When a force is applied on to the tooth, the tooth is rotated .

In order to do this clinicians rely on the ability of materials such as corrosion resistant alloys and to a limited extent rubber and rubber like materials to store energy. The energy is transferred to the tooth to do the work required. Lot of thought should be given in selection of the material and also to the design of the appliance in order to harness the stored energy to produce the forces of required magnitude and direction. The two types of materials used, metals and rubber like substances have differing energy storing ability due to the vastly differing internal structure of them. Rubber consists of a three dimensional network of long chain polymer molecules and are capable of great extensibility. But the amount of energy that they can store per unit volume is low. Metals has a crystalline structure and have low reversible extensibility. But can store a greater amount of energy per unit volume. For tooth movement a tooth requires 25-40gm of force ( 0.25-0.4 N) . It is a problem to make a spring of sufficient length within the confines of the mouth which applies a force of appropriate magnitude and direction. The material should be corrosion resistant for use in the mouth. It should not get distorted with external forces. It should not be susceptible to fatigue fracture. The ability of the appliance to resist distortion by the patient during routing use depend on 1. design ±geometrical shape of the wire, length and the diameter of the wire used 2. Inherent properties of the wire.

Basically an appliance is a device which utilizes the energy stored in the metal when it is activated. It should produce forces of desired magnitude and direction over a specific distance while being as robust and stable as possible.

Physical properties of the wire. Physical properties of the wire which are important in clinical orthodontics. 1. Flexural rigidity ( EI) 2. Resistance to distortion 3. susceptibility to fracture.

Flexural rigidity The flexural rigidity of a wire is a product of Young¶s modulus of elasticity and a factor known as Second Mement of Inertia of the cross section of the wire. Young¶s modulus of

5 mm. The factor I depend on the shape and dimensions of the cross section of the wire and factor determines how stiff the wire is. I depend on the fourth power of the radius.elasticity is an intrinsic property of a material which determines its resistance to elastic deformation in either tension. p/y = 3EI/L3 P= force applied Y = deflection of the free end of the wire. If 0. . force increases four fold.5mm wire force generated will be doubled. If 0. The maximum fiber stretch occurs in the outermost layers of the bent wire at any point may be calculated from following formula.7mm wire used instead of 0. For circular cross section I = r4/4 R is the radius of the wire. compression or flexure. Resistance of the wire to distortion If load is applied to the free end of the cantilever spring the upper layer of the wire is extended and lower layers of the wire compressed. The force generated for unit deflection of all removable appliances is directly proportional to EI. By doubling the radius (holding everything is constant) the force applied by the wire increases 16 fold.6mm wire used instead of 0. But I increases as cross section increases. E of the wire does not very greatly.

For permanent canines and in cases where clasping of primary molar is necessary 0.Retention of removable orthodontic appliances In orthodontics the term retention has two meanings. In young children as the teeth are newly .7mm stainless steel wire or from blue Elgiloy for all permanent teeth except for permanent canines. The other is the way the appliance is held in the mouth in order to make it effective. One is the support given to the teeth in order to maintain the teeth in their new positions after orthodontic treatment. Adam¶s clasp Adams clasp is made of 0.6 mm wire is used Adams clasp utilizes mesio buccal and disto buccal undercuts that can be found on crowns of almost all the teeth.25mm depth the retention of the appliance will be satisfactory. Appliance retention is mainly provided by wires which are bent into different shapes to produce a clasp or bows. The design proposed by Adams ( 1955) of the modified arrowhead clasp at present referred to as Adam¶ s Clasp is a major advance in removable orthodontics. The arrowhead clasp was one of the most successful designs out of these though the construction and adjustment of arrowhead clasp is believed to be difficult. This chapter focuses on the retention of the removable appliance in the mouth. Depending on the region where retention is needed the clinician has to decide the appropriate design of the retention component of a given removable appliance. If the tooth provide an undercut with 0. Retention in posterior region. There have been many designs of the clasps used in the past with removable appliances. which have been attempted in the past.

In adults the clinical crown may be more than the anatomical crowns. it is necessary to trim the plaster model to reproduce the anatomical contour of the crown so that the maximum depth of the undercut may be utilized for construction of a well fitting clasp. This may reduce the undercut available and make the appliance ill fitting. Variation of Adam¶s clasp Adams clasps on canines . If care is not taken in deciding the correct depth of the undercut the clasp will be too stiff as it engages a deep undercut. bridge of the adams clasp provide a site to which the patient can applay pressure with the finger tips during the removal of the appliance. This problem may be overcome if the lingual undercuts are used.erupted anatomical crown may not be fully exposed. Construction of Adams clasp Advantages of Adams clasp 1. Active clasps can exert a palatally directed force on the tooth resulting in palatal tipping of the tooth if the appliance is ill fitting. Adjustment of the Adam¶s clasp When the appliance is fitted into the mouth the clasp should be nearly passive. Lower molar Lower molars do not have sufficient undercut on the buccal surface leading to poor retention of lower removable appliance. Auxiliary springs can be soldered to the bridge of the clasp. Therefore in adults the clasp should not be extended as far as the gingival margin. If adequate attention is not given at this stage of preparing the undercut for the clasp any adjustments made to the clasp at the time of fitting may not improve the retention of the appliance. clasp cane be modified by winding a coil in the bridge or soldering a tubing onto the bridge of the clasp. Therefore. hooks can be bent during construction or can be soldered after construction to engage inter maxillary elastics. 4. 2. 3. It is important to trim by correct amount as inadequate trimming may not provide sufficient under cut and the appliance may not retain well and also excessive trimming will cause difficulty in fitting of the appliance. In such cases undercut will be just below the gingival margin.

Clasps on primary molars. If the clasp fracture where it cross over the interproximal area or as it emerges from the base plate it is necessary to replace it with a new clasp. And well tolerated by the patients it is the best retentive component if the central incisors are only slightly proclined. in such occasions fitted labial bows can be made to improve retention.6mm wire is used for clasps. it could be repaired by soldering. The undercuts available in primary molars are not deep enough to provide adequate retention.8 mm wire can be used to enhance retention.7mm wire and both central incisors or all four incisors could be included in the fitted bow. It is made of 0. If the clasp is fractured at the arrowhead. If care is not taken during adjustment clasp may fracture due to work hardening. Limitations The Adams clasps have few limitations.As permanent maxillary canines have a deep undercut. Method of repair depend on the site of fracture of the Adam¶s Clasp. . But construction and adjustment of them difficult. When both incisors are included in the clasp it may be uncomfortable to the patient especially if they are very prominent. C clasps or recurved claps are made on primary canines to improve retention of the appliance. As an alternative a single arrowheads made of 0. It can be improved by not extending the arrowheads too closer to the cervical margin and also curving the bridge to confirm with the curvature of the labial surface. C claps adapts along the gingival margin to provide retention. It is easy to construct. Adam¶s clasps Adams claps can be made on incisors if they are upright or very slightly proclined. Therefore 0. Fitted labial bow. Retention on anterior teeth. Southend clasp the wire passes round the gingival margins of the incisors and utilizes the undercut between the incisors. In such cases additional undercuts can be utilized using soldered clasps. It could be made on one incisor or on both incisors. Breakage of Southend clasp is not very common. Arrowheads also could be flattened to reduce the irritation to the upper lip. Some patients may complain of irritation of the cheek with the bridge if the bridge is too prominent especially if the tubes are soldered for extra oral anchorage. When upper incisors are grossly proclined construction of adam¶s clasps and southend clasps is not practicable.

It should be well clear of the teeth which are being moved. Base plate is usually is made of acrylic either cold cure or heat cure. these are useful on lower incisors and on deciduous teeth as they do not provide sufficient undercuts for other types of clasps. Adjustment will be less complicated even in inexperienced hands. It has three main functions. When cold cure acrylic is used it saves laboratory time and there is no warpage of the appliance during . It should fit closer to the gingival margins of the teeth which are not intended to move to prevent food stagnation. It provides the base which put all the components of the appliance together. The base plate The main body of the appliance consist of the base plate. Sometimes ball ended clasps can separate the adjoining teeth. As the base plate is in contact with the palate and the other teeth it provide additional source of anchorage which is an added advantage in removable appliance. When the embrasure is used there is a risk of gingival damage. It also can be modified to make bite planes to reduce over bite or to disocclude the teeth in cases with cross bites. It should cover most of the hard palate. The base plate should be of sufficient thickness in order to carry all the wire components. But in the lower arch it is necessary to block the undercuts to make the insertion of the appliance easy. The number of clasps should be minimal so that the patient will find it easy to handle. For example a tooth closer to the incisors is clasped in cases with cross bite to counteract the reactionary forces which can dislodge the appliance. Before making it is necessary to block all the undercuts.Ball ended clasps Ball ended clasps uses undercuts provided by the embrasure. It should not be too thick so that the patient can wear it full time with minimum discomfort. Finishing just distal to the first molars. Depending on the nature of active components additional clasps should be used. Construction of base plate. In the upper arch in a young patient the undercut may not be a problem. Planning retention Decision with regard to the type and position of the retentive components should be made after giving careful thought to the type of the active components used and the way the reactionary forces will resolve after activation of the springs. First molars usually provide sufficient retention.

Anterior bite plane Anterior bite plane is used for reduction of deep over bite before correction of over jet. Muscles of the vertical sling experience increased tension. appliances are very strong therefore it is recommended in cases with deep over bites where heavy muscular forces could be anticipated . anterior bite planes should not be used for over bite correction as they do not have facial growth which makes the over bite stable. with regard to the construction of the bite plane chairside adjustments required could be minimized. Those who have low FMPA do not have sufficient vertical growth. It prevents eruption of lower incisors as lower incisors are in occlusion with the bite plane and allows eruption of posterior teeth if they are separated beyond freeway space. In cases with second molar erupted. Construction. But cold cure acrylic appliance have residual free monomer which could be toxic to the patient and also not very strong. In cases with increased FMPA ( High angle) there is sufficient vertical growth to make the corrected over bite stable. As increase of vertical dimension may take the lower lip away from the upper incisors there won¶t be sufficient control over the upper incisors from the lower lip at the end of treatment making the final over jet correction unstable. Anterior bite plane changes the eruption pattern of teeth. Heat cure acrylic though time consuming. Over bite reduction using this method will be stable only in children who are actively growing with a favourable growth pattern. In adults irrespective of the vertical dimension. palatal acrylic could be extended upto second molar. Anchorage and the base plate Anchorage of the appliance could be improved by covering the maximum amount of the palatal mucosa with acrylic. Bite planes Base plate could be modified by addition of acrylic to build up bite planes. Acrylic should contact all the teeth except. which are intended to move. In children with favourable growth there is sufficient vertical growth to facilitate reattachment of the muscles releasing this tension. Therefore. which facilitates this muscle reattachment. in high angle cases over bite correction with anterior bite plane is not recommended in high angle cases. The bite plane allows eruption of posterior teeth which leads to increase of the vertical dimension. .processing like in heat cure acrylic. This adjustment of vertical dimension makes the corrected over bite stable. If adequate instructions given to the technician. In actively growing children those who have average Maxillary Mandibular Plane aAngle grow favourably in vertical dimension. It usually extend up to the distal of first molars.

Improvement of over bite should be evident within first two months after fitting of the appliance. If acrylic is over trimmed child may posture the mandible forward and bite on incisors which will prevent retraction of upper incisors. Trimming of the bite plane When over bite is reduced sufficiently. But at the beginning if the incisors are irregular it may be necessary to adjust the bite plane so that at least three incisors are in contact. Bite plane should be trimmed just enough to allow posterior movement of the upper incisors which is anticipated with one activation. If a new appliance is made. In some cases last standing tooth may erupt as the tongue does not interfere with the eruption of them resulting in open bite in premolar region which will be difficult to correct later. Clinical management of the bite plane. The thickness of the bite plane could be increased by addition of cold cure acrylic if further reduction of the over bite is necessary. It is important to inform the technician about the extent of the over jet as the bite plane should extend few millimeters beyond this to enable the occlusion with the lower incisors. Trimming should be done gradually to allow retraction of incisors. the bite plane should be of sufficient thickness to prevent separation of the posterior teeth. Ideally contact angle of the lower incisor with the bite plane should be 90 degrees. It is helpful to mark the occlusion of the lower incisors with the bite plane using an articulating paper so that over trimming of the bite plane could be avoided. If the separation is too much the tongue will spread between the upper and lower posterior teeth and prevent eruption of posterior teeth. If the same appliance is used. trimming of the bite plane is first done vertically to clear the palatal surface of the upper incisors by . In premolar region this separation should be about 2-3mm. Lower incisors may also erupt leading to relapse of the over bite. As the over bite improves and lower incisor irregularity corrects bite plane could be leveled with addition of cold cure acrylic. Anterior bite plane should be thick enough so that when the appliance is in place premolars are separated by 2-3mm.It is important to give clear instructions to the technician with regard to the extent of the anterior bite plane both the thickness and the extent. If the separation is not sufficient. over jet is reduced either with the same appliance or with a new appliance. This is important to prevent rocking of the appliance with undermining of acrylic during trimming of the bite plane before activation of labial bows. The thickness of the anterior bite plane should be sufficient to disocclude the posterior teeth slightly beyond the free way space. it is necessary to wait until all posterior teeth regain contact. Occlusal surface of the bite plane should be parallel to the bite plane this will ensure satisfactory contact of the lower incisors with th bite plane. Posterior limit of the bite plane should be extended sufficiently posteriorly to allow occlusion of the lower incisor teeth. ideally anterior bite plane should be flat. If this contact is incorrect there will be either proclination or retroclination of lower incisors leading to an unstable lower labial segment. there won¶t be eruption of posterior teeth as there is no stimulation for eruption.

Posterior bite plane Posterior bite planes are used to eliminate anterior or lateral displacement of the mandible. If teeth have not been moved during this period the appliance should fit without any adjustment. As teeth which are in premature contact in the centric path of closure fitting of an appliance with a posterior bite plane may facilitate spontaneous movement of the teeth which are in premature contact. In cases where correction of cross bite is necessary. posterior bite plane should be thinner posteriorly than anteriorly. In cases where there is a risk of child posturing the mandible to the previous position leading to relapse posterior bite plane could be trimmed over two or three consecutive appointments. Once the cross bite is corrected posterior bite plane could be trimmed off completely. Accurate construction of posterior bite plane demands mounting of models on an articulator. In cases with anterior cross bites the thickness should be just sufficient to disocclude the anterior teeth.about two mm and then undermining trimming should be carried out towards the palatal mucosa. Anterior inclined planes Removable appliances should be fitted within two weeks of impression taking. During this period gingival is irritated by the base palte resulting in gingival hyperplasia especially if the patient does not give meticulous attention to oral hygiene. If the appliance is not . If adjustment of the posterior bite plane is necessary. it should be checked with an articulating paper ensuring that the patient closes in centric so that the occlusal surface of the bite plane could be faceted to receive the lower teeth in centric occlusion. As the inter maxillary space is of wedge shape. this will enable the mandible to a centric relation. Thickness of the posterior bite plane should be adjusted carefully to allow even occlusion of all posterior teeth on both sides. This undermining trimming is necessary as the palatal mucosa wrinkles with palatal movement of the anterior teeth. This bunching up of mucosa takes time for reorganization. Considerable amount of chairside time could be saved if posterior bite plane is constructed accurately. If any trimming is necessary it should be done with great care because if a gap left between the plate and the teeth it will encourage food stagnation. This adjustment may lead to perforation of the posterior bite plane. posterior bite plane is necessary to disocclude the teeth.

Because the elastic properties of the spring is superior if Bauschinger effect is used during activation. A palatal spring boxed and guarded.3mm internal diameter could be incorporated to increase the effective length of the wire used for construction of the spring. Palatal cantilever spring also should be as long as possible to obtain maximum flexibility.5mm stainless steel wire as wires lesser in thickness than this would get distorted when the child handle the appliance.fitting well it is wise to bend the clasps away from the teeth to ensure whether the base plate or the wires responsible for ill fitting appliance. Buccaly approaching spring If a canine is buccally placed it is difficult to approach the correct point of contact with a palatally approaching spring.screws and elastics. it should be examined to ensure path of movement of the tooth intended to move is clear of acrylic. In situations where teeth to be moved are also included in retention and anchorage screws are used. bows. Active components The active components comprise of springs. If a buccaly approaching spring is made of 0. it is important to make a buccally approaching spring. Springs and bows are made of hard drawn stainless steel wire. It is better if the coil is wound in such a way it unwinds as the tooth moves. However. dimensions of the oral cavity limits the maximum length that can be achieved. If there are under cuts which prevent seating of the appliance it should be trimmed without cutting the polished surface of the appliance so that the base plate maintains contact with the teeth. A coil of 0. once the appliance is fully seated in the mouth.5mm wire it will not be . Elastics are used intra orally in cases where traction of individual teeth required and extra orally when head gear is used for reinforcement of anchorage or for distal movement of teeth. The stability of the spring could be improved by incorporating a guard wire on the palatal surface of the spring and boxing the spring with acrylic on its oral side. Spring design Palatally approaching springs are made of 0. A palatal spring may be unstable in the vertical direction so that it can get deflected vertically towards the palate causing difficulty in insertion of the appliance or causing trauma to the palate. In such cases.

Arm of the spring should be either straight or cranked to make sure the tangent drawn at the point of contact is perpendicular to the desired path of movement of the tooth. A line is drawn on the model at right angle to the path of tooth movement and through the mid crown width of the tooth. This will indicate the correct position of the coil. The correct site for adjustment is along the free arm of the spring as close to the coil as possible. The free end of the wire should be finished after the base pate has been processed. Single cantilever spring ( finger spring) Is made of 0. The tubing is then incorporated into the base plate.5mm wire. Once activate the appliance should be seated in the mouth and try to release the spring and see the amount of activation. the spring should not be adjusted at the point where it emerges from the base plate because it is appoint where there is stress concentration. If the wire is further workhardened it will break at this point. The spring is then activated by 3mm. After activation of the spring the point of contact should be checked and it is adjusted so that the tangent drawn at the point of contact is perpendicular to the intended direction of movement. In a case of a canine the spring should not go beyond the tip of the canine when it is in the passive status.7mm wire) so even a 1mm activation may apply a heavy force on the teeth. A palatal spring is boxed to protect it from damage so that it lies in the recess between the base plate and the mucosa.5mm wire could be sheathed with stainless steel tubing which has 0. When palatal cantilever spring is constructed it is necessary to determine the correct path of movement and then the required point of contact should be marked on the model. If the spring catches between teeth during removal it may get distorted in such situations if the spring is used for movement of the tooth along the arch distortion can b prevented By incorporating a guard wire palatal to it so that a channel is made between the base plate and the guard wire. Buccaly approaching springs and bows can be made of 0.stable in the labial sulcus. Such supported springs are used for canine retraction ( supported buccal canine retractor) an d for over jet reduction ( Robert¶s retractor).5mm internal diameter. The force . Adjustment of palatal cantilever springs It is necessary to check whether the spring contact the tooth correctly and lies closer to the gingival margin. Stability could be improved by if 0. ( Self supported buccal canine retractors and labial bows made of 0. This increases the effective length of the wire improving its flexibility. A coil of 3mm internal diameter is incorporated into the spring close to its point of emergence from the base plate.7mm wire they have adequate stability but they are extremely rigid. This improves the stability of the spring.

This is to enable the spring to be embedded in the base plate without interfereing with the other teeth. If the limbs are short the range of activation will be limited and also the child may find it difficult to insert the appliance. The palatal surface has a slant therefore the spring should be made perpendicular to the palatal surface of the tooth to minimize the intrusive effect of the spring which is not satisfactory in cases with cross bites.oint of contact is early vertical as in first premolar the intrusive component is small. Double cantilever spring. . The force applied by the spring has both vertical and horizontal components. The spring also will tend to slip incisally and become passive. Single cantilever spring should be cranked when it is made on a tooth in the labial segment. One is the intrusive force may cause intrusion of the upper incisor which is unfavourable in cross bite cases and the reaction to this vertical component of the force may tend to dislodge the appliance. Therefore t springs are not used in anterior teeth. The mechanical principles of a t spring is similar to single cantilever spring but both free ends are embedded in acrylic making it less flexible compared to it. Adjustment Both limbs of the double cantilever spring should be adjusted during activation. If the tooth surface of the tooth at the p. Then the second adjustment is made at the other end of the limb to make the free limb perpendicular to the intended path of movement. First. Double cantilever or Z springs are made in such 0.5mm wire to suit the clinical situation. In cases where there is a doubt about the stability of the spring a guard wire could be incorporated below the spring to prevent downward displacement of the spring. T spring In cases where buccal movement of a premolar or a canine is needed if a single cantilever or a double cantilever spring is used patient may find it difficult to insert the spring. adjustment is carried out to the palatal limb close to the coil of the fixed end of the spring. In such cases it is necessary to modify the cantilever spring. If t springs are made on incisors which has a sloping surface such as the cingulum plateau of the upper incisor the intrusive component will be much larger.5mm wire may be satisfactory for this purpose. ( Z spring) When a tooth which is in cross bite has to be moved by a considerable distance single cantilever is not satisfactory. This will establish the correct degree of activation. This has two disadvantages. A T spring which is made of 0.generated with activation of the spring could be measured with a tension gauge as shown in the picture. The arms of the springs should be as long as possible to reduce the stiffness of the spring. These guard wires could be made with a reservoir in cases with marked palatal displacement of the incisors.

Self supported buccal canine retractor This is made of 0. The stability of the spring in the vertical palne can be improved by supporting the wire with a tubing of a 0. Buccal canine retractor. Buccal retractor should be activated in two planes. Buccal springs. Supported buccal canine retractors. Care should be taken not to bend the wire as it emerges from the tubing. Of a pair of . As it is made on a sloping surface of the tooth it may be unstable in vertical palne so that the point of contact will change applying jiggling forces on the tooth. As the sulcus depth is limited special care should be taken when the impression is taken for working model. Distal activation is carried out at the coil by bending the anterior limb over the round beak.T spring is activated by pulling it away from the base plate if the spring over activate it may not seat properly.5mm internal diameter. Depending on the thickness of the wire used buccal springs the flexibility and stability changes. This is made of 0. It is more than twice as flexible as the self supported retractor.7mm wire.5mm wire. Bucccaly approaching springs may get distorted when the patient is trying to remove the appliance therefore every precaution should be undertaken to improve the strength and the stability of the spring. Impression should be muscle trimmed to avoid encroachment of the spring into the muscle attachments.. This is not flexible as palatal retractor as the free end of the wire which is not supported is not long enough but has excellent mechanical properties when compared with a self supported canine retractors. therefore extra care should be taken to avoid over activation. When the tooth is moving outwards the spring may not be in contact with the tooth. The spring should be elongated by adding wire from the reservoir. Therefore the flexibility of the spring is satisfactory. Buccaly approaching springs can be used for mesio distal movement palatal movement or when an attachment is bonded on teeth for extrusion of the teeth or for rotation. It has a good strength and stability but even a slight activation may apply a great an excessive force even with 1 mm activation. Adjustment An activation of 2mm one quarter of the canine width is sufficient. As this a site of stress concentration it may fracture.

This retractor is satisfactory in the lower arch as there is a shallow sulcus. active labial bows are used for incisor retraction. As the spring is made of 0. The bow is adjusted at µU¶ loops. Bow In labial bows both ends of the bow are embedded in acrylic. Palatal activation is done along the anterior limb below the coil. Flexibility of the retractor depends on the height of the vertical loop. Patient should be instructed to seat the spring carefully on the mesial surface of the tooth as it may catch on the cuspal incline of the canine and remain ineffective or cuuse intrusion of the tooth. Therefore it should be kept as long as possible. Activation of u loop labial bow. Flexibility of the bow depend on the height of the loop. Active labial bows The choice of the labial bow mainly depend on the amount of incisor retraction needed. Passive labial bows are used to improve retention of the appliance or as a retainer after correction of over jet. Labial bow with U loops This labial bow is constructed with 0. . Activation. Once activated labial bow should be displaced palatally only by 1mm.7mm wire. As the forces generated by this labial bow is very high there is a risk of anchorage loss. Reverse loop buccal retractor.spring forming pliers.7mm wire it should not be activated more than 1mm. In cases with severe over jet a flexible labial bows such as Robert¶s retractor is preferred. a less flexible labial bow is preferred. The activation should be very slight. The bow is rigid in horizontal plane as the wire is thick but flexible in the vertical plane making the stability ratio poor. They could be either passive or active. Only advantage of this labial bow is in cases with palatal springs for canine retraction this labial bow could be incorporated in the same appliance and once the canines have been retracted the labial bow could be activated for over jet correction. In cases with slight over jet or where minor irregularities need correction. this can be activated in two ways. The main problem of this spring is it is stiff in the horizontal plane where flexibility is needed and unstable in the vertical plane. The depth of the sulcus limits the height of the loop. One is by cutting 1mm wire from the end of the spring and recontourig the free end around the tooth or the other by opening the loop by 1 mm.

7mm wire only 1 mm of activation is recommended. During activation extra care should be taken to prevent flattening of the labial segment. Extended labial bow Extended labial bow also made of 0. Activation Activation of the labial bow with reverse loop is carried out in two stages. The vertical loop is first opened by compressing t at the loop as shown in the figure.Activation ????????????// Split labial bow. Flexibility of U loop labial bow could be improved by splitting it in the middle. If this bow is incorporate with canine retractors the labial bow will have added control on distally moving canines. This lowers the labial bow in the incisor region.7mm wire. Loop forming pliers with groves on one beak is used for the activation. But during construction extra care should be taken to keep the loops clear of the Adam¶s clasps on first molars. As this bow also comparatively rigid it should be activated only by 1mm. The flexibility of this labial bow is much superior to U loop labial bow as the reverse loops incorporate more wire into the labial bow. First the on the upper border of the loops marked A to make the activation effective and then at the point B B¶ to make the level of the bow on incisor teeth. Activation the extended labial bow should be activated with special care as the loops can get distorted leading to trauma either tot the gum or lip. A compensating bend should be made at the base of the loop to make the contact of the labial bow with the upper incisor correct. Roberts retractor . As the loops are comparatively large patients find it uncomfortable. Adjustments are carried out on tow places. In units where facilities are not available for construction of Roberts Retractors this is a useful alternative. Labial bow with reverse loops. But the activation will be difficult. This is also made of 0. Labial bow should be activated at the U loops .7mm wire. But the flexibility is very much improved by incorporationg large loops when compared with U loop labial bow. as this labial bow is also made of 0.

Screws apply an intermittent heavy force. But a new apron spring could be wound chairside.3 mm internal diameter. Screws A screw can be incorporated in to the base plate to use a source of force generation. If wire is bent at the point where it emerges from the tube it is liable to fracture. The vertical section of the bow and the coil gives the flexibility to the bow.35mm wire. Labial bow with Apron Spring. The screw applies an intermittent force Many types of screws are commercially available. Number of guide pins determines the stability of the screw. Activation is carried by the patient once or twice weekly. Horizontal section of the bow is made into a smooth curve and extends from distal of lateral incisor on one side to the other. It has a horizontal part which is smoothly curved to take the shape of the labial surface and vertical limbs which is wound onto the heavy base arch of 0. therefore the movement of the tooth is still . Activation Labial bow with apron spring is activated by bending the wire inwards along the vertical limbs. This is liable to fracture.5 mm wire. As the incisors are moving back the bow drops down therefore the horizontal part should be lifted up to maintain the correct point of application of force on incisors. The screw transmits the force through the base plate which come into contact with it. Activation should be carried out with great care. Coil should be of adequate size. Coil is made as the wire emerges from the tubing the tubing with the wire is inserted into the base plate distal to the retracted canines. Screws with double guide pins are more stable. This is not a big problem as at any given time the screw activation in less than or equal to 0. This a point of stress concentration. The activation is carried out by bending the vertical limb inwards below the coil. This is similer to the Roberts retractor with regard to the flexibility. at least 0. But in cases with restricted space screws with single guide pins have an added advantage.9mm wire.5mm internal diameter.4 mm wire or 0.Roberts Retractor is a flexible labial bow made of 0.2mm. Screws sometimes may tend to turn back when there is resistance to tooth movement. The screw should have adequate travel good stability and should be of minimal bulk which are desirable properties. Apron spring is made of either 0. The strength and stability of the bow is improved by inserting the wire into a tubing with 0. Activation¶ This bow is very flexible and activation of 3mm is sufficient.

5. Activation The direction in which the screw should be indicated on the base plate using a marker embedded in the base plate. . occlusion of the teeth can be seen on the lingual aspects which is not possible on a patient. 1. they are useful as a good medico legal record. 6. 3. but spring loaded screws are very bulky making a limitation for their use. First it is important to determine the occlusal plane of the lower arch. they are essential in treatment planning as they visualize teeth in three dimension 2. alveolar arches and surrounding soft tissues. they are useful for space analysis. 7. Orthodontic Study models Orthodontic study models are accurate reproduction of teeth. they provide a record of occlusion at the beginning of treatment which can be used for monitoring of progress during treatment 4. They are helpful to educate and motivate the patient about treatment progress.within the limits of the periodontium so that extensive hyalinization do not occur. Study models visualize the teeth and their relationship to each other in three dimension. Uses of study models. As the first step lower model is trimmed. if it is necessary to transfer the case study models provide a record of the occlusion at the beginning of treatment. The patient is given a key to open the screw. Construction of study models. A quarter turn opening of the screw per week will move the tooth about a 1mm per month. They are made of plaster and are considered as an essential diagnostic records in orthodontics. Therefore spring loaded screws which dissipate the force slowly over a long period of time so that a continuous force is applied on the teeth.

Then draw line parallel to the occlusal plane on the base of the lower model. .

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