formula.
0 q py y
3
= + + ,
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CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
19
v u y
1
+ = , ( ) ( ) i v u
2
3
v u
2
1
y
3 , 2
+ ± + − = ,
where
3
2 2
3
p
2
q
2
q
u
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ − = ,
3
2 2
3
p
2
q
2
q
v
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
− − = .


2.7 Inequalities
Variables: x, y, z
Real numbers:
¹
´
¦
n 3 2 1
a , , a , a , a
d , c , b , a
K
, m, n
Determinants: D,
x
D ,
y
D ,
z
D


126. Inequalities, Interval Notations and Graphs

Inequality Interval Notation Graph
b x a ≤ ≤ | | b , a

b x a ≤ < ( | b , a

b x a < ≤ | ) b , a

b x a < < ( ) b , a

b x ≤ < ∞ − ,
b x ≤
( | b , ∞ −

b x < < ∞ − ,
b x <
( ) b , ∞ −

∞ < ≤ x a ,
a x ≥
| ) ∞ , a

∞ < < x a ,
a x >
( ) ∞ , a

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CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
20
127. If b a > , then a b < .

128. If b a > , then 0 b a > − or 0 a b < − .

129. If b a > , then c b c a + > + .

130. If b a > , then c b c a − > − .

131. If b a > and d c > , then d b c a + > + .

132. If b a > and d c > , then c b d a − > − .

133. If b a > and 0 m > , then mb ma > .

134. If b a > and 0 m > , then
m
b
m
a
> .

135. If b a > and 0 m< , then mb ma < .

136. If b a > and 0 m< , then
m
b
m
a
< .

137. If b a 0 < < and 0 n > , then
n n
b a < .

138. If b a 0 < < and 0 n < , then
n n
b a > .

139. If b a 0 < < , then
n n
b a < .

140.
2
b a
ab
+
≤ ,
where 0 a > , 0 b > ; an equality is valid only if b a = .

141. 2
a
1
a ≥ + , where 0 a > ; an equality takes place only at 1 a = .
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CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
21
142.
n
a a a
a a a
n 2 1
n
n 2 1
+ + +

K
K , where 0 a , , a , a
n 2 1
> K .

143. If 0 b ax > + and 0 a > , then
a
b
x − > .

144. If 0 b ax > + and 0 a < , then
a
b
x − < .

145. 0 c bx ax
2
> + +

0 a > 0 a <



0 D>


1
x x < ,
2
x x >



2 1
x x x < <



0 D=

x x
1
< ,
1
x x >


∅ ∈ x



0 D<


∞ < < ∞ − x



∅ ∈ x

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CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
22
146. b a b a + ≤ +

147. If a x < , then a x a < < − , where 0 a > .

148. If a x > , then a x − < and a x > , where 0 a > .

149. If a x
2
< , then a x < , where 0 a > .

150. If a x
2
> , then a x > , where 0 a > .

151. If
( )
( )
0
x g
x f
> , then
( ) ( )
( )
¹
´
¦

> ⋅
0 x g
0 x g x f
.

152.
( )
( )
0
x g
x f
< , then
( ) ( )
( )
¹
´
¦

< ⋅
0 x g
0 x g x f
.



2.8 Compound Interest Formulas

Future value: A
Initial deposit: C
Annual rate of interest: r
Number of years invested: t
Number of times compounded per year: n


153. General Compound Interest Formula
nt
n
r
1 C A
|
.
|

\
|
+ =

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CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
23
154. Simplified Compound Interest Formula
If interest is compounded once per year, then the previous
formula simplifies to:
( )
t
r 1 C A + = .

155. Continuous Compound Interest
If interest is compounded continually ( ∞ → n ), then
rt
Ce A = .


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24
Chapt er 3
Geometry




3.1 Right Triangle

Iegs of a right triangle: a, b
Hypotenuse: c
Altitude: h
Medians:
a
m ,
b
m ,
c
m
Angles: α, β
Radius of circumscribed circle: R
Radius of inscribed circle: r
Area: S




Figure 8.

156. ° = β + α 90

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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
25
157. β = = α cos
c
a
sin

158. β = = α sin
c
b
cos

159. β = = α cot
b
a
tan

160. β = = α tan
a
b
cot

161. β = = α ec cos
b
c
sec

162. β = = α sec
a
c
ec cos

163. Pythagorean Theorem
2 2 2
c b a = +

164. fc a
2
= , gc b
2
= ,
where f and c are proiections of the legs a and b, respec-
tively, onto the hypotenuse c.



Figure 9.

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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
26
165. fg h
2
= ,
where h is the altitude from the right angle.

166.
4
a
b m
2
2 2
a
− = ,
4
b
a m
2
2 2
b
− = ,
where
a
m and
b
m are the medians to the legs a and b.



Figure 10.

167.
2
c
m
c
= ,
where
c
m is the median to the hypotenuse c.

168.
c
m
2
c
R = =

169.
c b a
ab
2
c b a
r
+ +
=
− +
=

170. ch ab =


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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
27
171.
2
ch
2
ab
S = =



3.2 Isosceles Triangle

Base: a
Iegs: b
Base angle: β
Vertex angle: α
Altitude to the base: h
Perimeter: I
Area: S




Figure 11.

172.
2
90
α
− ° = β

173.
4
a
b h
2
2 2
− =
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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
28
174. b 2 a I + =

175. α = = sin
2
b
2
ah
S
2




3.3 Equilateral Triangle

Side of a equilateral triangle: a
Altitude: h
Radius of circumscribed circle: R
Radius of inscribed circle: r
Perimeter: I
Area: S




Figure 12.

176.
2
3 a
h =

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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
29
177.
3
3 a
h
3
2
R = =

178.
2
R
6
3 a
h
3
1
r = = =

179. a 3 I =

180.
4
3 a
2
ah
S
2
= =



3.4 Scalene Triangle
(A triangle with no two sides equal)


Sides of a triangle: a, b, c
Semiperimeter:
2
c b a
p
+ +
=
Angles of a triangle: γ β α , ,
Altitudes to the sides a, b, c:
c b a
h , h , h
Medians to the sides a, b, c:
c b a
m , m , m
Bisectors of the angles γ β α , , :
c b a
t , t , t
Radius of circumscribed circle: R
Radius of inscribed circle: r
Area: S


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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
30


Figure 13.

181. ° = γ + β + α 180

182. c b a > + ,
a c b > + ,
b c a > + .

183. c b a < − ,
a c b < − ,
b c a < − .

184. Midline
2
a
q = , a || q .



Figure 14.

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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
31
185. Iaw of Cosines
α − + = cos bc 2 c b a
2 2 2
,
β − + = cos ac 2 c a b
2 2 2
,
γ − + = cos ab 2 b a c
2 2 2
.

186. Iaw of Sines
R 2
sin
c
sin
b
sin
a
=
γ
=
β
=
α
,
where R is the radius of the circumscribed circle.

187.
S 4
abc
h 2
ab
h 2
ac
h 2
bc
sin 2
c
sin 2
b
sin 2
a
R
c b a
= = = =
γ
=
β
=
α
=

188.
( )( )( )
p
c p b p a p
r
2
− − −
= ,
c b a
h
1
h
1
h
1
r
1
+ + = .

189.
( )( )
bc
c p b p
2
sin
− −
=
α
,
( )
bc
a p p
2
cos

=
α
,
( )( )
( ) a p p
c p b p
2
tan

− −
=
α
.

190. ( )( )( ) c p b p a p p
a
2
h
a
− − − = ,
( )( )( ) c p b p a p p
b
2
h
b
− − − = ,
( )( )( ) c p b p a p p
c
2
h
c
− − − = .
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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
32
191. β = γ = sin c sin b h
a
,
α = γ = sin c sin a h
b
,
α = β = sin b sin a h
c
.

192.
4
a
2
c b
m
2 2 2
2
a

+
= ,
4
b
2
c a
m
2 2 2
2
b

+
= ,
4
c
2
b a
m
2 2 2
2
c

+
= .



Figure 15.

193.
a
m
3
2
AM= ,
b
m
3
2
BM= ,
c
m
3
2
CM= (Fig.15).

194.
( )
( )
2
2
a
c b
a p bcp 4
t
+

= ,
( )
( )
2
2
b
c a
b p acp 4
t
+

= ,
( )
( )
2
2
c
b a
c p abp 4
t
+

= .

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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
33
195.
2
ch
2
bh
2
ah
S
c b a
= = = ,
2
sin bc
2
sin ac
2
sin ab
S
α
=
β
=
γ
= ,
( )( )( ) c p b p a p p S − − − = (Heron∞s Formula),
pr S = ,
R 4
abc
S = ,
γ β α = sin sin sin R 2 S
2
,
2
tan
2
tan
2
tan p S
2
γ β α
= .



3.5 Square
Side of a square: a
Diagonal: d
Radius of circumscribed circle: R
Radius of inscribed circle: r
Perimeter: I
Area: S



Figure 16.
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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
34
196. 2 a d =

197.
2
2 a
2
d
R = =

198.
2
a
r =

199. a 4 I =

200.
2
a S =



3.6 Rectangle

Sides of a rectangle: a, b
Diagonal: d
Radius of circumscribed circle: R
Perimeter: I
Area: S




Figure 17.

201.
2 2
b a d + =
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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
35
202.
2
d
R =

203. ( ) b a 2 I + =

204. ab S =



3.7 Parallelogram

Sides of a parallelogram: a, b
Diagonals:
2 1
d , d
Consecutive angles: β α,
Angle between the diagonals: ϕ
Altitude: h
Perimeter: I
Area: S




Figure 18.

205. ° = β + α 180

206. ( )
2 2 2
2
2
1
b a 2 d d + = +

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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
36
207. β = α = sin b sin b h

208. ( ) b a 2 I + =

209. α = = sin ab ah S ,
ϕ = sin d d
2
1
S
2 1
.



3.8 Rhombus

Side of a rhombus: a
Diagonals:
2 1
d , d
Consecutive angles: β α,
Altitude: H
Radius of inscribed circle: r
Perimeter: I
Area: S




Figure 19.

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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
37
210. ° = β + α 180

211.
2 2
2
2
1
a 4 d d = +

212.
a 2
d d
sin a h
2 1
= α =

213.
2
sin a
a 4
d d
2
h
r
2 1
α
= = =

214. a 4 I =

215. α = = sin a ah S
2
,
2 1
d d
2
1
S = .



3.9 Trapezoid

Bases of a trapezoid: a, b
Midline: q
Altitude: h
Area: S


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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
38


Figure 20.

216.
2
b a
q
+
=

217. qh h
2
b a
S = ⋅
+
=



3.10 Isosceles Trapezoid

Bases of a trapezoid: a, b
Ieg: c
Midline: q
Altitude: h
Diagonal: d
Radius of circumscribed circle: R
Area: S


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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
39


Figure 21.

218.
2
b a
q
+
=

219.
2
c ab d + =

220. ( )
2 2
a b
4
1
c h − − =

221.
( )( ) b a c 2 b a c 2
c ab c
R
2
− + + −
+
=

222. qh h
2
b a
S = ⋅
+
=






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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
40
3.11 Isosceles Trapezoid with
Inscribed Circle

Bases of a trapezoid: a, b
Ieg: c
Midline: q
Altitude: h
Diagonal: d
Radius of inscribed circle: R
Radius of circumscribed circle: r
Perimeter: I
Area: S




Figure 22.

223. c 2 b a = +

224. c
2
b a
q =
+
=

225.
2 2 2
c h d + =

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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
41
226.
2
ab
2
h
r = =

227.
a
b
6
b
a
8
b a
c h
h 2
c
ab
c
1
2
c
r 4
cd
h 2
cd
R
2 2
2
+ +
+
= + = + = = =

228. ( ) c 4 b a 2 I = + =

229.
( )
2
Ir
ch qh
2
ab b a
h
2
b a
S = = =
+
= ⋅
+
=



3.12 Trapezoid with Inscribed Circle

Bases of a trapezoid: a, b
Iateral sides: c, d
Midline: q
Altitude: h
Diagonals:
2 1
d , d
Angle between the diagonals: ϕ
Radius of inscribed circle: r
Radius of circumscribed circle: R
Perimeter: I
Area: S

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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
42


Figure 23.

230. d c b a + = +

231.
2
d c
2
b a
q
+
=
+
=

232. ( ) ( ) d c 2 b a 2 I + = + =

233. qh h
2
d c
h
2
b a
S = ⋅
+
= ⋅
+
= ,
ϕ = sin d d
2
1
S
2 1
.



3.13 Kite

Sides of a kite: a, b
Diagonals:
2 1
d , d
Angles: γ β α , ,
Perimeter: I
Area: S


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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
43


Figure 24.

234. ° = γ + β + α 360 2

235. ( ) b a 2 I + =

236.
2
d d
S
2 1
=



3.14 Cyclic Quadrilateral
Sides of a quadrilateral: a, b, c, d
Diagonals:
2 1
d , d
Angle between the diagonals: ϕ
Internal angles: δ γ β α , , ,
Radius of circumscribed circle: R
Perimeter: I
Semiperimeter: p
Area: S
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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
44


Figure 25.

237. ° = δ + β = γ + α 180

238. Ptolemy∞s Theorem
2 1
d d bd ac = +

239. d c b a I + + + =

240.
( )( )( )
( )( )( )( ) d p c p b p a p
cd ab bc ad bd ac
4
1
R
− − − −
+ + +
= ,
where
2
I
p = .

241. ϕ = sin d d
2
1
S
2 1
,
( )( )( )( ) d p c p b p a p S − − − − = ,
where
2
I
p = .



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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
45
3.15 Tangential Quadrilateral

Sides of a quadrilateral: a, b, c, d
Diagonals:
2 1
d , d
Angle between the diagonals: ϕ
Radius of inscribed circle: r
Perimeter: I
Semiperimeter: p
Area: S




Figure 26.

242. d b c a + = +

243. ( ) ( ) d b 2 c a 2 d c b a I + = + = + + + =

244.
( ) ( )
p 2
p b a b a d d
r
2 2 2
2
2
1
− + − −
= ,
where
2
I
p = .

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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
46
245. ϕ = = sin d d
2
1
pr S
2 1




3.16 General Quadrilateral

Sides of a quadrilateral: a, b, c, d
Diagonals:
2 1
d , d
Angle between the diagonals: ϕ
Internal angles: δ γ β α , , ,
Perimeter: I
Area: S




Figure 27.

246. ° = δ + γ + β + α 360

247. d c b a I + + + =

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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
47
248. ϕ = sin d d
2
1
S
2 1




3.17 Regular Hexagon

Side: a
Internal angle: α
Slant height: m
Radius of inscribed circle: r
Radius of circumscribed circle: R
Perimeter: I
Semiperimeter: p
Area: S




Figure 28.

249. ° = α 120

250.
2
3 a
m r = =
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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
48
251. a R =

252. a 6 I =

253.
2
3 3 a
pr S
2
= = ,
where
2
I
p = .



3.18 Regular Polygon

Side: a
Number of sides: n
Internal angle: α
Slant height: m
Radius of inscribed circle: r
Radius of circumscribed circle: R
Perimeter: I
Semiperimeter: p
Area: S


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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
49


Figure 29.

254. ° ⋅

= α 180
2
2 n


255. ° ⋅

= α 180
2
2 n


256.
n
sin 2
a
R
π
=

257.
4
a
R
n
tan 2
a
m r
2
2
− =
π
= =

258. na I =

259.
n
2
sin
2
nR
S
2
π
= ,
4
a
R p pr S
2
2
− = = ,
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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
50
where
2
I
p = .



3.19 Circle

Radius: R
Diameter: d
Chord: a
Secant segments: e, f
Tangent segment: g
Central angle: α
Inscribed angle: β
Perimeter: I
Area: S


260.
2
sin R 2 a
α
=



Figure 30.

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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
51
261.
2 1 2 1
b b a a =



Figure 31.

262.
1 1
ff ee =



Figure 32.

263.
1
2
ff g =

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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
52


Figure 33.

264.
2
α
= β



Figure 34.

265. d R 2 I π = π =

266.
2
IR
4
d
R S
2
2
=
π
= π =

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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
53
3.20 Sector of a Circle

Radius of a circle: R
Arc length: s
Central angle (in radians): x
Central angle (in degrees): α
Perimeter: I
Area: S




Figure 35.

267. Rx s =

268.
°
α π
=
180
R
s

269. R 2 s I + =

270.
°
α π
= = =
360
R
2
x R
2
Rs
S
2 2



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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
54
3.21 Segment of a Circle

Radius of a circle: R
Arc length: s
Chord: a
Central angle (in radians): x
Central angle (in degrees): α
Height of the segment: h
Perimeter: I
Area: S




Figure 36.

271.
2
h hR 2 2 a − =

272.
2 2
a R 4
2
1
R h − − = , R h <

273. a s I + =

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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
55
274. ( ) | | ( ) x sin x
2
R
sin
180 2
R
h R a sR
2
1
S
2 2
− =
|
.
|

\
|
α −
°
απ
= − − = ,
ha
3
2
S ≈ .



3.22 Cube

Edge: a
Diagonal: d
Radius of inscribed sphere: r
Radius of circumscribed sphere: r
Surface area: S
Volume: V




Figure 37.

275. 3 a d =

276.
2
a
r =

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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
56
277.
2
3 a
R =

278.
2
a 6 S =

279.
3
a V =



3.23 Rectangular Parallelepiped

Edges: a, b, c
Diagonal: d
Surface area: S
Volume: V




Figure 38.

280.
2 2 2
c b a d + + =

281. ( ) bc ac ab 2 S + + =

282. abc V =
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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
57
3.24 Prism

Iateral edge: l
Height: h
Iateral area:
I
S
Area of base:
B
S
Total surface area: S
Volume: V




Figure 39.

283.
B I
S 2 S S + = .

284. Iateral Area of a Right Prism
( )l a a a a S
n 3 2 1 I
+ + + + = K

285. Iateral Area of an Oblique Prism
pl S
I
= ,
where p is the perimeter of the cross section.

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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
58
286. h S V
B
=

287. Cavalieri's Principle
Given two solids included between parallel planes. If every
plane cross section parallel to the given planes has the same
area in both solids, then the volumes of the solids are equal.



3.25 Regular Tetrahedron

Triangle side length: a
Height: h
Area of base:
B
S
Surface area: S
Volume: V




Figure 40.

288. a
3
2
h =

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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
59
289.
4
a 3
S
2
B
=

290.
2
a 3 S =

291.
2 6
a
h S
3
1
V
3
B
= = .



3.26 Regular Pyramid

Side of base: a
Iateral edge: b
Height: h
Slant height: m
Number of sides: n
Semiperimeter of base: p
Radius of inscribed sphere of base: r
Area of base:
B
S
Iateral surface area:
I
S
Total surface area: S
Volume: V


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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
60


Figure 41.

292.
4
a
b m
2
2
− =

293.
n
sin 2
a
n
sin b 4
h
2 2 2
π

π
=

294. pm a b 4 na
4
1
nam
2
1
S
2 2
I
= − = =

295. pr S
B
=

296.
I B
S S S + =

297. prh
3
1
h S
3
1
V
B
= =



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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
61
3.27 Frustum of a Regular Pyramid

Base and top side lengths:
¹
´
¦
n 3 2 1
n 3 2 1
b , , b , b , b
a , , a , a , a
K
K

Height: h
Slant height: m
Area of bases:
1
S ,
2
S
Iateral surface area:
I
S
Perimeter of bases:
1
P ,
2
P
Scale factor: k
Total surface area: S
Volume: V




Figure 42.

298. k
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
n
n
3
3
2
2
1
1
= = = = = = K

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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
62
299.
2
1
2
k
S
S
=

300.
( )
2
P P m
S
2 1
I
+
=

301.
2 1 I
S S S S + + =

302. ( )
2 2 1 1
S S S S
3
h
V + + =

303. | |
2
1
2
1
k k 1
3
hS
a
b
a
b
1
3
hS
V + + =

|
.
|

\
|
+ + =



3.28 Rectangular Right Wedge

Sides of base: a, b
Top edge: c
Height: h
Iateral surface area:
I
S
Area of base:
B
S
Total surface area: S
Volume: V


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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
63


Figure 43.

304. ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
I
c a h b b h 4 c a
2
1
S − + + + + =

305. ab S
B
=

306.
I B
S S S + =

307. ( ) c a 2
6
bh
V + =



3.29 Platonic Solids

Edge: a
Radius of inscribed circle: r
Radius of circumscribed circle: R
Surface area: S
Volume: V


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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
64
308. Five Platonic Solids
The platonic solids are convex polyhedra with equivalent
faces composed of congruent convex regular polygons.

Solid Number
of Vertices
Number
of Edges
Number
of Faces
Section
Tetrahedron 4 6 4 3.25
Cube 8 12 6 3.22
Octahedron 6 12 8 3.27
Icosahedron 12 30 20 3.27
Dodecahedron 20 30 12 3.27


Octahedron



Figure 44.

309.
6
6 a
r =

310.
2
2 a
R =

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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
65
311. 3 a 2 S
2
=

312.
3
2 a
V
3
=


Icosahedron



Figure 45.

313.
( )
12
5 3 3 a
r
+
=

314. ( ) 5 5 2
4
a
R + =

315. 3 a 5 S
2
=

316.
( )
12
5 3 a 5
V
3
+
=


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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
66
Dodecahedron



Figure 46.

317.
( )
2
5 11 25 10 a
r
+
=

318.
( )
4
5 1 3 a
R
+
=

319. ( ) 5 2 5 5 a 3 S
2
+ =

320.
( )
4
5 7 15 a
V
3
+
=



3.30 Right Circular Cylinder

Radius of base: R
Diameter of base: d
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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
67
Height: H
Iateral surface area:
I
S
Area of base:
B
S
Total surface area: S
Volume: V




Figure 47.

321. RH 2 S
I
π =

322. ( )
|
.
|

\
|
+ π = + π = + =
2
d
H d R H R 2 S 2 S S
B I


323. H R H S V
2
B
π = =



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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
68
3.31 Right Circular Cylinder with
an Oblique Plane Face

Radius of base: R
The greatest height of a side:
1
h
The shortest height of a side:
2
h
Iateral surface area:
I
S
Area of plane end faces:
B
S
Total surface area: S
Volume: V




Figure 48.

324. ( )
2 1 I
h h R S + π =

325.
2
2 1
2 2
B
2
h h
R R R S
|
.
|

\
|

+ π + π =

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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
69
326.

|
.
|

\
|

+ + + + π = + =
2
2 1
2
2 1 B I
2
h h
R R h h R S S S

327. ( )
2 1
2
h h
2
R
V +
π
=



3.32 Right Circular Cone
Radius of base: R
Diameter of base: d
Height: H
Slant height: m
Iateral surface area:
I
S
Area of base:
B
S
Total surface area: S
Volume: V




Figure 49.
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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
70
328.
2 2
R m H − =

329.
2
md
Rm S
I
π
= π =

330.
2
B
R S π =

331. ( )
|
.
|

\
|
+ π = + π = + =
2
d
m d
2
1
R m R S S S
B I


332. H R
3
1
H S
3
1
V
2
B
π = =



3.33 Frustum of a Right Circular Cone

Radius of bases: R, r
Height: H
Slant height: m
Scale factor: k
Area of bases:
1
S ,
2
S
Iateral surface area:
I
S
Total surface area: S
Volume: V


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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
71


Figure 50.

333. ( )
2 2
r R m H − − =

334. k
r
R
=

335.
2
2
2
1
2
k
r
R
S
S
= =

336. ( ) r R m S
I
+ π =

337. ( ) | | r R m r R S S S S
2 2
I 2 1
+ + + π = + + =

338. ( )
2 2 1 1
S S S S
3
h
V + + =

339. | |
2
1
2
1
k k 1
3
hS
r
R
r
R
1
3
hS
V + + =

|
.
|

\
|
+ + =



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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
72
3.34 Sphere

Radius: R
Diameter: d
Surface area: S
Volume: V



Figure 51.

340.
2
R 4 S π =

341. SR
3
1
d
6
1
H R
3
4
V
3 3
= π = π =



3.35 Spherical Cap
Radius of sphere: R
Radius of base: r
Height: h
Area of plane face:
B
S
Area of spherical cap:
C
S
Total surface area: S
Volume: V
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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
73


Figure 52.

342.
h 2
h r
R
2 2
+
=

343.
2
B
r S π =

344. ( )
2 2
C
r h S + π =

345. ( ) ( )
2 2 2
C B
r Rh 2 r 2 h S S S + π = + π = + =

346. ( ) ( )
2 2 2
h r 3 h
6
h R 3 h
6
V +
π
= −
π
=



3.36 Spherical Sector

Radius of sphere: R
Radius of base of spherical cap: r
Height: h
Total surface area: S
Volume: V

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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
74


Figure 53.

347. ( ) r h 2 R S + π =

348. h R
3
2
V
2
π =

Note: The given formulas are correct both for °open≤ and
°closed≤ spherical sector.



3.37 Spherical Segment

Radius of sphere: R
Radius of bases:
1
r ,
2
r
Height: h
Area of spherical surface:
S
S
Area of plane end faces:
1
S ,
2
S
Total surface area: S
Volume: V

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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
75


Figure 54.

349. Rh 2 S
S
π =

350. ( )
2
2
2
1 2 1 S
r r Rh 2 S S S S + + π = + + =

351. ( )
2 2
2
2
1
h r 3 r 3 h
6
1
V + + π =



3.38 Spherical Wedge

Radius: R
Dihedral angle in degrees: x
Dihedral angle in radians: α
Area of spherical lune:
I
S
Total surface area: S
Volume: V


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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
76


Figure 55.

352. x R 2
90
R
S
2
2
I
= α
π
=

353. x R 2 R
90
R
R S
2 2
2
2
+ π = α
π
+ π =

354. x R
3
2
270
R
V
3
3
= α
π
=



3.39 Ellipsoid

Semi-axes: a, b, c
Volume: V
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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
77


Figure 56.

355. abc
3
4
V π =



Prolate Spheroid

Semi-axes: a, b, b ( b a > )
Surface area: S
Volume: V


356.
|
.
|

\
|
+ π =
e
e arcsin a
b b 2 S ,
where
a
b a
e
2 2

= .

357. a b
3
4
V
2
π =

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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
78
Oblate Spheroid

Semi-axes: a, b, b ( b a < )
Surface area: S
Volume: V


358.
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ π =
a / be
a
be
arcsinh a
b b 2 S ,
where
b
a b
e
2 2

= .

359. a b
3
4
V
2
π =



3.40 Circular Torus

Maior radius: R
Minor radius: r
Surface area: S
Volume: V

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CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
79

Picture 57.

360. Rr 4 S
2
π =

361.
2 2
Rr 2 V π =


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80
Chapt er 4
Trigonometry




Angles: α, β
Real numbers (coordinates of a point): x, y
Whole number: k


4.1 Radian and Degree Measures of Angles

362. " 45 ' 17 57
180
rad 1 ° ≈
π
°
=

363. rad 017453 . 0 rad
180
1 ≈
π
= °

364. rad 000291 . 0 rad
60 180
' 1 ≈

π
=

365. rad 000005 . 0 rad
3600 180
" 1 ≈

π
=

366.

Angle
(degrees)
0 30 45 60 90 180 270 360
Angle
(radians)
0
6
π

4
π

3
π

2
π
π
2

π 2



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CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
81
4.2 Definitions and Graphs of Trigonometric
Functions



Figure 58.

367.
r
y
sin = α

368.
r
x
cos = α

369.
x
y
tan = α

370.
y
x
cot = α

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CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
82
371.
x
r
sec = α

372.
y
r
cosec = α

373. Sine Function
x sin y = , 1 x sin 1 ≤ ≤ − .



Figure 59.

374. Cosine Function
x cos y = , 1 x cos 1 ≤ ≤ − .
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CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
83


Figure 60.

375. Tangent Function
x tan y = , ( )
2
1 k 2 x
π
+ ≠ , . x tan ∞ ≤ ≤ ∞ −



Figure 61.

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CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
84
376. Cotangent Function
x cot y = , π ≠ k x , ∞ ≤ ≤ ∞ − x cot .



Figure 62.

377. Secant Function
x sec y = , ( )
2
1 k 2 x
π
+ ≠ .

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CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
85


Figure 63.

378. Cosecant Function
x ec cos y = , π ≠ k x .


Figure 64.
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CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
86
4.3. Signs of Trigonometric Functions

379.

Quadrant
Sin
α
Cos
α
Tan
α
Cot
α
Sec
α
Cosec
α
I + + + + + +
II + +
III + +
IV + +


380.



Figure 65.










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CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
87
4.4 Trigonometric Functions of Common
Angles
381.
° α
rad α α sin
α cos α tan α cot α sec α cosec
0 0 0 1 0

1

30
6
π

2
1

2
3

3
1

3
3
2

2
45
4
π

2
2

2
2

1 1
2 2
60
3
π

2
3

2
1

3
3
1

2
3
2

90
2
π
1 0

0

1
120
3


2
3

2
1

3 −
3
1

2 −
3
2

180 π 0
1 −
0
∞ 1 − ∞
270
2


1 −
0

0
∞ 1 −
360 π 2 0 1 0

1














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CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
88
382.
° α
rad α α sin
α cos α tan α cot
15
12
π

4
2 6 −

4
2 6 +
3 2− 3 2+
18
10
π

4
1 5 −

4
5 2 10 +
5
5 2 5−
5 2 5+
36
5
π

4
5 2 10 −
4
1 5 +

1 5
5 2 10
+

5 2 10
1 5

+

54
10


4
1 5 +

4
5 2 10 −
5 2 10
1 5

+
1 5
5 2 10
+


72
5


4
5 2 10 +
4
1 5 −
5 2 5+
5
5 2 5−

75
12


4
2 6 +

4
2 6 −
3 2+ 3 2−



4.5 Most Important Formulas

383. 1 cos sin
2 2
= α + α

384. 1 tan sec
2 2
= α − α

385. 1 cot csc
2 2
= α − α

386.
α
α
= α
cos
sin
tan
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CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
89
387.
α
α
= α
sin
cos
cot

388. 1 cot tan = α ⋅ α

389.
α
= α
cos
1
sec

390.
α
= α
sin
1
cosec



4.6 Reduction Formulas

391.

β β sin β cos β tan β cot
α −
α −sin
α + cos α − tan α −cot
α − ° 90
α + cos
α + sin
α + cot α + tan
α + ° 90
α + cos
α −sin
α −cot α − tan
α − ° 180
α + sin
α −cos α − tan α −cot
α + ° 180
α −sin
α −cos α + tan α + cot
α − ° 270
α −cos
α −sin
α + cot α + tan
α + ° 270
α −cos
α + sin
α −cot α − tan
α − ° 360
α −sin
α + cos α − tan α −cot
α + ° 360
α + sin
α + cos α + tan α + cot





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CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
90
4.7 Periodicity of Trigonometric Functions

392. ( ) α = π ± α sin n 2 sin , period π 2 or ° 360 .

393. ( ) α = π ± α cos n 2 cos , period π 2 or ° 360 .

394. ( ) α = π ± α tan n tan , period π or ° 180 .

395. ( ) α = π ± α cot n cot , period π or ° 180 .



4.8 Relations between Trigonometric
Functions

396. ( ) 1
4 2
cos 2 2 cos 1
2
1
cos 1 sin
2 2

|
.
|

\
|
π

α
= α − ± = α − ± = α

2
tan 1
2
tan 2
2
α
+
α
=

397. ( ) 1
2
cos 2 2 cos 1
2
1
sin 1 cos
2 2

α
= α + ± = α − ± = α

2
tan 1
2
tan 1
2
2
α
+
α

=

398.
α
α −
=
α +
α
= − α ± =
α
α
= α
2 sin
2 cos 1
2 cos 1
2 sin
1 sec
cos
sin
tan
2

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CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
91

2
tan 1
2
tan 2
2 cos 1
2 cos 1
2
α
+
α
=
α +
α −
± =

399.
α −
α
=
α
α +
= − α ± =
α
α
= α
2 cos 1
2 sin
2 sin
2 cos 1
1 csc
sin
cos
cot
2


2
tan 2
2
tan 1
2 cos 1
2 cos 1
2
α
α

=
α −
α +
± =

400.
2
tan 1
2
tan 1
tan 1
cos
1
sec
2
2
2
α

α
+
= α + ± =
α
= α

401.
2
tan 2
2
tan 1
cot 1
sin
1
csc
2
2
α
α
+
= α + ± =
α
= α



4.9 Addition and Subtraction Formulas

402. ( ) α β + β α = β + α cos sin cos sin sin

403. ( ) α β − β α = − α cos sin cos sin y sin

404. ( ) β α − β α = β + α sin sin cos cos cos

405. ( ) β α + β α = β − α sin sin cos cos cos
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CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
92
406. ( )
β α −
β + α
= β + α
tan tan 1
tan tan
tan

407. ( )
β α +
β − α
= β − α
tan tan 1
tan tan
tan

408. ( )
β + α
β α −
= β + α
tan tan
tan tan 1
cot

409. ( )
β − α
β α +
= β − α
tan tan
tan tan 1
cot



4.10 Double Angle Formulas

410. α ⋅ α = α cos sin 2 2 sin

411. 1 cos 2 sin 2 1 sin cos 2 cos
2 2 2 2
− α = α − = α − α = α

412.
α − α
=
α −
α
= α
tan cot
2
tan 1
tan 2
2 tan
2


413.
2
tan cot
cot 2
1 cot
2 cot
2
α − α
=
α
− α
= α






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CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
93
4.11 Multiple Angle Formulas

414. α − α ⋅ α = α − α = α
3 2 3
sin sin cos 3 sin 4 sin 3 3 sin

415. α ⋅ α − α ⋅ α = α cos sin 8 cos sin 4 4 sin
3


416. α + α − α = α
5 3
sin 16 sin 20 sin 5 5 sin

417. α ⋅ α − α = α − α = α
2 3 3
sin cos 3 cos cos 3 cos 4 3 cos

418. 1 cos 8 cos 8 4 cos
2 4
+ α − α = α

419. α + α − α = α cos 5 cos 20 cos 16 5 cos
3 5


420.
α −
α − α
= α
2
3
tan 3 1
tan tan 3
3 tan

421.
α + α −
α − α
= α
4 2
3
tan tan 6 1
tan 4 tan 4
4 tan

422.
α + α −
α + α − α
= α
4 2
3 5
tan 5 tan 10 1
tan 5 tan 10 tan
5 tan

423.
1 cot 3
cot 3 cot
3 cot
2
3
− α
α − α
= α

424.
α − α
α + α −
= α
3
4 2
tan 4 tan 4
tan tan 6 1
4 cot

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CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
94
425.
α + α − α
α + α −
= α
tan 5 tan 10 tan
tan 5 tan 10 1
5 cot
3 5
4 2




4.12 Half Angle Formulas

426.
2
cos 1
2
sin
α −
± =
α


427.
2
cos 1
2
cos
α +
± =
α


428. α − α =
α
α −
=
α +
α
=
α +
α −
± =
α
cot csc
sin
cos 1
cos 1
sin
cos 1
cos 1
2
tan

429. α + α =
α
α +
=
α −
α
=
α −
α +
± =
α
cot csc
sin
cos 1
cos 1
sin
cos 1
cos 1
2
cot



4.13 Half Angle Tangent Identities

430.
2
tan 1
2
tan 2
sin
2
α
+
α
= α

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CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
95
431.
2
tan 1
2
tan 1
cos
2
2
α
+
α

= α

432.
2
tan 1
2
tan 2
tan
2
α

α
= α

433.
2
tan 2
2
tan 1
cot
2
α
α

= α



4.14 Transforming of Trigonometric
Expressions to Product

434.
2
cos
2
sin 2 sin sin
β − α β + α
= β + α

435.
2
sin
2
cos 2 sin sin
β − α β + α
= β − α

436.
2
cos
2
cos 2 cos cos
β − α β + α
= β + α

437.
2
sin
2
sin 2 cos cos
β − α β + α
− = β − α

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CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
96
438.
( )
β ⋅ α
β + α
= β + α
cos cos
sin
tan tan

439.
( )
β ⋅ α
β − α
= β − α
cos cos
sin
tan tan

440.
( )
β ⋅ α
α + β
= β + α
sin sin
sin
cot cot

441.
( )
β ⋅ α
α − β
= β − α
sin sin
sin
cot cot

442.
|
.
|

\
|
α +
π
=
|
.
|

\
|
α −
π
= α + α
4
sin 2
4
cos 2 sin cos

443.
|
.
|

\
|
α +
π
=
|
.
|

\
|
α −
π
= α − α
4
cos 2
4
sin 2 sin cos

444.
( )
β ⋅ α
β − α
= β + α
sin cos
cos
cot tan

445.
( )
β ⋅ α
β + α
− = β − α
sin cos
cos
cot tan

446.
2
cos 2 cos 1
2
α
= α +

447.
2
sin 2 cos 1
2
α
= α −

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CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
97
448.
|
.
|

\
|
α

π
= α +
2 4
cos 2 sin 1
2


449.
|
.
|

\
|
α

π
= α −
2 4
sin 2 sin 1
2




4.15 Transforming of Trigonometric
Expressions to Sum

450.
( ) ( )
2
cos cos
sin sin
β + α − β − α
= β ⋅ α

451.
( ) ( )
2
cos cos
cos cos
β + α + β − α
= β ⋅ α

452.
( ) ( )
2
sin sin
cos sin
β + α + β − α
= β ⋅ α

453.
β + α
β + α
= β ⋅ α
cot cot
tan tan
tan tan

454.
β + α
β + α
= β ⋅ α
tan tan
cot cot
cot cot

455.
β + α
β + α
= β ⋅ α
tan cot
cot tan
cot tan



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CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
98
4.16 Powers of Trigonometric Functions

456.
2
2 cos 1
sin
2
α −
= α

457.
4
3 sin sin 3
sin
3
α − α
= α

458.
8
3 2 cos 4 4 cos
sin
4
+ α − α
= α

459.
16
5 sin 3 sin 5 sin 10
sin
5
α + α − α
= α

460.
32
6 cos 4 cos 6 2 cos 15 10
sin
6
α − α + α −
= α

461.
2
2 cos 1
cos
2
α +
= α

462.
4
3 cos cos 3
cos
3
α + α
= α

463.
8
3 2 cos 4 4 cos
cos
4
+ α + α
= α

464.
16
5 cos 3 sin 5 cos 10
cos
5
α + α + α
= α

465.
32
6 cos 4 cos 6 2 cos 15 10
cos
6
α + α + α +
= α

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CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
99
4.17 Graphs of Inverse Trigonometric
Functions

466. Inverse Sine Function
x arcsin y = , 1 x 1 ≤ ≤ − ,
2
x arcsin
2
π
≤ ≤
π
− .



Figure 66.

467. Inverse Cosine Function
x arccos y = , 1 x 1 ≤ ≤ − , π ≤ ≤ x arccos 0 .

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CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
100


Figure 67.

468. Inverse Tangent Function
x arctan y = , ∞ ≤ ≤ ∞ − x ,
2
x arctan
2
π
< <
π
− .



Figure 68.
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CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
101
469. Inverse Cotangent Function
x cot arc y = , ∞ ≤ ≤ ∞ − x , π < < x cot arc 0 .


Figure 69.

470. Inverse Secant Function
( | | ) . ,
2 2
, 0 x sec arc , , 1 1 , x , x arcsec y

\
|
π
π

|
.
|

π
∈ ∞ ∪ − ∞ − ∈ =


Figure 70.
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CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
102
471. Inverse Cosecant Function
( | | ) .
2
, 0 0 ,
2
x csc arc , , 1 1 , x , x arccsc y

\
|
π

|
.
|

π
− ∈ ∞ ∪ − ∞ − ∈ =


Figure 71.


4.18 Principal Values of Inverse
Trigonometric Functions
472.

x

0
2
1

2
2

2
3
1
x arcsin ° 0 ° 30 ° 45 ° 60 ° 90
x arccos ° 90 ° 60 ° 45 ° 30 ° 0
x

2
1

2
2

2
3
− 1 −


x arcsin
° −30

° −45 ° −60
° −90


x arccos
° 120

° 135 ° 150
° 180



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CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
103
473.

x

0
3
3
1
3
3
3
− 1 − 3 −
x arctan ° 0 ° 30 ° 45 ° 60 ° −30
° −45

° −60
x cot arc ° 90 ° 60 ° 45 ° 30 ° 120
° 135

° 150




4.19 Relations between Inverse
Trigonometric Functions

474. ( ) x arcsin x arcsin − = −

475. x arccos
2
x arcsin −
π
=

476.
2
x 1 arccos x arcsin − = , 1 x 0 ≤ ≤ .

477.
2
x 1 arccos x arcsin − − = , 0 x 1 ≤ ≤ − .

478.
2
x 1
x
arctan x arcsin

= ,
1 x
2
<
.

479.
x
x 1
cot arc x arcsin
2

= , 1 x 0 ≤ < .

480. π −

=
x
x 1
cot arc x arcsin
2
, 0 x 1 < ≤ − .

481. ( ) x arccos x arccos − π = −
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CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
104
482. x arcsin
2
x arccos −
π
=

483.
2
x 1 arcsin x arccos − = , 1 x 0 ≤ ≤ .

484.
2
x 1 arcsin x arccos − − π = , 0 x 1 ≤ ≤ − .

485.
x
x 1
arctan x arccos
2

= , 1 x 0 ≤ < .

486.
x
x 1
arctan x arccos
2

+ π = , 0 x 1 < ≤ − .

487.
2
x 1
x
cot arc x arccos

= ,
1 x 1 ≤ ≤ −
.

488. ( ) x arctan x arctan − = −

489. x cot arc
2
x arctan −
π
=

490.
2
x 1
x
arcsin x arctan
+
=

491.
2
x 1
1
arccos x arctan
+
= , 0 x ≥ .

492.
2
x 1
1
arccos x arctan
+
− = , 0 x ≤ .

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CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
105
493.
x
1
arctan
2
x arctan −
π
= , 0 x > .

494.
x
1
arctan
2
x arctan −
π
− = , 0 x < .

495.
x
1
cot arc x arctan = , 0 x > .

496. π − =
x
1
cot arc x arctan , 0 x < .

497. ( ) x cot arc x cot arc − π = −

498. x arctan
2
x cot arc −
π
=

499.
2
x 1
1
arcsin x cot arc
+
= , 0 x > .

500.
2
x 1
1
arcsin x cot arc
+
− π = , 0 x < .

501.
2
x 1
x
arccos x cot arc
+
=

502.
x
1
arctan x cot arc = , 0 x > .

503.
x
1
arctan x cot arc + π = , 0 x < .


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CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
106
4.20 Trigonometric Equations

Whole number: n


504. a x sin = , ( ) n a arcsin 1 x
n
π + − =

505. a x cos = , n 2 a arccos x π + ± =

506. a x tan = , n a arctan x π + =

507. a x cot = , n a cot arc x π + =



4.21 Relations to Hyperbolic Functions

Imaginary unit: i


508. ( ) x sinh i ix sin =

509. ( ) x tanh i ix tan =

510. ( ) x coth i ix cot − =

511. ( ) x sech ix sec =

512. ( ) x csch i ix csc − =



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107
Chapt er 5
Matrices and Determinants




Matrices: A, B, C
Elements of a matrix:
i
a ,
i
b ,
ii
a ,
ii
b ,
ii
c
Determinant of a matrix: A det
Minor of an element
ii
a :
ii
M
Cofactor of an element
ii
a :
ii
C
Transpose of a matrix:
T
A , A
-

Adioint of a matrix: A adi
Trace of a matrix: A tr
Inverse of a matrix:
1
A


Real number: k
Real variables:
i
x
Natural numbers: m, n


5.1 Determinants

513. Second Order Determinant
1 2 2 1
2 2
1 1
b a b a
b a
b a
A det − = =





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CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
108
514. Third Order Determinant
− + + = =
32 21 13 31 23 12 33 22 11
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
a a a a a a a a a
a a a
a a a
a a a
A det
31 22 13 33 21 12 32 23 11
a a a a a a a a a − − −

515. Sarrus Rule (Arrow Rule)


Figure 72.

516. N-th Order Determinant
nn ni 2 n 1 n
in ii 2 i 1 i
n 2 i 2 22 21
n 1 i 1 12 11
a a a a
a a a a
a a a a
a a a a
A det
K K
K K K K K K
K K
K K K K K K
K K
K K
=

517. Minor
The minor
ii
M associated with the element
ii
a of n-th order
matrix A is the ( ) 1 n− -th order determinant derived from
the matrix A by deletion of its i-th row and i-th column.

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CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
109
518. Cofactor
( )
ii
i i
ii
M 1 C
+
− =

519. Iaplace Expansion of n-th Order Determinant
Iaplace expansion by elements of the i-th row

=
=
n
1 i
ii ii
C a A det , n , , 2 , 1 i K = .
Iaplace expansion by elements of the i-th column

=
=
n
1 i
ii ii
C a A det , n , , 2 , 1 i K = .



5.2 Properties of Determinants

520. The value of a determinant remains unchanged if rows are
changed to columns and columns to rows.

2 2
1 1
2 1
2 1
b a
b a
b b
a a
=

521. If two rows (or two columns) are interchanged, the sign of
the determinant is changed.
1 1
2 2
2 2
1 1
b a
b a
b a
b a
− =

522. If two rows (or two columns) are identical, the value of the
determinant is zero.
0
a a
a a
2 2
1 1
=

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CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
110
523. If the elements of any row (or column) are multiplied by
a common factor, the determinant is multiplied by that
factor.
2 2
1 1
2 2
1 1
b a
b a
k
b a
kb ka
=

524. If the elements of any row (or column) are increased (or
decreased)by equal multiples of the corresponding elements
of any other row (or column), the value of the determinant
is unchanged.
2 2
1 1
2 2 2
1 1 1
b a
b a
b kb a
b kb a
=
+
+




5.3 Matrices

525. Definition
An n m× matrix A is a rectangular array of elements (num-
bers or functions) with m rows and n columns.
| |

= =
mn 2 m 1 m
n 2 22 21
n 1 12 11
ii
a a a
a a a
a a a
a A
K
M M M
K
K


526. Square matrix is a matrix of order n n× .

527. A square matrix | |
ii
a is symmetric if
ii ii
a a = , i.e. it is
symmetric about the leading diagonal.

528. A square matrix | |
ii
a is skew-symmetric if
ii ii
a a − = .

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CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
111
529. Diagonal matrix is a square matrix with all elements zero
except those on the leading diagonal.

530. Unit matrix is a diagonal matrix in which the elements on
the leading diagonal are all unity. The unit matrix is
denoted by I.

531. A null matrix is one whose elements are all zero.



5.4 Operations with Matrices

532. Two matrices A and B are equal if, and only if, they are both
of the same shape n m× and corresponding elements are
equal.

533. Two matrices A and B can be added (or subtracted) of, and
only if, they have the same shape n m× . If
| |

= =
mn 2 m 1 m
n 2 22 21
n 1 12 11
ii
a a a
a a a
a a a
a A
K
M M M
K
K
,
| |

= =
mn 2 m 1 m
n 2 22 21
n 1 12 11
ii
b b b
b b b
b b b
b B
K
M M M
K
K
,





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CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
112
then

+ + +
+ + +
+ + +
= +
mn mn 2 m 2 m 1 m 1 m
n 2 n 2 22 22 21 21
n 1 n 1 12 12 11 11
b a b a b a
b a b a b a
b a b a b a
B A
K
M M M
K
K
.

534. If k is a scalar, and | |
ii
a A = is a matrix, then
| |

= =
mn 2 m 1 m
n 2 22 21
n 1 12 11
ii
ka ka ka
ka ka ka
ka ka ka
ka kA
K
M M M
K
K
.

535. Multiplication of Two Matrices
Two matrices can be multiplied together only when the
number of columns in the first is equal to the number of
rows in the second.

If
| |

= =
mn 2 m 1 m
n 2 22 21
n 1 12 11
ii
a a a
a a a
a a a
a A
K
M M M
K
K
,
| |

= =
nk 2 n 1 n
k 2 22 21
k 1 12 11
ii
b b b
b b b
b b b
b B
K
M M M
K
K
,





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CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
113
then

= =
mk 2 m 1 m
k 2 22 21
k 1 12 11
c c b
c c c
c c c
C AB
K
M M M
K
K
,
where

= λ
λ λ
= + + + =
n
1
i i ni in i 2 2 i i 1 1 i ii
b a b a b a b a c K
( m , , 2 , 1 i K = ; k , , 2 , 1 i K = ).

Thus if
| |

= =
23 22 21
13 12 11
ii
a a a
a a a
a A , | |

= =
3
2
1
i
b
b
b
b B ,
then

=

=
3 23 2 22 1 21
3 13 2 12 1 11
3
2
1
23 22 21
13 12 11
b a b a b a
b a b a b a
b
b
b
a a a
a a a
AB .

536. Transpose of a Matrix
If the rows and columns of a matrix are interchanged, then
the new matrix is called the transpose of the original matrix.
If A is the original matrix, its transpose is denoted
T
A or
A
-
.

537. The matrix A is orthogonal if I AA
T
= .

538. If the matrix product AB is defined, then
( )
T T T
A B AB = .


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CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
114
539. Adioint of Matrix
If A is a square n n× matrix, its adioint, denoted by A adi ,
is the transpose of the matrix of cofactors
ii
C of A:
| |
T
ii
C A adi = .

540. Trace of a Matrix
If A is a square n n× matrix, its trace, denoted by A tr , is
defined to be the sum of the terms on the leading diagonal:
nn 22 11
a a a A tr + + + = K .

541. Inverse of a Matrix
If A is a square n n× matrix with a nonsingular determinant
A det , then its inverse
1
A

is given by
A det
A adi
A
1
=

.

542. If the matrix product AB is defined, then
( )
1 1 1
A B AB
− − −
= .

543. If A is a square n n× matrix, the eigenvectors X satisfy
the equation
X AX λ = ,
while the eigenvalues λ satisfy the characteristic equation
0 I A = λ − .



5.5 Systems of Linear Equations


Variables: x, y, z,
1
x , K , x
2

Real numbers: K , a , a , b , a , a , a
12 11 1 3 2 1

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CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
115
Determinants: D,
x
D ,
y
D ,
z
D
Matrices: A, B, X


544.
¹
´
¦
= +
= +
2 2 2
1 1 1
d y b x a
d y b x a
,
D
D
x
x
= ,
D
D
y
y
= (Cramer∞s rule),
where
1 2 2 1
2 2
1 1
b a b a
b a
b a
D − = = ,
1 2 2 1
2 2
1 1
x
b d b d
b d
b d
D − = = ,
1 2 2 1
2 2
1 1
y
d a d a
d a
d a
D − = = .

545. If 0 D≠ , then the system has a single solution:
D
D
x
x
= ,
D
D
y
y
= .
If 0 D= and 0 D
x
≠ (or 0 D
y
≠ ), then the system has no
solution.
If 0 D D D
y x
= = = , then the system has infinitely many
solutions.

546.
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
= + +
= + +
= + +
3 3 3 3
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
d z c y b x a
d z c y b x a
d z c y b x a
,
D
D
x
x
= ,
D
D
y
y
= ,
D
D
z
z
= (Cramer∞s rule),

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CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
116
where
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
c b a
c b a
c b a
D= ,
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
x
c b d
c b d
c b d
D = ,
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
y
c d a
c d a
c d a
D = ,
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
z
d b a
d b a
d b a
D = .

547. If 0 D≠ , then the system has a single solution:
D
D
x
x
= ,
D
D
y
y
= ,
D
D
z
z
= .
If 0 D= and 0 D
x
≠ (or 0 D
y
≠ or 0 D
z
≠ ), then the system
has no solution.
If 0 D D D D
z y x
= = = = , then the system has infinitely
many solutions.

548. Matrix Form of a System of n Iinear Equations in
n Unknowns
The set of linear equations
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
= + + +
= + + +
= + + +
n n nn 2 2 n 1 1 n
2 n n 2 2 22 1 21
1 n n 1 2 12 1 11
b x a x a x a
b x a x a x a
b x a x a x a
K
K K K K K K K K K K K K
K
K

can be written in matrix form
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
n
2
1
n
2
1
nn 2 n 1 n
n 2 22 21
n 1 12 11
b
b
b
x
x
x
a a a
a a a
a a a
M M
K
M M M
K
K
,
i.e.
B X A = ⋅ ,
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CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
117
where
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
nn 2 n 1 n
n 2 22 21
n 1 12 11
a a a
a a a
a a a
A
K
M M M
K
K
,
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
n
2
1
x
x
x
X
M
,
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
n
2
1
b
b
b
B
M
.

549. Solution of a Set of Iinear Equations n n×
B A X
1
⋅ =

,
where
1
A

is the inverse of A.


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118
Chapt er 6
Vectors




Vectors: u
r
, v
r
, w
r
, r
r
,

AB, .
Vector length: u
r
, v
r
, .
Unit vectors: i
r
, i
r
, k
r

Null vector: 0
r

Coordinates of vector u
r
:
1 1 1
Z , Y , X
Coordinates of vector v
r
:
2 2 2
Z , Y , X
Scalars: λ, u
Direction cosines: α cos , β cos , γ cos
Angle between two vectors: θ


6.1 Vector Coordinates

550. Unit Vectors
( ) 0 , 0 , 1 i =
r
,
( ) 0 , 1 , 0 i =
r
,
( ) 1 , 0 , 0 k =
r
,
1 k i i = = =
r r r
.

551. ( ) ( ) ( ) k z z i y y i x x AB r
0 1 0 1 0 1
r r r
r
− + − + − = =



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CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
119


Figure 73.

552. ( ) ( ) ( )
2
0 1
2
0 1
2
0 1
z z y y x x AB r − + − + − = =

r


553. If r AB
r
=

, then r BA
r
− =

.



Figure 74.

554. α = cos r X
r
,
β = cos r Y
r
,
γ = cos r Z
r
.
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CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
120


Figure 75.

555. If ( ) ( )
1 1 1 1
Z , Y , X r Z , Y , X r
r r
= , then
1
X X = ,
1
Y Y = ,
1
Z Z = .


6.2 Vector Addition

556. v u w
r r r
+ =



Figure 76.
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CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
121


Figure 77.

557.
n 3 2 1
u u u u w
r
K
r r r r
+ + + + =



Figure 78.

558. Commutative Iaw
u v v u
r r r r
+ = +

559. Associative Iaw
( ) ( ) w v u w v u
r r r r r r
+ + = + +

560. ( )
2 1 2 1 2 1
Z Z , Y Y , X X v u + + + = +
r r







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CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
122
6.3 Vector Subtraction

561. v u w
r r r
− = if u w v
r r r
= + .



Figure 79.



Figure 80.

562. ( ) v u v u
r r r r
− + = −

563. ( ) 0 , 0 , 0 0 u u = = −
r
r r


564. 0 0 =
r


565. ( )
2 1 2 1 2 1
Z Z , Y Y , X X v u − − − = −
r r
,



6.4 Scaling Vectors

566. u w
r r
λ =
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CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
123


Figure 81.

567. u w
r r
⋅ λ =

568. ( ) Z , Y , X u λ λ λ = λ
r


569. λ = λ u u
r r


570. ( ) u u u
r r r
u + λ = u + λ

571. ( ) ( ) ( )u u u
r r r
λu = λ u = u λ

572. ( ) v u v u
r r r r
λ + λ = + λ



6.5 Scalar Product

573. Scalar Product of Vectors u
r
and v
r

θ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ cos v u v u
r r r r
,
where θ is the angle between vectors u
r
and v
r
.

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CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
124


Figure 82.

574. Scalar Product in Coordinate Form
If ( )
1 1 1
Z , Y , X u =
r
, ( )
2 2 2
Z , Y , X v =
r
, then
2 1 2 1 2 1
Z Z Y Y X X v u + + = ⋅
r r
.

575. Angle Between Two Vectors
If ( )
1 1 1
Z , Y , X u =
r
, ( )
2 2 2
Z , Y , X v =
r
, then
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 1 2 1 2 1
Z Y X Z Y X
Z Z Y Y X X
cos
+ + + +
+ +
= θ .

576. Commutative Property
u v v u
r r r r
⋅ = ⋅

577. Associative Property
( ) ( ) v u v u
r r r r
⋅ λu = u ⋅ λ

578. Distributive Property
( ) w u v u w v u
r r r r r r r
⋅ + ⋅ = + ⋅

579. 0 v u = ⋅
r r
if u
r
, v
r
are orthogonal (
2
π
= θ ).

580. 0 v u > ⋅
r r
if
2
0
π
< θ < .

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CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
125
581. 0 v u < ⋅
r r
if π < θ <
π
2
.

582. v u v u
r r r r
⋅ ≤ ⋅

583. v u v u
r r r r
⋅ = ⋅ if u
r
, v
r
are parallel ( 0 = θ ).

584. If ( )
1 1 1
Z , Y , X u =
r
, then
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
Z Y X u u u u + + = = = ⋅
r r r r
.

585. 1 k k i i i i = ⋅ = ⋅ = ⋅
r r r r r r


586. 0 i k k i i i = ⋅ = ⋅ = ⋅
r r r r r r




6.6 Vector Product

587. Vector Product of Vectors u
r
and v
r

w v u
r r r
= × , where
• θ ⋅ ⋅ = sin v u w
r r r
, where
2
0
π
≤ θ ≤ ;
• u w
r r
⊥ and v w
r r
⊥ ;
• Vectors u
r
, v
r
, w
r
form a right-handed screw.

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CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
126


Figure 83.

588.
2 2 2
1 1 1
Z Y X
Z Y X
k i i
v u w
r r r
r r r
= × =

589.
|
|
.
|

\
|
− = × =
2 2
1 1
2 2
1 1
2 2
1 1
Y X
Y X
,
Z X
Z X
,
Z Y
Z Y
v u w
r r r


590. θ ⋅ ⋅ = × = sin v u v u S
r r r r
(Fig.83)

591. Angle Between Two Vectors (Fig.83)
v u
v u
sin
r r
r r

×
= θ

592. Noncommutative Property
( ) u v v u
r r r r
× − = ×

593. Associative Property
( ) ( ) v u v u
r r r r
× λu = u × λ


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CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
127
594. Distributive Property
( ) w u v u w v u
r r r r r r r
× + × = + ×

595. 0 v u
r
r r
= × if u
r
and v
r
are parallel ( 0 = θ ).

596. 0 k k i i i i
r
r r r r r r
= × = × = ×

597. k i i
r r r
= × , i k i
r r r
= × , i i k
r r r
= ×



6.7 Triple Product

598. Scalar Triple Product
| | ( ) ( ) ( ) v u w u w v w v u w v u
r r r r r r r r r r r r
× ⋅ = × ⋅ = × ⋅ =

599. | | | | | | | | | | | | v w u u v w w u v u w v v u w w v u
r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r
− = − = − = = =

600. ( ) | | w v u k w v u k
r r r r r r
= × ⋅

601. Scalar Triple Product in Coordinate Form
( )
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
Z Y X
Z Y X
Z Y X
w v u = × ⋅
r r r
,
where
( )
1 1 1
Z , Y , X u =
r
, ( )
2 2 2
Z , Y , X v =
r
, ( )
3 3 3
Z , Y , X w =
r
.

602. Volume of Parallelepiped
( ) w v u V
r r r
× ⋅ =

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CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
128


Figure 84.

603. Volume of Pyramid
( ) w v u
6
1
V
r r r
× ⋅ =



Figure 85.

604. If ( ) 0 w v u = × ⋅
r r r
, then the vectors u
r
, v
r
, and w
r
are linearly
dependent , so v u w
r r r
u + λ = for some scalars λ and u.

605. If ( ) 0 w v u ≠ × ⋅
r r r
, then the vectors u
r
, v
r
, and w
r
are linearly
independent.

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CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
129
606. Vector Triple Product
( ) ( ) ( )w v u v w u w v u
r r r r r r r r r
⋅ − ⋅ = × ×








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130

Chapt er 7
Analytic Geometry
=
=
=
=
7.1 One-Dimensional Coordinate System
=
mçáåí=ÅççêÇáå~íÉëW=
M
ñ I=
N
ñ I=
O
ñ I=
M
ó I=
N
ó I=
O
ó =
oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêW= λ==
aáëí~åÅÉ=ÄÉíïÉÉå=íïç=éçáåíëW=Ç=
=
=
607. aáëí~åÅÉ=_ÉíïÉÉå=qïç=mçáåíë=
O N N O
ñ ñ ñ ñ ^_ Ç − = − = = =
=
=
=
Figure 86.
=
608. aáîáÇáåÖ=~=iáåÉ=pÉÖãÉåí=áå=íÜÉ=o~íáç= λ=
λ +
λ +
=
N
ñ ñ
ñ
O N
M
I=
`_
^`
= λ I= N − ≠ λ K=
=
======== =
=
Figure 87.
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CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
131

609. jáÇéçáåí=çÑ=~=iáåÉ=pÉÖãÉåí=
O
ñ ñ
ñ
O N
M
+
= I= N = λ K=
=
=
=
7.2 Two-Dimensional Coordinate System
=
mçáåí=ÅççêÇáå~íÉëW=
M
ñ I=
N
ñ I=
O
ñ I=
M
ó I=
N
ó I=
O
ó =
mçä~ê=ÅççêÇáå~íÉëW= ϕ I ê =
oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêW= λ==
mçëáíáîÉ=êÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêëW=~I=ÄI=ÅI==
aáëí~åÅÉ=ÄÉíïÉÉå=íïç=éçáåíëW=Ç=
^êÉ~W=p=
=
=
610. aáëí~åÅÉ=_ÉíïÉÉå=qïç=mçáåíë=
( ) ( )
O
N O
O
N O
ó ó ñ ñ ^_ Ç − + − = = =
=
=
=
Figure 88.
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CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
132

611. aáîáÇáåÖ=~=iáåÉ=pÉÖãÉåí=áå=íÜÉ=o~íáç= λ=
λ +
λ +
=
N
ñ ñ
ñ
O N
M
I=
λ +
λ +
=
N
ó ó
ó
O N
M
I==
`_
^`
= λ I= N − ≠ λ K=
=
======= =
=
Figure 89.
=
=
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CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
133

======= =
=
Figure 90.
=
612. jáÇéçáåí=çÑ=~=iáåÉ=pÉÖãÉåí=
O
ñ ñ
ñ
O N
M
+
= I=
O
ó ó
ó
O N
M
+
= I= N = λ K=
=
613. `ÉåíêçáÇ=EfåíÉêëÉÅíáçå=çÑ=jÉÇá~åëF=çÑ=~=qêá~åÖäÉ=
P
ñ ñ ñ
ñ
P O N
M
+ +
= I=
P
ó ó ó
ó
P O N
M
+ +
= I==
ïÜÉêÉ= = ( )
N N
ó I ñ ^ I= = ( )
O O
ó I ñ _ I= = ~åÇ= = ( )
P P
ó I ñ ` = = ~êÉ= îÉêíáÅÉë= çÑ=
íÜÉ=íêá~åÖäÉ= ^_`K= =
=
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CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
134

========= =
=
Figure 91.
=
614. fåÅÉåíÉê=EfåíÉêëÉÅíáçå=çÑ=^åÖäÉ=_áëÉÅíçêëF=çÑ=~=qêá~åÖäÉ=
Å Ä ~
Åñ Äñ ~ñ
ñ
P O N
M
+ +
+ +
= I=
Å Ä ~
Åó Äó ~ó
ó
P O N
M
+ +
+ +
= I==
ïÜÉêÉ= _` ~ = I= `^ Ä = I= ^_ Å = K==
=
======== =
=
Figure 92.
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CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
135

615. `áêÅìãÅÉåíÉê=EfåíÉêëÉÅíáçå=çÑ=íÜÉ=páÇÉ=mÉêéÉåÇáÅìä~ê======================
_áëÉÅíçêëF=çÑ=~=qêá~åÖäÉ=
N ó ñ
N ó ñ
N ó ñ
O
N ó ó ñ
N ó ó ñ
N ó ó ñ
ñ
P P
O O
N N
P
O
P
O
P
O
O
O
O
O
N
O
N
O
N
M
+
+
+
= I=
N ó ñ
N ó ñ
N ó ñ
O
N ó ñ ñ
N ó ñ ñ
N ó ñ ñ
ó
P P
O O
N N
O
P
O
P P
O
O
O
O O
O
N
O
N N
M
+
+
+
= =
=
======== =
==
Figure 93.
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
www.puducherrygovtstaff.blogspot.com
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
136

616. lêíÜçÅÉåíÉê=EfåíÉêëÉÅíáçå=çÑ=^äíáíìÇÉëF=çÑ=~=qêá~åÖäÉ=
N ó ñ
N ó ñ
N ó ñ
N ó ñ ñ ó
N ó ñ ñ ó
N ó ñ ñ ó
ñ
P P
O O
N N
O
P O N P
O
O N P O
O
N P O N
M
+
+
+
= I=
N ó ñ
N ó ñ
N ó ñ
N ñ ó ó ñ
N ñ ó ó ñ
N ñ ó ó ñ
ó
P P
O O
N N
P O N
O
P
O N P
O
O
N P O
O
N
M
+
+
+
= =
=
====== =
=
Figure 94.
=
617. ^êÉ~=çÑ=~=qêá~åÖäÉ=
( ) ( )
N P N P
N O N O
P P
O O
N N
ó ó ñ ñ
ó ó ñ ñ
O
N
N ó ñ
N ó ñ
N ó ñ
O
N
p
− −
− −
± = ± = =
=
=
=
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CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
137

618. ^êÉ~=çÑ=~=nì~Çêáä~íÉê~ä=
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) | + + − + + − ± =
P O P O O N O N
ó ó ñ ñ ó ó ñ ñ
O
N
p =
( )( ) ( )( )|
N Q N Q Q P Q P
ó ó ñ ñ ó ó ñ ñ + − + + − + =
=
=== =
=
Figure 95.
=
kçíÉW=få=Ñçêãìä~ë=SNTI=SNU=ïÉ=ÅÜççëÉ=íÜÉ=ëáÖå=EHF=çê=E¥F=ëç=
íÜ~í=íç=ÖÉí=~=éçëáíáîÉ=~åëïÉê=Ñçê=~êÉ~K==
=
619. aáëí~åÅÉ=_ÉíïÉÉå=qïç=mçáåíë=áå=mçä~ê=`ççêÇáå~íÉë=
( )
N O O N
O
O
O
N
Åçë ê ê O ê ê ^_ Ç ϕ − ϕ − + = = =
=
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CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
138

=
=
Figure 96.
=
620. `çåîÉêíáåÖ=oÉÅí~åÖìä~ê=`ççêÇáå~íÉë=íç=mçä~ê=`ççêÇáå~íÉë=
ϕ = Åçë ê ñ I= ϕ = ëáå ê ó K=
=
=
=
Figure 97.
=
621. `çåîÉêíáåÖ=mçä~ê=`ççêÇáå~íÉë=íç=oÉÅí~åÖìä~ê=`ççêÇáå~íÉë=
O O
ó ñ ê + = I=
ñ
ó
í~å = ϕ K=
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CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
139

7.3 Straight Line in Plane
=
mçáåí=ÅççêÇáå~íÉëW=uI=vI=ñI=
M
ñ I=
N
ñ I==
M
ó I=
N
ó I=
N
~ I=
O
~ I=£==
oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêëW=âI=~I=ÄI=éI=íI=^I=_I=`I=
N
^ I=
O
^ I=£=
^åÖäÉëW= αI= β =
^åÖäÉ=ÄÉíïÉÉå=íïç=äáåÉëW= ϕ=
kçêã~ä=îÉÅíçêW= å
r
=
mçëáíáçå=îÉÅíçêëW= ê
r
I= ~
r
I= Ä
r
=
=
=
622. dÉåÉê~ä=bèì~íáçå=çÑ=~=píê~áÖÜí=iáåÉ=
M ` _ó ^ñ = + + =
=
623. kçêã~ä=sÉÅíçê=íç=~=píê~áÖÜí=iáåÉ=
qÜÉ=îÉÅíçê= ( ) _ I ^ å
r
=áë=åçêã~ä=íç=íÜÉ=äáåÉ= M ` _ó ^ñ = + + K=
=
=
=
Figure 98.
=
624. bñéäáÅáí=bèì~íáçå=çÑ=~=píê~áÖÜí=iáåÉ=EpäçéÉ-fåíÉêÅÉéí=cçêãF=
Ä âñ ó + = K==
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CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
140

qÜÉ=Öê~ÇáÉåí=çÑ=íÜÉ=äáåÉ=áë= α = í~å â K=
=
=
=
Figure 99.
=
625. dê~ÇáÉåí=çÑ=~=iáåÉ==
N O
N O
ñ ñ
ó ó
í~å â


= α = =
=
=
=
Figure 100.
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CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
141

626. bèì~íáçå=çÑ=~=iáåÉ=dáîÉå=~=mçáåí=~åÇ=íÜÉ=dê~ÇáÉåí=
( )
M M
ñ ñ â ó ó − + = I==
ïÜÉêÉ=â=áë=íÜÉ=Öê~ÇáÉåíI= ( )
M M
ó I ñ m =áë=~=éçáåí=çå=íÜÉ=äáåÉK=
=
=
=
Figure 101.
=
627. bèì~íáçå=çÑ=~=iáåÉ=qÜ~í=m~ëëÉë=qÜêçìÖÜ=qïç=mçáåíë=
N O
N
N O
N
ñ ñ
ñ ñ
ó ó
ó ó


=


==
çê=
M
N ó ñ
N ó ñ
N ó ñ
O O
N N
= K=
=
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CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
142

=
=
Figure 102.
=
628. fåíÉêÅÉéí=cçêã=
N
Ä
ó
~
ñ
= + =
=
=
=
Figure 103.
=
=
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CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
143

629. kçêã~ä=cçêã=
M é ëáå ó Åçë ñ = − β + β =
=
=
=
Figure 104.
=
630. mçáåí=aáêÉÅíáçå=cçêã=
v
ó ó
u
ñ ñ
N N

=

I==
ïÜÉêÉ= ( ) v I u = áë= íÜÉ= ÇáêÉÅíáçå= çÑ= íÜÉ= äáåÉ= ~åÇ= ( )
N N N
ó I ñ m = äáÉë=
çå=íÜÉ=äáåÉK=
=
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CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
144

=
=
Figure 105.
=
631. sÉêíáÅ~ä=iáåÉ=
~ ñ = =
=
632. eçêáòçåí~ä=iáåÉ=
Ä ó = =
=
633. sÉÅíçê=bèì~íáçå=çÑ=~=píê~áÖÜí=iáåÉ=
Ä í ~ ê
r
r r
+ = I==
ïÜÉêÉ==
l=áë=íÜÉ=çêáÖáå=çÑ=íÜÉ=ÅççêÇáå~íÉëI=
u=áë=~åó=î~êá~ÄäÉ=éçáåí=çå=íÜÉ=äáåÉI==
~
r
=áë=íÜÉ=éçëáíáçå=îÉÅíçê=çÑ=~=âåçïå=éçáåí=^=çå=íÜÉ=äáåÉ=I=
Ä
r
=áë=~=âåçïå=îÉÅíçê=çÑ=ÇáêÉÅíáçåI=é~ê~ääÉä=íç=íÜÉ=äáåÉI==
í=áë=~=é~ê~ãÉíÉêI==

= lu ê
r
=áë=íÜÉ=éçëáíáçå=îÉÅíçê=çÑ=~åó=éçáåí=u=çå=íÜÉ=äáåÉK==
=
www.puducherrygovtstaff.blogspot.com
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
145

=
=
Figure 106.
=
634. píê~áÖÜí=iáåÉ=áå=m~ê~ãÉíêáÅ=cçêã=
¹
´
¦
+ =
+ =
O O
N N
íÄ ~ ó
íÄ ~ ñ
I==
ïÜÉêÉ==
( ) ó I ñ ~êÉ=íÜÉ=ÅççêÇáå~íÉë=çÑ=~åó=ìåâåçïå=éçáåí=çå=íÜÉ=äáåÉI==
( )
O N
~ I ~ =~êÉ=íÜÉ=ÅççêÇáå~íÉë=çÑ=~=âåçïå=éçáåí=çå=íÜÉ=äáåÉI==
( )
O N
Ä I Ä =~êÉ=íÜÉ=ÅççêÇáå~íÉë=çÑ=~=îÉÅíçê=é~ê~ääÉä=íç=íÜÉ=äáåÉI==
í=áë=~=é~ê~ãÉíÉêK=
=
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CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
146

=
Figure 107.
=
635. aáëí~åÅÉ=cêçã=~=mçáåí=qç=~=iáåÉ=
qÜÉ=Çáëí~åÅÉ=Ñêçã=íÜÉ=éçáåí= ( ) Ä I ~ m =íç=íÜÉ=äáåÉ=
M ` _ó ^ñ = + + =áë==
O O
_ ^
` _Ä ^~
Ç
+
+ +
= K=
=
=
=
Figure 108.
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CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
147

636. m~ê~ääÉä=iáåÉë=
qïç=äáåÉë=
N N
Ä ñ â ó + = =~åÇ=
O O
Ä ñ â ó + = =~êÉ=é~ê~ääÉä=áÑ==
O N
â â = K=
qïç= äáåÉë= M ` ó _ ñ ^
N N N
= + + = ~åÇ= M ` ó _ ñ ^
O O O
= + + = ~êÉ=
é~ê~ääÉä=áÑ=
O
N
O
N
_
_
^
^
= K=
=
=
=
Figure 109.
=
637. mÉêéÉåÇáÅìä~ê=iáåÉë=
qïç=äáåÉë=
N N
Ä ñ â ó + = =~åÇ=
O O
Ä ñ â ó + = =~êÉ=éÉêéÉåÇáÅìä~ê=áÑ==
N
O
â
N
â − = =çêI=Éèìáî~äÉåíäóI= N â â
O N
− = K=
qïç= äáåÉë= M ` ó _ ñ ^
N N N
= + + = ~åÇ= M ` ó _ ñ ^
O O O
= + + = ~êÉ=
éÉêéÉåÇáÅìä~ê=áÑ=
M _ _ ^ ^
O N O N
= + K=
=
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CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
148

=
=
Figure 110.
=
638. ^åÖäÉ=_ÉíïÉÉå=qïç=iáåÉë=
O N
N O
â â N
â â
í~å
+

= ϕ I==
O
O
O
O
O
N
O
N
O N O N
_ ^ _ ^
_ _ ^ ^
Åçë
+ ⋅ +
+
= ϕ K=
=
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CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
149

=
=
Figure 111.
=
639. fåíÉêëÉÅíáçå=çÑ=qïç=iáåÉë=
fÑ=íïç=äáåÉë= M ` ó _ ñ ^
N N N
= + + =~åÇ= M ` ó _ ñ ^
O O O
= + + =áåíÉê-
ëÉÅíI=íÜÉ=áåíÉêëÉÅíáçå=éçáåí=Ü~ë=ÅççêÇáå~íÉë=
N O O N
N O O N
M
_ ^ _ ^
_ ` _ `
ñ

+ −
= I=
N O O N
N O O N
M
_ ^ _ ^
` ^ ` ^
ó

+ −
= K=
=
=
=
7.4 Circle
=
o~ÇáìëW=o=
`ÉåíÉê=çÑ=ÅáêÅäÉW= ( ) Ä I ~ =
mçáåí=ÅççêÇáå~íÉëW=ñI=óI=
N
ñ I=
N
ó I=£=
oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêëW=^I=_I=`I=aI=bI=cI=í=
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CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
150

640. bèì~íáçå=çÑ=~=`áêÅäÉ=`ÉåíÉêÉÇ=~í=íÜÉ=lêáÖáå=Epí~åÇ~êÇ=
cçêãF=
O O O
o ó ñ = + =
====== =
=
Figure 112.
=
641. bèì~íáçå=çÑ=~=`áêÅäÉ=`ÉåíÉêÉÇ=~í=^åó=mçáåí= ( ) Ä I ~
( ) ( )
O
O O
o Ä ó ~ ñ = − + −

Figure 113.
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CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
151

642. qÜêÉÉ=mçáåí=cçêã
M
N ó ñ ó ñ
N ó ñ ó ñ
N ó ñ ó ñ
N ó ñ ó ñ
P P
O
P
O
P
O O
O
O
O
O
N N
O
N
O
N
O O
=
+
+
+
+

=
=
=
Figure 114.
=
643. m~ê~ãÉíêáÅ=cçêã
¹
´
¦
=
=
í ëáå o ó
í Åçë o ñ
I= π ≤ ≤ O í M K
=
644. dÉåÉê~ä=cçêã
M c bó añ ^ó ^ñ
O O
= + + + + =E^=åçåòÉêçI= ^c Q b a
O O
> + FK==
qÜÉ=ÅÉåíÉê=çÑ=íÜÉ=ÅáêÅäÉ=Ü~ë=ÅççêÇáå~íÉë= ( ) Ä I ~ I=ïÜÉêÉ==
^ O
a
~ − = I=
^ O
b
Ä − = K=
qÜÉ=ê~Çáìë=çÑ=íÜÉ=ÅáêÅäÉ=áë
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CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
152

^ O
^c Q b a
o
O O
− +
= K
=
=
=
7.5 Ellipse
=
pÉãáã~àçê=~ñáëW=~=
pÉãáãáåçê=~ñáëW=Ä=
cçÅáW= ( ) M I Å c
N
− I= ( ) M I Å c
O
=
aáëí~åÅÉ=ÄÉíïÉÉå=íÜÉ=ÑçÅáW=OÅ= =
bÅÅÉåíêáÅáíóW=É==
oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêëW=^I=_I=`I=aI=bI=cI=í=
mÉêáãÉíÉêW=i=
^êÉ~W=p=
=
=
645. bèì~íáçå=çÑ=~å=bääáéëÉ=Epí~åÇ~êÇ=cçêãF
N
Ä
ó
~
ñ
O
O
O
O
= +
=
=
Figure 115.
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CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
153

646. ~ O ê ê
O N
= + I=
ïÜÉêÉ= =
N
ê I= =
O
ê = = ~êÉ= = Çáëí~åÅÉë= = Ñêçã= = ~åó= = éçáåí= = ( ) ó I ñ m = = çå=
íÜÉ=ÉääáéëÉ=íç=íÜÉ=íïç=ÑçÅáK=
=
=
=
Figure 116.
=
647.
O O O
Å Ä ~ + =
=
648. bÅÅÉåíêáÅáíó
N
~
Å
É < = =
=
649. bèì~íáçåë=çÑ=aáêÉÅíêáÅÉë
Å
~
É
~
ñ
O
± = ± = =
=
650. m~ê~ãÉíêáÅ=cçêã
¹
´
¦
=
=
í ëáå Ä ó
í Åçë ~ ñ
I= π ≤ ≤ O í M K
=
=
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CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
154

651. dÉåÉê~ä=cçêã
M c bó añ `ó _ñó ^ñ
O O
= + + + + + I==
ïÜÉêÉ= M ^` Q _
O
< − K=
=
652. dÉåÉê~ä=cçêã=ïáíÜ=^ñÉë=m~ê~ääÉä=íç=íÜÉ=`ççêÇáå~íÉ=^ñÉë
M c bó añ `ó ^ñ
O O
= + + + + I==
ïÜÉêÉ= M ^` > K
=
653. `áêÅìãÑÉêÉåÅÉ
( ) É ~b Q i = I==
ïÜÉêÉ==íÜÉ==ÑìåÅíáçå=b==áë==íÜÉ=ÅçãéäÉíÉ==ÉääáéíáÅ=áåíÉÖê~ä==çÑ=
íÜÉ=ëÉÅçåÇ=âáåÇK==
=
654. ^ééêçñáã~íÉ=cçêãìä~ë=çÑ=íÜÉ=`áêÅìãÑÉêÉåÅÉ
( ) ( ) ~Ä Ä ~ R K N i − + π = I==
( )
O O
Ä ~ O i + π = K=
=
655. ~Ä p π = =
=
=
=
7.6 Hyperbola
=
qê~åëîÉêëÉ=~ñáëW=~=
`çåàìÖ~íÉ=~ñáëW=Ä=
cçÅáW= ( ) M I Å c
N
− I= ( ) M I Å c
O
=
aáëí~åÅÉ=ÄÉíïÉÉå=íÜÉ=ÑçÅáW=OÅ= =
bÅÅÉåíêáÅáíóW=É==
^ëóãéíçíÉëW=ëI=í=
oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêëW=^I=_I=`I=aI=bI=cI=íI=â=
=
=
=
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CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
155

656. bèì~íáçå=çÑ=~=eóéÉêÄçä~=Epí~åÇ~êÇ=cçêãF=
N
Ä
ó
~
ñ
O
O
O
O
= − =
=
=
=
Figure 117.
=
657. ~ O ê ê
O N
= − I=
ïÜÉêÉ= =
N
ê I= =
O
ê = = ~êÉ= = Çáëí~åÅÉë= = Ñêçã= = ~åó= éçáåí= = ( ) ó I ñ m = = çå=
íÜÉ=ÜóéÉêÄçä~=íç=íÜÉ=íïç=ÑçÅáK=
=
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CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
156

=
=
Figure 118.
=
658. bèì~íáçåë=çÑ=^ëóãéíçíÉë=
ñ
~
Ä
ó ± = =
=
659.
O O O
Ä ~ Å + = =
=
660. bÅÅÉåíêáÅáíó
N
~
Å
É > = =
=
661. bèì~íáçåë=çÑ=aáêÉÅíêáÅÉë
Å
~
É
~
ñ
O
± = ± = =
=
=
=
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CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
157

662. m~ê~ãÉíêáÅ=bèì~íáçåë=çÑ=íÜÉ=oáÖÜí=_ê~åÅÜ=çÑ=~=eóéÉêÄçä~=
¹
´
¦
=
=
í ëáåÜ Ä ó
í ÅçëÜ ~ ñ
I= π ≤ ≤ O í M K
=
663. dÉåÉê~ä=cçêã
M c bó añ `ó _ñó ^ñ
O O
= + + + + + I==
ïÜÉêÉ= M ^` Q _
O
> − K=
=
664. dÉåÉê~ä=cçêã=ïáíÜ=^ñÉë=m~ê~ääÉä=íç=íÜÉ=`ççêÇáå~íÉ=^ñÉë
M c bó añ `ó ^ñ
O O
= + + + + I==
ïÜÉêÉ= M ^`< K=

665. ^ëóãéíçíáÅ=cçêã=
Q
É
ñó
O
= I==
çê==
ñ
â
ó = I=ïÜÉêÉ=
Q
É
â
O
= K=
få= íÜáë= Å~ëÉ= I= íÜÉ= ~ëóãéíçíÉë= Ü~îÉ= Éèì~íáçåë= M ñ = = ~åÇ=
M ó = K==
=
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CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
158

=
=
Figure 119.
=
=
=
7.7 Parabola
=
cçÅ~ä=é~ê~ãÉíÉêW=é=
cçÅìëW=c=
sÉêíÉñW= ( )
M M
ó I ñ j =
oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêëW=^I=_I=`I=aI=bI=cI=éI=~I=ÄI=Å=
=
=
666. bèì~íáçå=çÑ=~=m~ê~Äçä~=Epí~åÇ~êÇ=cçêãF
éñ O ó
O
=
=
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CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
159

=
=
Figure 120.
=
bèì~íáçå=çÑ=íÜÉ=ÇáêÉÅíêáñ
O
é
ñ − = I=
`ççêÇáå~íÉë=çÑ=íÜÉ=ÑçÅìë=
|
.
|

\
|
M I
O
é
c I=
`ççêÇáå~íÉë=çÑ=íÜÉ=îÉêíÉñ=
( ) M I M j K=
=
667. dÉåÉê~ä=cçêã
M c bó añ `ó _ñó ^ñ
O O
= + + + + + I==
ïÜÉêÉ= M ^` Q _
O
= − K=
=
668.
O
~ñ ó = I=
~ O
N
é = K=
bèì~íáçå=çÑ=íÜÉ=ÇáêÉÅíêáñ
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