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# This set of activities is designed to support basic Geometry – in particular the properties and behaviour of angles in circles.

It contains SIX (6) activities which are relatively straightforward. Set 2 contains SEVEN (7) activities which are more complex in nature and more suitable for more able students. These tasks are designed to provide dynamic support to the teaching of these important geometric concepts. Students are required to complete a number of constructions, and then complete a series of measurements of key features of these constructions. Because the construction can be altered, and the properties remain unaltered, this is a powerful way of convincing students that the key properties hold under virtually all circumstances. We are taking advantage of a feature of Sketchpad that is similar to Excel spreadsheets – the combining of a number of pages within a single workbook. The first activity that students must complete is the setting of the workbook with a large number of pages. Individual tasks, or parts of tasks, are then completed on each page. SETTING UP A GEOMETER’S SKETCHPAD WORKBOOK 1. Click on The Geometer’s Sketchpad icon in the dock to start the program. 2. On the FILE Menu, select SAVE. Name it (initial)(surname)(form). 3. On the FILE Menu, select DOCUMENT OPTIONS. In the window that opens, enter “T1” for the PAGE NAME and click on the SHOW PAGE TABS button. 4. Click on the ADD PAGE bar, and select BLANK PAGE. Name this new page T2. (Note that you can now see tabs for T1A and T2 at the bottom of the worksheet.) 5. Repeat step 4. to add pages labeled T3, T4, T5 and T6 in that order to your workbook. 6. Now click OK. 7. On the FILE Menu, select SAVE to save your workbook.

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SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS Tasks 1, 2, 3 and 6 can be assessed on the work presented on the Answer Sheet. Tasks 4 and 5 will need to be assessed electronically by examining and testing the completed construction(s), and ensuring that the procedure is accurately recorded on the Answer Sheet. This could be done in class (if time permits). REMIND STUDENTS TO SAVE FREQUENTLY DURING THE CLASS ACTIVITIES. TASK 1 ANGLES AT THE CIRCUMFERENCE STANDING ON THE SAME ARC

The classic “butterfly” construction figure is an easy straightforward task to start with. Answers : a) Students will have different values. b) ∠AMB = ∠ANB c) Move A or B, and the measured angle values change Move M or N, and the measured values do NOT change TASK 2 ANGLES AT THE CIRCUMFERENCE AND AT THE CENTRE STANDING ON THE SAME ARC

Another straightforward construction, but there are several complications : (a) the angle at the centre can only be measured up to 180˚ – beyond that the program then measures the angle on the other side. (b) depending on the precision of measurement selected, the relationship between the two angles may not always be exactly two (2). This is due to rounding off errors within the program. Answers : a) Students will have different values. b) ∠AOB = 2 × ∠APB c) Move A or B, and the measured angle values change Move P, and the measured values do NOT change d) Both angles have obtuse values. (the program cannot measure reflex angles) 360˚ – ∠AOB = 2 × ∠APB TASK 3 AN ANGLE IN A SEMICIRCLE

This task and its followup carry through this concept quite powerfully. Answers : a) ∠ACB = 90˚ b) It is a RIGHT angle c) The values does NOT change d) The vertex at which the right angle of the triangle is located lies on the circumference of the circle. Since the hypotenuse is acting as a diameter, it is illustrating the same feature in another way, that the angle in a semicircle is a right angle.

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TASK 4

CYCLIC QUADRILATERAL

Simple construction with many possibilities for exploration and followup. Answers : a) Sample procedure : (i) Construct a circle. (ii) Construct four points on the circumference. (iii) Connect the four points with line segments to form a quadrilateral. (iv) Measure the internal angle at each vertex. b) The angle measures for that vertex and the vertex opposite do NOT change, but the other two angle measures do change. Ask students to calculate the values of various pairs of the quadrilateral angles. They should soon note that the opposite measures sum to 180˚. TASK 5 CYCLIC TRIANGLE

Simple construction with many possibilities for exploration and followup. Answers : a) Sample procedure : (i) Construct a circle. (ii) Construct three points on the circumference. (iii) Connect the three points with line segments to form a triangle. (iv) Measure the internal angle at each vertex. b) Students will have different values. c) The value at P does NOT change, while the values at A and B do change. d) The value at the chosen point does NOT change, while the values at the other two points do change. e) All three angle values change in a triangle when any one of the vertices is moved around. TASK 6 CIRCLE WITH TANGENTS

A quite complex construction which illustrates the key points about this aspect of Geometry. Rounding off errors with the program may not always give identical angle values. Answers : a) Students will have different values. b) All pairs are IDENTICAL in value. c) A tangent is a line which touches a circle, and meets a radius at right angles.

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