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Hands and Feet in Indian Art

and 8th

painted

slenderer, a little more nervous,

forms.

expressive feet are nowhere better drawn than at

several

here from

originally

(Calcutta, August, 1912).

compared the somewhat earlier (5th century A.D.)

hand with

Sigiriya in Ceylon [FIGURE7].

dancing Siva(Nataraja) from Anuradhapuramay

centuries, that we find the moulded or

little

hands

of

greatest perfection;

than

a

the Gupta

hands

and

Ajanta;

These beautiful

examples [FIGURES8, 11-I4]

tracings by

tracings b y

published

in

are illustrated

Gupta,

Samarandranath

the " Modern Review"

With these may be

fromthe rock

The

painting at

feet of

a

be

The fine

a lotus flower,

as early as the 8th century[PLATE,E,F].

South

centuries.

attributes,such as the drum, the axe, or the flame

of Siva or the chakra of Vishnu.

these are shown in

hand with the drum, Siva

to me particularly beautiful.

many graceful hands from Nepalese images of

somewhat uncertain date

from

must be older than

Natarajas and

India

other

Saivite figures of

13th, and

belong to the

Very often

Ioth,

subsequent

these hands are holding

Examples of

9. The

appears

FIGURES 1-4, and

[FIGURE6],

Next to these are

[PLATE,A,D] and one

Java [FIGURE5], which

the 14th

century. The hand[FIGURE Io]

holdingan

scent-sprayistracedfroma fragment of a

enamelled

large Jaipur(Rajput) picture of the I8th century.

NOTES ON ITALIAN MEDALS-XVI* BY G. F. HILL

RAPHAEL MARTINUS GOTHALANUS

of

particular

the medallist of the Martin medal had to add a

that

it is clear

hand.

that

any

recastings between the

specimen.

But,

original

from

and

R.

T. W.

and

GREENE'S

apparently

medal

of

illustrated

of

the fact

unique

this

unpublished

is

here

quite

15th

man which

A]

is

which

border to

just

bring

his reverse up to scale,

specimen

of the

[PLATE,

I6th,

Fiorentino.

obviously

century

he only

had a small

type

to

Florentine

origin, fromthe lastthirdof the

and

of the

goes The man's name is

class,

and the

Possibly

he used one of the Albizzi medal

(77-75

mm.)

medal.

as that

of

the

Whatever he

one,

in

IN

a

inscription

GRATILE

HOC

manner

very

the

;

the diameterof his field withinthe added borderis

dating

earlyyears of the

of

as

Under the bust is his

having it is difficult to

ANXXVIII or ANXXXIII.

the shop-designs of the school, very roughly to a field rathertoo

carelesslyadapted a raised border.

the two well-known medalsof Pico della Mirandola

and Giovanna Albizzi which have this

Three Graces on their

the type,

one and the same model on all three medals.

the diameters of the medals

The Martinmedal is 87 mm.; the diameterof the

medal of Pico is given

Armandas 85

the Albizzi medal is

Museum specimen and still less on others accord-

ing

These differencesin

model

are, of the metal in

edge, as well as to

under the name

about the same

replaced

it

by

Niccol6 RAPHAEL

given

MARTINVS GOTHALANVS.

whole field of the Albizzi

used, he ruthlessly cut out the original

and

age, but owing to the letters

edge

in the

and

large

for it

with

compared

type

of the

Yet

the new

come too close to the

say

casting

whether they are to be read as

The reverseis one of

MVSAS

PROVOCARVNT, done

though

slovenly

Florentine school at this

hardly uncharacteristic of

period. Raphael Martin

We do not know who

but

fromthe

to be

we may suppose

or settled at Florence.1

visiting

be,

the series

his school. BARTOLOMMEO CEPOLA

that he had literary pretensions we

inscriptionjust

referredto.

interpreted

Martin to

have been a

was,

learn

"Gothalanus"

"Catalan", so that

by adding

If it is

is naturally

we

Spaniard

he

reverses, we shall find that

is from

Whoever

as distinct from the

mm.,

(75

course,

cooling

by

inscription,

vary

Heiss as 87

have in his portrait not the least fine

produced by Niccol6

may

of

Fiorentino and

considerably.

mm., by

The medal of this man

is certainly more rare

The

dull

specimen here

in

quality,

but

something and un- modelling

which seems to be the normal

only

;

78'5 mm. in the British

mm.)

and Armand

(77

mm.).

the same

reproductions from due to the

less

varying shrinkage

irregularities of

number

and also to

and curious than beautiful.

illustrated

[PLATE,

C]2

is

from that accident there is

to Heiss

of

previous

apart

usually awkwardabout the contour

Don Pablo Bosch has very

Barcelonawith a

made at

without result. He makes the Catalaunumis the old name of

Gothalanus may be used

Martinbe

SIn

kindlycausedmuchsearchto be

view

man, but

interesting suggestion that as

Marne, so here

Chalons,and

53 mm.

to

identifying the

Chalons sur

the greater or

xxiv,

by analogy for a nativeof

It

*For

p.

up

articlessee Vols.

17, xxII,

will be founda full list

p.

36, xxII, p.

really a Frenchman.

W.

131,xx, p. zoo, and xIx, p. 138, where to that date.

Mr. T.

Greene's collection.

Armandalso gives thediameteras 53mm. (11,73. 17),

measures

DESCRIPTION OF PLATE OPPOSITE

A. Raphael

B.

c. Bartolommeo Cepola. Ascribedto Bellano.

Martin. Florentine School.

Collection of Mr.

T. W. Greene.

AntonioRoselli. By BartolommeoBellano.BritishMuseum.

Collectionof

Mr. T. W. Greene.

D. Reverse of medal of FernandoI de'

E.

F. SigismundIII

Medici,by M. Mazza-

Greene.

Collection Museum. of Mr.

W.

British

firri (wax model). Collectionof Mr.T.

FrancescoFermi.

By Leone Leoni.

of Poland (wax model).

T. W. Greene.

21I

iB 4W, ; E E Ak -MW INB C~~--~-14,
iB
4W,
;
E
E
Ak
-MW
INB
C~~--~-14,

NOTES

ON

ITALIAN

MEDALS-XVI

Notes on Italian Medals

of the portrait, and a peculiar "knobbly " effect

which cannot be wholly due to faulty condition

of the

so far

the

Bartolommeo Bellano of Antonio Roselli

B].

by

of

original wax model,

as

and which

recalls,

[PLATE,

I

know, only

one other medal

is

the

medal

15th

century.

That

pieces that they are connected

confirms the

in origin.

two men

what ears

other medals of the time the

medal of

striking as these two.

Another characteristic of

the two pieces is the clumsy rendering of the

muscles of there is the

Finally

E,

Both

the left

larger

hand stroke vertical instead of

Further comparison

impression

due

their

i)

between the two

We may note as something probably

to

mere fashion that the

caps

project

so

that

their

ears

(and

all

ungracefully.

nearly is not worn so

In

cap any rate the ear is

this, or at

Sperandio's

exception, but not so

great

weals.

show the round

Cepola

bottom

medal twice.

much

loop the v with

these are

not

wear

low as to allow of

partly Galeazzo Marescotti is an

the neck, like

lettering. the Roselli medal

once, have the B with than the

upper,

Bartolommeo

ignore

it

concealed under it.

Both

the

the

and

equally slanting

only confirming the truth of the general

Cepola was a distinguished jurist

with its fellow.3 But details like

of value in impression.

of Veronese origin.

medal'

letter which

tion;

follows,

may

D(octor)

explanation of the last two letters is

the

Previous descriptions of the

the somewhat

curiously shaped the second half of the

inscrip-

begins

though so different from the letter which

We

interpret V(eronensis) V(triusque) I(uris)

The

given us by of the Louvain edition of

Cepola was educated at

can hardly be anything but a V.

A(dvocatus)

1486.

C(onsistorialis).

title-page " Consilia "

of

Cepola's

Bologna, where he took his Doctor's degree in

Padua.

There he distinguished himself, as the rival of

Alessandro

His fame was

when he was summoned

to Rome and madean advocate of the Sacred Con-

sistory.

(it

same time, doubtless,that he made

the medal of that

other works; he seems to have

was about the

1446, and eventually held a Professorship at

arrogant and quarrelsome manner.

at its height about 1466,

1477.5 Now Bellano was

Tartagni and Giovanni da Prato,by his

He returnedto Padua, where he died in

at Padua from

occupied

1469 onwards with the monument of Roselli

"monarcha sapientiae") and

The medal of Cepola,therefore,

craftsman,.

gone on to Venice

in or before 1472.

could well have been cast during this period.

does no credit to Bellano, if it is really his, but

than many

It

on the otherhand it is not much worse

of the works of that uncouth

SIn the Roselli medal the ordinary v also occurs on the

reverse.

5 These biographical detailsare fromN. C.

Gymnasii Patavini (1726)1, pp. 224 f.

4 Armand, II, 73, 3,

7 ; Trds. de Num., II, XLI, 1.

Papadopoll'sHist.

212

FRANCESCO FERMI The little medal of Francesco

the British Museum specimen is illustrated in the

PLATE,E, is not of the highest importance; but

the signature LEOwhich is plainly visible below

the bust on the original, if not in the illustration,

more to the list of medals

signed by Leone Leoni.

been noticed before, probably because the speci-

by various

mens which

writers6 are more or less poor casts. The specimen

at Florence is

illustrated, but

edge

from dies.

of

enlightened us as to the personality

shows) was struck

Fermi, of which

enables us to add one

have

This signature has not

described

and so is the one here

been

certainlycast,

the

original (as the mark of the

Fermi, whose

well-head,

the

dated

1541,

the

as to

device of

Armand's description :

doubt is whether it is

d'Este,l in

of the die on the reverse

Fermo

where a

But

Salvarohas

family

belonged to Bardolino on the left bank of the

Garda,

bears his name.

Lago

reversesome uncertainty still remains.

Francesco di

di

That it is

flowering plant in a casket, as Salvaro suggests,

is certainly not the case.

une bague entour6e de

flammes" is much nearerthe mark, if indeed it is

not wholly right.

a long-leaved plant or flames by which the ring is

surrounded. the manner of

Coradini, we find the device of a

diamond

certainlysuggests tongues

of flame.

of durability,8 alludes to the man's

so

possibly the flames which lick the gold ring are to be

inscription revealed" is

referenceto I Cor., 3, 13), is quite in

On the side of the casket is another detailwhich

Salvaro

As the diamond in the ring, the symbol

name Firmus,

entwined by the leaves of a plant.

But here the treatment

a

"un

coffret d'oAi sort

The only

On a medal of Rinaldo

ring

explained as the test of purity.

"sic

homo

operibus",

presumably to be

where

The

"is

understood (with a

keeping.?

has doubtfully recognized as a coat of

arms. It is undoubtedly meant to represent the

family,

arg. between three stars of five rays or.

TWO WAX MODELS FOR MEDALS Wax models for Italian medals of the

century are sufficiently rareto make it worthwhile

arms of the man's

which are az.,a crescent

i6th

'Armand, 11, 177, 2 (from the Heiss 16o (32 mm.).

7Armand,I, 54, 3.

'So,

32 mm.).

Robinson Catalogue, No.

Mediceo,No. 802 (30 mm.). V.

(Milan,19o8),pp. 9 ff. (in his own collection,30 mm.).

adds a bibliographyof earlierpublications.The BritishMuseum

specimenmeasures32 mrm.

Supino, Medagliere

Coll.,

J. C.

Salvaro,MedaglisticaVeronese

Salvaro

Paolo Giovio, it is true,was

unableto guess the

rings which formed the impresa of Cosimo Vecchio, and says

that Pope ClementVII was

I think,we may explainit.

significanceof the three interlaceddiamond

equally in doubt about it (Dialogo

But the diamond itself is the symbol

containing bars

p, 44).

of

gold

dell' Imprese, 1555, P. 42).

of indomitableresistanceto fireand hammer (ibid.,

SSIcVTAVRVMIGNIand a crucible

loyalty

formedthe impresadevised by LodovicoDomenichi (Ragiona.

1574,P. 260)for Albertoda Stipicciano, to symbolize

towardshis master, the Duke of Florence.

mento,ed,

his inviolable

to record the addition of two others to the known stock, albeit they belong not to the best period.

Both are in Mr. T. W.

The

earlier

Mazzafirrifor the reverseof a medalof Fernando I

de' Medici, the thirdGrand-Dukeof Tuscany, with

and

pedestal, It is modelled in

a group of Herculesand Nessus on a

[PLATE, D] shows the design by Michele

Greene's possession.

the motto SICITVR AD ASTRA.

whitish wax on black

slate, and is in excellent

condition, only the club of Hercules, a small piece

on

This

reverse

least, that is the date on the obverse to which it is

found attached.10 In even better condition is the

an unidentified artist, for a medal of

of

other model, by

III

appears to have been made in 1588; at

letters of the inscription

the left side of the Centaur, and two of the

being damaged.

Sigismund

Poland

[PLATE, F].

The medal itself has

A

already been described by Raczynski and Armand,"

but evidently from an imperfect specimen.

comparativelypoor example

(diameter 62'5 mm.)

in the British Museum

shows, like the model, the

below the bust.

the medal the r566, work of

an but whether it was made

faint

Since

dates from 1597-8.

Italian artist is evident,

in Sweden or in Poland I cannot

inscription

Sigismund

&T'SV-'XXXII

was

born in

That

it

is

say. model, which shows both

in

This

sides of the

bright

slight damage

to the top of the P in POLONIAE and other small

BritishMuseum speci-

flaws are

sides

piece, is wrought

red wax on the two

The

damaged.

of a plate

of black slate.

reproduced in the

men of the medal, showing that casts were made

from the model afterit had been thus

The reverseshows a chaliceand

a well-known type-Religion

pointing to heaven, with the

holding

motto DVM SPIRITVS HOS REGET ARTVS. It should

be compared with the reverse of the medal of

evidently inspired by

Pietro

some earliermedal of this kind.

Piantanida;

12 it

is

10 Armand, I, 284, 8.

"

Armand, II1, 307 D (diam. Oct.

"2 Burlington Magazine,

60 mm.). I9Io, p. 19, and Pl. II, B, Recently

Dr. Regling has assigned thismedaltoAntonioAbondio (Lepke's

Notes on Italian Medals

The subject

of

of wax models

oppor-

tunity

It

is

was ever used

process of

The models must have been made on a disc of slate or

sides

the two sides of the mould

removed from the models, and joined together in

the usual way;

the join are not

medal, when the edge has not

piece, would have been

one side

while the other was being modelled; but such a

disc provided a flat background and a support on

which the lettering could be worked with com-

parative ease.

a borderwhen

in a lathe;

a borderwas

out to me, made it easy to provide

It also, as Baron de Cosson points

practically impossible, without spoiling

without the support of a disc,

make a model of a two-sided medal in one

gives

me an

acknowledging the

correction 's

of an

error into which I, in

on the subject of Italian medals, have fallen.

common with other writers

very doubtful that, as we had supposed, the

casting la cire perdue

wood,

either the two From these

by the medallists.

separately, or both on one disc.

the seamsin the metal

infrequentlypresent

were made separately,

representing in the finished

been filed.

To

required, for the disc could be turned

was probably the origin of

and

this

most of the medals with moulded borders, such as

those (to mention only specimens previously illus-

tratedin these pages) of AndreaGritti by Giovanni

Falier,"

Callagrani, Catelano Casali by Lysippus,

of himself.15This method was,

of course, quite distinct from that employed by

certain

metal,

who cut the inscription on a separate ring and

placed it round the model when impressing it in

the mould.'6

and of Antonio de

Sanctamaria, Girolamo

as well as

Lysippus'sportrait

medallists, accustomed to engrave

in

Katalog, Parpart,

&c., 1913, lot 336);

but I find it difficult to

accept so late a date,

school of Cellinistillseems to me to be very

and its connexion with the medalsof the

probable.

i907, p. 149, P1. IV, 3.

Igog9,p. 216, and Chronicle,igio,

1"Due to Dr. Menadier, Zeitschr.fAr Num., xxx, p. 314.

"Burlington Magazine, Dec.,

5"Ibid.,Aug., I9o8, P1.I and II.

8e Instancesof this, proved by the shifting of the inscription

from the workof Amadeo

ring in relationto the type, are given

da Milanoin The

from the medalsof Paul II in TheNumismatic

p. 368.

BurlingtonMagazine,Jan.,

THE "ELISABETH BAS" PORTRAIT AGAIN BY ABRAHAM BREDIUS

S a few-and some well-known-con. noisseurs seem to retain their belief in the old attributionsof this

to Rembrandt, I think it useful

here two new

my accuracy

portrait

to

give

proofs it to Ferdinand

He says :

Bol, Philosophe en

of

Bol.

in attributing

teresting

the Director of the Museum

shares my opinion,

authorship of Bol.

in-

article on this subject, M. C. G. 't Hooft,'

In an

Fodor, who entirely

gives another proof for the

L'eau-forte de

meditation. 1642

'La Revuede

l'Art ancien et moderne,June, g9xz,

(Bartsch, No 5), nous montre sa predilection pour les

larges qui nous frappe si fortementdans la representation

d' Elisabeth Bas, et, chose

les

plis

qu'on chercheraen vain dans

cette

epoque, la

Or on retrouve

portraits de

que

Rembrandtdatant de

Bol recourra

portraits de parade ,

mani.re dontBol recouvrele dossieret les brasdu

par les plis

fauteuil

deja dans ce d6tailles

plus tard dans les

hbtel de ville,

du velement. On sent

aux

dans

ses

quelles

exagerations

grandes compositions destinees au nouvel

ainsi

ces plis dansle portrait deMeulenaerde 1650(RyksMuseum)

dansceluidela vieilledamede le portrait de Quellinus et dans maintsautres.

l'Ermitage, datede 1651,dans

The

Hermitagepicture,reproduced here next to

Madame Bas [PLATE I, A & B] and painted

more

217