EXPERIMENT- 1

OBJECT: To measure the spot size and divergence of a laser beam. APPARATUS: Laser source, photo detector, FORMULA USED: The divergence angle can be calculated from the formula –



  w(o)

Where w0 is the radius of the beam at laser cavity, λ is the wavelength of the laser source.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE: At first we leveled the He-Ne laser in such a way that the spot of laser beam have same height at different distances from the laser source. The experiment is carried out in two steps – a. Measurement of spot size of beam, b. Measurement of Divergence of beam.

(a) EASUREMENT OF SPOT SIZE OF BEAM: For this purpose the photo cell (which is fixed on a vernier scale) is manually inserted in the beam and corresponding out put of detector is noted by nanometer. The out put of the detector is plotted as a function of the position of the photo cell.

(b) MEASUREMENT OF DIVERGENCE OF BEAM: To measure the divergence of beam, the beam spot sizes are measured at different distances from the laser source. The separation between laser source and photo fell is measured by meter scale. The divergence angle is then calculated from the formula –



  w(o)

Where w0 is the radius of the beam at laser cavity, λ is the wavelength of the laser source.

Vernier scale reading at the different points of the spot. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Nano ammeter reading . 1. At 2 meter distance away from the source S.No.OBSERVATIONS: Determination of the divergence angle Table No.

S.No.Table No. Vernier scale reading at the different points of the spot. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Nano ammeter reading . 2 At 4 meter distance away from the source.

No. 3 At 5 meter distance away from the source S.Table No. Vernier scale reading at the different points of the spot. Nano ammeter reading 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 .

Table No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Nano ammeter reading .No. Vernier scale reading at the different points of the spot. 4 At 7 meter distance away from the source S.

The intensity has been on Y-axis and distance of point from one end of the spot on x-axis. 3) The angle of divergence of the beam = …. This intensity distribution plotted is a Gaussian profile which resembles the theoretical intensity distribution curve. cm. Radius of the spot at 7 m. . cm. cm. distance w (5) = …. distance w (4) = ….. Therefore the divergence of the beam ca be calculated RESULTS: 1) Radius of the spot at the cavity = … cm 2) The divergence of the beam at the various distances from the cavity can be observed in the graph.The intensity distribution measured by photo detector at different points of spot in plotted in the graphs attached. distance w (7) = …. Radius of the spot at 5 m. Radius of the spot at 4 m. cm. distance w (2) = …. From graph is W (0) = …. cm. CALCULATIONS: According to our observations – Radius of the spot at 2 m.

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