Table Designs of the i6th and 1 7th Centuries

C harterhouse,who I understand is shortly publishing a history of that foundation, informs me that there is a plainer table of a similar kind and of approximatedate at Castle Camps-four miles from SaffronWalden, of which the Charterhouse holds the advowson. The Masterwrites :Castle Camps manor belonged to the old Elizabethan soldier, Thomas Sutton, our founder . . . . I ought to correct one possible source of mistake. Our communion table was probably put in its place by our first Governors in or soon after 1614 (when the Hospital began its work), but Sutton had died in x611. The similarity of type

This is all extremely interesting because of the probabilityof the two tables having been made by the same hand. The Castle Camps table may be more pleasing by reason of its greater simplicity. The date on the Charterhouse table-1616-is somewhat perplexing in the light of the above facts.

between the Castle Camps table (where Sutton owned the manor and often lived at his farm next the church) is merely suggestive, and I do not think there is any record at Camps of the date of its being placed in the church, nor yet of the person who gave it. ...

NOTES ON ITALIAN MEDALS--XX BY G. F. HILL*
SOME ANONYMOUS MEDALS more correct, I know so little, about the medals which are illustratedon the accompanying plates, that I feel some apology to be necessaryfor publishing them at all. My chief reason for doing so is that the mere description of such pieces in words is futile; it is, for instance, practically impossible, from A:rmand'sdescriptions, to visualize the few
inconnuis and inconnues whom he includes in

to HERE so little besaid, to be is or,

semi-cursiveD, for instance, being without parallel, I believe, on medals. The date of this piece, to judge by its style and by the costume, must be about the middle of the 15th century. It is the most important of a group of portraitsmore or less contemporary. Very close to it, for instance, is the pretty piece, octagonal with incurved sides, also at South Kensington [PLATE I, G].8 This shows rathermore power of modelling than the portraitof Taddea,but is still primitive enough.
* For previous articles in this series see Burlington Magazine, Vol. xxvIl:, p. 65 (May 1915). 1 For photographs and casts of the Victoria and Albert Museum specimens I have to thank Mr. Eric Maclagan. The photographs on PLATE I, A-G, are slightly reduced; I owe the measurements to Mr. Bedford. The casts of the Berlin and Vienna specimen's were sent me in happier days by Dr. Regling and Ritter A. von Loehr. 2514-1864 ; diam. 79"5 mm. Another specimen, in the col517-43-864 ; 62"5 x44mm. lection of the late M. Gustave Dreyfus, is illustrated by Rodocanachi, La femme Italienne, p. 220.

in hexameter . DIVA . HOC . IN . RVTILO . CELATA . . EST. ERE . THAD'A The lettering is peculiar, the

his list. Hence if any progress is to be made in the classificationand attributionof such pieces, still more in the identificationof the persons concerned, illustrations are necessary. But the Berlin Catalogue of Italian Bronzes,where a few such portraits is are included on P1. LXXV, at present the only attempt at illustrations of the kind. I begin with certain pieces 1 of the middle and latterhalf of the 15th century. The first[PLATE I, F], which is in the Victoriaand Albert Museum,2 is not wholly anonymous, for at least we know the lady's baptismal name, Taddea. The inscription reads

The Victoria and Albert Museum possesses two other members of the same group. Of one [PLATE I, D] 4 there exist at least three specimens. Of the other5 [PLATE I, C], I know of but the one example. These two are very close to each other; note, for instance, the modelling of the eye with the ratherheavy lower lid. The most charming,however,of all these ladies is one, also at South Kensington, of about the same date, but by a different hand [PLATE I, A]6. The portraitis fresh and lively, whereasthose previously described tend some to angularity, others to heavidelightfulrecumbentCupid. Baron de Cosson has a specimen of the obverse with the field cut away. Where these pieces were made it is difficult to say, but they are clearly North Italian. The school of medallists with which they seem to me to have most affinityis the Ferrarese; but I should not like to be asked to give detailedreasonsfor this opinion. Another group of anonymous portraits, also of
about the same period, say 1450-1475, ness. On the reverse of this piece [PLATE I, B] is a

men. In the Vienna Cabinet is the portrait of a boy with heavy zazzera and tall conical cap and Albert Museumportraitof a young man with and cap with edge supercilious expression, zazzera, turned up all round [PLATEI, E].8 And to the same group, if not to the same hand, belong two pieces which are illustratedin the Berlin Catalogue,9 also with busts of men in profile to the left. All this group, again, recalls the portraits by Ferrarese medallists of the time of Borso d'Este. The little group of the Berlin Museum1oof rectangularplaquettes, which are inscribed on the backs of the framesin which they are enclosed with the names and dates of members of the Venetian
x mm. Another in the Dreyfus collection, 4516-1864; 50"5 38 Les Arts, La Coll. Gustave Dreyfus, 1908, p. 77, viii, and a third in a private collection at Florence (lead, 51 x 38 mm.). 54480-i858 ; 49 x 36"5mm. 1 697-1865 ; 52 x 30'55 mm. 7 72 X 39 mm, 8 696-1865 ; 54 x 49 mm. 9 Ital. Bronzen, Io85 and Io86, Taf. LXXV. 10Ital. Bronzen, Io79-Io83.

represents

[PLATEI, J].7 This is close in style to the Victoria

R

235

Notes on Italian Medals
family of Amadi, has the appearance of having been made, or reproduced from pieces made,about 1481, the latest date which any of them bears. There is, however,so much that is mysteriousabout these pieces that I prefernot to discuss them until it is possible to see the originals or casts. I note here only two points. First, that the original of the portrait of Angelo Amadi must be the circular medal-of which there is a specimen in the Brera-which has the same portraiton the obverse and the Amadi armsin a formal wreathon the reverse." Secondly, what Facino da Perugia really had to assign to a definite medallist. This is Mr. Rosenheim's little oval bronze portrait of an elderly doubt by the medallist Mea, who signs MEAF on the reverseof the strikingmedal of Pietro Pomponazzo, the Mantuan philosopher. The obverse of the latter medal-hitherto Mea's only known
work-is clean-shaven man (34 x 32 mm.). It is without

OPvs,which is inscribedon the back of the frame of the portrait of Amado Amadi, means that he made the plaquette, or some medal from which it is copied, are points which remain to be determined. The impression given by the whole group is that of a series of fancy family portraits. Why, otherwise, should Angelo Amadi in 1481 be wearing an early 15th-century headdress, and why should Amado and Giovanni Amadi, whose dates are given as 1366 and 1381 respectively, be in the fashion of Partlyfor its own interest,partlyfor the veryclear contrastwhich it affordsto the North Italian works
1450-1475

PERVGINI do with these pieces, and whether FACINI

or thereabouts?

little medal of Florentine origin. Obv. Bust of a youth 1., with long hair; small round cap ; plain dress. Rev. A leopard,wearing a collar, seated 1.,with his r. forepawgraspingthe stem of a laurel-tree; in the field to 1. a star, to r. a crescent. 39 mm. Vienna. This-in spite of the sulky expression of the boy-is a very pleasing example of the Florentine school of the end of the 15th century; no doubt some would attribute it to Niccolb Fiorentino without further ado. The reverse, whatever its meaning-and it suggests a heraldic origin-has the advantage,none too common in the Florentine series, of being not a mere stock design but something intimately related to the obverse. One more anonymous medal is figured on
PLATE I, L, and this we are fortunately able to
" Armand, III, 182a. Four specimens were placed by Angelo Amadi himself in the foundations of the Madonna de' Miracoli in 1481. See Boni in Archivio Veneto, xxxii (1887), pp. 245, 248. I have to thank the kindness of Comm. Francesco Gnecchi for a cast of the Brera specimen. It is an ugly, roughly made medal, so coarse in execution that were it not for the documentary evidence one would put it down as a 17th-century forgery. The document quoted by Boni gives an inscription (the same as that which is found on the back of the frame of the Berlin plaquette) as occurring on the circular medal ; but neither the Brera specimen nor the drawing in the document itself bears this out.

already described, I include here [PLATE I, H] a

similarity of treatmentin the two busts; one may observe particularlythe rendering of the hair by a sort of coarse granulation. At first sight I had supposed both portraits to represent the same man, but there are certain differences, as in the shape of the back of the head, and of the nose, which weigh in the balance against certain other resemblances,and force us to assume extraordinary that at the nearest the two men are brothers. Pietro Pomponazzo, Mantuan poet and philosopher, was born in 1462, and taught philosophy at Padua, Ferrara and Bologna. He died 18 May 1525, and Mea's medal, since it shows him to be well advanced in age, can hardly be earlier than Mr. Rosenheim's anonymous medal may 1520. accordingly be given to about the same time. Nothing, I believe, is known of Mea except what his work allows us to conjecture. Milanesi suggested that he was the Florentine painter, Giov. Mazzinghi,called Mea, who is mentioned in 1488 is in no way Florentine. The late Mr. Talbot Ready was inclined to attribute to him the medal of the Mantuan, Battista Spagnoli. There is sufficient likeness between the two medals to warrantthe presumption that they were produced in the same place, if not by the same hand ; and accordingly we are justified in regarding Mea as belonging to the small group of Mantuanmedallists of the early i6th century. The medals illustrated on PLATE II are all of the i6th century. In Mr. Maurice Rosenheim's collection is the oval piece [PLATEII, M] 12with the bust of a curly-haired boy, wearing cuirass and mantle, and the reversedesign of Innocence seated beneath a tree (olive ?), laying a wreath over the horn of a unicorn which, seated on its haunches, places its forelegs on her lap. The boy has been identified as Garcia de' Medici, and indeed the resemblance to Bronzino's portraitin the University Galleriesat Oxford representinghim at about the
and 1493 ; but the workmanship of the two medals

illustrated on PLATE I, K, to show the

same age is close enough to warrant the identification. Garcia, the son of Cosimo I, was born in I1547. In 1562 he happened to kill his brother Giovanni the Cardinal while hunting, and his father, believing
Bronze. There is another specimen in the 1259 X49mm. Simon Collection at Berlin (No. 373, 57'5 x 48 mm.).

DESCRIPTION OF PLATE I, OPPOSITE K Pietro Pomponazzo, by Mea. British Museum. Medals in the Victoria and Albert Museum. North Italian [A-G] L Anonymous portrait in collection of Mr. Maurice Rosen(Ferrarese ?) school. heim. Attributed to Mea. H] Florentinemedal in the Vienna cabinet. Medal in theVienna cabinet, North Italian (Ferrarese?) school. ] J

236

A

B

G

D

::
.

E

C

ir

!ii
F
.

~ ~~~~
...

-:

,: . ..... . .... . .......;

: . . .. .

.

.

H

K

H L

J

NOTES ON ITALIAN PLATE I

MiEDALS-XX

N

M

0

O

P

P

p,

R

T

S

NOTES ON ITALIAN PLATE II

MEDALS-XX

Notes on Italian Medals
him to be guilty of deliberate fratricide,punished him by stabbing him on the same day. The portrait is that of a boy of about thirteen or fifteen years. It may have been made about I56o ; or, again, the Innocence on the reverse may be an allusion to his unhappy fate; in which case the medal is posthumous. Among the numerous anonymous portraits of ladies of the second half of the I6th century it is possible to pick out certain groups. One of these groups belongs to the school of the highly skilled wax-modellers of the Emilia, of which Alfonso I note the following pieces:-Bust of a woman to 1.; hair bound with a broad band; drapery confining lower back hair and forming wimple; dress of thin material, with a cloak fastened by a strap and brooch on left shoulder. No reverse. 51 mm. Bronze gilt. Mr. MauriceRosenheim's Another in the Wallace Collection (No. 366) has a raisedborder. There is a reproduction of a third specimen in the Victoria and AlbertMuseum. This is probably similar to the portrait described by Armand, III, p. 255 h, as being sometimes found attachedto a portraitof Ottavio Farnese. Armand has noted that it is much in the style of Alfonso Ruspagiariand the medallist (probably Signoretti)
"

Ruspagiari of Reggio (1521-1576)

was the chief.

sort of kerchief. The effect is simpler than in the pieces above described, but it may well be by the same hand as some of them. Apart from the treatment of the dress, with its insistence on rather fantastic detail, of which Ruspagiariis so fond, all these medals, with the exception of the last mentioned, have the common characteristicof a rather unintelligent, not to say stupid, expression. In this they differ altogether from another medal which belongs to about the same date :Bust of a lady I., wearing light veil falling from a coif which confines her lower back hair; dress fastened down the front, turn-down collar, puffed and slashed sleeves. She holds in her r. a book, in her 1. the end of her veil. 65 mm. British Museum. Lead. 64mm. Berlin Cabinet(Simon collection). Lead. It would doubtless be easy, from almost any large collection of medals, to add to these anonymous portraits of the Emilian group. And there are a good numberof others which aremore or less allied to those alreadydescribed. Of some of these reproductions are exhibitedat South Kensington,and by Mr. Maclagan's kindness I am able to photograph casts of two of them [PLATE II, T (71 mm.) and N (84 mm.)]. In the latterwe see, as in PLATE II, P, one of the hands represented loosely holding drapery; but the pretentiousconception combined with the coarsenessof treatmentis quite foreign to the delicate style of Ruspagiariand "S." It is, on the other hand,just in the manner of the medallist who signs his medals A A. This medallist, who derives his methods but not his qualities from the Emilian artists already mentioned, and whom Mr. Max Rosenheim first distinguished from Antonio Abondio, was perhapsone of the Ardenti,Agostino or Alessandro.'4 We may place this anonymous portrait beside the medal of the sculptor Andrea Fosco of Faenza,'" which shows all the same qualities. The remainderof PLATE is occupied with two II finely executed pieces which I find it difficult to place, and which I illustrate-as indeed all the others-in the hope of obtaining light from some better informed reader. The first is : Obv. Bust of a bearded man 1.,wearing mantle, cuirass and small ruff. Rev. Diana,with light drapery,standing to front,
she wears a
Burlington Magazine, Dec. 1907, pp. 141 f. 14 15Hill, Portrait Medals of Italian Artists, p. 66, No. 46,

"Ital. Bronzen ", No.

1402, Taf. LXXV [PLATE II, P].

collection [PLATE II, S].

strap arrangement; the back hair is confined in a

one may judge from a photograph,also belongs to the same group; but in this the draperyis very slight, leaving the left shoulder, arm and breast quite bare,and there is no drapery on the head or wimple under the chin. It is instructive to compare these with the following piece of the Emilian school:-Bust of woman 1.; hair elaboratelydressed,with light veil depending from the back hair; necklace of large beads; dress of thin material, leaving I. shoulder bare, but held up by a cord passing over the shoulder, with pendants. 67 mam. Bronze. Mr. Maurice Rosenheim's collection [PLATE II, R]. It would appearfrom Armand's description that this is the same portrait as exists in a different form, signed A. R., i.e. by Ruspagiari."3 There is another oval portrait at Berlin (1399), in which the bust is all but nude, a slight drapery being supported on the shouldersby a brooch and

who signs

S." An oval piece at Berlin (141o), if

resting 1. elbow on a tree-stump;
P1.xxvii.

Armand,I, p. 216, No. 4. Collectionof the late M. Gustave "a Dreyfus; 70 x53 mm. There is no trace of the signature on Mr. Rosenheim'sspecimen. [M] Don Garciade' Medici? Collectionof Mr. MauriceRosenheim. in [N] Reproduction Victoriaand AlbertMuseum. By A. A. (?) [o] Collectionof Mr. MauriceRosenheim. Mannerof Antonio Abondio(?). [P] Berlin (Simoncollection). North Italian school.

DESCRIPTION OF PLATE II, OPPOSITE

[Q] Collectionof Mr. MauriceRosenheim. [R] Collection of Mr. Maurice Rosenheim. By Alfonso Ruspagiari. Collectionof Mr. MauriceRosenheim. [s] Reproductionin Victoria and AlbertEmilian school. T] Museum. North Italian school,

241

Notes on Italian Medals
crescent on her forehead, holds bow in 1.,arrow in r., and looks down at a hound seated beside her. 55 mm. Bronze. Collection of Mr. Maurice Rosenheim [PLATE II, O]. On both sides are incised compass rules for the inscriptions which were to be added after this trial proof was made. The modelling is very delicate and recalls, though not too closely, the work of Antonio Abondio. Possibly the medal is known in a complete form and I shall easily be convicted of a wild suggestion. Finally we have :Obv. Bust of bearded man I., wearing cloak over doublet "with up-and-down" collar. Rev. Bust of woman r., her head covered with a kerchief, wimple under chin; low-necked dress and light draperyover shoulders. Oval. 48 x 37 mm. Bronze. Mr. Maurice Rosenheim's collection [PLATE II, Q]. Another at Berlin (1386) 47 x 35 mm. Extremely delicate and charming work, about I550 or earlier.

REVIEWS
CATALOGUE OF THE NATIONAL

The student of the arts of the Far East owes a deep debt of gratitudeto Mr. IchisaburoNakamura, of the Japanese Imperial Museums,for the pains and scholarship he has devoted to the production of this most important catalogue. For lack of it, or any work corresponding to it in Japanese,I had to waste much valuable time in finding out the whereabouts of the treasuresof art I had come so far to see; only too often to discover, when I had ascertained that a certain painting or statue was the property of a certain temple, that it was not to be seen there at all, but had been removed for safe keeping to one of the three Imperial Museums. To compile the catalogue, Mr. Nakamura had searched through the records of various State departments extending over nearly twenty years, and themselves not easy of access even to a Japanese. As his officialposition would indicate,he is extremelywell equipped by his knowledge of the subject to treat it with authority,and his acquaintance with the English language enables him to present his information to us in an accomplished and agreeable form. The result is a handy little volume at an extremely moderate price which will prove indispensable, not merely to every serious student of Oriental art throughout the world, but even to the average tourist who wishes to understand something of the great arts of the inscrutable East. As is well known to students of the subject, the splendid arts of Chinese painting and sculpture are only to be studied in Japan,since social and political upheavals together with convulsions of nature have almost exterminated them on the continent which gave them birth. Japan with great good taste has for many centuries, certainly since the sixth of our era, continually acquired, accumulated and stored up these masterpieces in palace and temple, until to-day she possesses a treasureof Chinese art such as exists nowhere else in the world. Add to these the triumphantachievements of her own artist sons, and it is not too much to say that nowhere except perhaps in Italy is such a banquet spread for the connoisseur as in

BELL; VIII,I70 pp., 10 illust., native binding. by E. HAMILTON Kyoto. London (Quaritch), 7s. 6d.

SCULPTURES

IN JAPAN;

TREASURES OF PAINTING AND ICHISABURO NAKAMURA ; with preface

the museums and temples of Japan. Nothing more than a superficial acquaintance with these can be acquired even in the United States, where a far greater effort has been made to gather and preservethe masterpiecesof China and Japan than has been attempted as yet in Europe. This grave lapse can never now be repaired,since Japan, wealthy and proud of her past, is with eminent good sense holding on to her own artistic achievements and to those of her master and teacher, China. As soon as the stress of reconstruction was past, in the year 1897 the enlightened government of the Island Empire dedicated all the most importantworks of art remaining in her temples, together with many of the sacred edifices themselves, as Kokuh6-National Treasures,thereby insuring their inalienability and safe keeping for the benefit of posterity for all time to come. Additions are made to this store from time to time, and Mr. Nakamura promises to keep his valuable little record up to date as need shall arise. An idea of the judgment with which the selection of national treasures has been made may be gathered from the fact that they are divided into four classes according to their artistic merit; of the many hundreds listed in this catalogue only nineteen, eleven works of sculpture and eight of painting, are considered worthy of place in the first class. It is true that in most of the temples the work of art which constitutes the principal object of worship is for religious reasons placed hors concoursand is not classed with the others; but this indicates no artistic rank, so that the proportion of absolutely first-class works would probablynot be greatlyincreasedby theirinclusion. It gives one a very exalted respect for Japanese connoisseurship to find such masterpieces as the Five Great Deities of Toji or Nobuzane's famous Makemono of Kitano Jinsha rated in the second class. Many hundreds of the works of art so preserved have been reproduced in the pages of and "Kokka" other works,periodicaland otherwise, which the Japanese produce with a skill which far excels that shown in any Western work of the kind. To these books also this catalogue will serve as an index and guide. A word of advice

24.2

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