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CHA!'i. I _. DESCRIPl'ION

PAGE

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Hi storical Background. . . . • • • • . . • • • • • • . • • • • . • • . . . . . . • . . ••••.• 101 Specifica tions 0 ••••• ._ " ......................................• .103

Main and Second Deck Plans .••••••••••••••.•••..•..•..•...•.• 105

Platform and Hold Deck Plans •.••••••••.••••....•.•••.•....•• l06

Gl'ound 'l'a.ckle 107

CHAPTER II - SAILING

M9.s tsQld Spars) Rigging ....•...••.••.•.......•••••......... 201

Be~, Setting ~dFurl1ng 8&11$ ••••••..•.••••.....••.•... 208

Rules for Working; Aloft .••••••••••••••••••.••••.•..•.••.•.•• 212

Orders foriett~ Individual Sails •••....••••.....•.....•.. 212 Orders for Furling Individual Sails .••..•.••.....•...••.•..• 214 Setting and Furling Diagrams .•••.•••.••.•••••..•.•••.••••••• 2l5

Pinrail Diagrams ...•• ,. •.•••••• , It •••••••••• 225

Forces in Sailing ' •....•.•• 229

~andling tht EAGLE Uhder Sail .••.••.••...•.•.•.•.•..•..••.•• 233 l·1aneuvering Under Sail:

Taqking. " ...•....•. '" " ..•...•. of « " •• * to It 238

Wearing ':I " ' ,. .. 't II 240

Boxhaul1ng ,. 242

Boxing Off on Opposite Tack •.•.•••.••....•••.••..•..•..•.• 244 Boxing Off on Original Tack....... . •.••.••••.••.•........ 245

Summa.ry: Points to Remember in Handli~ Sails" .•..•.•..•..• ~¥ Damage to Rigging - Emergency Measures ...••.•..•..•.•.••.••• 247

CHAPTER III - BOATS

Ptllling Boa t s .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ,. .. .. ,. • .. .. .. .. .. • .. • .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. • .. .. .. • • .. .. .. .. • 301

Motor Boabs ,. ,. ,. 303

Boat Etiquette .•......•...•...•••..••••.•.•..•.•.•....•••... 304

Motor Boat Check-off List .•.•...........•...•.••.•.....••.•. 305

Summary for Boat Coxswains •..•.....•.•..•..•••.•.•.••..•.•.. 306

CHAPTER IV - MISCELLANEOUS

Dressing and Full-Dressing Ship ..•••.••.•..•••••......••...• 401

National Holidays, etc ...••.••..•.•.••..•••.•••.••..•.•..... 405 Extracts from DNC 27 ..........•...••........................ 406

Procedure for Housing Tbpgallant Masts ..•.•..•...•.•.......• 408

Rigging the Accommodation Ladder 411

Rigging the Cargo Boom •••.•••••••.....•...•••.•••••••••..•.. 412

EA.GIE Glossary 414

" ,

lACK ENGEMAN 701 ST. PAUL ST. eAl T!MOR~ 2, MD.

-i-

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

The Coas t Guard Academy, or as it was then known, Revenue Cutter Service School: of Instruction, was founded aboard the old Revenue Cutter DOBBIN at Baltimore on May 15, 1877. The DOBBIN was a two-masted topsail schooner sim11a.rto all t.he other cutters then in service, of which she was one of

the oldest. To afford better instruction is was decided to build a training ship especially for the Academy. This vessel turned out to be a beautiful little bark, the SAMUEL B. CHASE, which was commissioned'in 1878. She was

a very success~~~jressel and served until 1908, when she was replaced by the ITASCA.' ThiSt~ssel\,had been built by the Navy as a training ship and was not too StlOQeSSful, ~ipal1y because she was scaled down in all dimensions includin[ _ch $1z_, bunk le~, overhead clearances, etc. In 1921 the Coas t Guard .curedthe old gunboat VICKSBl.1.Itt from the Navy and renamed her ALEXANDER 8IMILtoN. Sht was an auxiliary barkentine built for the China Station in 1898 and made a very adequate training ship until found to be

worn out in 1930. I'rOtp 1930 until the beginning of the war the cadets were taken on as supernumeraries aboard one or more vessels of the regular Coast Guard fleet. This practice was necessary because funds to build a new and proper training ship were not available.

Our pte.fit training ship is an l.800 ton, three-masted, auxil.iary bark, which was acqu1rtl from Germany in 1946. The HORST WESSEL was buil t by the German Navy 1n 1936 as a training vessel. to accommodate 22~ ~; she operated as a school ship until. the early part ofWOr14 war Xl. During the war she was chiefl.y used in the Baltic transferring supplle$and passengers between Eas t Prus'sian ports and Germany proper. In January 1946, the Coast Guard Academy sent officers and men to Bremerhaven to arrange the detail.s of taking over the vessel.

OUr first acb was to re-christen her with a proper Coast Guard name and in June the EAGLE departed from Germany and arrived at the Academy in early July.

Our training ship is the sixth vessel of the Coast Guard to bear the historic name "EAGLEJI. The first Coast Guard Cutter EAGLE (then Revenue Cutter) was built in 1798 at Phil.adelphia. She was a 187-ton brig, 58 feet on the keel, 20 foot beam, and 9 foot depth of hold. She was manned by a crew of 70, and was armed with 14 six-pounders. Her record under Captain Hugh G. Campbell in the Quasi-War with France was splendid. Most of the

duty consisted of convoying American cargo vessels safely through Caribbean waters against the raids by the 60 to 80 French privateers operating out of Martinique and Guadaloupe. During the two and a half years she was employed, t.he EAGLE captured 5 Frenchmen, recaptured 7 American vessels, and assisted in capturing or retalring 10 other French or American vessels. Followingthe close of hostilities in 1801 t.he vessel was sold.

The second EAGLE was a cutter 1rbich operated out of New London, Conn., from 1809 until 1814. She had a crew of approximately 25 men and was armed with 4 four-pounders. Her principal duty was the prevention of smuggling and protecting our commerce in Long Island Sound. During the War of 1812, the Bri t1sh would use small captured American craft, manned and armed by themselves to attack our shipping in t.he Sound. To prevent this the EAGLE would convoy our merchant shipping up and down the shores of Long Island

and Connec ticut. In October 18l.4, the sloop SUSAN of. New Haven was set upon

101

unexpectedly by a Long Island sloop which had been armed and. m&mled by the British frigate POMONE. The EAGLE set out from New Haven with her crew and forty volunteers to try and recapture the SUSAN. However) she encountered some superior opposition from the enemy in the form of the POMONE's tender

and the Bri·tish 18-gun brig DISPATCH. These vessels closed in on the EAGLE, who ran ashore under the lee of the bluff at Negros Head, Long Island. Here ·the men hauled the cutter's guns ashore and stood off the British ships by firing the guns from the heights. In the fight the cutter I s mas ts were shob away, and a volunteer erec ted the flag on the stern. This was also sho·t away, but a tar replaced it where it remained throughou t ·the res t of the engagement. During the fight the EAGLE's men were forced to tear up the log to make cartridges . The British finally wi thdrew) and several days later Captain Frederick Lee of the EAara refloated the dismasted and badly holed cutter. UnfortunatelY, while she was being towed. back to New Haven a British force seized the vessel.

Through the courtesy of Mr. Alexander Victor, the librarian of Yale University, the Academy is now in possession of a bill of sale for powder and shot purchased by this EAGLE in New Haven. This powder and shot was undoubtedly used to repel the British during the engagement at Negros Head.

The next cutters to bear the name of EAGLE were both operated out

of New Haven were both commanded by the same captain who had fought off

the British so heroically at Negros Read - Captain Frederick Lee, later to have a cutter named in his honor. The third EAGLE was in commissiQn from 1816 to lB24, and the fourth vessel ·to be called the EAGLE was in commission from 1824 to 1829.

Almost a hundred years passed between the commissioning of the fourth EAGLE and the fifth vessel so called. In 1925 a staunch lOO-foot patrol boat was completed and bore this famous name. She was built to engage in the Coast Guard's rum pa tro1. Fas t des troyers were used to sweep the sea for several hundred miles from the coast, and when a rum-runner was found, vessels of the 100 and 125 foot classes were sent out. to picket the "black". They stayed wi th the runner until he gave up the attempt to contac t the faster and smaller shore craft tha.t went out to run the inshore blockade. The fifth EAGLE spen·t nine years in this type of ",'ork and in the other humani-tarian services rendered by the Coast Guard. She was decommissioned in 1934.

I-I:; is interesting to note that all the Coast Guard vessels bearing this name, except the first, have based along the Connecticut shore.

102

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DESCRIPTION OF THE CGC EAGLE

SPAflS ••

LENGTH - overall. (counter to tip of bowsprit)

LENGTH - without bowsprit

LENGTH - 'between perpendiculars (water line)

BEAM - greatest

FREEBOARD -

DRAUGHT - fully loaded

DISPIACEMENT - fully loaded

VOLUME - gross tonnage

BALLAST - iron pigs

FUEL OIL -

WATER -

HEIGHT OF FORETRUCK - above water line

HEIGHT OF MAINTRUCK -

HEIGHT OF MIZZEN'mUCK -

FORE AND MAINYARD -

SAIL AREA -

MOTOR - auxiliary (M.A.N. Diesel) SPEED - under power (n.·t calm) ANCHORS - (2 - 'patent)

CRAIN - (s ta.rboard 150 fathoms, port 135 fathoms) (diameter of chain is 1.76 inches)

103

295 feet 277 feet

231 feet 39.1 feet

9.1 feet

17·0 feet 1816 tons

1500 B.R.T. 344 tons 24,215 gals. 56,140 gals.

150.3 feet

150.3 feet

132.0 feet 78.8 feet 21,350.8 sq. ft.

740 horsepower

10 knots

3,160 1bs.

DESCRIPTION OF THE roc EAGLE (CONTINtJED) ftt~

1,1, :','111" ,,_;_'-ij_: __ <)t:,<,.;,..X, ," __ ,

The EAGLE is built of German steel on the transverse framing system.

Details of construction are VF'ry similar to American practice of the .. time. Examina'tion of the CAl'fJ..':BELL and the EAGLE will demonstrate that they

are welded in similar places and riveted in similar places. When these vessels were buil t the fully welded technique had no t ye t been developed, in general the seams are riveted and the butts are welded. Fittings are 'generally bolted on while strength members such 8S knees and gussets are welded to the frame. The plating is of approximately 4/10tb inch thickness.

There are two full length steel decks, a platform deck below these, and a raised forecastle and quarter-deck. The weather-decks have a 3-inch teak deck laid on top of the steel. The second deck has a 3-inch pine deck covered with dexotex. The platform deck and the tank tops are steel.

The second deck is the damage control deck, at present. There are six watertight bulkheads which run to the main deck but which have watertight

doors on the second, or liVing, deck level. Perusal of the attached drawings will show 'that the main deck under the forecastle contains the paint locker, washrooms, and heads. The crew's quarters are forward on the second deck followed by two large compartments which compose the cadet quarters. Aft of this, under the quarter-deck, are 'the officer's quarters. Under the crew's quarters are commissary holds and refrigerator spaces. Under the cadet quarters are stowage holds, carpenter shop, sailmaker's shop, etc. Under this platform are found the water and fuel tanks. Under the after cadet quarters are the engine room spaces. Under the officer's quarters, aft, are miscellaneous storerooms. The ga.lley is on the main deck abaft of the forecastle, and the cadet berthing compartments double as messing compartments.

It will be noted that all these compartments bear numbers, which accordingto a definite system established by the U. S. Navy, locate the compartment in the ship and tell its purpose. Specifically, all compartments forward of the engine room spaces bear the prefix A, the engine and auxiliary engine room spaces B, and those aft of the engine room bulkhead C. Compartments en the main deck bear numbers sta.rting with 1 and suffixes such as L (living'. The compartments on the secend deck have numbers beginning with 2, those to starboard ending with odd numbers, those t. port ending with even numbers.

Look over carefully the plall on the f,Qtl~ two pages and check them when on board !;be ship.

104

The grou.U.a.tackle consi.sts of the following equipment:

ANCHORS

2 Patent

1 Old Fashioned

3,860 lbs. 7701bs.

Bower Anchors

Kedge anchor - stowed on quarterdeck under steering gear.

1.77 TI (45mm) wire diameter wrought iron stud links made up in 13.8 fathom (25M) shots.

Connect!Dg sbaOkles are of the' kenter type.

starboard chain - 11 shots 1 ~ting SWivel shot 1 Inboard swivel shot Total Length

Port Cbain - 10 shots

1 Connecting$_v-el shot 1 lnboard swivel shot Total Length

152 fath.

3 . 5 f'abh . (approx.) 1.7 fath. (approx.) 157 fathoms

138 fath.

3 . 5 f'abh . (approx.) 1.7 fath. (approx.) 143 fathoms

Both chains are secured in their chain lockers to padeyes near the bottom on the inboard bulkhead by means of slip hooks.

MARKING \

,

Measu~~hs from the jew's harp, the chain is marked according to t~ normal COBst Guard system, in 15 fathom lengths Called IIsbc)ts".

The studs of the qtual connecting shackles are painted white in'order to fa.cilitate finding them in case it becomes necessa.ry to break the chain.

MISCELLANEOUS

One mooring swivel Two slip stoppers Shackles, 'cools, etc. Anchor buoys, P & S

107

GROUND TACKLE (CONTINUED)

WINDLASS

The anchor handling machinery consists of a hand capstan geared directly through positive clutch arrangements to either the port or starboard wildcats. The gears and shafting are below deck . The clutch controls are located between the port and starboard wildcats. Each wildcat has a brake band controlled by a wheel adjacent thereto.

In addition to the clU'toh looa.ted between the Wildcats which selects the one connected to the capstan, eat'b wildcat has separate engaging lock so tha't. i-t may be connected to the ct.pstan ready to heave, but still allowed to run free by its own control. Chain s toppers are provided for each chain,tnese consist of several chain links shack'l.ed into the deck with a pelican hoolt"at the end. 'lhese stoppers are used for doubly securing the ancbar at sea, for hOlding it when it is ready to let go, and to hold the aQQhor in the hawse in case the chain is unshackled. Immediately forward of the chain stoppers are two chain pawls, these may also 'be. used to hold the chain in case the brake is inadequate.

Both the capstan and the wildcats are equipped with pawls. These are what landsmen would call ratchets and permit the machinery to be revolved in one direction wh£le locking it against motion in the OPPOSite direction. These are important safety fac-~rs for the men ,heaving on the capstan and should always be used. Fa.U-ureto use these pawls cpuld well result in a most serious accident in case the capstan should take ObItorge if the vesseltoQk an unexpected surge

PREPARING TO BRING SHIP TO ANCHOR

When the word is passed to prepare to bring the ship to anchor, the officer-in-Charge o~~the forecastle, usually the First Lieutenant, will muster his Special sea. Detail on -the forecastle. He will ascertain from the quarterdeck the probable depth of water and whether the port, starboard, or both anchors are to be made ready.

The next and most important step is to MAKE SURE THAT NO ONE IS IN THE CHAIN LOCKER. When the chain locker is reported clear the other preparations are in order. The first of these is to bend the green buoy to the starboard anchor and the red buoy to the port anchor. Sufficient scope will be used in the buoy line to insure that the buoy will float, but it should be short enough so that it will float nearly over the anchor.

The capstan is then 1fJlnaed and locked in gear with the wildcat of the anchor to be used. A light strain is taken on the capstan and the hand-brake holding the wildcat is released. A good strain is then taken on the capstan and the cbaJn pawl is fuJ..ly raised and. clear. When'

the foregoing steps have 'been eompleted the capstan is walked back until the weight of the chain comes on the slip stopper. This may be either at minimum distance, or if so directed, when the anchor is clear of the hawse. The anchor is allowed to hang on the slip stopper and the capsban and wildcat are both disconnected by their respective clutches.

The anchor, or anchors, is then reported ready to let go.

108

GROUND TACKLE (CONTINUED)

LETTING GO

When the ship nears the anchoring point the word is passed from the quarterdeck to "Stand clear of the starboard (port) chain". The officer-incharge of the forecastle will see that this word is passed, again make sure that everyone is clear of the chain locker, and see that everyone on the forecastle is in position abaft the wildcats.

Usually) at this time, the off1eer"'Of' -the -deck will pass the word the. t there will be so many fathoms of water ami to hold. the chain at so many fathoms. This latter figure will always be 15, 30, or some other multiple of 15, and will be suffixed by the phrase "on deck", or "in the water". When the ship comes to the desired spot the command is given "Let go the starboard (por-t) anchor". It is essential that this command be executed with no delay.

When it is received on the forecas·tle, the Chief Boa tswain I s Me. te will knock the retaining ring off the pelican hook of the stopper holding the anchor to be let go. The Carpenter I s Me. be (Damage Controlman), whose duty it

is to tend the brake, will allow the anchor to run freely until it touches

the bottom, at which time he will bring a light strain on the b"ke and stop

the overhauling of the chain. If the ship is properly handled, she will be backing, or perhaps going ahead, as the anchor is let go, the man tending the brake will allow the chain to run out as required so that no strain comes upon it but so that it does not pile up on top of the anchor. When the shackle denoting the proper length of chain comes over the wildcat, he will set up on

the brake, hold the chain, and report the same. The officer-in-charge of the forecas tle will then report to the quarterdeck "blank fa-thoms of chain on deck ", and will be told either, "very well hold it" or, "veer to (some larger number) of chain". lfuen this amount of chain is out, he agadn reports, and the command will be passed "very well report when brought to and holding". When he reports "brought to and holding", he will be given the order "very well secure". Upon receipt of this order, the chain pawl will be se t up taut, and the slip stopper passed. Just enough add1tional chain will be slacked by the brake to allow the weight to come on the chain pawl and the slip stopper at which time the brake will be secured for a full due.

BACKING OUT

I-t is sometimes deaf.rab.le to back ou-t the anchor prior to letting go when the depth of water is excessive. The capstan is manned and engaged to the wildcat, the pawls lifted, and the capstan turned to take up any slack aft of the stopper. Then stopper and controller are let go and the capstan backed around until the anchor hangs underfoot by the desired amount of chain. The chain is then held by the stopper, the wildcat is disengaged and the anchor

is ready to let go.

109

GROUND TACKLE (CONT' D)

WEIGHING ANCHOR

(a) Manually

To weigh anchor the capstan is ful.ly manned (30 men), engaged to the wildcat with clutch and locking ring, and turned GO take a strain on the chain. As the windlass takes up a strain, the controller and stopper are loosened and bhe chain hove in. When more than thirty fathoms are out it is desirable to have a relief crew take over the capstan about when the chain is at short stay) that is when it. comes parallel to the fores tay .

When manning a capstan bar for heaving, the arms are crooked under the bar with the pressure being applied by the front of che upper arm a little below the shoulder. '!he back should be straight so that all of the work of' pushing is done with the legs.

When actually housing the anchor, the speed of heaving in should be decreased somewhat. '!his invariably happens without any special oaution to the capstan crew, for the strain on the chain suddenly becomes quite a bit greater as the jew's harp enters the hawse and the arms and flukes are thus forced up as the shank is pulled into the hawse pipe.

When the anchor is fully housed with che flukes pivoted to the extreme and their tips up snug agains·t the skin of the ship, the controller is set

up tigh-t to hold the chain. '!he windlass mus t then be disconnected f'rom the wildcat. Usually, at this point, however, the pawls on the capstan have just d.r.opped and prevent the capstan from turning back, thus keeping a strain on the whole system -- gear train, clutch, windlass shaft, locking ring, wildcat, and chain. This strain keeps all the free play out of the system and the resulting extra friction in the mechanism of the clutch and the wildcat locking ring is so great that neither can be disengaged. This difficulty

can be overcome by either of two methods. First, the pawls of' the capstan must be lifted into their non-operating position. In order to do this a fur·ther strain on the whole arrrangement must be taken with the capstan in order to relieve the pressure on the tip of the pawls so they can be turned up. Secondly, the two heavy pins which engage the drumhead of' the capstan to the barrel may be removed. Either step will relieve the strain on the system and the resulting friction, thus providing the free play necessary

in order to disengage the clutch and/or the locking ring.

If, when the anchor approaches the hawse pipe, both flukes are pointed inboard, they vTill usually slide up the side in that position and press on the skin of che ship as the shank starts to enter the hawse, thus threatening to puncture the side and preventing the anchor from being fully housed. To "trip the flukes" so they point outb~rd, a bight of line must be lowered over the anchor and brought up snug under the flukes and each end secured on deck. The anchor is then backed out. As it is lowered the line keeps the flukes up tending to pivot them and finally they will flop over and point outboard. With the flukes tripped into their normal position, the line is brought back aboard and the anchor housed as described above.

110

Notify engine room to turn on power for anchor windlass 30 minutes prior to. heaving around.

Engage vertical shaft (locat;ed in Cadet washroom). Engage horuontal shaft (port or starboard).

Check power at capstan (run in both directions to warm up control box before PUtting load on).

Engage clutch and locking ring.

Check chain locker to see that all hands are clear and that no gear has been left; lying around that may foul up the chain. Release the brake (approximately 10 complete turns on wheel). Take a strain on the chain. Enough to remove slack between the wildca t; and the deck stopper .

Raise the chain pawl aU the way and release t.he deck stopper~ After anchor is housed in the hawse, set up on the brake, pass the deck stopper and lower_the cha~ pawl.

Release brake, and back off enough chain. to let the deck stopper take up the strain.

Set~ up on brake all the way.

Disengage anchor windlass, cover hawse pipe and chain pipe. Secure power.

GROUND TACKLE (CONT t D) WEIGHING ANCHOR (continued)

(b) With power

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
'..__.
(10)
(11)
(12)
(13) 111

MASTS AND SPARS

The lower masts, topmasts, the topgallantmasts, the royal masts, bowsprit, yards, booms, and mizzen gaff are all made of hollow steel tubes. All of these various appurtenances of the ship are known as spars. The foremast is stepped on the second deck, the mainmast is stepped on the keel, and the mizzenmast is s cepped on the pIa tform deck over the shaft alley. The fore and main masbs , together with their yards, are identical. The EAGLE follows the rigging practices in large sailing ships at their final stage of development, the foremast and its topmast are really one hollow tube, as is the mainruast and its topmast. However, they are rigged as the ol.4er veasels were, that is the shrouds come in under the tops where a new syst_ 01 t~t shrouds originates. The two parts of the masts retain their original. nemes, ·that is foremast from the deck to the top and foretopmast from the top to the crosstrees, the same applies to the main. The topgallant and royal masts are each likewise really one hollow steel spar, but again the topgallant shrouds terminate about half way up the spar and the portion above the topgallant hounds is known as the royal mast. The following table gives the names and weights of the individual spars!

NAME OF SPAR LENGTH WEIGHT
Bowsprit 43 ft. 7300 lbs.
Topgallant masts 52 ft. 2l28lbs.
Fore & Main Yards 79 ft. 6380 lbs.
Lower Topsail Yards 72 ft. 4840 Lbs .
Upper Topsail Yards 63 ft. 3520 Ibs.
Topgallant Yards 50 ft. rtoo rss.
Royal Yards 38 ft. 8841bs.
Mizzen Gaff 35 ft. 994 lbs.
Mizzen Boom 54 ft. 2200 Ibs.
RIGGING If you go aboard the EAGLE without previous study, and look aloft at what will undoubtedly appear to be a maze of complicated gear, you may well be inclined to give up before you start. However, if you will study the drawings which follow this page it will soon bee~J:t:e apparent that there is a simple system underneath this complicated whole. The drawings are so arranged and separated as to enable you to understand this system. The naming of the various masts is simple, the yards and other spars take the names of the

masts to Which they are attached and logically enough each shroud, backstay, and stay takes the name of the mast which it supports. The sails take the names of the yards or stays on which they are set.

201

RIGGING (CONT I D)

The running rigging is what really contributes deusi ty to the maze.

However, it is again simple when understood. Each sail is controlled by certain lines some of which are used to set 'the sail, some to trim it,

and others to furl it. The clews, or lower corners, of a square sail must be held down. This is done by lines known as sheets. On the upper sails these sheets run to the yardarm below, on the lower sails the sheets run directly to the hull and it is necessary to have other lines known as tacks. When the sails are set on the wind the weather tack holds the forward clew of the sail and the lee sheet holds down and aft the other clew. The yards are swung by lines known as braces. Each brace takes the name of the yard it controls and may be called by starboard and port or by lee and weather as circumstances direc t . The yards are held level or canted by means of lines known as lif ts . These lifts are likewise known as starboard and port or lee and weather, and the name of the yard to which they are abtached , If you examine the drawings you will notice that only the lifts on the lower yards are controlled by tackles. The lifts of the upper yards are "standing", that is fixed lengths of wire which come taut only when the yard is lowered to the furling position. When the sails are set the horizontal ~ng1e of all the yards is controlled by 'the lower lifts since the sails themselves tie the yards together.

Sails are furled by c1ew11nes, leechlines, and buntlines. The clewlines work opposite to the sheets and are used to haul the clews, or corners, of the sails up to the yards. The leechlines haul the sides, or leeches, of the sails up to the yards and the buntlines haul the middle or bunt up to the yards.

Halyards (a contraction of haulyard) are the most important pieces of running gear. Ea.ch halyard takes the name of the yard it hauls aloft. Gen· erally speaking, the sails are set by letting go and overhauling the buntlines and leechlines, easing down clewlines, hauling down the sheets, and hoisting up the yard by means of the halyard. They are furled by lowering the yard, and by hauling up the sail with the clewlines, buntlines, and leechlines. 1't is thus possible to do nine ty per cent of the work of setting and furling the sails from the ship's deck. A study of the diagrams will enable you to follow 'the rigging of the ship. You will notice that there are some exceptions to the rules of names; speCifically, the clewlines on the courses are clew-garnets, no one knows why, it is simply one of the facts

of nautical life.

The description is in most general terms, the drawings are most specific, if you study the drawings and look at the ship you will be able to understand what goes on the very first day you are aboard. If you are to be a useful member of the ship's company, not merely a burden on all and a danger to yourself, it is essential that you comprehend this rigging and learn the nomenclature as a Fourth Classman.

202

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BENDING A SQUARE SAIL

The sail is streeched along the deck) after side down, and the head is stretched well out. The sail is then ga~red up as in furling and gaskets passed snugly around it,eak1ng care to leave the roping at the head and foot clear. The leech cringles for sails with leechlines must also be exposed.

A gantline or tackle is then hooked around the center of the sail and it is swayed aloft to the yard where it is to be bent . It is hoisted far enough a.bove the yard so that the men on the yard can grasp it by the head cr1ngles and fleet it out along the yardarms as the gantline is eased off. As soon as possible, the head earring-is taken through its eye on the end of the yard and brought back through the head cringle, this then serves as a tackle to help extend the head of the sail. The sail is hauled well out with the head cringles, as the gantline is further slacked away, until the special hooks

on the yardarms can be passed through the head cringles. The sail is now carefully centered on the yard and the mid-ship roband is passed and secured. An additional turn is now taken with the head earr-mg, or in case of the

lower sails a jigger tackle is hooked in to the head cringles, and the roping along the head of the sail put on a good stretch, after which the head earrings are secured and the remaining robands are passed around the jackstay. Sheets, clewlines, leechlines, and bunt.Lfnea are now bent to the sail and

it is ready for setting. In bending the gear, considerable care and foresight is necessary to avoid turns and to insure that everything will run

fair when the sail is set. If the sail is first set in blowing weather,

any fouled gear may result in serious trouble. If the sail is being bent

in harbor, it is let fall and then furled with the gear to insure that everything is properly led and bene.

BENDING A FORE AND AFT SAIL

A fore and aft sail is made up along the foot and swayed out or up to the stay upon Which is is to be bent. The halyard and downhaul are bent into the head cringle, and the tack is made fast to insure that; the sail will not be lost. The luff' of the sail is then bent to the hanks on the stay, starting at the head and working down. In harbor, or in fair weather, this may be accomplished most easily by running the sail partly up the stay as the robands are passed on the individual hanks. The sheets are shackled to the clew cringle and the sail is ready to go to work.

In bending sail and in working on sails at night, always bear in mind -that the bolt rope is on the after side of the square sails and on the port side of fore and aft sails. If this fact is given proper conSideration, i-t is easy to avoid unnecessary turns and snarls.

208

SETTING SAILS

The courses and lower topsails set from standing yards, that is, yards which do not hoist. Consequently, it is only necessary to let fall and

sheet home these sails. When the gaskets are all off, and bunt11nes and leechlines set taut ,the command LE'll FALL is gi yen. The men push the sail off the front of the yard and lay into the mast where they see that the bunUines and leechlines are overhauled and clear. On deck, the clewlines are eased down, taking care not to let them fall, and the sheets are hauled home. If the cleYl.jnes are dropped rather than eased down the chain links in the sheet which run through the lower yards may foul. In the case of the courses, it will be necessary to haul away vea~ tack and lee sheet to set the sail properly.

The upper topsails , -topgallant sails and royals are set from yards which mus t be hois ted. To set these sails you man the sheets and halyards. When the sail is ready you let fall, the men lay in from the yard and overhaul buntlines and leechlines, and the command is given to sheet home and hoist away the yard simultaneously. In the beginning, it will probably be necessary to sheet home before we hoist the yard, but as bhe cadets gain proficiency in handling sail i-t will soon be possible to accomplish both operations simultaneously. Again, the clewlines must be eased rather than dropped. Care must be taken to get both sheets home evenly and to slow down the crew on the halyard before they run the yard off the -track. It is very easy to damage the sailor part a sheet or halyard, if care is not taken to slow down in the final stages of hOisting the yard. The last foot or so of hoist should be hand over hand, and just enough strain should be brought on the sail to make the leeches set straight.

Setting a jib or staysail is much simpler. It is only necessary to

see all the gaskets clear, the sheet and downhaul overhauled and well clear, and then to run away with the halyard. Just enough strain is kept on the sheet to prevent the sail from slatting unduly until the halyard has brought the luff to a good stretch, at which time the sheet is trimmed. Too much strain on the sheet will make the sail hard to se t due to binding the hanks, and if carried to excess, may even result in pulling the head out of the sail before it is set. Not tending the sheet can result in unnecessary slatting which in turn may damage the sail. In sheeting home fore and aft sails, avoid getting them too flat. The sheet should be hauled aft only enough to take the shake out of the sail. Any more pull on the sheet adds leeway at the expense of hesdvay.

In setting the spanker, the first operation is to throw off and overhaul the vangs, and to top the end of the boom up about three feet by means of the topping lift. The brails and inhauls are then cast off and overhauled. The peak and clew outhauls are well manned and the sail hauled smartly out along the boom and gaff. When the peak and clew are well hauled out, so that no wrinkles show along gaff or boom, the topping lift is eased off until the sail assumes the proper shape and the sheet is trimmed according to the vessel's course.

It should be possible to have the EAGLE under all sail and properly trimmed in less than fifteen minutes.

209

TAKING IN SAILS"

In furling or taking in sail the processes outlined above are generally reversed. The clewlines (~lew garnets), buntlines, and leechlines are manned; sheets and halyards are tended. The royals will come in first, and when the gear is properly manner or tended the command will be given to slack away the royal halyard, CLEW DOWN, the man tending the halyard slacks, the men manning the clewlines, buntlines, and leechlines haul away. When the yard is down into the lifts, the sheets are eased off and the sail is hauled up snug against the yard in its gear. Get leech up first and keep it taut.

The topgallant sails and the upper topsails are handled in the same manner as the royals. Since the lower topsails and the courses are set from standing yards, it is not necessary to clew down or tend a halyard, otherwise the process is the same.

When the sails are snug in their gear, with the braces ·taut, and the yards in the lifts, the men are sent aloft to complete the furl. While men are not to get on the yards until everything is secure, there will always

be a considerable lapse 1n time from when the men leave the deck until they reach the upper yards. Consequen t;1y, the yardsmen may be started aloft while the braces and other gear are still being handled on deck.

As in all sail handling, the important thing to do when furling a sail is to smother it as quickly as possible. The rule in working aloft is one hand for the ship and one for yourself, however, this does not mean that you are to reserve both hands for yourself while deciding which to use for the ship. While it may not appear so a·t first, you are safer on the EAGLE's royal yards than you are when driving an automobile.

The first men aloft lay out on the weather yardarm and begin furling

at once. To do this, you s imply reach over the yard and pick up layers of the sail, a foot or so at a time. If everyone lifts simultaneously, the

sail disappears like magic, however, if each man tries ·to pull according

to his own inclination, nothing happens except "that fingernails are lost

and tempers suffer. The leeches of the sail should be hauled in parallel

to the jackstay by the leechlines; check this, and if they are not in, work them in first. After the leeches are in place, simply pull the sail up in

a series of folds, and drop each fold inside the bight of the sail, the last fold of canvas is pulled smooth and serves as a sail cover. The sketch which follows illustrates handling a sail.

The stayliSl1s are furled by manning the downhaul, slacking the sheet, and letting go the halyard as the men run away with the doWDbaul. As the sail starts down, it is usually possible to let go the sheet and expedite the process. Actually, furling sail can only be learned by practice, detailed description would only be confusing and is consequently omi-tted.

The spanker is furled by topping up the boom to take the weight off the lower track, slacking the peak and clew outhaul, running away with the peak downhaul and clewline, and smothering the sail with the brails. After the sail is snug in its gear, gaskets are passed around it and the jackstay to make a neat furl.

210

TRIMMING SAIL

Fore and afe sails are erimmed by their SHEETS. You haul aft, or flaeten, the sheets when you brace up the yards. A square rigger cannot hope to li.e wiehin six points of the wind. A fore and aft rigged vessel may be expected to lie within four points of the wind, consequently on a square rigger the fore and aft sails should be about two points free when the yards are braced up sharp. For this reason, it is never necessary to sheet the jib and staysails flat aft when you are under sail. On the contrary, take care to have them trimmed so that they are just drawing. Trimming in anymore results only in leeway at the expense of progress.

~~e square sails are erimmed by ehe braces and by ehe sheees and tacks of tne courses. You BRACE UP when on the wind, you BRACE IN or SQUARE the yard when the sails are trimmed to run exactly before the wind. As the yards are swung it is necessary to tend anderim the LIFTS because the pivot point of the yard is not in vertical alignment with the pfvot points of the lift blocks. As you brace up, the weather 11ft becomes taut (the lee lift will go slack) and if not tended will cock the yard up to a ridiculous angle, and put a dangerous strain on the lifts. Whenever the trim of the yards is being changed more than a few degrees, remember to watch the lifts.

In bracing the yards with the sails furled, particular care must be exercised to slack all the gear on the pin-rails, otherwise buntlines, leechlines, etc -:-;-Will be put under heavy strain and ·the sail pulled out of shape in its furl, or even torn. This may be avoided if all buntlines and leechlines are brought into the tye and stopped there when the sails are furled, however, clewlines and sheets must still be watched.

When the vessel is under power, the trim of the yards will make considerable difference in the progress if there is much headwind, always keep the yards braced up to the most favorable angle, which is that on Which the ship would sail with minimum change of course in case of power failure.

211

I

RULES FOR WORKING ALOFT

Take no unnecessary chances and avoid grandstanding.

2.

One hand for yourself and one for the ship. You have four points of contact with the rigging, two hands and two feet. Always keep three of these po:f:nts in firm contact with part of the standing rigging; be sure never to support yourself from running rigging such as clewlines, buntl1nes, or other gear 'Which may come slack.

Ratlines are light and sometimes carry away, shrouds and backstays never do, consequentdy , when going aloft always keep your hands on the shrouds and use the ratlines only for your feet. Climb one ratline at a time.

4.

When laying out on the yard, use the jackstay for youf. hands, never trust yourself to gaskets or bights of the sail.

Never stand on the yard unless ordered to, that is what the foo·t ropes are for. Use the flemish horses on the yardarms. Special circumstances may, at some time, require you to straddle a yard or even stand on it; when this is necessary, be sure that you do it after carefully thinking what will happen if the sail suddenly fills or shakes. Always remember that a very small puff of wind in a sail is quite capable of throwing you entirely out of the rigging if you are sitting on the sail.

6.

When furling, use the beckets which are provided on the after jackstay to insure your security. Either have your body or onearmtbrough a . becket at all times when furling. Keep your balance at all times. Do not bang too far over tbe yard and do not attempt a beavy 11ft unaided.

7· 8.

Never get on the lee side of a sail while working on the bowsprit.

Always use the weather shrouds when going, or coming down from, aloft. (Either side may be used when wind is f01!e and aft.)

ORDERS FOR SETTING INDIVIDUAL SAILS

TO SET A LOWER TOPSAIL:

The yards are first braced up on the proper tack.

LOWER TOPSAIL YARDMEN ON THE SliEERPOLE.

LAY ALOFT AND LOOSE THE '* LOWER TOPSAIL.

LEAD ALONG AND MAN THE * LOWER TOPSAIL SHEETS.

See that all gear is clear for running ~ when the sail is ready:

LET FALL. lAY IN. OVERHAUL THE GEAR. LET GO AND OVERHAUL THE BUNTLINES. EASE DOWN THE CLEWLlNES. SHEET HOME.

* Insert the name of the mast.

212

ORDERS FOR SETTING INDIVIDUAL SAILS (CONT I D)

TO SET AN UPPER TOPSAIL:

UPPER TOPSAIL YARDMEN ON THE SBEERPOLE.

LAY ALOFT AND LOOSE THE * UPPER TOPSAIL.

LEAD ALONG AND MAN Tl:':E * UPPER TOPSAIL SHEETS AND HALYARD.

See that all gear, including the braces, is clear for running. When the sail is ready:

LET FALL. LAY IN. LAY DOWN FROM ALOFT.

LET GO AND OVERHAUL THE BTmrLINE8. SLACK THE LEE BRACE. TEND THE WEATHER BRACE. CLEAR AWAY THE OOWNHAtJLS, AND TOPGALLANT SHEETS.

HOIST AWAY THE * UPPER TOPSAIL. SHEET HClvIE.

Make sure that the sheets are gotten hOme before ·the halyards come taut.

TO SET A TOPGALLANT SAIL:

TOPGALIANT YARDMEN ON THE SHEERPOLE.

LAY ALOFT AND LOOSE THE * TOPGALLANT SAIL.

MAN THE * TOPGALLANT SHEETS AND HALYARDS. TEND THE BRACES.

When ready aloft:

LET FALL. LAY IN TO THE CROSS'IREES, AND STANDBY TO OVERHAUL GEAR. TEND THE LEE TOPGALLANT BFJ:II.CE. EASE OFF THE WEATHER TOPGALLANT BRACE. THROW OFF ROYAL SHBETS.

SHEET HOME AND HOIST AWAY THE * TOPGALLANT SAIL.

TO SET THE ROYALS:

ROYAL YARDMEN ON THE SHEER POLE •

LAY ALOFT AND LOOSE THE * ROYAL.

MAN THE * ROYAL SHEETS AND HALYARDS. TEND THE BRACES.

When ready aloft:

LET FALL. LAY IN TO THE CROSSTREES, AND STANDBY TO OVERHAUL GEAR. TEND THE ROYAL BRACES. EASE OFF THE WEATHER BRACES.

SHEET HOME AND HOIST AWAY THE * ROYAL.

TO SET A COURSE, BY THE WIND:

The yard is braced up, but not so sharp as to jam the bunt under the fore-stay or main-stay, as the case may be.

FORE YARDMEN (OR MAIN YARDMEN) ON THE SHEERPOLE. LAY ALOFT AND LOOSE THE FORESAIL (OR MAINSAIL).

MAN THE FORETACK AND SHEET (OR MAINTACK AND SHEET).

* Insert the name of the mast.

213

ORDE'S FOR Pf!!m.NG. INP:rvmI.AL iSA~LS ~CONT1D) TO SET A COURSE, BY THE WIND (CONT I D) :

When all is ready aloft:

LET FALL. LAY IN. LAY DOWN FROM ALOFT.

LET GO AND OVERHAUL THE BUNTLINES AND LEECHLINES. EASE DOWN THE CLEW-GARNETS. HAUL AFT THE LEE SHEET, BOARD THE TACK.

Wi th the wind aft or on the quarter J both sheets are manned. T¥ro men remain on the yard to overhaul the gear. The orders then are:

MAN BOTH FORE (OR MAIN) SHEETS. CLEAR AWAY CLEW-GARNETS,. BUNTLINES, AND LEECHLINES. LET FALL. SHEET HOME ~

TO SET A JIB OR FORE-TOPMAST-STAYSA!L:

LAY OUT AND CLEAR AWAY THE *' JIB.

LEAD ALONG AND MAN THE *' JIB HALYARDS.

CLFAR AWAY AND OVERHAUL THE DOWNHAUL. CLEAR AND OVERHAUL THE WEATHER

SHEET. TEND THE LEE SHEET. RUN AWAY WITH THE *' HALYARD.

(The men tending the sheet ease off as the hanks begin to bind on the stay. This keeps the sail from slatting or binding. Staysail handled similarly to headsails.)

TO SET THE SPA!~:

LAY ALOFT AND CLEAR AWAY THE SPANKER.

TEND THE SHE~T. SLACK AWAY THE VANGS. TOP UP THE BOOM.

When the ~er is loosed:

lAY DOWN. MAN THE OU'.rHAULS. CLEAR AWAY THE DOWNHAUL AND INHAUL, OVERIJAUL THE BRAILS.

EASE THE SHEET. HAUL OUT.

(Avoid fouling the colors.)

ORDERS FOR FURLING INDIVIDUAL SAILS

TO TAKE IN A ROYAL:

MAN THE . __ *'_,.,.._ ROYAL CLE'"WLINES AND BUNTLINES, AND WEATHER BRACE.

TEND T.HE *' ROYAL SHEETS,:;RALYARDS AND LEE BRACE.

When ready:

SETTLE AWAY THE ROYAL HALYARDS. ROUND IN THE WEATHER BRACE.

CLEW DOWN.

* Insert the name of the mast.

214

ORDERS FOR FURLING INDIVIDUAL SAILS ( CONT I D )

, •• t J g;

TO TAKE IN A ROYAL (CONTI D) :

When the yard is down in bhe lifts:

SLACK THE SHEETS. CLEW UP. LAY ALOFT AND FURL THE ROYAL.

TO TAKE IN A TOPGALLANT SAIL:

MAN THE * TOPGALlANT CLEWLINES J BUNTLINES, AND WEATHER BRACE.

TEND THE * TOPGALLANT SHEETS, HALYARDS, AND LEE BRACE. THROW

OFF THE ROYAL SHEETS.

When ready:

SETTLE AWAY THE TOPGALIANT HALYARDS. ROUND IN THE WEATHER BRACE.

CLEW DOWN.

When the yard is down in the lifts:

. SLACK THE SHEETS. CLEW UP.

LAY ALOFT AND FURL THE TOPGALLANT SAIL.

TO TAKE IN A COURSE:

MAN THE FORE (OR MAIN) CLEW-GARNETS, BtJFlIl.,INES, LEECHLINES, AND LEE LIFT.

TEND THE FORE (OBMAm) TACK AND SHEET. SET TAUT THE LEE LIFT.

When ready:

EASE AWAY THE SHEET AND TACK. HAUL UP THE FORESAIL (OR MAINSAIL).

ROUND UP THE BUNTLINES AND LEECHLINES.

LAY ALOFT AND FURL THE FORESAIL (OR MAINSAIL).

(The lee lift is hauled taut, before easing the tack to prevent the down-drag of the lee yardarm from spli t-ting the leech of the topsail.)

TO TAKE IN AN UPPER TOPSAIL:

MAN THE * UPP!:R TOPSAIL CLEWLINES 1 BUNTLINES, AND WEATHER

BRACE. TEND THE * UPPER TOPSAIL SHEETS 1 HALYARDS, AND

LEE BRACE. THROW OFF THE TOPGALLANT SHEETS.

When ready:

ROUND IN THE WEATHER BRACE. SETTLE AWAY THE * UPPER

TOPSAIL HALYARDS. CLEW DOWN. ----

When the yard is down:

EASE AWAY THE SHEETS. RUN UP '!HE BUNTLINES. * Insert the name of the mast.

215

ORDERS FOR FURLING INDMDUAL SAllS ~ CONT; D) TO TAKE IN A LOWER TOPSAIL:

MAN THE * LOWER TOPSAIL CLEWfJINES AND BUNTLINES.

TEND THE·--.....,*::--- LOWER TOPSAIL -SHEETS.

When ready:

EASE AWAY THE SHEETS. CLEW UP, RUN UP THE B\t1TLINES.

TO TAKE IN A JIB:

MAN THE '* JIB DOWNHAUL.

TEND THE * JIB SHEET.

CLEAR AWAY THE HALYARDS.

HAUL DOWN. RUN AWAY WITH THE '*

LET GO THE '* JIB SHEET.

JIBOOwmtAUL •

(The sheet 1s eased as the hanks begin to bind on the stay,)

TO TAKE IN THE SPANKER:

MAN THE SPANKER BRAILS, CLEWLINES, AND DOWNHAUL. LET GO THE SPANKER OUTHAULS.

HAI1L DOWN. BRAIL IN.

(Manning the lee brails first helps to spill the wind from the sail If there is danger of the sail binding against the lee rigging, the lee boom tackle should be slacked off and the mizzen sheet manned to haul the boom amidships.)

STAYSAILS are handled similarly to jibs is under pressure (to prevent whipping) shee t and halyard and lower smartly.

Ease down halyards if sail If no pressure, throw of'f,'

*Insert ·the name of the maa t .

216

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De. 1be effective o~t ot 1t1Jld'. toree, JPI~nlar to tlW _11.

- - ~ - - ~ - - ~ - ~ - - - ·G- - - - - - - - - - - • ~ - - - - • - ~ - - -

,te!! 2,_,

C» = Itteetb. c01lJtOllUt of v1:Dd tore. on. _11. C •• Loag1tuct:tnal cOIIiP_10 ot C D propeUfJtg Mip a.l.oDi keel 11M. 0 e • Lateral ~at. of C D tead.ing to torce the .hi. to l.eevard, &lI4 c:rea.ttag a 'bUDaa .-eat aDmIt the ceater of rota t101l.

- ... _--_ ..... _-- ..

- ~ ~ . ~ - - - - - - ~ - - . - ~ -

. !'i&!r! 3·

• 0 • 'Pore. &ad clireetioa or vater pre.Are OIl l"1l4.M:r (port bela).

• Q II £f'tect1". cCiIIJO_t of )I 0 perfIItI141c.la:r to ft«del' ana.

-------

o

PO. Ltmgl t_1D&l COllpODftt of " 0 I'ttta.rdiDg the tJh1».

B 0 :: Lateral CCIIIJlIIIOMat or _ 0 tendiDa to toree the ship to l .•• va.rct, ...... .fl"OduetDg a tm:ra1..Dc ..-at about the ceatel" of ro_tloa.

- - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - ~ - - - - - - . - ~ - - -

__ , ......... _ Latenl. toree cbut to .1 lb •• v----Lateral foree clae to _Us OIl tOJ'ellUt.

- __ Lateral force t'bIe to _11. OIl _iJlaet . ... 1 __ ._ .. Lateral force cbae to ... 11. oa Ills ....

c...( __ Lateral force ..... to lee bela.

FORCES IN SAILING (CONT I D)

The forces acting upon a ship maneuvering under sail are theoretically numerous and complicated; but so far as they are of practical importance in the handling of a ship, they may be reduced to simple terms. It will be convenient to consider them as they are manifested in the case of a ship sailing closehauled and maneuvering to pass from one tack to the other.

It is sufficien'tly accurate for our present purpose to regard the sails as flat surfaces making an angle with the keel as in Figure 1, Page 229. The ship being close-hauled, the wind is from forward of the beam and impinges upon the sail at a small angle. I't must be observed that the wind with which we have to deal is the apparent and not the true wind. The motion of the ship moqifies the direction and force of the wind as felt by the sails, and it is this modified or "apparent II wind of whick we have to consider the effects.

In Figure 1, BC represents the direction and force of the wind impinging upon a sail. It is clear that EC, the component of this force parallel to the surface of the sail, can exert no effec't. The other component, DC, acts at right angles to the surface and is effective, but not altogether in producing headway, for it in turn may be separated into components, one longitudinal, driving the ship along the line of the keel, the other lateral, producing leeway (Figure 2). Evidently, if the lateral component GC is on the side of the axis of rota'tion of the ship, it Will produce a "turning moment II and will become of importance in maneuvering of the ship.

Still other forces are introduced if the helm is put over to one side, throwing the rudder diagonally across the keel line. Here the resistance of the water against the face of the rudder, MO, maybe resolved into two components; MN, ~llel to the surface of the rudder and . therefore ineffective,; and NO, perpendicular to the surface. NO, again, may be resolved into a component parallel to the keel (retarding the ship) and another perpendicular to the keel, prodUCing leeway and giving rise to a turning moment about the axis of rotation. Both -the longitudinal and 'lateral forces above referred to are opposed by the reSistance of the water. For the present, we are principally concerned with the la-tera! forces, in connection with 'their tendency to turn the ship. The lateral force of the wind may be regarded as concentrated at

one point, which we will call the "center of lateral efforttl; and the corresponding resistance of the water, as concentrated at a similar point, the "center of lateral resistance". If these two points coincide, the ship will hold a steady course, otherwise she will tend to turn. If the center of effort is forward of the center of reSistance, the head will turn to leeward,; if the opposite conditions obtain, the stern will tend to leeward and the head to windward. Therefore, we have in the rudder a means of quickly shifting a preponderance of force to either side, and so counteracting or ,reinforcing the turning tendencies due to the sa11s.

If a ship is deeper aft than forward, the center of lateral resistance will be farther aft than under ordinary circumstances; and other things being equal, the head will tend to leeward and Weather rudder will be required to hole her up. Similarly, if "the ship trims by the head, the stern will tend to leeward. In practice, of course, other things are not equal; and marked peculiarities

of trim are met by corresponding peculiarities in the sail plan; the arrangements usually being such that the ship, when sailing close-hauled, shall carry a small amount of lee rudder (the ship will tend to come up into the wind by

230

FORCES IN SAILING (CONT I D)

herself unless 'there is a little lee rudder to hold her off).

In this connection, attention may be called to a force which enters as an important factor into the steering of a sailing ship in a fresh breeze. As the ship heels, the fuller lines of her lee bow above the water line become immersed, and the pressure of the water is increased, producing a tendency for the bow to fly up into the wind, and calling for a decided lee rudder. • In a squall, this tendency to fly up into the wind may be a serious matter

if it is desired to run off before the storm.

With regard to the axis of rotation about which the ship will turn, we may assume that this passes through the center of gravity. It will be understood from what has been said about the relation of the center of effort to the center of resistance, that this assumption leaves out of consideration many facts of theoretical importance; but it is found to be sufficiently exact for practical purposes, and is usually adopted in calculations upon the turning of ships.

The lateral forces due to the sails and the rudder are shown in Figure 5, which indicates clearly the turning tendency of each. If we suppose the forces acting to leeward abaft the center of gravity to become suddenly predominant, as by puctdng down the helm for example, we shall find that the resulting motion of rotation is accompanied by at least two other motions.

To begin with, the same force which, applied abaft of the center of gravity, turns the ship, gives to it at the same time a motion of translation directly to leeward. This can be illustrated by an object lying on a smooth table which is struck half way between the middle and one end. It will rotate,

but at the same time it will go bodily to leeward. It may happen that the motion of rotation will throw the bow up more than the motion of translation throws the bow off. So, the bow may not actually go to leeward of the original line, but the center of gravity will always go decidedly to leeward. The other factor which comes in to determine the path of the ship when her rudder is put over, is the momentum along the original course.

The effect of any sail may be varied by the way it is set and trimmed. The turning effect of the mizzen or the jibs may be reduced by easing off the sheet, and the turning effect of a square sail may be reduced by bracing in. Similarly, the turning effect may be increased by flattening in the sheets or bracing up the yards. The turning effect of a square sail may be entirely destroyed, either by bracdng it square or by pointing it to the wind. This is important in many of the maneuvers which will be analyzed later.

It should be noted that in many of the instances in which the yards are squared, there is an important gain of maneuvering power in the headway or sternway which is given to the ship. In box-hauling, for example, the ship

is thrown up into the wind and everything braced aback with the idea of killing her headway as quickly as possible and then backing her around stern to the wind; but , whereas the head yards are immediately braced sharp abox,

in order that they shall not only assist in checking the ship and giving sternboard, but shall also pay her head off to leeward, the after yards being merely squared, they assist in checking the ship and sending her astern without opposing the turning of the stern into the wind. Later in the maneuver, when the wind begins to draw abaft the beam, they are kept pointed to the wind and still present no oppesi tion to the turning •

231

FORCES IN SAILING (CONT' D )

It is important in all maneuvers in which the ship has stemway, to remember that the rudder throws the head away from the side toward which the rudder is put.

Also, it is important to remember the rudder 1s the most important of the turning powers concerned in maneuvering, and that its action depends upon the speed of the ship. For this reason, there is often an advantage in holding on to a sail whose direct turning effect is unfavorable to the maneuver, as long as it will add to the speed of the Ship through the water. Thus, the turning effect of the foresail is distinctly unfavorable in tacking, but the sail being one of the largest and best pulling sails in the ship, its contribution to the speed may more than offset its unfavorable turning effect. Thus, a dull ship may be made to tack by keeping fast the foresheet for a While instead of letting it go at the order "HELM'S A_LEE" •

The three principal maneuvers by which a ship may pass from one tack to

the other are TACKING, WEARING, and BOXHAULING. In TACKING, the rudder is put to windward, the ship luffs into the wind gradually, holding her headway as long as possible, and having brought the wind ahead, falls off, bringing it on the side opposd.te that where it was originally. In WEARING, the rudder is put to leeward, her head falls off to leeward with the sails remaining full, and having brought the wind aft, is hauled up on the new tack. In BOXHAULING, the ship is thrown into the wind and the yards are braced aback at once, with the view to stopping her as quickly as possible. She is then backed around, throwing her stern up into the wind, and as the sails fill and give her headway, she is sailing around exactly as in wearing.

Since in going from one tack to the other it is usually desired to gain as much ground to windward as pOSSible, tacking is 'the most advantageous of the above maneuvers. However, it requires a good deal of headway in the beginning to tack and, therefore, is not practical in either very light or very heavy weather (in the latter the force of the waves against the bow hamper the ship in coming up into the wind; also, it is dangerous to throw the sails aback since the rigging is not designed to take heavy strains from forward; and in a short ship under sail in a gale, it might be fatal to gather sternboard due to seas breaking over the poop),

Wearing is usually resorted to when, for any reason, it is impossible or inadvisable to tack, but it involves a conSiderable loss of ground to leeward.

Boxhauling stops the way of a ship very quickly J and brings her around on the other tack without covering any great amount of space, either to windward or to leeward. It would be resorted to if danger were suddenly discovered ahead which would prevent the vessel from clearing by either falling off or by tacking. Boxhauling frequently takes the place of tacking when that maneuver fails. If the ship, after being brought up nearly head to the Winds, refuses to come about, she may be boxed off and backed around exactly as in boxhauling.

232

HANDLING THE EAGLE UNDER SAIL

The handling of any vessel under sail involves the direct application of simple mechanics, particularly the principles of moments and levers. For thousands of years, sailing vessels were effectively handled by people entirely ignorant of mechanics as a science. However, if you will consider ship handling in the light of what you have learned in the classroom, you will find much of your theoretical knowledge quite practical and your practical work more simple.

When moving through the water, all vessels turn about a pivot point. In

a power-driven vessel the location of this point depends principally upon

the center of mass of the vessel, the hydrofoil shape of the underwater body, and the size and effectiveness of the rudder. In vessels of normal design,

it will be found to lie between one-quarter and one-third of the water line length aft of the bow. In considering the probable actions of a sailing vessel,there is another balance point or fulcrum that we must think about. This pOint is known as the center of lateral resistance, and in general will be found to be the geometrical center of' the underwater profile of -the ship. In practice, you will find that the EAGLE turns about a point somewhere between her foremas·t and mainmast, which is somewhere between these two pivot points. When she is moving with perceptible way, she will turn about; a point very near to her steamboat pivot point, when she is dead in the water, she will burn about her center of lateral resistance. The sail plan of all well designed sailing vessels is designed to balance about a point similar to this, i.eo, somewhat forward of the center of lateral resistance.

Fore and aft rigged vessels can generally sail closer to the wind than square rigged vessels. Racing yachts can lie within four pOints of the wind, whereas the EAGLE does well to sail within six points of the wind. When a fore and aft rigged vessel encounters too much wind, it is very simple to relieve her by 1I1uffing", that is heading into the wind. However, if we attempt to do this with the EAGLE we are likely to find ourselves "aback". The. rigging of a ship is designed for stresses imparted by sails with the wind behind them, when the wind gets on ·the front of the square sails it imparts stresses for which the vessel is not designed. This is not too serious in winds of moderate velocity, in fact sails are frequently backed during the various maneuvers which will be described later. However, in heavy winds the most dangerous situation into which a large sailing vessel may fall is to be "caught aback II • Consequently, when the EAGLE is struck by a squall of too much strength, instead of luffing head to wind, we put the helm up and run off before it. This maneuver is greatly facilitated by dousing the spanker. Turning away from the wind eases the vessel in two ways; first, the wind velocity is reduced by the amount of the ship's speed through the water, and second, the square sails on the mainmast blanket all the staysails and square sails on the foremast. If the squall is of more than momentary duration, advantage must be taken of the opportunity to run down her staysails while they are in the lee of the square sails, and the royals and topgallant sails must be taken in as soon as possible.

Sailing vessels are worked to windward by a series of Ifboards", or legs.

The vessel is sailed alternately on one tack or the other and her progress

in the desired direction is the component of her course which can be resolved along the desired course, less the amount she is set bodily to leeward, which is known as leeway. It is obvious that working the EAGLE directly to windward

233

HANDLING 'mE EAGLE UNDER SAIL (CONT'n)

would be a slow and difficult process. Fortunately, in the open sea the wind should seldom be directly ahead, hence reasonable progress can usually be made on the more favorable tack wben there is adequate Wind. Nevertheless, it is often necessary to bring the wind from one side of the vessel to the other. This brings us to the two basic maneuvers of sailing ships, tacking and wearing. To tack a vessel we bring her head through the wind, to wear we turn the bow away from the wind and bring her stern through it. Tacking, when feasible, is obviously the more advantageous maneuver in that the vessel must turn through approximately twelve pOints of the compass rather than twenty, and because she is making good distance to windward while tacking, rather than running downwind as she must do while wearing.

Before describing the maneuver of tacking,let us consider the turning effects of the sails on the various masts. It is obvious that those set on or from the foremast will tend to turn the vessel's head away from the wind. This tendency can be accentuated by trimming the sails to present their greatest lateral area to the wind, or minimized by trimming the sails so that they shake or spill. The sails set on or from the mainmast exert but little turning moment; however, they have tremendous propelling or retarding effect which mus t be considered in all maneuvers. The spanker and other sails set on the mizzenmast obvously tend to force the vessel's head into the Wind.

This can be accentuated by hauling the boom amidships or minimized by slacking the sheets or even brailing in the sail.

When the rudder of a power-driven vessel is put hard over there is an immediate loss of between twenty-five and forty percent of the vessel's speed as she goes into a turn. This is principally due to the fact that the vessel's underwater body is now being driven sidew1se through the water. She is further retarded by the drag of the rudder which acts in the manner of a bucket hung over the stern. The same forces are at work when a sailing vessel is suddenly turned, and in the case of an auxiliary vessel, her rate of turn is slowed by the passage of water through the propeller aperture which tends to blanket and nullify the rudder action. For this reason, it is important to have the EAGLE moving at her best possible speed when the tacking maneuver is started. This is best done by having her exactly on a full and by course. If she is too close to the wind, she will not be moving at her best speed. On the other hand, if we attempt to pick up speed by letting her fall too far, she will

have a greater arc of the compass to turn through and will be retarded thereby.

TACKING: To bring the ship from the port tack to the starboard, we proceed as follows,to go from the starboard tack to the port, procedure is just the opposdte , With the ship sailing full and by, the rudder is -turned full lef-t, the spanker boom hauled amidships, the lee fore sheet and the jib sheets checked. The ship Will now swing quite rapidly into the Wind and the square sails will first lift, and then come aback. At this point, the mainsail is hauled up in i-ts gear -to minimize its backing effect, and to facilitate handling the vessel by allowing the officers on the quarterdeck to see what is going on. Just before the vessel comes into the Wind, the starboard main braces are cast off and allowed to run. The port braces are rounded in as fast as possible to keep them from fouling. It will be found that the action of the wind on the mainsails will swing -the yards rapidly from port to starboard if we can keep -the gear from fouling. The vessel is now all aback with the foresails on one tack and the mainsails on the other. If everything has

234

HANDLING TEE EAGLE UNDER SAIL (CONT'D)

gone well, she will still be moving ahead through the water and will continue to swing. As soon as her bow is through the wind, the headsails 1 which are

all aback, will cause her to payoff rapidly. The spanker sheet is now slacked right off until the sail is against the backstays, so as not to interfere with this action. The jibs and other etaysails are allowed to come across the

stays and the new lee sheets are hauled aft. When the main topsa.il.s

stm-t to fill, the head yards are hauled to the new tack. The rudder is

brought amidships as the vessel gains headway and the ship is brought to her new course on the other tack. Usually, things do not work out quite this well and the ship will have very little way on her as her head comes through the wind, in fact she probably will be dead in the water, and may start moving astern at this point. As soon as she is dead in -the water) the rudder is brought amidships and, if she starts making sternway, is shifted to full right. This will help the ship to continue her swing through the wind and as soon as she again starts forward,the rudder is used to bring her on her new course.

The commands used in the above evolution are as follows:

(1) ALL BANDS TAKE STATIONS FOR STAYS.

(2) READY ABOUT. (tack jiggers are cleared away) (3) LEFT (OR RIGHT) FULL RUDDER.

(4) HAUL THE SPANKER BOOM AMIDSHIPS.

(5) RISE TACKS AND SHEETS (main royal and topgallant staysails are doused) (6) (As she comes into the wind) MAINSAIL HAUL.

(7) SLACK THE SPANKER SHEET.

(8) SHIFT YOUR STAYSAIL SHEETS.

(9) (To turn the fore yards) LET GO AND HAUL.

(10) SET THE MAINSAIL, BOARD THE MAIN TACK, HAUL AFT THE LEE MAIN SHEET.

Helm commands are given as necessary in accordance with the vessel's behavior.

WEARING: In heavy weather, and sometimes in very light weather, the ship's head will not come through the wind and it will be necessary to wear rather than tack. The wearing operation is relatively Simple, the rudder is put full right, rather than full left, the spanker brailled in to make it easier to turn, and the ship sailed around to the other tack. As the wind comes around the stern, the sheets, tacks, and braces of both main and fore yards are hauled to facilitate turning. When she is sharp-up on the other tack and squared away on her new course, the spanker is again hauled out and set.

In addition to hauling and tending the sheets ,tacks, and braces, the lower lifts must be handled es the vessel is either tacked or worn. This will be obvious if you look at the lead of the lifts and the pivot point of the yards.

235

HANDLING THE EAGLE UNDER SAIL (CONT' D)

The yard will be observed to swing through a point several feet forward of the lift blocks due to the projection of the truss forward of the mast. Consequently, when the ship is braced up on either tack with the yards level, the lee lift will be several feet shorter thant.he weather lift, when the yards are square they are of the same length. If the yards are swung from one tack to the other, wi bhoub changing the lifts, they will be pointing to bhe sky and the bottom of the ocean.

There is a variation of wearing, known as box-hauling. Thi,s maneuver is started as if the vessel were to be tacked; however, when her head comes into the wind, the spanker is brailed in and the head yards , rather than the main yards, are hauled. The rudder is shif'ted, and as the vessel gathers sternway, her bow will fall off rapidly as her stern backs into the wind and she comes to a stop. As she again ga thers way, she is sailed on around as in wearing. The advantage of this maneuver is that it requires less room than tacking or wearing. It is also resorted to when~he vessel misses stays in an intended tack, that is, when the vessel fails to come fully into the wind and starts to falloff on the old tack.

Sometimes a vessel will be caught aback when sailing along, either through negligence on the part of the helmsman, or a sudden shift of the wind ahead. If the OOD is alert, the situation may usually be corrected by irmnediately shif'ting the rudder away from the wind, to the left if on the starboard tack or to the right if on the port. If there is any doubt about her falling off, the spanker sheet should be allowed to run, thus making it easier for the vessel to turn away from the wind. If this does not do the trick, and the wind is still on the original bow, the head yards should be s,~g, thus boxing her off on the original tack. If the shipts bow has come through the wind, your only recourse will be to haul the main yards first and proceed as if the original intention had been 'to tack. As soon as the vessel gathers way, you may then proceed to wear around to the original tack.

HEAVING TO: The EAGLE may be hove-to by bracing either the head yards or the main yards aback. 'ro do thiS, the wind is brought abeam, the lee braces of either the fore or main yards cast off, and the weather braces hauled until the sail backs. The ship is perhaps under better control with the main yards aback, but under favorable conditions it is easier to heave-to by backing the head yards, because there is more room to handle these braces in the waist than there is to handle the main braces on the quarterdeck. 'VI1J:J.en hove-to in this manner, the ship will s'till forge ahead slowly and her speed may be controlled as desired by slacking or hauling the sheets of the staysails and the spanker.

MAN OVERBOARD: In the case of "Man Overboard II under sail, the first conclusion is to limit the distance away from the man that the ship travels. Except in a real. gale, this is best accomplished by putting the helm hard down and proceeding as if you intended to tack. The lee boat should be cleared away and, if pOSSible, lowered as the vessel comes into the wind and before her bow passes through it. The main yards are hauled as usual and the vessel allowed to lie hove-to on the opposite tack. If executed promptly, this maneuver should leave the ship very close to the man. If executed less promptly, it will probably be desirable to haul the head yards and fill away on the opposite tack. This should bring the vessel very close to the man and

236

HANDLING THE EAGLE UNDER SAIL (CONT' D)

in a good position to lower the other quarter boat if desirable. In either case, it is essential that the ship be moving ahead enough, but not too much, when the boat is lowered.

TRIMMING SAIL: Keeping the sails trimmed properly is an art. A competent and alert watch can frequently make five or ten more miles per watch by watching the trim of the sails. When the ship is on the wind, the lower yards are braced hard up against the lee rigging and the lifts adjusted so that the yard is parallel to the water when seen from abeam. If the yards are allowed to point up, they will come against the rigging sooner and the vessel will not lie so near the wind. If they are pointed down, bhe leeches will not set properly and the ship will look wrong. When the lower yards are braced up sharp, the topsail yards are brought directly .above them, the topgallant yard is braced in slightly, perhaps a quarter of a point, and the royal yard is braced in a little more. While this method of bracing may sacrifice a slight amount of efficiency in the upper sails, it serves to give warning when the vessel is coming too close to the wind. The royals and topgallants being braced in more than the topsails and courses, Will lift first and, by luffing slightly, give warning to the OOD that the ship is too close to the wind. As the wind draws more aft, the yards are trimmed more nearly parallel, until, when they are square, each yard lies above the other. In smooth water, when it is desired to make the best possible progress to windward, the yards may

be braced directly above each other. This will only be done when so directed by the Captain. As the wind draws aft, the yards need not be braced in until the angle between the wind and ·the yards exceeds that between the yards and 'the keel by about a point. As the wind draws further aft, the exact trim of the sails is a matter of judgment; however, the angle between the wind and

the sails should always be somewhat greater than the angle between the yards and the keel, until the ship is directly before the Wind.

Since fore and aft rigged vessels can lie within four points of the wind, it is never necessary to trim the EAGLE's jibs, staysails, and spanker really flat. These sails can be a little free when the square sails are braced sharp up. In general, they should be trimmed so they are just full. Slack the sheet until the sail shakes - then trim it so it, just draws. The great trend for beginners is to trim fore and aft canvas too flat - this produces leeway at the expense of headway - don't do it.

When close-hauled, the lee yards ride against the backstays, chafing the lee lifts against the topmast shrouds. We haul on the weather tack and the lee lifts (while slacking the weather lift) to bring the yard level. After weather tack and lift have been belayed, we then slack the lee lift to reduce chafing.

237

MANEUVERING UNDER SAIL

Individual Maneuvers

TACKING: It is important in tacking to begin with a good headway and to hold this as long as possible. A smart ship, properly handled, will tack without gathering sternboard, and this is what is always aimed at. It is for this reason that the helm is eased down, the mizzen boom hauled amidships gradually, and the fore sheet kept fast as long as the sail will draw. If at any part of the maneuver the ship is found to have lost headway, the helm must be righted, and if she gathers sternboard it must be shifted. The orders for tacking are as follows:

"READY ABOUT. STATIONS FOR STAYS"

Man the mizzen sheet, fore and main cleW-garnett, lee main tack and weather main sheet, and weather main brace. Tend the head shee bs , fore and main tacks and sheets, lifts and braces. (The greater part of the force should be on the weather main braces, and if short handed, the men from the other gear go to

the brace when no longer needed elsewhere.) When the men are at their stations,

"READY. READY. EASE DOWN THE HELM. HAUL THE MIZZEN BOOM AMIDSHIPS. II

When the head sails lift, the helm being down,

"HErM'S A-LEE."

The fore and head sheets are let go. With a dull ship the fore sheet may be held on until the next order. When the wind is out of the lee clew of ·the mainsail,

"RAISE TACKS AND SHEETS. LET GO AND OVERHAUL 'mE WEATHER LIFTS."

The clews of the courses are raised sufficiently to clear the rail, the lee main tack and the· wea·ther main sheet are shortened in. If the ship is a dull one and there is doubt about her coming around, the fore tack should be kept fast. Just before the wind comes ahead, while i"t is from a quarter to a half point on the bow,

"HAUL TAUT. MAINSAIL HAUL. II

The main yards are swung and braced up sharp on the new tack, the main tack boarded, and the.main sheet hauled well aft. As the after sails begin to lift,

"HAUL WELL TAUT, LET GO AND HAUL. II

The fore yards are swung and braced up sharp. The rudder is put amidships and the gear secured.

NOTES: If the ship tends to go into irons about the time to haul the mainsail the head sheets should be backed to help force the head around, and the mizzen should be brailed in. Get the main tack down before the final bracing of the yard, leaving the lee brace, sheet, and weather lift, slack; then brace around and haul. taut the sheet and the weather lif·t and brace.

238

(JIBS FILL)

"'-

" LET GO & HAUL

SET 'mE MAINSAIL BOARD THE lV'lAINTACK HAUL AFT THE LEE

MAIN SHEET

~
H I
C§ ;I
~ ~
.~~. ffi t LEEWAY

\ \ \

6.

SLACK THE SPANKER SHEET SHIFT THE STAYSAIL SHEETS (OR SHIFT THE HELM)

(DEAD AHEAD)

I MAINSAIL

4. HAUL

RUDDER AMIDSHIPS

I

f.

I

I (LUFFING)

RISE TACKS AND SHEETS.

DOUSE STAYSAILS

LEFT FULL RUDDER. TAUT HEADSHEETS. TAUT LEE FORE SHEET.

HAUL THE SPANKER BOOM AMIDSHIPS

STATIONS FOR STAYS. READY ABOUT. TACK JIGGERS OFF.

TACKING SHIP

239

FIGURE I.

MANEUVERING UNDER SAIL

Individual Maneuvers (cont'd)

WEARING: Wearing is usually resorted to when, for any reason, it; is impossible or inadvisable to tack. It involves considerable loss of ground to leeward. Therefore, in wearing,the object is to get around in the shortest possible space; and although a certain amount of headway is necessary, and unavoidable, the sails are worked for their full turning effect rather than for headway.

The orders for wearing are as follows:

"STATIONS FOR STAYS"

Man the main clew-garnet and buntlines, mizzen brails, weather main braces.

When all is ready,

"HAUL TAUT. UP MAINSAIL. IN MIZZEN. PUT THE HELM UP."

As the vessel falls off,

"BRACE IN THE MAIN YARDS. LET GO AND OVERHAUL THE WEATHER LIFTS."

Keep the sails on the main luffing so that they shall offer no resistance to turning. When the wind is on the quarter,

"WEATHER FORE BRACES. FORE CLEW-GARNET."

When the wind is aft,

"RISE FORE TACK AND SHEET. SQUARE AWAY THE FORE YARD.

SHIFT OVER THE HEAD SHEETS. II

Get the mizzen boom well over on the new lee quarter.

"MAN THE MAIN TACK AND SHEET. MIZZEN OU'lHAULS."

As the wind draws a little on the new weather Side,

"CLEAR AWAY THE RlqGING. HAUL ABOARD. CLEAR AWAY THE BRAltS. HAUL OUT. II

The head sheets are shifted over when before the wind, but, not hauled aft.

The after sails are now working with the helm to bring her to the wind on the new tack, and the head yards being square offer no resistance. As she comes up, man the head braces, and just before she has the wind abeam begin bracing up the head yards. Meet her with the rudder and head sails and by \ bracdng up. Steady her by the wind, trim the sails and straighten up things fore and aft.

NOTES: In a light breeze the main topsail should be kept full to give good steerageway as she comes stern through the wind. When it has been braced square, leave it so long enough to square the head yards, then man the main braces again and brace sharp up.

240

RIGHT 0 RUDDER, SLACK STARB'D MAIN BRACES AND SHEET. MAN PORT SHEET AND BRACES, SLACK

MAINTACK. WA AWAY. BRAIL IN SPANKER.

KEEP MAINSAIL LIFTING

STATIONS FOR S~YS STAND BY TO WEAR SHIP 4

1------ 0

> • I /117

~1;P

BRACE UP MAIN YARDS ON STARBOARD TACK

\ ,1

SET THE SPANKER. LET GO AND HAUL. TEND THE JIB SHEETS

BRACE UP FORE YARDS ON STARBOARD ~CK. SHEET IN THE BEAnSAlLS

BRACE UP FORE YARDS KEEP FORESAIL LIFTING

WEARING SHIP

241

FIGURE II.

MANEUVERING UNDER SAIL

Individual Maneuvers (cont'd)

BOXHAULING: When there is not room for tacking or wearing, the helm is put; hard down at once, the mainsail and the mizzen taken in, and the ship brought into the wind with everything aback, as quickly as possible. The head sheets are eased and the lee fore bre:ces checked to let the vessel come up freely and to deaden her headway. The fore yards are then braced abox, the main yards are luffed, and the mizzen taken in. Under these conditions, she will head-reach somewhat, but considerably less than in tacking. Having come to rest,the vessel will gather sternboard and back around, throwing her stern up into the wind. To prevent the sails on the main from offering resistance to turning, the yards on the main are kept pointed into the wind. When the vessel has backed into the wind as far as poSSible, the fore yards are braced up, and as she gathers headway, the rudder is shifted. From this point on, the maneuver is identical with the final part of wearing.

Under ordinary circumstances, the emergency not being such as to prohibit the use of eonvent.tonat, formalities, the orders are given as follows:

"READY ABOUT. STATIONS FOR BOXHAULING. MAN THE MAIN CLEW-GARNETS AND BUNTLINES. MIZZEN BRAILS. FORE CLEW-GARNETS. FUT THE HELM DOWN. EASE THE HEAD SHEETS AND CHECK THE LEE FORE BRACES."

When the mainsail starts lifting,

"RISE TACKS AND SHEETS, UP MAINSAIL. IN MIZZEN. MAN THE WEATHER FORE BRACES AND THE MAIN BRACES. HAUL TAUT. BRACE ABOX THE FORE YARDS. HAUL FLAT AFT THE HEAD SHEETS. KEEP THE MAIN YARDS LIFTING. II

Having ranged ahead for a distance 1li.uch shorter than the distance made in tacking, she comes to rest, gathers sternboard, and backs, turning a't; the same time. The fore yards, headsails, and the rudder pay her head off, while the main yards are kept lifting so that they will no-t oppose the turning nor the sternboard. As soon as the ship loses sternboard, it is necessary to gather headway; so,

"MAN THE FORE BRACES. HAUL TAUT. MAN THE MAIN BRACES. SQUARE AWAY."

As the sails fill and she gathers headway,

"SHIFT THE RUDDER"

As the wind draws aft, shift the mizzen boom over to 't;he new lee quarter.

"MAN THE MAIN BRACES. MAN THE MAIN TACK AND SHEETS. MIZZEN OUTHAULS."

When the wind is a little on the new weather quarter,

"HAUL TAUT. BRACE UP SHARP THE MAIN YARD, CLEAR AWAY THE RIGGING.

HAUL ABOARD. CLEAR AWAY THE BRAILS. HAUL OUT. II

Wi th the main yards sharp up and sails drawing, fore yards square, head sheets flowing, and the helm a-lee, she comes up, and is met as in the final part of wearing.

242

LET GO AND HAUL BRAIt IN THE SPANKER

BACK HEADSAn.S. SLACK THE LEE MAIN BRACES.

WALK BACK THE WEA

MAIN BRACES

KEEP MAINSAIL LIFTING SHEET IN THE HEADSAILS

RISE TACKS AND SHEETS

/

/ \ SHIFT YOUR HELM 'i- LET GO AND HAUL

7.

2. 0

." '\IGHT _ RUDDER. CHECK THE HEADSBEETS

HAUL THE SPANKER BOOM AMIDSHIPS

~~

-,

( l

). I '

SETTHE~' i SPANKER ' -~, '

BRACE UPo MAINYARDS .' '.

ON PORT TACK

1. STATIONS FOR STAYS , ~ STAND BY 'Ill BOXllAUL

() \

\ !

,~

, j ,,,,:,//

v. 11. I )j/

... I~~ ,10. It, k,. ~ ~/ /

J.0~~ i j' /'

~ /' ')Arr··- .... ~ F<m:YARDS

~ . ON PORT TACK

FORESAIL LIFTS SHEET IN THE JIBS

BOXHAULING

243

FIGURE III

KEY TO DIAGRAMS

/~ _.vII

1,;.1 ~-"'H

'" . / --'7 '

/ ./ ' \

Y \, ........ I .~.\V' ..

III ,

\, I \

r/1 __ ~L,.v~.J

I I C' I' ....

'I ! i

! '

\ J

\/"} -."'\~ /

/'r/ "('

FILLING LIFTING

lVIND SHIFTS AHEAD

'\'-/""

~,

I ~1'

I \'

~.

I i

\ ~ / ''11'. /

,/

¥

BACKING

BOXING OFF ON OPPOSITE TACK

244

FIGURE IV

I I

i I

t

l

I

LEFT FULL RUDDER STATIOllS FOR STAYS MAN THE STARBOARD

..,,, -. FORE BRACES '.

\ f\ c..

-\~) \

'V ,)J\

WIND SHIFTS AREA)

BeXING eFF ON ORIGINAL TACK

/

;/

FIGURE V

!

r

SUMMARY: POINTS TO REMEMBER IN HANDLING SAILS

GENERAL: Before you throw any line off the pin, be sure of its identity; this will prevent serious accidents. When hauling on any line, always slack its opposite; such as (1) weather VB lee braces, (2) clewlines vs sheets vs halyds. When slacking a line, keep your hands away from the pin. In light air douse mizzen scaysail to keep out of smoke.

MAKING SAIL: DO NOT TOUCH HEAD-EARRINGS! Do not let go clewlines and buntlines of a sail while men are on the yard below. Sheet home (port and starboard evenly) before hoisting a yard. Always ease clewlines until sheeted home) then throw offclewlines while hoisting yard. Overhaul buntlines and leechlines from aloft meanwhile. Have all men off yard before handling halyard. Tend lee brace while hoisting yard. When sailing ~n the wind, slack lee lifts to reduce chafing against shroud. Easy on halyards"

TAKING IN SAIL: start yard down before hauling clewlines. Have yard in lifts before slacking shee ts (i. e ., clew down before clewing up). Never throw off halyards unless specifically directed in an emergency, and then begin with uppermost yard (Royal, when set).

FURLING: Have braces taut and all lines belayed before men go on the yard. Even up port and starboard clews before furling. Keep leech on yard. Furl from amidships out, keeping weather side ahead in a breeze. When all the sail is in the bight, pull "skan" over the yard and pass the gaskets. (Bun tline s

need not be slacked in furling.)

BRACING: Lead main braces well out and clear of' pilot house. Do net Larry the braces because lengths of the purchases vary. Keep yards aligned and do no t get ahead wi th Royal and Topgallant. Man in charge mus t look aloft as necessary to observe results. Never let braces run past the "marks;'. To take in braces a small amount, simply use a jigger. Do not haul lines around pins (eliminate friction).

TACKING & WEARING: When on forecas tle, keep aft of jib shee bs , Le t wind do the work of the mainsail haul - let lee braces run while keeping slack out of the weather braces. As yards swing, shift main lifts. Also slack buntlines and leechlines. Slack preventer as you haul in mizzen sheet but do not unshackle it until boom is fast amidships. NEVER take spanker sheet off clea.t.

COMMANDS: Do no t invent new and superfluous commands. Use a minimum of brief and simple commands, such as:

RUN AWAY wrnI •.... HAUL ON •••••

HAND OVER HAND ••••• BELAY ••••• (make fast)

(quickly Y (steadily ) (slowly)

THROW OFF ••••• SLACK •••.•

EASE •••••

AVAST ••••• (stop)

246

DAMAGE TO RIGGING - EMERGENCY MEASURES

WHEN THE SHEET OF A SQUARE SAIL CARRIES AWAY: Haul up on the clewlines and bUntlines; then lower the yard (if the yard is hoisted by a halyard); haul taut the weather brace; repair the sheet and reset the sail. (NOTE: Do not lower the yard until the gear is hauled up as by keeping the yard up, there is less to knock about.)

WHEN A BRACE CARRIES AWAY: Falloff before the wind so that the opposi te brace will take most of the strain and repair the damage. If necessary, take in sail.

WHEN THE SHEET OF A HEAD SAIL CARRIES AWAY:' Run the ship off a point or two and haul down as quickly as possible; bend on a new sheet and reset the sail.

WHEN THE DOWNHAUL OF A STAYSAIL CARRIES AWAY: Le t the ship falloff so as to blanket the staysail in the lee of the square sails if possible. Then try to haul down the staysail by hand, bue if the weather is so bad as co make this impossible, then send a man aloft with a line which will be tied loosely about the stay and slide down until it eatches the head of the staysail. With this

<c:> line, the sail can be hauled down.

WHEN THE FORE OR MAIN YARD LIFT CARRIES AWAY: Under these Circumstances, the lower topsail sheet will probably carry away also. The topsail should be secured; the yard braced against the lower rigging; and a new lift and sheet reeved,as soon as possible.

WHEN A BACKSTAY OR A SIffiOUD CARRIES AWAY: Taclt or wear as quickly u.s j?ossible so as to bring a strain on the old lee rigging. Then repair the damage or run a preventer. Should the shrouds on both sides of the ship become Slack, and it is impossible to take them up by means of the turnbuckles, lash a spar on the outside of the rigging on both sides and pass a line from one spar to the other, heaving up tight on this line.

WHEN A BOESTAY CARRIES AWAY: Get the ship before the wind, reduce sail to ease the speed. Get a length of chain and pass each end out through the hawse pipes; shackle the ends of the chain to the end of the bowsprit and lead to the capstan and set tight.

WHEN A STORM SAIL BLOWS AWAY: Lash a tarpaulin in the shrouds in such a position as to maintain the required sail balance.

WHEN A TRUSS OR PARREL CARRIES AWAY OR BREAKS: Lay the sail aback, thereby binding the yard against the mast; and repair the damage.

WHEN A SPAR CARRIES AWAY ALOFT: It will be necessary to immediately relieve any other spars or braces that depend upon the broken member for support, and also to get the broken spar down as quickly as pOSSible, which will do considerable damage if allowed to bang about. If' any of the spars should bang over the side and endanger the ship by banging against the hull, and should the weather be too bad to permit saving them, they should be cut

away at once.

.l:"ULLJ.m.z DUJoI.J.O

GENERAL: The critical moments in boat-handling are: when lowering, from t.he time the boat leaves the davit heads until it is waberborne a.nd oles.r; when hoisting, from the t.ime the boat. comes alongside under the falls and is hooked on until it is clear of the water. The latter must be done as quickly as possible to avoid damage and/or injury.

LIFELINES: At aD. times during hoisting and lowering the men in the boat must. take t.heir full weight on the lifelines - both to probec t themselves and to lighten the load.

STEERING OAR: Must be ready for use before boat hits the water. Coxswain must keep boat under control at all times. Do not sheer out until falls are unhooked and clear. After hooking on, do not unship oar until boat is clear of water.

FRAPPING LINES: Mus t always be kept taut during hois ting and lowering. ,Only when the boat is above deck level should the frapping lines be eased, to avoid breaking them. As the ship rolls, take in all possible slack and hold it. Never let the frapping line jam on its cleat.

HOOKING & UNHOOKING: Men tending the Raymond hooks take off all but one last turn on the lanyard before lowering. When boat strikes the water, man on after fall unhooks immediately without awaiting a command. Man on forward fall must; watch t;he after fall; he then unhooks forward fall as soon as after fall is unhooked. * * * When hooking on, man on forward fall hooks on as quickly as possible and sings out. Meanwhile, man on after fall leads lanyard through hOisting shackle, and completes hooking on immediately after forward fall. Until there is a strain on the falls, the blocks must be supported cy hand to prevent unhooking. On both fall.s, turns must be taken out at once.

"LET FALL": Must be given on the downroll (when the ship is rolling toward the boat) 1 when the boat is a few inches above the water. When given too early, the boa t will drop too far; when given too 180 te ) the boa t will touch the water and then be lifted out - either possibility is dangerous. When the command is given, both falls must be thrown off SIMULTANEOUSLY AND COMPLETELY, THEN OVERHAULED AND KEPT CLEAR.

COMMANDS: Must be given in a loud clear voice. Are to be given only by those in charge of an operation. Boat crews talk only to report. Men on deck talk

<:> only to give necessary commands or warnings.

IN Rm.JTNG: Si t near edge of thwart Take full reach with oar Dip two-thirds of blade

Lay back when pulling, keeping arms straight until snap-up Feather by dropping ~ists

Keep blade close t.o water during recovery

NORMAL SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS --

Rigging Lifeooat Out: Check boat plug

See lifelines clear

Keep sea-painter taut (secure with 2 round turns & tWine) Have steering oar ready (preferably shipped)

Gripe boat securely

Have long fenders on hand

301

,

Manning Boat:

(Crew) Don lifejackets Sit down

Grab lifelines Maintain silence

Keep hands inside boat Check oars and rowlocks

Tend sea-painter (hold firmly)

Tend Raymond hooks (hold last turn)

,

i

l

(Coxn) Check boat plug Ship steering oar Check crew stations

Repor t "Ready in the boa t '

!

!

!

I f

(B.M.) Crank out davits

Station men on falls, frapping lines & fenders Command 'Take extra turns off falls"

Report "Ready for lowering"

Lowering Boat:

(B.M.) Command "Cast off gripe"

" "Lower away together" (lively aft or f'wd., etc.)

;: "Let fallrl

(Crew) When waterborne, unhook aft and forward smartly

Get blocks and lifeline clear (do not haul up, snug in)

(Coxn) Sheer out

When clear and ready, command "Cast off sea'painter" Give necessary commands to oarsmen) etc. (standby oars)

(B .M.) Haul aboard sea painter Secure falls, fenders, etc. Prepare for hoisting

Hoisting Boat: (Coxn) Bring boat alongside at waist

Command "In Bows" (keep rest of crew pulling as

necessary)

See sea-painter firmly secured Command "Boa t the oars'

Come under falls by slacking painter (s tay slightly ahead of davits)

(Crew) Grab lifelines

Hook on forward and aft (holding block up and taking out turns)

(Coxn) Reports "Hooked on fore and aft"

(B.M.) Commands "Hoist away together"

" "Avast"

'I "Forehand bhe falls If OR "Pass stoppers"

" "Back easy"

" "Up behind"

Have falls belayed) crew layout, boat secured) etc.

302

MOTOR BOATS

Duties of Coxswain:

1. See to cleanliness and readiness of boat at all times. Report all deficiencies to O.O.D. promptly.

2. Require boat crew to be in proper uniform. Arrange for necessary reliefs during meal hours.

3. Obtain adequate instructions and understand them before shoving off. q.. Report back to O.O.D. upon return to ship after securing boat.

5" Normally secure #1 boat to starboard boom) 1/:2 to port boom.

6. Make all mistakes on the conservative side.

ALWAYS:

Check fuel tank frequently.

Distribute personnel so boat is trimmed slightly aft. Maintain order in the boat.

Give commands in a clear, strong voice.

Stow inside the boat all gear not needed - painters> fenders, etc. Ring engine order bells distinctly; use a minimum of bells.

Shove off by going ahead whenever possible. (Shove off "hard in the bow" and wind and current will help you sail clear.)

At shore landing, turn around when light so as to have bow out to

facilitate getting away from landing when loaded.

Check running lights at night before each run be tween ship & landing. Use minimum speed in making landings; kill headway with engine.

Keep "bows-on" to a swell.

Wat.ch the ship for signals; obey recall when hoisted.

When landing alongside anot.her ship) request permiSSion to

come alongside and to shove off.

Idle engine when shifting clutch. Keep boat in shipshape manner.

Make landings stemming the current when possible.

NEVER!

Overload a boa t .

Lie alongside longer than necessary.

Run under boat. boom or across the hawse. (When passing under stern of

any vessel, anchored or underway, give adequate clearance.) Use end of boat-hook to fend off.

Permit smoking in boat.

Exceed cruising speed (2/3 throttle) except in emergency. Set up a wake which will disturb moored or passing craft. Run with fenders over side.

303

BOAT ETIQUETl'E

Embarking} saluting, etc;

1. Coxswains salute when officers enter or leave boats. Also salute when acknowledging orders from O.O.D. or other officers.

2. Officers in a boat rise and salute Commanding Officers or Flag Officers entering or leaving.

3. Cadets in the stern sheets of a boat salute when a commissioned officer enters or leaves.

4. Seniors board the boat last and leave it first. Generally, seniors sit aft and on the starboard side.

5. At a crowded landing, boats carrying seniors should be given the opportunity to land first. Coxswains should be courteous, especially where boats of a foreign serVice are involved.

6. At morning or evening colors, the coxswain of a boat passing near a man-of-war (U.S. or foreign) shall lay to and salute.

I

!

,

I

I

I

t:

Squadron Commander - SQUADRON Commanding Officer - Name of ship Other commissioned officers - AYE, AYE Warrant officers and cadets - NO, NO Enlisted men - HELLO

If not going alongside - PASSING

Boat hails, insignia, etc:

1. Boat hails are used at night to indicate senior personnel aboard:

2. Pennan t and flags taff Lnafgnfa are as follows:

Flag officer Captain Commander Others

- Gilt halberd

- Gilt ball

- Gilt five-pointed star

- Flat truck

3. An officer in command when embarked in a boat on official occasions shall display from the bow his personal flag or command pennant - or if not; entitled to either, a commission pennant. The prescribed flag shall be displayed in the bow of a boat whenever a U.S. civil official is embarked on an official occasion.

4. The national ensign shall be displayed from C.G. boats:

a. When underway during daylight in a foreign port.

b. When ships are required to be dress or full dressed.

c. When going alongside a foreign vessel.

d. When an officer or official is embarked on an official occasion.

304

MOTOR BOAT CHEck-OFF LIST

EQUIPMENT:

1. Fire extinguisher

2. Emergency lantern

3. Tool box * - included when required

4. Fuel sounding rod 5· Emergency tiller

6. National Ensign*

7. Commission Pennant*

8. Union Jack*

9. Bow staff - ba.ll*

10 . S t.ern staff - ball, s tar or fla t truck*

11. Stern staff with light

12. Boat. cloth*

13. Compass

14. Lifejackets

15. Boat hooks - 2

16. Fenders - 2

17. Painters and spare line

18. Anchor

19. Bailer

20. Bucket

21. Semaphore flags 22 . Signal ligh t

HULL CONDITION:

1. Bilge sounding

MECHANICAL CONDITION:

1. Lube oil} 374 full

2. Fuel tanks, full

3. Fuel strainer clean

4. Fuel filter clean

5. Clutch linkage

6. Throt tle linkage 7 . S tern gland

8. Stern bearing

9. Steering gear

10. 'vater strainer clean

11. Water circulating after starting

ELECTRICAL CONDITION:

1. Side lights

2. Bow light.

3. Stern light

4. Battery - charge and water

5. Generator operating

6. Starter operating

305

SUMMARY FOR BOAT COXSWAINS

1. Distribute passengers so boat is trimmed slightly aft, and have them s it; down.

2. When leaving ship have bow hook shove bow out so wind will help you get clear ("Shove Off Hard In The Bov"}, Hold stern in unt.il bow falls off. DON'T BACK OFF - go ahead on engine whenever possible instead of astern.

3. At shore landing minimize maneuvering, especially when boat is loaded.

If approaching loaded, go st.raight alongside. If light, turn so as to have bow out to facilitate leaving the landing after loading.

4. Stow inside the boat all painters and gear not needed for actual use.

5. When given orders by OOD, Coxswain should salute.

6. Never fail to check running lights at start of each run to or from the ship.

7. Ring engine order bells distinctly. Use as few bells as possible.

8. Boa t hails are used only a t nigh t .

9. Normally #1 boat will lie at starboard boat boom, #2 at port boat boom.

10. Use minimum speed in making landings. Kill headway with engine, not boat hooks.

11. Never run under boat boom or across hawse. When passing under stern of any vessel (anchored or underway) give adequate clearance.

12. Check fuel tank frequently.

306

DRESSING A~ID FULL-DRESSING SHIP

1. GENERAL:

A. Dressing Ship:

1. The largest. National Ensign with which the EAGLE is furnished

shall be displayed at the.flagstaff.

2. The Coast Guard Ensign shall be at the fore truck.

3. A National Ensign at the maintruck.

4. One of the following shall fly at the mizzentruck:

a. Personal Flag

b. Comma.ndan t Perman t

c. Commission Pennant with a National Ensign

5. When dressing or full-dressing ship in honor of a foreign nation, the ens tgn of that nation shall replace the United States National Ensign at the maintruck.

6. Ships not underway shall be dressed or full-dressed from 0800 until sunset. Ships underway shall not be dressed or full-dressed.

7. Should half-roasting of the National Ensign be required on occasions of dressing or full-dressing ship, only the National Ensign at the flagstaff shall be half-masted.

8. When full-dressing is required, the senior officer present may direct that dressing be substituted if, in his opinion, the state of the weather makes such action advisable. He may also, under such Circumstances, direct that the Ensigns be hauled down from the mastheads after being hoisted.

B. Full-Dressing Ship:

1. In addition to the dressing of the mastheads, a rainbow of signal flags shall be displayed from fore to aft via the mastheads in the following order:

1. 3-flag 23· PORT 45. ¢-flag
2. 4-flag 24. NAN 46. INT
3· l-pennant 25. 2-pennant 47. DIV
4. SUGAR 26. TARE 48. 4-pennant
5· 1st Sub. 27· 2nd Sub. 49· 9-fiag
6. ABLE 28. BAKER 50. 4th Sub.
7· PREP 29· DOG 51. PETER
8. CHARLIE 30. TURN 52. FORM
9· MIKE 31. 5-flag 53. VICTOR
10. SPEED 32. STATION 54. GEORGE
11. JIG 33· KING 55. STARBOARD
12. 5-pennant 34. 6-pennant 56. ITEM
13· POGER 3)· WILLIAM 57. FOX
14. 9-pennant 36. ¢-pennant 58. QUEEN
15. ZEBRA 37· l-flag 59. 8-pennant
16. CORPEN 38. OBOE 60. YOKE
17. 8-flag 39· 3rd Sub. 61. DESIO
18. UNCLE 40. HOW 62. 7-flag
19. 6-flag 41. EASY 63· 3-pennant
20. X-RAY 42. EMERG 64. SQUADRON
21. NEGAT 43· LOVE 65. ANSWERING
22. 2-flag 44. 7-pennant Then start the sequence over again. 401

'\

Ii tlERS€'

FORE TRIANGLE:

1. Set block above the fore royal stay on the forward side of the mast.

2. Secure the halyard at the foot of the rore royal stay, and reeve through the block, and down to the foretop.

3. Ms.rk with a leather strip the halyard just outside the block.

4. Settle the halyard to the deck, and bend on the bunting in accordance with the order on page 401. Connect the hooks into the snap rings.

5. Make up the flags for breaking with rotten stuff, reeving a releasing line (6-t.hread) inside the rot.ten stuff, and outside the bunting. This tripping line is made fast at one end to the foot. of the fore royal stay. 6 . Take up on the halyard in the fore top.

7· Tb break out, haul on the tripping line.

402

I

/

FORE TO MAIN, AND MAIN TO MIZZEN:

'~ 1-
2.

4.

6.

8.
9· Place blocks at after side of foretruck and forward side of main truck (for the fore-main set-up).

Reeve halyard thru blocks, coiling halyard in both fore and main tops. Draw halyard taut, and mark points on halyard just outside blocks with leather strips.

Attach dipping line to halyard at the after stop, and lead the end to the foretop. (This dipping line is used only to bring the halyard to the foretop for bending on bunting.

Slack the halyard to the foretop and bend on bunting.

Make up the bunting for breaking out, placing a length of 9-thread under the rotten stuff (this 9-thread is to be a jack-stay).

Haul. the forward part of the halyard up until the stop is just outside the forward block. Secure the forward part of halyard.

Attach the jack-stay to the mast at both ends of the jack-stay. The bunting is now ready for breaking out.

To break ou t , merely haul on the after halyard.

BE SURE THE ROTTEN STUFF IS R-O-T-T-E-N!!!!!

=-=

403

MIZZEN BUNTING:

l. 2.

Attach block to after side of mizzen truck.

At tach halyard to end of boom, and run it upward thru the block, and down to the pilot house. (Run the halyard outside the vangs).

Secure outhaul to halyard in such a way that it will take the halyard to the end of the gaff. (Run the outhaul inside the vangs, using the Ensign halyard for an outhaul.)

Mark the point of the halyard just outside the truck block. Settle the halyard and bend on the bunting.

Secure a tripping line of 6-thread to the end of the boom.

Make up the flags for breaking out with rotten stuff bent around the tripping line and bunting.

Raise the halyard.

To break out, merely haul on the tripping line.

4. 5· 6.

7.

8. 9·

BE SURE THE ROTTEN STUFF IS R-O-T-T-E-N~!!!~

= =::::::;:;:;============

404

NATIONAL HOLIDAYS:

1. The 1st of January, 22nd of February, 30th of May, 4th of July, first Monday in September, llt.h of November> 25th of December, and such other days as may be designated by the President of

the United States, shall be observed as holidays. Whenever any of the above designated dates falls on Sunday, the following day shall be observed as a holiday.

2 . On the 22nd of February and 4th of July) every ship of the Coast Guard in commission, not underway, shall full-dress Ship.

3. On 30 May, display the National Ensign at half-mast from 0800 to 1220, then haul close-up.

FOREIGN PARTICIPATION IN UNITED STATES NATIONAL ANNIVERSARIES OR SOLEMNITIES:

1. Prior to celebrating a United States national anniversary, or observing a national solemnity, in a foreign place, or in the presence of foreign warships, the Senior Officer Present Afloat

of the U.S. Navy or U.S. Coast Guard shall give due notice to

the foreign por t authorities and to the senior officer of each nationality present, of the time and manner of conducting the celebration or solemnity, and shall, as appropriate, invite their participation therein. An officer shall be sent to thank the foreign authorities or ships which partiCipate in such celebrations or solemnities.

405

EXTRACTS FROM DNC 27

The following is a summary of the information found in the new publication DNa 27 concerning U. S. Naval Flags and Pennants. II; will be to your interest to become familiar with the uses of the various flags and customs concerning same before reporting to relieve the deck.

113 In Boa ts :

~ The national ensign shall be displayed from waterborne boats of the Naval service:

a. When underway during daylight in a foreign port.

b. When ships are required to be dressed or full-dressed.

c. When going alongside a foreign vessel.

d. When an officer or official is embarked on an official occasion.

e. When a flag or general officer} a uni t commander, a commanding officer; or a chief of staff, in uniform, is embarked in a boat of his command or in one assigned to his personal use.

f. At such other times as may be prescribed by the senior officer present.

g. Since small boats are a part of a vessel, they shall follow the motions of the parent vessel as regards the half-masting of colors.

114 Dipping

1. When any vessel, under United States registry or the registry of a nation formally recognized by the Government of the United States, salutes a ship of the Navy by dipping her enSign; it shall be answered dip for dip. If not already being displayed, the national ensign shall be hoisted for the purpose of answering the dip, the dip returned, and, after a suitable interval, the ensign hauled down. An ensign being displayed at half-mast shall be hoisted close. up before a dip is answered.

2. No ship of the Navy shall dip the national ensign unless in return for such compliment.

142 Broad ~id Burgee Command Pennants

1. The broad or burgee command pennant shall be the personal command pennant of an officer of the Na"IlY) not a flag officer) commanding a uni t of ships or aircraft.

2. The broad command pennant shall indicate command of:

a. A division of battleships, aircraft carriers, or cruisers.

b. A force, flotilla, or squadron of ships or craft of any type.

c. An aircraft wing.

3· The burgee command pennant shall indicate command of:

a. A division of ships or craft other than battleships, aircraft carriers, or cruisers.

b. A major subdivision of an aircraft wing.

147 In Boats, Automobiles and Aircraft

~ An officer on command, or a chief of staff when acting for him, when embarked in a boat of the Naval service on official occasions, shall display from the bow his personal flag or command pennant, or, if not entitled to either, a commission pennant.

406

f

!

2. An0ff~oer,entitled to th~_display of a personal flag or oo~d pennant may display a miniature of suoh fl~g or pennant in the vicinity of the coxswain's station when embarked on other than official occasions in a boat of the Naval service.

3. An officer entitled to the display of a personal flag or command pennant may, when riding in an automobile on an official occasion, display such flag or pennant forward on such vehicle.

148 Half-masting

1. Personal flags, command pennan ts , and commission pennan ts shall no t be displayed at half-mast except as prescribed in Navy regulations for deceased official or officer.

149 Civil Officials in Boats

1. A flag shalllbe displayed in the bow of a boat in the Naval service whenever a United States civil offioial is embarked on an official occasion as follows:

a. A Union Jack for:

(1) A diplomatic representative of, or above, the rank of charge d'affaires, within the waters of the country to which he is accredited •

. ~ (2) A governor general or governor, commissioned as such by the

President, within the area under his jurisdiction.

b. The consular flag for a consular representative.

c. The prescribed personal flag for other civil officials when such officials are entitled to the display of a personal flag during an official visit.

151 Absence Indicators

1. In ships, the absence of an official or officer whose personal flag or pennant is displayed, a chief of staff, or a commanding officer, shall be indicated from sunrise to sunset by the display of an absence indicator as prescribed in table shown below. In the case of the absence of a commanding officer who is acting as a temporary unit commander, both absentee pennants should be displayed.

SUB INDICATION DISPIAY ON ABSENTEE
1st Absence of an official Starboard main Absence of a flag officer or
from his ship for a yardarm(outboard). uni t commander whose personal
period of 72 hours or flag or command pennant is
less. flying in this ship.
2nd Same as 1st Substitute. Port main yard- Absence of Chief of Staff.
arm (inboard).
3rd Same as 1st Substitute. Par t main yard- Absence of Captain (Executive
arm (inboard). Officer if Captain is absent
for a period exceeding 72 hrs
4th Same as 1st Substitute. Starboard main Absence of civil or military
yardarm(inboard). official whose flag is flying
in this ship. , PROCEDURE FOR HOUSING TOPGALLANT MASTS

The masts and rigging of the EAGLE are designed .to permit housing the main and fore topgallant masts when reduction of mast height is necessary. Housing of these masts is necessary if the EAGLE is to clear the New London bridge structures. The following is a brief description of one way in which this operation can be conveniently and easily carried oub . The description is given in terms of the mainmast only. With minor variations, however, it is equally applicable to the foremast. Approximately Ghree hours should be allowed for the job. The rigging work can be handled by eight capable men,

if they are properly instructed and organized in advance.

The firs t part of the operation is the unshipping of the topgallant yard from its track on the topgallant mast, and securing it on the topmast cap. All sails are furled and the yards are in the lifts before this operation is started. It is accomplished as follows:

(1) Detach the royal leechlines from the royal, and secure them around the outer ends of the topgallant yard to serve as temporary lifts.

(2) Fit a large shackle around the main topgallant; stay at deck l.evel, and shackle in a light tackle. Secure the main topgallant staysail halyard and downhaul to this shackle also. Using the halyard and downhaul, run this tackle up the stay and secure the movable block to the center of the topgallant yard by means of a strap. Adjust the position of the fixed block on the stay so that it is approximately opposite the topgallant yard. Lead the hauling part of the tackle to the cross trees

or to the deck.

(3) Transfer the weight of the topgallant yard from the lifts to the halyar.d by taking a short pull on the halyard) slacking clewlines and sheets as necessary, and setting up on the royal leechlines, which now act as jury topgallant lifts.

(4) Unshackle the topgallant lift;s at the mast, and tie off the ends to the center of the topgallan t yard

(5) The topgallant yard rides up and down on a track on the forward side of the topgallant mast. It is secured to this track by means of a shoe attached to the yoke of the yard. The shoe is attached to the swiveled part of the yoke by means of a through-bolt pin. Set up moderately on the tackle you have rigged on the topgallant stay, and remove this shoe-pin. The yard is now clear of the mast, suspended by the halyard, steadied by the royal leechlines and the topgallant braces; and held away from the mast by the tackle on the topgallant stay. It will be necessary to remove the topgallant shoe from the track and send it down with a gantline.

(6) SetUe the topgallant yard down to a point opposite the topmast cap by slacking off on the halyard, steadying it as necessary. It is necessary to tend topgallant braces at this time, otherwise it will be impossible to move the yard forward. It will be necessary to keep the royal sheets slack during this operation. Now adjust the position of the yard carefully so as to enable the end of the yoke swivel (which originally was pinned to the shoe) to slide in between the two

408

project1.ng lugs on the forward side of th~ mast cap. When in position, insert; at;hrough-bolt, securing the yard to the topmast cap.

(NOTE: This securing arrangement is similar t.o the gudgeon-pintle

arrangement for securing a rudder.)

(7) Slack off the topgallant halyard, allowing the weight of the yard to be taken by the topmas t cap. Unshackle the wire tye from the yard. Haul this t.ye out of the mast sheave through which it leads, and secure it to the crosstrees.

The topgallant yard now being housed on the topmast; cap, you are ready to commence the second part of the operation - the actual settling of the topgallant mast. The total weight which you will be handling in this operation is not as much as you might expec t . The topgallant mas t itself weighs 2128 pounds and the royal yard 884 pounds. Add:tng the weight of the royal and the rigging, the total is still less than two tons.

The topgallant mast extends through a heavy sbeel ring which is the topmast cap, down thrOUGh the hole between the crcsstrees and the brestle trees. Its weight is transferred to the trestle trees by means of a heavy steel fid which goes through the topgallant mast at.hwartships near its base} and rests on the trestle trees. Additional support for the topgallant mas t is provided by the topgallant shrouds, two stays, and six backstays. When we settle this mase,

we lower it as far as it will 00 through the cap ring and the hole between the crosstrees and the trestle trees. In order to lower it, however, we must first raise it sligh tly to permi t the removal of the fid. Proceed as follow's:

(1) Two hea'V7 padeyes are provided on the sides of the topmast cap, one on each side. Shackle a large snatchblQck into the padeye that is on the same side of the mast as the upper topsail halyard purchase.

(2) Detach the upper topsail halyard from its three-fold purchase, holding the block aloft by gantline. Tie the halyard in to the mast.

(3) Rouse out the "mast rope ,I s a long 3/4;' wire pendant des Igned for this operation; and shackle one end of it into the three-fold purchase.

(4) Sway the bit.ter end of the mast rope aloft to the crosstrees by means of a gantline. Reeve it through the snatchblock on the topmast cap, back down through the sheave which is installed athwartships in the topgallant mast near its base, thence back up to the cap, where it is shackled into the second padeye.

(5) Slack off on all stays and shrouds which support the topgallant mast.

This is done by backmg off a few turns on the turnbuckles, using a bar. Slacking these stays is necessary in order to permit raising the topgallant mast enough co remove the fid. Only a small amount of s.Lack is necessary.

(6) Remove the mast wedges.

(7) Lead the hauling part of the three-fold purchase forward to the capstan by means of a sna tchblock on deck and the roller chocks on the forecastle. Get power on the capstan and set taut.

409

(8) Pull the upper topsail tye chain ath\~rtships and clear of the topsail track by means of a jigger, to permit unobstructed downward travel of the topgallant mast.

(9) Hoist the topgallant mast very carefully a slight amount by heaving around on the capstan. This takes the weight off the fid, and permits its removal.

(10) Attach a safety line to the starboard end of the fid and haul it from the same side until it; is out of the slot in the mast.

(11) Commence settling the topgallant mast by backing off slowly on the capstan. Men aloft keep the slack Shrouds and rigging clear of the mast. It; wiD_ be necessary to keep the slack out of the temporary lifts to prevent the topgallant yard. from cockbilling while the mast is being lowered. Settling continues until the topgallant hounda fetch up on the mast cap ring - a total distance of 14 feet 9 inches.

(12) Fore in hand the upper topsail halYard ~urchase and belay it on its proper pin at the pinrail. Thi.$ helps support the topga).1ant mast and prevents it from settling further.

NOTE: If it is the intention to brace the yards; and they must be braced

to go through the bridge, house the fore ~t; mastf'lrstand brace

it up on port tack if going South through thel:>t"1dge, and on 'the s~ard tack if going North; after which the main top~t mast ~ be housed. It; is absolutely essential that this proced1$!e 'be toUo~d because any bracing of the fore yards after the main topgall~t ~t is lOwer will only cause the fore royal braces to foul on the main topgallant.' sail.

Special Gear Required:

Shackle Mast Rope

Large Steel Snatchblock Deck Snatchblock

Tools

Tackle

Gantline

410

RIGGING THE ACCOMMODATION LADDER

Gear Req':l.ired:

Yard Tackle Tag Lines

Straps (Manila or Selvagee) Jigger

Snatchblock

Wrenches, Marlinespike

The Accommodation ladder is in three main sec tions. There is the top Qr head platform; foot or bot.tom platform, and the ladder itself. On the foot platform. are leather fenders for the boat coming alongside, these help prevent ~e to the boat. Also included wi th the ladder is a chain "bridle wi th a yoke; and from the yoke a chain leader which shackles t.o the fishplate on the dav:tt.

C UIlJ.N I-J~ A Of. R

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411

DA YI T

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DfrVlT

CI-JA IN /._EADt=R

FISHPLJ.)Tf

PROCEDURE FOR RIGGING ACCOMMODATION LADDER

1. Separate all sections and fittings of the ladders (port & starboard).

2. Pass strap around main yardarm directly over ship1s side. Rig purchase; lead hauling part through snatchblock on deck,

3. Secure lower platform and fender to foot of ladder while laid on deck. Shackle yoke to rings near foot of ladder.

4. Rig upper platform to bulwark: Pass strap around outer side of platform and hoist into position. Pass toggle pins. Ship grating.

5. Pass strap through topmost tread of lad.der) center it and shackle to purchase. Hoist ladder vertically until clear of rail and sway outboard. Hook jigger between davit head and foot of ladder. Shackle yoke chain into fishplate (largest eye). Ease yard tackle until top of ladder can be pinned to head platform.

6. Lower away on jigger until yoke takes weight of ladder.

7. Rig handrails and grabline (for boats).

- - - - - - - - - - - -RIGGING-CAnGO-BOoM - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Gear Required:

Bull Chain

Manila Topping Lift Purchase Wire Topping Lift Pendant Two 2-fold Purchase Guys

Ttvo Wire Guy Pendants Four Snatchblocks Main Purchase

Extra Tackle

It is first necessary to shackle all gear on the boom before hoistinG: main purchase; port and starboard guys) and topping lift.

Before hauling topping lift pendant out to the boom, shackle in bull chain and topping lif t purchase on mas t end of pendan t .

Rig a stout (extra) tackle between the main yard yoke (use a strap) and the fishplate on the topping lift, and hoist topping lift purchase and bull chain aloft while hauling the boom end of topping lift pendant out to the boom. This is necessary because of the weight of pendant plus fishplate and bull chain.

When the pendant is shackled in the end of the boom) the boom can be topped up by rigging the hauling part of the topping lift purchase through a snatchblock and forward in the wais t . Tend por t and starboard buys to keep boom clear of main stay.

When the end link of the bull chain is shackled into the chain plate at the foot of the mast) the boom is just the right height to pick up the boats. Topping lift purchase can then be slacked.

(DIAGRAM ON FOLLOWING PAGE)

412

PORT & STARBOARD GUYS SHACKLE ON

(BOTH~DES) /

L..

.s.«.

MAIN?~ ~

- .. ?ft

PURCHASE . nOO-I,K /-- /{

SHACKLES ~ .

ON HERE

TOPPING LIFT PENDANT

~~

DECK" --v~

CHAIN PLATE

---::::::, .~

FeRWARD TO THE CAPSTAN 413

MAINMAST

EAGLE GLOSSARY

1. ABACK - when the wind gets on the forward side of the sail.

2. BACKSTAY - standing rigging led from a point on the mast to the rail abaft of the mas t .

3. BOARD TEE TACK - to hook a tack jigger in the tack pendan t of the foresail or mainsail and haul it down to the rail.

4. BOBSTAY - a rod leading from the end of the bowsprit to the vessel's stem.

5. BOLTROPE -roping around edges of a sail.

6. BOOM - a spar on the mizzen used for extending the foot of the spanker.

7. BOXING - a sailing maneuver; to pay the vessel's head off after missing stays, or when taken aback.

8. B~CES - running rigging used to swing the yards in a-horizontal plane.

9. BRACE IN - to swing the yards athwartships or perpendicular to the keel.

10. BRACE UP - to swing the yards fore and af t or in line wi th the keel.

11. BRAILS - lines used in furling the spanker, to bring it in to the mast.

12. BUNTLlNES - lines used to ~rl a squaresail and bring the foot up to the yard.

13. CAP - a band at the head of a mast.

14. CAST or CASTING - to swing the vessel's head as necessary for getting underway.

15. CLEW DOWN - to haul on the clewlines while holding the sheets in order to settle a yard.

16. CLEW GARNETS - special term tor the clewlines of the foresail and mainsail (courses).

17· CLEWLINES - lines led to the lower corners of a squaresail, to bring them up to the yardarms when furling.

18. CLEW UP - to bring the sail up in its gear by slacking sheets and hauling clewlines, buntlines and leechlines.

19· COURSES - collective term applied to foresail and mainsail.

20. CRINGLE - iron ring in the bo1trope of a sail at the head, clew or leech.

21. CROSSTREES - thwartship timbers located where the topmast and topgallant mast come together.

414

22. DOLPHIN STRIKER - a strut or brace extending a.lmost verticallY downward from the bowsprit toward the water.

23. DOUBLING - the overlap of two masts, such as topmast and topgallanbnast.

24. DCWNRAUL - line led to the deck from head of a staysail for hauling it dow

25. EARRING - a short piece of line secured to a cringle for hauling out the head of a squareead.l, when bending it on the yard.

26. FULL AND BY - sailing close to the wind with the saiJ_s drawing full

27 . FURL - to take in a sail and secure it.

28. GAFF - a spar on the mizzen used for extending the head of the spanker.

29. GANTLINE - a whip purchase rigged alo~t for general utility purposes.

30. GASKET - line or canvas strap used to secure a sail when furled.

31. HALYARD - running rigging used to hoist and lower sails and yards.

32. HANK - circular metal fitting which rides on a stay and to which the luff of a staysail is made fast.

33. HEAVE TO - (UNDER SAIL) to kill the ship's headway by turning into the wind or by backing the yards on one or more masts.

34. HOUNDS - projections or shoulders on the mast.

35·
36.
37·
.:: 38.
39·
40.
41. INHAUL - line used to haul in the head or foot of the spanker.

IN ITS GEAR - when a sail has been drawn up and is being held by its gear - buntlines, leechlines and clewlines.

JACKSTAY - a metal rod to which sails or lines are fastened.

JIGGER - a handy purchase (tackle), generally used to take additional strain on running rigging.

LEE - on the side away from the wind.

LEECH - the after edge of a fore-and-aft sail; the sides of a squaresail.

LEECHLINES - lines led to the sides of a squaresail to bring them up to the yardarms when furling.

42. LET GO AND HAUL - command to swing the yards of the foremast to the opposite tack when maneuvering under sail.

43. LIFTS - standing lifts are rigged on royal) topgallant and upper topsail yards to keep them level when fully lowered; running lifts are rigged on the fore and main yards to permit canting as required.

415

44. LUFF - the forward edge of a fore .. and-aft. sail; to shiver a sail by bringing it in line with the wind.

45. MAnrSAIL HAUL - command to swing the yards of the mainmast to the opposite tack when maneuvering under sail.

46. MARRY - to place two lines together in order to haul them at the same time.

47. MASTS - aboard EAGLE, fore, main and mizzen ~re masts 1, 2 and 3, in that order; individual masts are divided into sections, lower mast, topmast, topgallant rr.3st 81ld r9ya~ mast; sails rigged thereon are named accordingly.

48. MASTHEAD - the top of a lower mast, where foretop or maintop is situated.

49. ON THE WIND - close-hauled, or sa1l108 as close to the wind as possible.

50. OUTHAUL - line used to haul out the head or the foot of the spanker.

51. OVERHAUL - to haul a line through a block to make it slack or separate the blocks of a tackle.

52. PEAK - the upper after corner of a fore-and-aft sail.

53. PENDANT - a short piece of line or wire with an eye at each end used for hanging off a block, footrope, etc.

54. POLE - the upper end of the highest mast, between the royal yard and the truck.

55. RISE TACKS AND SHEETS - command to clew up the mainsail When maneuvering under sail.

56. ROBAND - short length of marlin used to secure the head of a squaresail to the jackstay, or the luff of a headsail to the hanks.

57. ROUND IN - to bring the blocks of a tackle together by hauling on the line.

58. RUNNING RIGGING - movable lines and blocks used for controlling sails, yards, etc.

59. SHEET - running rigging secured to the clew of a sail (opposing a clewline)

60. SHROUDS - standing rigging used to strengthen a mast latelally, led athwartships from aloft to the rail.

61. SPREADER - extension projecting horizontally at the cross trees to spread backstays.

62. STANDING PARTS - the fixed part of any piece of running rigging; the end which is secured permanently.

63· STANDING RIGGING - rigging which has no movable parts, shrouds) backstays, etc.

64. STATIONS FOR STAYS - assignments for sailing maneuversJ tacking) wearing, etc.

65. STAYS - standing rigging in line with the ship's keel; some stays carry staysails. A vessel "in stays" has the wind fore-and-aft, as when going about from one tack to the other.

66. TACK - a line leading forward from the clew of the foresail o~ mainsail; the lower forward corner of a fore-and-aft sail.

61. TACKING - a sailing maneuver; the process of bringing the ship's head through the wind to get the wind on the opposite side.

68. TACK JIGGER - a tackle used to haul down the weather tack of foresail or mainsail.

69. THROAT - the forward upper corner of a fore-and-aft sail.

10. TOP - platform at the top of a mast, as foretop or maintop.

71. TOPPING LIFT - purchase used for raising or taking the weight of a boom.

72. UNFURL - to cast loose a sail by throwing off the gaskets.

73. WEATdER - on the side toward the wind.

14. WEARING - a sailing maneuver; the process of bringing the ship's stern through the wind to get ~he wind on the opposite side.

15. YARD - a spar rigged horizontally on a mast and to which the head of a squaresail is bent.

76. VANG - a line led from the mizzen gaff to keep it steady when the spanker is not set.

417

,_

JACK ENGEMAN: 701 ST. PAUL ST. 1 BALTIMORE 2. MO,

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