Hands and Feet in Indian Art

and 8th centuries, that we find the moulded or painted hands of greatest perfection; a little slenderer, a little more nervous, than the Gupta forms. These beautiful expressive hands and feet are nowhere better drawn than at Ajanta; several examples [FIGURES 11-I4] are illustrated 8, here from tracings by Samarandranath Gupta, originally published in the " Modern Review" (Calcutta, August, 1912). With these may be compared the somewhat earlier (5th century A.D.) hand with a lotus flower, from the rock painting at Sigiriya in Ceylon [FIGURE7]. The feet of a dancing Siva(Nataraja)from Anuradhapura may be as earlyas the 8th century[PLATE,E, F]. The fine Natarajas and other Saivite figures of South India belong to the Ioth, 13th, and subsequent centuries. Very often these hands are holding attributes,such as the drum, the axe, or the flame of Siva or the chakra of Vishnu. Examples of these are shown in FIGURES 1-4, and 9. The hand with the drum, Siva [FIGURE6], appears to me particularly beautiful. Next to these are many graceful hands from Nepalese images of somewhat uncertain date [PLATE, D] and one A, from Java [FIGURE which must be older than 5], the 14th century. The hand [FIGURE holdingan Io] enamelled scent-sprayistracedfrom a fragmentof a large Jaipur(Rajput) picture of the I8th century.

RAPHAEL MARTINUS GOTHALANUS R. T. W. GREENE'S apparently unique and unpublished medal of this man which is here illustrated Florentine origin, and of the class, from the last third of the 15th centuryand the dating early years of the I6th, which goes under the name of Niccol6 Fiorentino. The man's name is given as RAPHAEL MARTINVS GOTHALANVS. Under the bust is his age, but owing to the letters having come too close to the edge in the casting it is difficult to say whether they are to be read as ANXXVIII or ANXXXIII. The reverseis one of the shop-designs of the school, very roughly and carelessly adapted to a field rathertoo large for it by adding a raised border. If it is compared with the two well-known medals of Pico della Mirandola and Giovanna Albizzi which have this type of the Three Graces on their reverses,we shall find that the type, as distinct from the inscription, is from one and the same model on all three medals. Yet the diameters of the medals vary considerably. The Martinmedal is 87 mm.; the diameter of the medal of Pico is given by Heiss as 87 mm., by Armandas 85 mm., which seems to be the normal ; the Albizzi medal is only 78'5 mm. in the British Museum specimen and still less on others according to Heiss (75 mm.) and Armand (77 mm.). These differences in reproductions from the same model are, of course, due to the varying shrinkage of the metal in cooling and also to irregularitiesof edge, as well as to the greater or less number
* For previousarticles see Vols. xxiv, p. 36, xxII, p. 17, xxII, p. 131,xx, p. zoo, and xIx, p. 138,where will be found a full list up to that date.

[PLATE, A] is quite obviously


of recastings between the original and any particular specimen. But, from the fact that the medallist of the Martin medal had to add a border to bring his reverse up to scale, it is clear that he only had a small specimen of the type to hand. Possibly he used one of the Albizzi medal ; the diameterof his field within the added borderis whole field of the Albizzi medal. Whatever he used, he ruthlessly cut out the original inscription and replaced it by the new one, IN HOC GRATILE slovenly though hardly uncharacteristic of the Florentine school at this period. We do not know who Raphael Martin was, but that he had literary pretensions we learn from the inscriptionjust referredto. "Gothalanus" is naturally to be interpreted "Catalan", so that we may suppose Martin to have been a Spaniard visiting or settled at Florence.1 Whoever he may be, we have in his portrait not the least fine of the series produced by Niccol6 Fiorentino and his school. BARTOLOMMEO CEPOLA The medal of this man is certainly more rare and curious than beautiful. The specimen here apart from that accident there is something unusually awkwardabout the contour and modelling
Don Pablo Bosch has very kindly caused much search to be made at Barcelona with a view to identifying the man, but without result. He makes the interesting suggestion that as Catalaunumis the old name of Chalons sur Marne, so here Gothalanusmay be used by analogyfor a native of Chalons, and Martinbe really a Frenchman. Mr. T. W. Greene's collection. It measures 53 mm. SIn Armand givesthe diameter 53 mm. (11, 17), also as 73.

just about the same (77-75 mm.) as that of the

MVSAS PROVOCARVNT, done in a manner very

illustrated [PLATE, C]2 is dull in quality, but

DESCRIPTION OF PLATE OPPOSITE A. Raphael Martin. Florentine School. Collection of Mr. D. Reverse of medal of FernandoI de' Medici,by M. MazzaT. W. Greene. firri (wax model). Collectionof Mr. T. W. Greene. B. AntonioRoselli. By BartolommeoBellano. BritishMuseum. E. Francesco Fermi. By Leone Leoni. British Museum. c. BartolommeoCepola. Ascribed to Bellano. Collectionof F. Sigismund III of Poland (wax model). Collection of Mr. Mr. T. W. Greene. T. W. Greene.



E Ak






Notes on Italian Medals
of the portrait, and a peculiar "knobbly " effect which cannot be wholly due to faulty condition of the original wax model, and which recalls, so far as I know, only one other medal of the 15th century. That is the medal by Bartolommeo Bellano of Antonio Roselli [PLATE, B]. Furthercomparison between the two pieces confirms the impression that they are connected in origin. We may note as something probably not due to mere fashion that the two men wear their caps so that their ears (and what ears i) project ungracefully. In nearly all other medals of the time the cap is not worn so low as to allow of this, or at any rate the ear is partly concealed under it. Sperandio's medal of Galeazzo Marescotti is an exception, but not so striking as these two. Another characteristic of the two pieces is the clumsy rendering of the muscles of the neck, like great weals. Finally there is the lettering. Both show the round E, the Roselli medal once, the Cepola medal twice. Both have the B with the bottom loop much larger than the upper, and the v with the left hand stroke vertical instead of equally slanting with its fellow.3 But details like these are only of value in confirming the truth of the general impression. Bartolommeo Cepola was a distinguished jurist of Veronese origin. Previous descriptions of the medal' ignore the somewhat curiously shaped letter which begins the second half of the inscription; though so different from the letter which follows, it can hardly be anything but a V. We may interpret V(eronensis) V(triusque) I(uris) D(octor) A(dvocatus) C(onsistorialis). The explanation of the last two letters is given us by the title-page of the Louvain edition of Cepola's " Consilia " of 1486. Cepola was educated at Bologna, where he took his Doctor's degree in 1446, and eventually held a Professorshipat Padua. There he distinguished himself, as the rival of AlessandroTartagniand Giovanni da Prato, by his arrogantand quarrelsomemanner. His fame was at its height about 1466, when he was summoned to Rome and made an advocate of the Sacred Consistory. He returned to Padua, where he died in 1477.5 Now Bellano was occupied at Padua from 1469 onwards with the monument of Roselli (it was about the same time, doubtless, that he made the medal of that "monarcha sapientiae") and other works; he seems to have gone on to Venice in or before 1472. The medal of Cepola,therefore, could well have been cast during this period. It does no credit to Bellano, if it is really his, but on the other hand it is not much worse than many of the works of that uncouth craftsman,.
reverse. 4 Armand, II, 73, 7 ; Trds. de Num., II, XLI,1. 3, 5These biographicaldetails are from N. C. Papadopoll'sHist. GymnasiiPatavini (1726)1, pp. 224 f.
SIn the Roselli medal the ordinary v also occurs on the

FRANCESCO FERMI The little medal of Francesco Fermi, of which the British Museum specimen is illustrated in the E, PLATE, is not of the highest importance; but the signature LEOwhich is plainly visible below the bust on the original, if not in the illustration, enables us to add one more to the list of medals signed by Leone Leoni. This signature has not been noticed before, probably because the specimens which have been described by various writers6are more or less poor casts. The specimen at Florence is certainlycast, and so is the one here illustrated, but the original (as the mark of the edge of the die on the reverse shows) was struck from dies. Salvaro has enlightened us as to the personality of Francesco di Fermo Fermi, whose family belonged to Bardolino on the left bank of the Lago di Garda, where a well-head, dated 1541, bears his name. But as to the device of the reverse some uncertainty still remains. That it is a flowering plant in a casket, as Salvaro suggests, is certainly not the case. Armand's description : "un coffret d'oAi sort une bague entour6e de flammes" is much nearerthe mark, if indeed it is not wholly right. The only doubt is whether it is a long-leaved plant or flames by which the ring is surrounded. On a medal of Rinaldo d'Este,l in the manner of Coradini, we find the device of a diamond ring entwined by the leaves of a plant. But here the treatment certainly suggests tongues of flame. As the diamond in the ring, the symbol of durability,8alludes to the man's name Firmus, so possibly the flames which lick the gold ring are to be explained as the test of purity. The inscription "sic homo operibus", where "is revealed" is presumablyto be understood (with a reference to I Cor., 3, 13), is quite in keeping.? On the side of the casket is another detail which Salvaro has doubtfully recognized as a coat of arms. It is undoubtedly meant to represent the arms of the man's family, which are az.,a crescent arg. between three stars of five rays or. TWO WAX MODELS FOR MEDALS Wax models for Italian medals of the i6th century are sufficientlyrare to make it worth while
'Armand, 11, 177, 2 (from the Heiss 32 mm.). J. C. Robinson Catalogue, No. 16o (32 mm.). Coll., Supino, Medagliere No. 802 (30 mm.). V. Salvaro,MedaglisticaVeronese Mediceo, (Milan, 19o8), pp. 9 ff. (in his own collection, 30 mm.). Salvaro adds a bibliography earlierpublications. The BritishMuseum of specimen measures32 mrm. 7Armand,I, 54, 3. 'So, I think, we may explain it. Paolo Giovio, it is true,was unable to guess the significanceof the three interlaceddiamond rings which formed the impresa of Cosimo Vecchio, and says that Pope ClementVII was equallyin doubt about it (Dialogo
dell' Imprese, 1555, P. 42).

of indomitableresistanceto fire and hammer(ibid., p, IGNI of SSIcVTAVRVM and a crucible containing bars44). gold formed the impresadevised by Lodovico Domenichi (Ragiona. mento,ed, 1574,P. 260) for Albertoda Stipicciano,to symbolize his inviolableloyalty towards his master,the Duke of Florence.

But the diamond itself is the symbol


Notes on Italian Medals
to record the addition of two others to the known stock, albeit they belong not to the best period. Both are in Mr. T. W. Greene's possession. The earlier [PLATE, D] shows the design by Michele for Mazzafirri the reverseof a medal of Fernando I de' Medici,the third Grand-Dukeof Tuscany, with a group of Hercules and Nessus on a pedestal,and the motto SICITVR AD ASTRA. It is modelled in whitish wax on black slate, and is in excellent condition, only the club of Hercules, a small piece on the left side of the Centaur,and two of the letters of the inscription being damaged. This reverse appears to have been made in 1588; at least, that is the date on the obverse to which it is found attached.10 In even better condition is the other model, by an unidentifiedartist,for a medal of Sigismund III of Poland [PLATE, F]. The medal itself has alreadybeen describedby Raczynskiand Armand," but evidently from an imperfect specimen. A poor example in the British Museum comparatively (diameter 62'5 mm.) shows, like the model, the faint inscription below the bust. was born in Since Sigismund&T'SV-'XXXII r566, the medal dates from 1597-8. That it is the work of an Italian artist is evident, but whether it was made in Sweden or in Poland I cannot say. This model, which shows both sides of the piece, is wrought in bright red wax on the two sides of a plate of black slate. The slight damage to the top of the P in POLONIAEand other small flaws are reproduced in the British Museumspecimen of the medal, showing that casts were made from the model after it had been thus damaged. The reverse shows a well-known type-Religion holding a chalice and pointing to heaven, with the motto DVM SPIRITVS HOS REGET ARTVS. It should be compared with the reverse of the medal of Pietro Piantanida; 12 it is evidently inspired by some earlier medal of this kind.
10 Armand, I, 284, 8. " Armand, II1, 307 D (diam. 60 mm.).

The subject of wax models gives me an opportunity of acknowledging the correction's of an error into which I, in common with other writers on the subject of Italian medals, have fallen. It is very doubtful that, as we had supposed, the process of casting la cire perdue was ever used by the medallists. The models must have been made on a disc of slate or wood, either the two sides separately,or both on one disc. From these the two sides of the mould were made separately, removed from the models, and joined together in the usual way; the seams in the metal representing the join are not infrequentlypresent in the finished medal, when the edge has not been filed. To make a model of a two-sided medal in one piece, without the support of a disc, would have been practically impossible, without spoiling one side while the other was being modelled; but such a disc provided a flat background and a support on which the lettering could be worked with comparative ease. It also, as Baron de Cosson points out to me, made it easy to provide a border when a borderwas required,for the disc could be turned in a lathe; and this was probably the origin of most of the medals with moulded borders,such as those (to mention only specimens previouslyillustratedin these pages) of Andrea Gritti by Giovanni Girolamo Falier,"and of Antonio de Sanctamaria, Callagrani,Catelano Casali by Lysippus,as well as Lysippus'sportraitof himself.15This method was, of course, quite distinct from that employed by certain medallists,accustomed to engrave in metal, who cut the inscription on a separate ring and placed it round the model when impressing it in the mould.'6
accept so late a date, and its connexion with the medalsof the school of Cellini still seems to me to be very probable. and II. 5"Ibid.,Aug., I9o8, Instancesof this, proved by the shifting of the inscription 8e ring in relationto the type, are given from the work of Amadeo da Milano in TheBurlingtonMagazine,Jan., Igog9, 216,and p. from the medals of Paul II in The NumismaticChronicle, igio, p. 368.
1"Due to Dr. Menadier, Zeitschr.fAr Num., xxx, p. 314. "Burlington Magazine, Dec., i907, p. 149, P1. IV, 3. P1. I Katalog, Parpart, &c., 1913, lot 336); but I find it difficult to

Dr. Reglinghas assignedthis medal toAntonioAbondio(Lepke's

"2 Burlington Magazine, Oct. I9Io, p. 19, and Pl. II, B, Recently

S a few-and some well-known-con. noisseurs seem to retain their belief in the old attributionsof this portrait to Rembrandt,I think it useful to give here two new proofs of my accuracy in attributing it to Ferdinand Bol. In an interestingarticle on this subject, M. C. G. 't Hooft,' the Director of the Museum Fodor, who entirely shares my opinion, gives another proof for the authorship of Bol. He says :
L'eau-forte de Bol, Philosophe en meditation. 1642 'La Revuede l'Art ancien et moderne, June, g9xz, (Bartsch,No 5), nous montre sa predilection pour les plis larges qui nous frappe si fortementdans la representation d' Elisabeth Bas, et, chose qu'on cherchera en vain dans les portraits de Rembrandt datant de cette epoque, la mani.re dont Bol recouvrele dossieret les bras du fauteuil par les plis du velement. On sent deja dans ce d6tailles exagerations aux quelles Bol recourraplus tard dans les grandes compositions destinees au nouvel hbtel de ville, ainsi que dans ses portraits de parade , . . Or on retrouve ces plis dansle portrait Meulenaer 1650 (RyksMuseum) de de danscelui dela vieille damede l'Ermitage,datede 1651,dans le portraitde Quellinuset dans maintsautres.

The Hermitage picture,reproduced here next to Madame Bas [PLATE I, A & B] and paintedmore 217

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