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Abstract  In this paper, we have studied the dynamic behavior of high power wind energy conversion system (WECS)
connected to the electrical grid. The system is composed by a three blade horizontal wind turbine, a permanent magnet
synchronous generator (PMSG) with high number of poles; which offers possibility to eliminate the gearbox, and finally by
an indirect frequency converter between generator and the grid. We have used an aleatory profile of wind speed in order to
illustrate the different controls realized, especially with maximum power point tracking algorithm (MPPT) and Pitch control
at wind turbine level. The simulation results under Matlab\Simulink® obtained and commented in order to validate the
approach.
Ω Ct AC DC
𝑖c AC
𝑖m2
PMSG udc
Cdc
Vw DC DC DC
DCBus
0.2
β 16°
0.1 Vw Ωref 1 + s Ti
λopt + Kp
R s Ti PI
0 
0 5 10 15 20
λopt λ Vw
Ωn
Figure 2. Power coefficient
Figure 3. Control diagram of wind turbine
We note the existence of the maximal value of power
coefficient corresponding to the optimal value of the Figure 4 showed the control system of the pitch angle by fuzzy
tip speed ratio for each value of pitch angle . In this logic calculation of the reference angle.
point the power is maximal and can be expressed as:
Pmes β̇ max βmax
e βref
(4) ∆P 30
 FL 1
Control 1 + Td s
+ 0 β
The speed reference allows to maximizing the power
β̇ min βmin
captured by the wind (MPPT strategy) is given by: Pref
> 10 Logic
(5)
0 OR diagram
e
The electromagnetic torque is also expressed as fellow:
Defuzzification
Inference
Fuzzification
process βref ( ) (9)
+ ∆e
M The active and reactive powers are given according to:
 Fuzzy rules
+
Figure 5. Fuzzy logic generation of Pitch angle reference
{ (10)
udc
vm1
vinv1
Table 1. Fuzzy rules table
( )
ref ( + 1) F1
NB NS Z PS PB
NB NB NB NS NS Z
Error variation
Z NS NS Z PS PS
The first converter is controlled with a hysteresis PWM,
PS NS Z PS PS PB
obtained via machine current regulation. The second
PB Z PS PS PB PB converter is controlled with natural PWM via grid current
regulation.
Finally, the defuzzification stage is realized by center of
gravity method according to the expression given by [12] 5. Control System
[14]:
( )
The global control diagram is shown in Figure 8.
∑
∑
5.1. PMSG Currents Regulation
(6)
where is the membership grade of for the ith rule and is The hysteresis control of PMSG currents allows keeping
the coordinate corresponding to the respective output or the current wave into range defined around the reference
consequent membership function. value. When current wave reached the band limits, the
hysteresis controller generate a logic signal (0 or 1). So, for
3. PMSG Modeling ( ) we have:
The voltage equations of PMSG are expressed as [15]: ≥
{
+ (12)
{ (7)
+ +
With is the hysteresis band defined in the controller.
Figure 9 gives the regulation principle.
with is the stator winding resistance and p the number of
pole of the synchronous generator.
The direct and quadratic magnetic fluxes are given by (the imj 1
excitation flux is constant): +
Fj
0
+  Fj
{ (8) imj
2∆i
Lf f
AC DC DC
udc
PMSG
DC DC ref AC
Vw 𝑖g1 𝑖g2
[𝑖m ] Fij
Ω
Currents
Control unit α Control unit
β regulation
Ωref [vref ]3
DCBus voltage regulation 𝑖g1 𝑖g2
Pgrid Qgrid
Figure 8. Global control scheme
vg1
5.3. Grid Currents Regulation 𝑖g1 PI(s)
The control of grid side converter has for objective to + 1 + Ti s vf1 + + vf1 1 𝑖g1
Kp
obtain current and voltage with acceptable wave form and to Ti s  f + Lf s

ensure unitary power factor operation by imposing zero  vinv1 vinv1
reactive power as reference in the system control.
The electrical equation downstream the converter can be
Figure 10. Grid current regulation
expressed as follows:
15
Vw (m/s)
( ) ( )+( )
(17) 10
0.2
0.1
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Computing Engineering 33
(b) 10 (a)
0
8
0.2
PPMSG (MW)
6
λ
0.4
4
2 0.6
0 0.8
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
(c) 15 (b)
0.2
QPMSG (MVAR)
10
β (°)
0.1
5
0
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0.1
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
(d) 6
(c)
0.6
Ω (rad/s)
Power Factor
4
0.8
2
1
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
t (s) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
t (s)
Figure 12. Simulation results: (a) Power coefficient, (b) Tip speed ratio, (c) Figure 14. (a) PMSG active power, (b) PMSG reactive power, (c) power factor
Pitch angle and (d) generator speed
When rotational speed is low than the nominal value (4.9 The active and reactive power, like that the power factor,
rad/s) (Figure 12d), the conversion system operate under of PMSG are presented in Figure 14. Active power is
MPPT control. But when the wind speed exceed the nominal optimized with MPPT strategy and keeps at his nominal
value the Pitch angle increase (Figure 12c), which have for value when the wind speed exceeds the nominal value.
consequence decreasing power coefficient (Figure 12a) with The DC voltage is maintained at constant value of 1.5 kV
keeping constants rotational speed and power generated. The as shown in Figure 15.
tip speed ratio, of course, is decreasing (Figure 12b). 2
The machine voltage and current wave form are shown in
1.5
Figure 13. The hysteresis control of machine currents allows
Udc (kV)
0.5 0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
0 t (s)
0.5 Figure 15. DCBus voltage
1
1.5
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
On the grid side, the voltage and current of one phase are
given by fig. 16. The frequency imposed by the grid is 50 Hz
im1 vm1
1 and the dephasing angle of 180° between current wave and
im1 (kA), vm1 (kV)
0.5
voltage is justified by system operation with unitary power
factor, imposed by control unit. For consequence the reactive
0
power is null and the active ones fellows his reference
0.5 (Figure 17).
1
46.01 46.015 46.02 46.025 46.03 46.035 (a)
1 vg1
t (s) ig1
ig1 (kA), vg1 (kV)
0.5
1
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
International Journal of Research and Reviews in Computing Engineering 34
(b) References
1 ig1 vg1
[1] A.M. Broe, S. Drouilhet and V. Gevorgian, “ A Peak Power Tracker for
0.5 Small Wind turbines in battery Charging Applications”, IEEE
ig1 (kA), vg1 (kV)
0
Pres Pres Réseaux Faibles ou Insulaires”, Thèse de Doctorat, INPG, France,
0.2 2005.
[6] D. Aouzellag, K. Ghedamsi, and E.M. Berkouk, “Network Power Flux
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Journal, Vol. 34, pp. 615622, 2009.
0.6
[7] J.A. Sánchez, C. Veganzones, S. Martinez, F. Blazquez, N. Herrero, and
0.8 J.R. Wilhelmi, “Dynamic model of Wind Energy Conversion Systems
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 with Variables Speed Synchronous Generator and FullSize Power
t (s) Converter for LargeScale Power System Stability Studies”, Science
Figure 17. Grid active and reactive power Direct, Renewable Energy Journal, Vol. 33, pp. 11861198, 2008.
[8] E. Muljadi, “PitchControlled VariableSpeed Wind Turbine
Generation”, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 37,
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[9] E.B. Muhando, T. Senjyu, H. Kinjo, and T. Funabashi, “Augmented
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Matlab\Simulink® with an adequate turbine, PMSG and static Wind Turbine Pitch Angle Controller for Power System Stabilization”,
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Controller for Photovoltaic Solar Energy Systems,” Science Direct,
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Wind turbine : R=20.41 m, blade number =3, J=222 963 Kg.m3, f = 743.21
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N.m.s/rad.
2006.
PMSG : Rs = 0.01 Ω, Ld = Lq = 0.001 H, p = 64,
[15] L. Jean Paul and B. Claude, “Commande Numérique des Machines
Фf = 2.57 Wb, J =3800 Kg.m2, f = 26.75N.m.s/rad.
Synchrones, ” Techniques d’Ingénieur, Référence D3644.
DCBus : Udc = 1.5 kV, Cdc = 0.015 F.
Filter : Lf = 0.001H, rf = 0.01 Ω [16] N. Hamrouni, M. Jraidi, and A. chérif, “New Control Strategy for 2
Electrical grid : f=50 Hz, Vn=690 V. Stage GridConnected Photovoltaic System,” Science Direct,
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