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Experiment no:

RETARDATION TEST

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Retardation test

AIM: To measure the moment of inertia (J) of a separately excited dc motor using

Retardation test.

APPARATUS:

1) DC shunt motor(220V DC,2.75 A,7 HP,940 r.p.m)

2) Rheostat: 145Ω, 2.8A (1 no); 50Ω, 8.5A (2 nos.)

3) Voltmeter: 0-300V DC

4) Ammeter:0-10A DC

5) Tachometer

6) Stopwatch

7) DPST

8) Connecting wires

THEORY: Moment of inertia can be calculated if dimensions and weights of various

parts of the load and motor are known. It can also be measured experimentally by

retardation test.

In retardation test, the drive is run at a speed slightly higher than rated speed and

then the supply to it is cut off. Drive continues to run due to kinetic energy stored in it

and decelerates due to rotational mechanical losses. Variation of speed with time is

recorded.

At any speed ω

m

, power consumed in supplying rotational losses is given by

P = Rate of change of kinetic energy

=

d

dt

Ә

1

2

[æ

m

2

ә = [æ

m

do

m

dt

From retardation test dω

m

/dt at rated speed is obtained. Now drive is reconnected to

the supply and run at rated speed and rotational mechanical power input to the drive

is measured. This is approximately equal to P. Now J can be calculated from above

equation. Main problem in this is that rotational mechanical losses cannot be

measured accurately because core losses and rotational mechanical losses cannot

be separated. In view of this, retardation test on a dc separately excited motor or a

synchronous motor is carried out with field on. Now core loss is included in the

rotational loss, which is now obtained as a difference of armature power input and

armature copper loss. In case of a wound rotor induction motor, retardation test can

be carried out by keeping the stator supply and opening the rotor winding

connection.

OBSERVATIONs:

a)Free running

N(rpm) t(secs)

b)Ra=1.3Ω

N

V

a

(volts)

I

a

(ampere)

T

(sec)

E

a

(volts)

P

(watts)

ω

m

CALCULATIONS:

Formula:

1) E=V

a

- I

a

R

a

2) ω

m

=

2nN

60

3) P=EI

a

J can be determined more accurately by obtaining speed time curve from the

retardation test as above and also rotational losses v/s speed plot. Using these two

plots, rotational losses v/s time plot can be obtained, e.g. for time t

1

, ω

m1

is found

from the retardation plot. Then for this speed rotational loss P

1

is obtained from the

plot of rotational loss v/s speed and plotted against t

1

. Area A enclosed between the

rotational loss v/s t plot and the time axis(shaded area), is the kinetic energy

dissipated during retardation test. If initial speed of the drive during retardation test

was ω

m0

then

1

2

[æ

m0

2

= ˓

PROCEDURE:

1) Connect the circuit as shown in fig.

2) Initially keep the armature resistance at maximum and field at minimum.

3) Adjust armature and field so that motor should run at rated speed.

4) Disconnect the motor from supply and field ON.

5) Measure the time as the motor speed starts decreasing in steps.

6) Now, again start the motor by connecting its supply as given in step 2 and 3.

7) Measure the motor terminal voltage. As well as armature current.

8) Now decrease the armature voltage. With the help of rheostat in armature

circuit without any change in field in steps.

9) Measure voltage and current.

10) Measure armature resistance of motor.

CONCULSION:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: .

Main problem in this is that rotational mechanical losses cannot be measured accurately because core losses and rotational mechanical losses cannot be separated. In view of this.940 r.5A (2 nos.7 HP. At any speed ωm. This is approximately equal to P. retardation test can be carried out by keeping the stator supply and opening the rotor winding connection. APPARATUS: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) DC shunt motor(220V DC.) Voltmeter: 0-300V DC Ammeter:0-10A DC Tachometer Stopwatch DPST Connecting wires THEORY: Moment of inertia can be calculated if dimensions and weights of various parts of the load and motor are known.75 A. It can also be measured experimentally by retardation test. 50 . Now drive is reconnected to the supply and run at rated speed and rotational mechanical power input to the drive is measured. retardation test on a dc separately excited motor or a synchronous motor is carried out with field on.p. Now core loss is included in the rotational loss.8A (1 no). 8. Drive continues to run due to kinetic energy stored in it and decelerates due to rotational mechanical losses. 2. .Retardation test AIM: To measure the moment of inertia (J) of a separately excited dc motor using Retardation test. Variation of speed with time is recorded. which is now obtained as a difference of armature power input and armature copper loss.2.m) Rheostat: 145 . Now J can be calculated from above equation. In case of a wound rotor induction motor. power consumed in supplying rotational losses is given by P = Rate of change of kinetic energy = # $ H $ =H From retardation test dωm/dt at rated speed is obtained. In retardation test. the drive is run at a speed slightly higher than rated speed and then the supply to it is cut off.

3 N Va (volts) Ia (ampere) T (sec) Ea (volts) P (watts) ωm CALCULATIONS: Formula: 1) E=Va .OBSERVATIONs: a)Free running N(rpm) t(secs) b)Ra=1.IaRa $ 2) ωm= 3) P=EIa " .

Now decrease the armature voltage. Measure the time as the motor speed starts decreasing in steps. As well as armature current. Area A enclosed between the rotational loss v/s t plot and the time axis(shaded area). If initial speed of the drive during retardation test was ωm0 then 1 H 2 " $ = PROCEDURE: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Connect the circuit as shown in fig. again start the motor by connecting its supply as given in step 2 and 3. 10) Measure armature resistance of motor. Adjust armature and field so that motor should run at rated speed.J can be determined more accurately by obtaining speed time curve from the retardation test as above and also rotational losses v/s speed plot. Now. e. rotational losses v/s time plot can be obtained. Disconnect the motor from supply and field ON. for time t1. CONCULSION: . ωm1 is found from the retardation plot. Then for this speed rotational loss P1 is obtained from the plot of rotational loss v/s speed and plotted against t1.g. is the kinetic energy dissipated during retardation test. Initially keep the armature resistance at maximum and field at minimum. Using these two plots. 9) Measure voltage and current. Measure the motor terminal voltage. With the help of rheostat in armature circuit without any change in field in steps.

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