Vorbirea directa si vorbirea indirecta in limba engleza

Sunt 2 moduri in care putem reda ceea ce o persoana a spus: modul direct (vorbirea directa) si modul indirect (vorbirea indirecta).  In direct speech, we repeat the original speaker¶s exact words: - vorbirea directa He said, "I have lost my umbrella." (El spuse: ³Mi-am pierdut umbrela´.) Here what a person says appears within quotation marks (" ... "). Direct speech is found in conversations in books, in plays and in quotations.  In indirect speech, we give the exact meaning of a remark or a speech, without necessarily using the speaker¶s exact words: He said (that) he had lost his umbrella. (El spuse c i-a pierdut umbrella.) - vorbirea indirecta There is no comma after say in indirect speech. That can usually be omitted after say and tell + object. But it should be kept after other verbs: complain, explain, object, point out, protest etc. Indirect speech is normally used when conversation is reported verbally, although direct speech is sometimes used for a more dramatic effect. When we turn direct speech into indirect (reported) speech, some changes are usually necessary.

TENSE CHANGES 1. Indirect Speech can be introduced by a verb in a present tense:

He sais that «. (El a spus c «.) - vorbirea indirecta = reporting a conversation that is still going on = reading a letter and reporting what it sais = reading instructions and reporting them = reporting a statement that someone makes very often: Tom sais that he¶ ll never get married. 2. Indirect Speech is usually introduced by a verb in the past tense: - vorbirea indirecta

Direct speech - vorbirea directa
Simple Present - Vorbirea directa "I never eat meat" he explained. (³Eu niciodat nu m nânc carne´ explic el). Present Continuous - Vorbirea directa µ"I¶ m waiting for Ann" he said.

Indirect speech - vorbirea indirecta
Simple past - Vorbirea indirecta = He explained that he never ate meat. (El explic faptul c nu mânca niciodat carne.) Past Continuous - Vorbirea indirecta = He said (that) he was waiting for Ann.

(Ea spuse c va folosi ma ina pe data de 1). µ"I shall/will be in Rome on Monday". I/we shall can become either I/we should or I/we would. (³Voi împlini 21 ani mâine´. "Ann arrived on Monday". (³Voi folosi ma ina pe data de 1´ spuse ea) Conditional .Vorbirea directa µ"I have found a flat" she said. (Eu am spus c a vrea s o v d.´) Simple Past . jucau tenis.vorbirea directa Indirect speech . (El spuse: ³Ann a ajuns luni.) Future . Conditional .) Direct speech . (El spuse c a teptase o groaz de timp). Spuse Bill. = Bill spuse c va împlini 21 ani în ziua urm toare. (³L-am luat acas cu mine´ spuse ea.Vorbirea indirecta = She said she had taken it home with her.Vorbirea indirecta I said I would/should like to see it.Vorbirea directa I said. "When I saw them they were playing tennis" . (Eu am spus: ³A vrea s o v d. (³Am g sit un apartament´ spuse ea).Vorbirea indirecta = She said (that) she had found a flat. (Ea spuse c îl luase acas cu ea.Vorbirea directa "I will/shall be using the car on the 1st " she said. . Note on I/we shall/should I/ we shall normally becomes he/she/they would in indirect speech: "I shall be 21 tomorrow" said Bill = Bill said he would be 21 the following day.vorbirea indirecta 3. Past Perfect Continuous .Vorbirea directa He said "I¶ ve been waiting for ages".Vorbirea indirecta = he said he would be in Rome on Monday. = He said Ann (had) arrived on Monday. In spoken English. (El spuse c va fi în Roma luni.´ = El spuse c atunci când i-a v zut.) But if the sentence is reported by the original speaker. y PAST TENSES SOMETIMES REMAIN UNCHANGED 1. (El spuse: ³Voi fi în Roma luni. Present Perfect Continuous . Past Perfect . past tenses usually remain unchanged.Vorbirea directa He said. (El spuse: ³Am a teptat o groaz de timp.) = Conditional Continuous . (Ea spuse c î i g sise un apartament).Vorbirea directa µ"I took it home with me" she said. = He said that when he saw them they were playing tennis. µ"I would/should like to see it" .Vorbirea indirecta She said she¶d be using the car on the 1st.´) (Spuse c o a tepta pe Ann).(³O a tept pe Ana´ spuse el).) Conditional .´) Future Continuous . Present Perfect . Past Perfect .Vorbirea indirecta = He said (that)he had been waiting for ages. (El spuse: "Când i-am v zut eu.´ = El spuse c Ann ajunsese (a ajuns) luni.) He said. He said.

Would in statements does not change. USED TO IN INDIRECT STATEMENTS 1. "Ann might ring today. A past tense used to describe a state of affairs which still exists when the speech is reported remains unchanged: She said. Might remains unchanged except when it is used as a request form: He said. Ought to/should for obligation or assumption remains unchanged: "They ought to widen this road" I said.) 2. = I said that they ought to widen this road. .) 2. = El spuse c ar trebui s l rgeasc strada.jucau tenis. = He asked me to keep him informed.´ Spuse el. (³Ar trebui s l rgeasc strada. (El spuse: ³S-ar putea s sune Ann ast zi. "I¶d be very grateful if you¶d keep me informed" he said. = Ne suger s nu bem ap ." = He said that Ann might ring that day. (³Dac ar fi mai mari copiii mei. (³Este timpul s începem s ne planific m concediul´. OUGHT TO. I would emigrate" he said. "You¶d better not drink the water" she said = She advised us not to drink water.´ Spuse ea.´ = Ea spuse c s-a hot rât s nu cumpere casa pentru c era pe strada principal ).) 2. Spuse el. = He said that if his children were older. = El spuse c era timpul s înceap s î i planifice concediul. Spuse el. = He said that it was time they began planning their holidays. y SUBJUNCTIVES IN INDIRECT SPEECH . SHOULD. (³Mai bine nu ai bea ap . You had better can remain unchanged or be reported by advise + object + infinitive. he would emigrate.) 3. Unreal past tenses after wish. = She said that she had decided not to buy the house because it was on a main road. a emigra´. WOULD. "If my children were older. I/he/she/we/they had better remains unchanged. Conditional sentences remain unchanged.vorbirea indirecta 1.) y MIGHT. would rather/sooner and it is time do not change: "It¶ s time we began planning our holidays" he said.) 3.´ = El spuse c s-ar putea s sune Ann în acea zi. "I decided not to buy the house because it was on a main road". ar emigra. (Ea spuse: ³M-am hot rât s nu cump r casa pentru c era pe strada principal . = el spuse c dac ar fi mai mari copiii lui.

´Spuse el = El m rug s îl in la current. (El a spus: ³Vom discuta (problema) mâine. The previous week/ year etc.vorbire indirecta That day The day before Two days before The next day/ the following day In two days¶ time The following week/ year etc. Used to does not change. "I like my new house" = I said that I liked my new house.) y PRONOUN AND ADJECTIVE IN INDIRECT SPEECH Pronouns and possessive adjectives usually change from first or second to third person. (³Cunosc bine locul pentru c am stat acolo. This. A year before/ the previous year Direct speech . Say and tell with direct speech .´ Explic el. = El explic faptul c tia locul pentru c a stat acolo.(³A fi foarte recunosc tor dac m-ai ine la curent. (Am spus: ³Îmi place casa mea nou .vorbire indirecta y SAY AND TELL 1.´ = El a spus c îi pl cea casa lui nou . except when the speaker is reporting his own words: I said.´ = El a spus c vor discuta (problema) yiua urm toare. they/them. Last week/ year etc. = He explained that he knew the place well because he used to live there.vorbirea directa Indirect speech .) This used in time expressions usually becomes that.) 4. "We will discuss them tomorrow". "I know the place well because I used to live here" he explained. He said. = He said that they will discuss it (the matter) the next day. these used as pronouns can become it.) y EXPRESSIONS OF TIME AND PLACE IN INDIRECT SPEECH Direct speech . A year ago Indirect speech .vorbirea directa Today Yesterday The day before yesterday Tomorrow The day after tomorrow Next week/ year etc.

vorbirea directa "I¶m leaving at once" Tom told me. Say and tell with indirect speech Indirect statements are normally introduced by say. but much less usual than tell + object. or tell + object. . (³Plec odat .vorbirea directa 2. when say follows the statement.´ Mi-a spus Tom) . Say + to + object is also possible. Inversion of say and noun subject is possible. (³Plec odat .´ A spus Tom) . while tell requires the person addressed. but inversion with tell is not possible. "I¶m leaving at once" Tom said.Say can introduce a statement or follow it.

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