We have 2 expressions that are equal to Q and a multiple of Q, say nQ.

Then there exists solutions if the following relationships are


= constant. 1. First of all you have integer solutions. The next big question is to keep D a constant. And then after that you want to keep q constant. 2. Then you can use modular transformations to change the variables. This will give you extra coefficients to play around with. Then it may be an easy matter to fix the discriminant to the desired value. So use modular transformations. 3. We have 2 expressions of N BDFARFFGGAFDDFAAF; And then we have to solve them for different values of phi.

If we can connect these two expressions and then connect them to the original expression after giving it some transformations appropriate. 4. The idea is to introduce in as many coefficients as possible and then setting many of them to

zero. 5. See how this formulation is connected to the Riemann sphere in 2 and 3 or 4 variable spaces.

6. There are many possibilities for having integer solutions.

The idea is that we can combine these 4 variables by multiplication and subtraction until we get some new functions. Or until we can find some relationships between that we can use in our search for Binary Quadratic Equations. B2-B1=2n; and let A2-A1=n; then C2-C1=n; This is a method that can yield solutions for the value of q; the number that can be represented by the Binary Quadratic Expression.

This is an interesting function since it is always greater than zero and always less or equal to 1,

Define z in the following manner;

And we can take the recipracol of z but first we write the following function w;

Let us begin with the following identity; it will become clear as we go on that it looks like a binary quadratic form;

Let the LHS side be identically zero for all possible values of the variables z and phi; then we can do some manipulation on this expression (by completing the square); and treating this equation as an ordinary quadratic in phi.

We use the following substitutions and get the expressions below;

These are the substitutions used in the expressions above. Then we have for the above identity;

Now using the substitution of theta and z, namely;

For proof of the quartic it may be advisable to find the difference between v and u and find that Cv-Du= integer + a fractional part. This does not board well with


Transformations If you take a vector OA and then rotate the axes from OX to OX’ and the OY to OY’; and then reflect the vector in the OX’ axis to obtain vector OB; then take the components of OB along the new axes OX’ and OY’. Rotate, reflect and then take the components of the new vector relative to the new coordinate system. These operations preserve length. The purpose is to see how the components transform under rotation and reflection and other transformations that preserve distance. And you have added a translation to these vectors so that they line up It is interesting that energy in Nature; or at least in Gravitation Theory have the dependency of Quadratic Functions or the derivatives of Quadratic Functions. It is interesting with what we can do with the differentials of Riemann distances. Now suppose we have transformations that change distances; one wonders how they will look like and what causes them. Things like stretching and expanding and compression. If there are compressions in the mass or the Energy how will the components distort the distance and time coordinates? This is an obscure question but it is worth asking. Then we have A1/A2=B1/B2 and that may be related to the tangent of the angle at the origin. This needs further exploration. What we are saying is that we have two vectors and one undergoes operations (rotations, reflections, translations) in such a way that it comes back to the same place. What are these operations and how can we describe them algebraically and geometrically? *We can use the fact that the cross product of 2 similar vectors is always zero since the angle between them is zero and therefore the sine between them is zero. Another question? Given that N is equal to a certain dot product; How do you rotate the vectors so that you remove

one of the y component; ie align it a new OX’ axis – without the y axis. This is probably a simple case of rotation and does not involve much calculation. It may be easy to work with these coordinates since N is then given as a simple (hopefully) product. And we may use symmetry to simplify our calculations. This paragraph has been about . N= ab-cd; this gives you two equations for x and two equations for y and then eliminate x and y between them and see the dependency of the coefficients. x=P1, y=Q1, x=P2, y=Q2 and then equate P1=P2; and Q1=Q2 and then fix the D in the descriminant and then see how N varies. The parameter phi is kept constant and new parameter s is introduced to study the variation of the coefficients with the number N. We have A1=a; B2=b;A2=c;B2=d as per previous example. We can solve two pairs of linear equations. Another method is to solve for one linear equation and get a t dependency then we plug this t variable in the remaining three equations where we get three equations equal to zero and three equation. We solve for x and y by Euclid’s Algorithm and keep N constant and then (2) we solve for s; and after obtaining s – we solve for r where we keep D constant . Solve for x and y; then solve for s keeping N constant; then solve for r keeping D constant. Notice now how the coefficients are now becoming variables and the original variables are set to zero. Find coefficients such that the Quadratic Form has an infinite number of solutions.

We study the achievements of savants and we find that they have a lot of things in their minds. Their minds seem to contain all the universe. From this we can say that our unconscious contains all the information that is in the Universe. The problem is how do we unlock or how do we communicate with the unconscious. The oil should not be stirred for it to be electrically charged and be able to conduct electricity. This is an interesting concept. This must be applied to different organs of the body. If you give a vector various transformations so that you take back the vector to where it started from; how can you describe the locus of the curve that the vector must follow. So we are concerned with vectors, their transformations and the parametric curves so generated. The cross product of a vector is used since it is always zero for the same vector and therefore it may be easier to manipulate the expressions.

You want this to be less than or equal to 1

It is also a good idea trying this function that is not asymmetrical.

It is important that you choose a large value of delta so that these values do not meet. We have to look for functions that stay bound when we change the variable.

The functions above should bne considered since they do not exceed certain amounts.

Study this function to see how it behaves\

Put the square term equal to a constant so that we remain with only

Part of N is a Pythogrian triplet if it can be equated to zero.

We can express X as a parametric function and then write the denominator and try to complete the square.

It is possible to multiply/divide D by a square and find other solutions of the quadratic form

We can write the numerator as to linear expressions and then find that the discriminant is a perfect square.

Z=N/D= Another formulation is to have the the quadrtic terms in and then try to eliminate them;

From here we can solve these equations as linear in X and Y;

We can solve this equation for X and Y by Cramer’s Rule, The determinant of this equation is given by;

Similarly for the Y variable

The idea is to get a linear expression and a quadratic thus reducing the combined powers of the variables from 4 (i.e. 2+2) to 3 (i.e. 2+1).

Let us try another transformation;

Thus a binary quadratic relationship has been transformed into a linear relationship with some restrictions. We are therefore going to learn the restrictions so that we can obtain a solution. We can also change the variable from phi to D1 and D2 to see how they behave

Another method of formulating the problem Set up the following fractions to see whether we can get anything useful from it;

Solving the first equation for x and y we have;

We can also start from the expression of the conic section;

After completing the square twice then we get the following;


The coefficients of N have will have the same binary quadratic form if only (af-d^2)=k^2 a perfect square. So in this case we can use (x,y) as labels and use the expression that contains only coefficients. We have linked U and V and by the letter d which is a variable; therefore instead of a binary quadratic form we end up with an ordinary quadratic equation in d. We can complete squares to find out under what conditions that d can have rational and indeed integer roots We can solve for d and then for f since it seems to be the only free variable that can be used and it has the added advantage of being a linear function. Find N such that there is a solution to the equation. Fixing N find e and f such that there is a solution


At least when the other term in that equation is zero;

Find b, c , and e for a given N with b-c = constant.

Try in these values to give you values of b and d. Algorithm 1.Choose any two values of b and d. 2.Then e can be read of immediately from the first equation. 3. Plug d in the second equation to find f 4.Then choose any values of x and y as long as they are integers. 5. Repeat for different values of b and d. We have two expressions of N;

This completes the square in the expression;

We can think of these expressions as functions of d and see how they vary with respect to other variables and coefficients.

We can write the expression as a function of d and keep the other variables fixed. Is it possible to use the trivial solution to find other solutions or find d from here. We have three variables x y and d and we have two linear equations. At least this method will give us an infinite number of values of d from the two linear equations that we can solve by Euclid’s Algorithm. Solve for x and y in the linear equation below;

Using Euclid’s Algorithm we find x and y and then use this value of y to put in the equation below; and use Euclid’s Algorithm to solve for y and d;

This will generate an infinite number of solutions if certain conditions are met. It is interesting that N can be thought of as a function of x and y and at the same time it can be thought of as a function of d. We can take this view because of the equation connecting them. N is a constant but can be regarded as a function of x and y and as a function of d. When is a number representable in a quadratic form; Factoring the term N You can assume that;

Or we can examine the special case where U=V;

The same ideas can be expressed by writing N as a function of d;

More special cases

In this case the binary quadratic equation is a perfect square and the equation can be handled in the usual way. Factoring Quadratic Forms. You can factor quadratic forms ( )( )=( )

Use the standard formula for multiplication. This multiplication reminds me of the complex number multiplication – so it is an exponential multiplication. Completing the square and reducing the coefficients. We want to make sure that the quantities we are talking about are perfect squares; We assign a value to f such that the bracketed expression is a perfect square.

So we have the following expression;

Eliminate h, e, and remain with b; in fact you get the a 6 th degree equation in b which is linear ordinary.

The discriminant must be zero this being the condition that b^2 must be rational (and possibly an integer). This is the equation we get when we eliminate h, e, and a by imposing the condition that they must be rational.

Expand in terms of h, a quadratic in h and then demand that there is one solution;

Then we seek e to be a single root, an integer and use the fact that h is an integer, we then complete the square again, this time e being the variable in the quadratic;

Eliminate e from the above equation by completing the square and allowing only one value of e; We set the discriminant equal to zero and form an equation in b;

This equation is an ordinary cubic in b^2.

The idea is to find at least one root beta that is a square. Factoring the quadratic equation The quadratic is usually written as a matrix but we can write it as a determinant;

This forms two systems of equations; in variables x and y;

The Determinant \This is a system of two linear equations

All this is well-known; this is just another way of deriving the Diophintine parametric equations for a binary quadratic form. The idea is to see whether we can extract

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