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DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE
Advance Railway Automation
The Advanced Railway Automation uses the µWireless¶ system. The word ³Wireless´ means sending the signals without using any wires. The whole purpose of the µWireless¶ is to eliminate the any kind of cabling between the source and destinations. Not only that, also to get the work done in more r eliable way with fast speed. In simple way, if the process takes place using the Radio Frequency and Infra Red Rays, without using any type of cabling is called as Wireless Communication. For example, if the protection of any vehicle is accomplished using less work supervision and more self -caring and selfdecisive devices. It may be referred as µthat vehicle is automated¶. With the go lden rule µprevention is better than cure¶, vehicle can be well protected from any major accident or disaster or damage by automating it. In brief, µ Vehicle Automation¶ means protecting or doing every-day running processes using any ele ctronic or computer guided instrument.
A train is the second popular conveyor of the people next to Bus. Railways are the lifelines of a country. The automation of train is essential as a mishap makes more damage to it s travelers and the department.
Our present Model is a attempt to find out how the aforesaid idea can be impl emented. Yet it is sufficient to show the way through which we can proceed to make the Train Systems completely automatic with the aid of Electronics.
DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE
Advance Railway Automation
CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGY
DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE
Advance Railway Automation
The Advanced Railway Automation system is comprised of following sections: 1. Station Indicator System. 2. Fire detector & Sprinkler.
The Station Indicator System indicates the approaching station to on -board passengers by vibrating their seat motor. In this project there are 3 application¶s are implemented
First application is vibrator, means that when a passenger in a train half a KM before reaching to his destination station his seatbelt or seat band starts vibra ting. Only that particular seat vibrates.
Second. A display will be provided in a train which will display the information of the upcoming station.
Third, once the fire is detected in a train auto matically separation of particular boogie will be taken place and automatically sprinkler will be turned on.
DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE
Advance Railway Automation
DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE
3. DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 6 .Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 MAIN FEATURES OF THE PROJECT: 1. Low power consumption and compact size. 2. easy to operate. 4. Greater control range due the usage of Radio Frequency communication. 5. Simple in design. due to the usage of power semiconductor devices. High reliability. Linear. smooth & easy control of the units due to employ of RF remote unit.
Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 CHAPTER 3 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 7 .
For other two bits add same circuit with two more inputs connected in s DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 8 .Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 CHAPTER 3 Circuit Diagram CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF INTERFACING CIRCUIT IC2 +5V Control Signal Inputs 1 3 5 7 9 11 14 R7-R12 D7-D12 IC1 1 2 4 6 10 12 15 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 RL2 RL3 A B RL5 8 R1 TO R6 D1 TO D6 Note: In this circuit only 6-bits are shown.
Variabl e Driver Stage. and finally Power Supply Unit. The Receiver Part has following circuits: RF R eceiver. the 'Wireless Antenna Control Cum Device Switching¶ system consists of two main Parts: Transmitter Part & Receiver Part. Counter & Switching Stage. which are very easy to obtain from the material shelf. Static Driver Stage. 700 Ohm DPDT Reed Relays 6 1N4148 SIGNAL Diodes Red Indicator LEDs 6 6 220 Ohm ¼ Watt Carbon Resistors 2. RF TRANSMITTER The RF transmitter is built around the ASIC and common passive and active components.Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 Parts List: SEMICONDUCTORS IC1 4050 HEX BUFFER/CONVERTER(NON-INVERTER) IC2 RESISTORS R1 to R6 R7 to R12 DIODES D1to D6 D7 to D12 MISCELLANEOUS RL1-RL6 12 V. The Transmitter Part has RF Transmitter Unit & Power Pack and Receiver Part is comprised of four circuits. Pulse Amplifier & Oscillator. Buffer & Driver Section. The circuit DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 9 .2 K Ohm ¼ Watt Carbon Resistors 6 6 2004 DARLINGTON ARRY 1 1 Circuit Description : According to circuit construction.
Each channel is amplifie d by preamplifier transistor along with bias resistor. The current limiting resistor and bypass capacitor stabilizes the oscillator. 17 KHz. The output of the pre-amplifier transistor is fed to relay driver stage to activate the respective relay ON. The Darlington pairs are arranged in driver stage to drive the low impedance relay. 19Khz...e. The transmitted signals are received on coil which acts as receiver antenna. Application Specific Integrated Ci rcuit. DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 10 . The tank circuit gives the carrier freq uency range. The Carrier frequency is 147 MHz and Data frequencies are 17 MHz. The Radio Frequency tuned circuit has 147 M Hz carrier frequency with four options viz. The ASIC manipulates the received signal and gives out four channels as output viz. Capacitors bypass the noise and harmonics present in the received signals. The oscillator transistor removes the received signals from 147MHz carrier freque ncy and fed to ASIC. RF RECEIVER This circuit is built around the ASIC i.Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 works on Very High Frequency band with wide covering range.. hence less circuitry is observed. 17Khz. 22KHz and 25KHz. The resistors provide the biasing voltage to the oscilla tor transistor T1.19 KHz. Through couplin g capacitor output of the RF Receiver is fed to ASIC. It should be noted that ASIC or Application Specific Integrated Circuit is proprietary product and data sheet or pin details or working principles are not readily available to the user.22 MHz & 25 MHz.19 MHz. 22KHz and 25KHz.
which is of practical use (below 30 kHz). At these µmicrowave¶ frequencies. the highest frequency range. At this frequency. FM broadcasting The aim has been Very high frequency. HF his or her appetite for a subject which has a broad appeal 3 100 m M to a large number of dedicated enMedium frequency. 1 Km 300 KHz Low frequency. DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 11 . VHF to provide the user with sufficient in30 MHz 10 m formation to what SW broadcasting High frequency. At the other extreme. This part of explanation 3 GHz 10 cm provides a brief introduction to radio communicaUltra high frequency.Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 RADIO FREQUENCY CIRCUIT TECHNIQUES Radio must surely The Radio Frequency Spectrum be one of the most fascinating aspects Frequency Wavelength of electronics. signals propagate as ground waves (following the curvature of the earth) over very long distance. which extends from a few tens of kilohertz to several hundred giga -hertz. is only suitable for narrow-band communications. The lowest part of radio frequency range. considerable ban dwidths are available (sufficient to transmit many television channel using point to-point links or to permit very high definition radar systems) and signals tend to propagate strictly along µline -of-sight¶ paths. which is of practical importance. UHF TV bands 1V/V tion before describing the circui1m 30 MHz try of RF receivers and transmitters. extends above 30GHz. LF LW broadcasting Radio Frequency 30 KHz 10 Km Signals: Radio frequency signals are generally understood to occupy a frequency range. MF MW broadcasting thusiasts all over the world.
a signal at a frequency of 1 MHz will have a wavelength of 300 m whereas a signal at a frequency of 10 MHz will have a wavelength of 30m. the radio frequency spectrum is divided into a number of bands. the signal information must be superimposed or µmodulated¶ onto the carrier. at any instant. At frequencies between 3MHz and 30MHz. of the modulating signal. the carrier amplitude (its peak voltage) varies according to the vo ltage. ionospheric propagation regularly permits intercontinental broadcasting and communications using simple equipment within the scope of the enthusiastic radio amateur and short -wave listener. including refle ction from ionized layers in the ionosphere. at any instant. If the modulating signal (audio) is correct ly DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 12 . In the former case. The most commonly used methods of modulation are amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM). Amplitude & Frequency Modulation Modulation In order to convey information using a r adio frequency carrier. the carrier frequency is varied in accordance with the voltage.Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 At other frequencies. Modulation is the name given to the process of changing a partic ular property of the carrier wave in sympathy with the instantaneous voltage (or current) signal. signals may propagate by various means. each spanning a decade of frequency . For convenience. In the latter case. Frequency and wavelength Radio waves propagate in air (or space) at the speed of light (300 million meters per second). for example. as follows: F = 3 X 108/ P Hz and P = 3 X 108 / fm As an example. of the modulating si gnal. wavelength[ P] and frequency [f] of a radio wave are related by the equation: V = fP = 3 X 108 m/s This equation can be arranged to make f or P the subject. The velocity of propagation[v].
which rolls off the frequency response by half for each doubling of frequency (equiv alent to 6-dB per octave roll-off). is one. in a true FM system. this stage would normally employ a quartz crystal within its frequency generating circuitry. The reason for this is that. The output of the modulator (a modulated carrier) is amplified before outputting to the aerial system. Thus in a phase modulated system without audio tailoring. the deviation produced is the same for all modulating signals of equal amplitude (i. This can be easily achieved using a simple R -C low-pass filter. the amount frequency deviation is independent of the fr equency of the modulating signal). the amount of frequency deviation is proportional to both modulating signal amplitude and modulating signal freq uency. In a phase -modulated system. a modulation signal of 2 kHz will produce twice as much frequency deviation as an equal amplitude modulating signal of 1 kHz. The output is usually carefully filtered to remove any sp urious signals (harmonics) which may be present and which may otherwise cause interference to other services. the carrier wave (of constant frequency) is generated by means of a radio frequency oscillator stage. therefore. the end result is identical to that of frequency modulation. The below figure shows the simplified block schematic of a simple radio co mmunication system comprising on AM transmitter and a µtuned radio frequen cy¶ (TRF) receiverWithin the transmitter. In order to ensure that the carrier is both accurate and within in frequency. DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 13 . Demodulation Demodulation is the reverse of modulation and is the means by which the signal information is recovered from the modulated carrier. The desired audio response required to produce FM.Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 tailored prior to its application to the phase modulated stage. on other hand. Demodulation is achieved by means of a demodulator consists of a reconstructed version of the original signal information present at the input of the modulator stage within the transmitter.e.
Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 Mic AF Amplifier Modulator RF Oscillator RF Amplifier LS RF Amplifier Demodulator AF Amplifier Typical Radio Transmitter & Receiver DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 14 .
Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 CHAPTER 4 MICRO-CONTROLLER DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 15 .
is "embedded controller . Microcontrollers are often low-power devices. I/O. The software inherited in this chip manipulates the data and sends the result for visual display. ports and timers) of a traditionally defined computer on a single i ntegrated circuit. Th eprogram is stored in ROM (read-only memory) and generally does not change. DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 16 . which refers to the fact that they contain all of the functional sections ( CPU." Microcontrollers are dedicated to one task and run one specific program. A battery-operated microcontroller might consume 50 mill watts. Microcontrollers are "embedded" inside some other device (often a consumer product) so that they can control the features or actions of the product. A microcontroller is often small and low cost. therefore. Some experts even describe them as special purpose computers with several qualifying distinctions that separate them from other computers. The components are chosen to minimize size and to be as inexpensive as possible.Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 CHAPTER 4 MICROCONTROLLER MOTHER BOARD 89C51 The 89C51 Micro-controller is heart of this project. It is the chip that processes the User Data and executes the same. ROM. A microcontroller also takes input from the device it is controlling and controls the device by sendi ng signals to different components in the device. Another name for a microcontroller. A microcontroller has a dedicated input device and often (but not always) has a small LED or LCD display for output. INTRODUCTION OF MICRO-CONTROLLER Thegeneral definition of a microcontroller isa single chip computer . RAM. A desktop computer is almost always plugged into a wall socket and might consume 50 watts of electricity.
The Vout pin-3 gives constant.Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 Introducing the Intel¶s Microcontroller 89C51 Features Compatible with MCS-51 Products 8K Bytes of In-System Reprogrammable Flash Memory Endurance: 1. is given to filter capacitor . The electrolytic capacitor C1 filters the pulsating dc into pure dc and given to Vin pin -1 of regulator IC 7805. DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 17 . The top left hand corner is Pin 1 and down to bottom left hand corner is Pin 20. which is built using two re ctifier diodes. The grea test timing accuracy is achieved with a crystal or ceramic resonator. Reset Switch & I/O ports. The output of the full wave rectifier section.0 MHz.0 to 12. is the hear tbeat. Oscillator. the recommended capacitor values should be in the range of 15 to 33pf2. It provides the critical timing functions for the rest of the chip. or clock. And th e bottom right hand corner is Pin 21 and up to the top right hand corner is Pin 40.This three terminal IC regulates the rectified pulsating dc to constant +5 volts. OSCILLATOR: If the CPU is the brain of the system then the oscillator. The Supply Voltage pin Vcc is 40 and ground pin Vss is 20. 89C51 IC. POWER SUPPLY: This section provides the clean and harmonic free power to IC to function properly.Let us see these sections in detail. regulated and spikes free +5 volts to the mother board.000 Write/Erase Cycles Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz Three-level Program Memory Lock 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM 32 Programmable I/O Lines Three 16-bit Timer/Counters Eight Interrupt Sources Programmable Serial Channel Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION The mother board of 89C51 has following sections: Power Supply. C2 & C3 provides ground path to harmonic signals present in the inputted voltage. For crystals of 2. The allocation of the pins of the 89C51 follows a U -shape distribution.
when a peripheral is enabled. I/O PORT : There are a total of 32 i/o pins available on this chip. that pin may not be used as a general purpose I/ pin. In general. They can also sink a maximum of 25 Ma current. even "on the fly" during operation! Each pin can source 20 mA (max) so it can directly drive an LED. The t o ceramic disc type capacitors of val e 30pF are connected across crystal and ground stabili es the oscillation frequency generat ed by crystal. The amazing part about these ports is that they can be programmed to be either input or output ports.7 M to 20 M val can be connected.Advance Rai way Aut ati n 2009-10 Across t oscill tor i t pi s 18 & 19 a crystal x1 of 4. Mi ll Pi di DEP OF ME SJCE MYSORE Page 18 . Some pins for these I/ ports are multiplexed with an alternate function for the peripheral features on the device.
DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 19 . each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins.1/T2EX). When 1s are written to port 0 pins. Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull ups. high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 8K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (P EROM). The device is manufactured using Atmel¶s high-density non-volatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry -standard 80C51 and 80C52 instruction set and pin out.0 and P1. Port 0 can also be configured t o be the multiplexed low order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs.1 can be configured to be the timer/counter 2 external count input (P1. Pin Description VCC Supply voltage. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip. Port 0 Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bi-directional I/O port. As an output port.0/T2) and the timer/counter 2 trigger input (P1. the pins can be used as high impedance inputs. P1. GND Ground. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in -system or by a conventional non-volatile memory programmer. In addition. In this mode. they are pulled high by the internal pull ups and can be used as inputs. As i nputs. Port 1 Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull ups. the Atmel AT89C52 is a powe rful microcomputer which provides a highly -flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications.Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 Description The AT89C52 is a low-power. respe ctively. P0 has i nternal pull ups.
3 INT1 (external interrupt 1) P3.Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 Port 2 Port 2 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull ups. they are pulled high by the internal pull ups and can be used as inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins. As i nputs. The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs.7 RD (external data memory read strobe) RST Reset input. Port 2 uses strong internal pull ups when emitting 1s.1 TXD (serial output port) P3. Port Pin Alternate Functions P3. Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull ups. Port 3 Port 3 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull ups. Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register. During accesses to external data memory that uses 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI). Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming and verific ation. Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull ups.0 RXD (serial input port) P3. The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash Programming and verification. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. ALE/PROG Address Latch Enable is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory.5 T1 (timer 1 external input) P3.2 INT0 (external interrupt 0) P3. This pin is also the program pul se input DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 20 .4 T0 (timer 0 external input) P3. In this application. they are pulled high by the internal pull ups and can be used as inputs. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that uses 16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). As i nputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins.6 WR (external data memory write strobe) P3.
In normal operation. ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. XTAL1 Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock opera ting circuit. The upper 128 bytes occupy a parallel address space to the Special Function Registers. PSEN Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external program memory. that if lock bit 1 is programmed. Data Memory The AT89C52 implements 256 bytes of on-chip RAM. Note.Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 (PROG) during Flash programming. Read accesses to these addresses will in general return random data. That means the upper 128 bytes have the same addresses as the SFR space but are physically separate from SFR space. however. PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle. and unoccupied addresses may not be implemented on the chip. EA will be internally latched on reset. Note that not all of the addresses are occupied. however. This pin also receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming when 12-volt programming is selected. Setting the ALE -disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution mode. Note. ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. If desired. Special Function Registers A map of the on-chip memory area called the Special Function Register (SFR) space. EA/VPP External Access Enable EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the d evice to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. When the AT89C52 is executing code from external program memory. With the bit set. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. and write accesses will have an indeterminate e ffect. the pin is weakly pulled high. ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory. Otherwise. DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 21 . that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external data memory.
Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 When an instruction accesses an interna l location above address 7FH. rather than P2 (whose address is 0A0H). the following indirect addressing instruction. the address mode used in the instruction specifies whether the CPU accesses the upper 128 bytes of RAM or the SFR space. For example. Instructions that use direct addressing access SFR space. Using this inte rface is often not attempted by inexperienced designers and programmers b ecause it is difficult to find good documentatio n on the interface. with pin centres 0. #data Instructions that use indirect addressing access the upper 128 bytes of RAM. initializing the interface can be a problem and the displays themselves are expensive. the following direct addressing in struction accesses the SFR at location 0A0H (which is P2).100" apart. For example. The most common connector used for the 44780 based LCDs is 14 pins in a row. LCD INTERFACING LCDs can add a lot to any application in terms of providing an useful interface for the user. where R0 contains 0A0H. accesses the data byte at address 0A0H. MOV 0A0H. The pins are wired as: P D i es n cr s ip ti o n 1 G R/_W E R/_S DATA LCD DATA WRITE WAVEFORM 450 nSec DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 22 . The most common type of LCD controller is the Hitatchi 44780 which provides a relatively simple interface between a processor and an LCD. debugging an application or just giving it a "professional" look.
Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 ro u n d 2 V cc 3 C o nt ra st V ol ta ge 4 " R/ S " _I ns tr uc ti o n/ R eg DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 23 .
Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 ist er S el ec t 5 " R/ W " _ R ea d/ W rit e L C D R eg ist er s 6 " E " DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 24 .
To DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 25 . deciding how to send the data to the LCD is most critical decision to be made for a n LCD interface application. While there are secondary considerations and modes. The LCD Data Write Waveform will write an ASCII Byte out to the LCD's screen. two "nibbles" of data (Sent high four bits and then low four bits with an "E" Clock pulse with each nibble) are sent to make up a full eight bit transfer. The ASCII code to be displayed is eight bits long and is sent to the LCD either four or eight bits at a time. Sending parallel data as either four or eight bits are the two primary modes of operation. If four bit mode is used. Four bit mode requires a minimum of six bits. The "E" Clock is used to i nitiate the data transfer within the LCD. allowing simple and fast reading/writing of data to and from the LCD.Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 Cl oc k 7 D at ± a I/ 1 O 4 Pi ns The interface is a parallel bus. Eight bit mode is best used when speed is required in an application and at least ten I/O pins are available.
by setting the "S/C" bit during the "Move Cursor/Shift Display" command. except that the "R/S" line is set.Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 wire a microcontroller to an LCD in four bit mode. The different instructions available for use with the 44780 are shown in the t able below: R/S R/W D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 Instruction/Description 4 0 0 5 0 0 14 13 0 0 0 0 12 11 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 9 0 0 8 0 1 7 1 * Pins Clear Display Return Cursor and LCD to Home Position 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 A 0 0 0 1 A A * D 0 0 1 0 1 1 D ID S C B * * A A * D Set Cursor Move Direction Enable Display/Cursor Move Cursor/Shift Display Set Interface Length Move Cursor into CGRAM Move Cursor to Display Poll the "Busy Flag" Write a Character to the Display at the Current Cursor Position Read the Character on the Display at the Current Cursor Position SC RL * F A A * D * A A * D DL N A A * D A A * D BF * D D 1 1 D D D D D D D D Once the initialization is complete. after each character is sent to the LCD. Each character to display is written like the control bytes. just the top fou r bits (DB47) are written to. the cursor built into the LCD will increment to the next position (e ither right or left). Normally. the LCD can be written to with data or i nstructions as required. During initialization. the "S/C" bit is set (equal to "1") along wit h the DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 26 .
y Allowing for being connected at general -purpose CMOS signal level. Cursor home. Display shift y The unit operates from a single 5V power supply y Liquid crystal panel service life 100.Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 "R/L" bit in the "Move Cursor/Shift Display" command for characters to be written from left to right (as with a "Teletype" video display). 1/4bias. Cursor ON/OFF. lightweight design permits easy installation in a variety of equi p- ment. and display data RAM: y Character generator ROM 225 different 5 x 7 dot -matrix character pat- terns (Alphanumeric and symbols) y Character generator RAM 8 different user programmed 5 x 7 dot -matrix patterns y Display data RAM 80 x 8 bits y Numerous instructions Display clear. y Thin. y Multiplexing driving : 1/16duty.000 hours minimum at 25 oC -10 oC y 3. PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS General y The LCD of the unit is STN (Super Twisted Nematic) Gray. Cursor shift. Transflective type. 6 o¶clock y Built-in character generator ROM and RAM. y Low power consumption with the dot-matrix LCD panel and CMOS LSI. y Built-in backlight LED with high luminance and stable radiation. Display ON/OFF.3 definition of panel service life y Contrast becomes 30% of initial value y Current consumption becomes three times higher than initial value DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 27 . the unit can be easily interfaced to a microprocessor with common 4 -bit and 8-bit parallel inputs and outputs. Blink character.
handle it very carefully DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 28 . y The polarizing plate of the display is very fragile.Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 y Remarkable alignment deterioration occurs in LCK cell layer y Unusual operation occurs in display functions Safety y If the LCD panel breaks. be careful not to get the liquid crystal in your mouth. y Do not remove the panel or frame from the module. Handling y Avoid static electricity as this can damage the CMOS LSI. do not hit or crush it. y The LCD panel is plate glass. If the liquid crystal touches your skin or clothes. wash it off i mmediately using soap and plenty of water.
Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 Mounting and Design y Mount the module by using the specified mounting part and holes.g. shake. Storage y Store the module in a dark place. acrylic or glass) on the display surface.10 oC and the humidity below 65% RH. y Keep the module dry. TIMER: PIN OUT DIAGRAM OF TIMER IC 555 GROUND TRIGGER 1 2 3 8 7 6 VCC 555 DISCHARGE THRESHOLD CONTROL Page 29 OUTPUT RESET 4 5 DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE . y Do not crush. Avoid condensation . y Do not store the module near organic solvents or corrosive gases. frame. or jolt the module (including accessories). and polarizing plate y Design the system so that no input signal is given unless the power - supply voltage is applied. otherwise the transparent electrodes may break. le ave a small gap by plac- ing transparent plates (e. where the temperature is 25 oC . y To protect the module from external pressure.
c. The standard 555 timer is housed in an 8 -pin DIL package and operates from supply rail voltages of between 4. And also stops the Beeper sounding after one minute alarm. multiplexed LED and incandescent displays. are available for operation on a variety of voltages between 5V and 11 5V d. which r e- quires isolation from the controlling circuit. which provide the necessary magnetic flux to operate a relay.c. involves the use of an electrom echanical relay.c. RELAY: The traditional method of switching current through a load. high -voltage highcurrent Darlington arrays are added to this time delay circuit for interfacing low-level logic circuitry and peripheral power loads. main supply. and heaters. DRIVER: Since the digital outputs of the some circuits cannot sink much cu r- rent. and 12V to 250V a. they are not capable of driving relays directly. Such devices offer a simple. solenoids. The coils.5V and 15V. stepping motors. DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 30 . So. Typical loads include r elays. This encompasses the normal range for TTL devices and thus the device is ideally suited for use in conjun ction with TTL circuitry.Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 This Timer Circuit gets its trigger pulse from Schmitt Trigger and provides the one minute delay to the System and then switches OFF the Counter circuit¶s trigger line to avoid further counting & displaying incremented value. magnetic print hammers. In this case it is Train¶s motor supply pins. low -cost solution to the problem of maintaining adequate isolation between the controlling circuit and the potentia lly lethal voltages associated with an a. at currents of between 5 mA and 100 mA.
In either case.0027 HP 3. pin 4 is connected to pin 14 and that to +Vcc. This situation employs dual timer IC 556.f of its output. In some applications it may be necessary to vary the duty cycle of a one timer without affecting the p.r. the range of pulse repet ition frequencies (p. Specification y DC Voltage y Shaft Speed y Output Power y Torque Constant Detector Section 12. rather than cont inuous output is required.1Hz (ten seconds per cycle) to over 100 kHz. The threshold pin 2 and the discharge pin 1 are connected together DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 31 . and then a need of adding second Astable timer arises. accuracy will be determined primarily by the external components (resistors and capac itors employed).f) that can be reliably obtained extends from less than 0. where each timer section is used in its own way. In Mon stable pulse generator mode.0 v 2500 rpm 0.Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 INTRODUCTION TO VIBRATOR (STATION AND FIRE) Sensor Section: Each timer section of dual timer IC 556 can be used in either Astable mode (to generate a continuous pulse train) or in Mon stable mode (to generate a single pulse of accurately defined length). In Astable mode.5 amp The first part of the dual timer IC 556 can be used as a Rising Light Level Switch. One timer is used in Mon stable mode and the other in pulse gener ator mode. pulses of duration ranging from 10 s to 10s can be generated. Otherwise a pulsed. In Mo n stable mode.r.
In total darkness the reverse current flowing through LDR will be very small. The trigger input pin 6 is connected to +Vcc using a pull -up resistor R1. Here the smoke sensor. The control pin 3 is connected to ground via capac itor C1.Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 to +Vcc by a resistance R1. The current through Smoke Sensor will depends upon the amount of light between LDR & the light source [both are packaged inside]. DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 32 . The capacitor C1 will begin to charge toward +Vcc with current supplied by means of the series resi stors R1 and R2. R6 & C3 gives the triggering pulse needed for Multiv ibrator. When the optical se nsor LDR is not illuminated by a light source the capacitor C 3 is uncharged and the trigger input is low and that switching transistor TR1 (at pin -1) is in the nonconducting state. Thus the output (at pin -5) is high.
pin 4 is connected to pin 14 and that to +Vcc.Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 Parts List: SEMICONDUCTORS IC1 IC2 TR1 RESISTORS R1 & R2 R3 & R4 R5 & R6 R7 R8 DIODES D1& D2 CAPACITORS C1 & C2 C3 & C4 MISCELLANEOUS Smoke Sensor Temperature Sensor SP 556 DUAL TIMER IC 3561 TONE GENERATOR AC 187 NPN Transistor 1 1 1 10 K Ohm ¼ Watt Carbon Resistors 2 33 K Ohm ¼ Watt Carbon Resistors 2 1 K Ohm ¼ Watt Carbon Resistors 1 K Ohm ¼ Watt Carbon Resistor 2 1 220 K Ohm ¼ Watt Carbon Resistor 1 1N4148 SIGNAL Diodes 6 0. The threshold pin 6 and the discharge pin 7 are connected t ogether to +Vcc by a resistance R2. In Mon stable pulse generator mode. The control pin 5 is connected to ground via DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 33 .01 QF CERAMIC CAPACITORS 2 100 QF CERAMIC CAPACITORS 2 Some Sensor Module DR25 Temperature Sensor Diode Loud Speaker. 8 Ohm 1 1 1 Fire Sensor Section The second part of the dual timer IC 556 can be used as a Rising Temperature Level Switch.
The circuit can be readily adapted to drive a load with operating current less than about 150mA. Specification of water sprinkler motor y DC voltage y Speed 12 to 24 V 3500 rpm Page 34 DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE . When such an edge is received and the µtrigger¶ input voltage falls below of Vcc. R4 & C5 gives the triggering pulse needed for Multivibrator. AC 188 or 2N360 can also be used. the indicator LED (D1) goes µON¶ stating the load is in ON position. The output is latched in the same condition until the te mperature comes down to room temperature. the reverse resistance of DR25 drops. Thus capacitor C2 is uncharged and the trigger input is low and that switching transistor TR1 (at pin13) is in the non-conducting state. Also. So. Thus the output (at pin-9) is high. µhigh¶ to µLow¶ transition) applied to the trigger input (at pin 8). switching transistor TR1 is placed in the µOFF¶ (non-conducting) state and the final µoutput¶ (at pin -9) goes High. The Q output of the Bitable then goes low. A reverse biased germanium diode is used here as a heat sensor.Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 capacitor C2. The capacitor C1 will begin to charge toward +Vcc with current supplied by means of the series resistors R1 and R2. a proper rated relay is employed to switch ON the mains operated load. At room temperature the reverse resistance of the diode is very high (i. The diode DR 25 works as a sensor but base-emitter junction of germanium transistors such as AC128. over 1O K Ohm).e. The trigger input pin 8 is connected to +Vcc using a pull -up resistor R4. Thus Mon stable timing period is initiated by a falling edge (i.e. the ou t- put of the lower comparator goes µhigh¶ and the Bitable is placed in the µset¶ state. At about 70 °C its resistance drops to a value below 1 K Ohms. When temperature in the vicinity o f sensor diode increases in case of a fire.Here the temperature sensor DR 25.
main water tank 2. compressor 12.hanging configuration 7. sprinkler head .standing configuration 6. testing piping 9. alarm bell 15. main pilot valve (dry) 4. main water pump 3. pressure gauge 16. sprinkler head . switchboard DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 35 .004 HP AUTOMATIC FIRE SPRINKLERS: Sprinkler system caption: 1.Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 y Output Power 0. alarm bell 13. fire central 14. pilot valve (wet) 5. pressure tank 8. filling piping 11. testing piping 10.
Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 Movement Detector Section The typical application of Movement Detector Section is shown in the Circuit diagram. These two pieces are arranged such that they come direct in contact. When the unauthorized person. unknowingly breaks this contact. Here the Magnetic sensor consists of two pieces. When these pieces are in contact it triggers 555 which drives the relay through buffer and relay driver. 555 inputs gets low and relay gets off which drives IR transmitter again. one is of magnetic material and the other is magnet. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 555 vibrating DETECTOR 4 8 DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 36 .
In full contact the reverse current flowing through Movement Detector will be very small. pin 4 is connected to pin 8 and that to +Vcc. The threshold pin 6 and the discharge pin 7 are connected t ogether to +Vcc by a resistance R3.Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 Parts List: SEMICONDUCTORS IC1 R1 R2 R3 R4 D1 CAPACITORS C1 & C3 C2 MISCELLENOUS SENSOR Movement Detector Sensor 1 10 f / 25V Electrolytic 0. When the Movement Detector is pa rted by each other the capacitor C2 is uncharged and the trigger input is low and that switc hDEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 37 . R2 & C1 gives the tr iggering pulse needed for Multivibrator.Here the Movement Detector. The current through Movement Detector will depend upon the distance between the two pieces. The trigger input pin 2 is connected to +Vcc using a pull -up resistor R1. In Mon stable pulse generator mode.1 F Ceramic Disc type 1 1 555 Timer IC 33 K Ohm ¼ Watt 1K Ohm ¼ Watt 10K Ohm ¼ Watt 470 Ohm ¼ Watt Red Light Emitting Diode 1 1 1 1 1 1 Circuit Description: The circuit diagram shows how the timer IC 555 can be used as a Rising Light Level Switch. The control pin 5 is connected to ground via capacitor C2.
The output is latched in the same condition until the contact -break is not restored again. the reverse current flowing through Movement Detector increases markedly. So. plays very important role in smooth running of the connected circuit. This is achieved by using suitably rated step -down transforDEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 38 . +5V & +12V. When both the pieces break contact. The capacitor C1 will begin to charge toward +Vcc with current supplied by means of the series resistors R1 and R2. Thus Monostable timing period is i nitiated by a falling edge (i. Thus the output (at pin-3) is high. REGULATED POWER SUPPLY The circuit needs two different voltages. as the name itself implies. the indicator LED (D1) goes µON¶ stating the relay is in ON position. The circuit can be readily adapted to drive a load with operating current less than about 150mA. to work. It is necessary to step down the ma ins supply to the desired level. µHigh¶ to µLow¶ transition) applied to the trigger input (at pin 2). unsung hero of every electronic circuit. When such an edge is received and the µtrigger¶ input voltage falls below of Vcc. The power supply. Step-down Transformer : The conventional supply. switching transistor TR1 is placed in the µOFF¶ (non-conducting) state and the final µoutput¶ (at pin-3) goes High. Every typical power supply contains the fo llowing sections: 1. The main object of this µpower supply¶ is. which is generally avai l- able to the user. These dual vo ltages are supplied by this specially designed power supply. the output of the lower comparator goes µhigh¶ and the Bitable is placed in the µset¶ state.Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 ing transistor TR1 (at pin-7) is in the non-conducting state.e. to deliver the requir ed amount of stabilized and pure power to the circuit. is 230V AC. The Q output of the Bitable then goes low.
output is not stable. it is necessary to go for little higher ra ting transformer than the required one.C. DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 39 .C.Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 mer. This rectification is achieved by using passive components such as diodes. This electrolytic capacitor has polarities. This vari ation of load current is observed due to voltage drop in transformer windings. Rectifier stage : Then the step-downed Alternating Current is converted into Direct Current. For example. While designing the power supply. While choosing the diodes the PIV rating is taken into consideration. for proper working of the regulator IC (say KIA 7805) it needs at least 2. 3. The reason for this is. take care while connecting the circuit. Voltage Regulation : The filtered D.c. simple and effective filtering for low cu rrent drawing loads (say up to 50 mA) is done by using shunt capacitors. Filter stage : But this rectified output contains some percentage of superi m- posed a. the circuit boards which are implanted by CMOS or TTL ICs. If the power supply is designed for low voltage/current drawing loads/circuits (say +5V). So to filter these a. rectifier and filter circuit.c. output voltage may cause i naccurate or erratic operation or ev en malfunctioning of many electronic circuits.5V more than the expected output voltage 2. 4. ripples. it is sufficient to employ full -wave rectifier with centre-tap transformer as a power source. components filter stage is built around the rectifier stage. It varies in acco r- dance with the fluctuations in mains supply or varying load current. The cheap. These variations in D. reliable.
Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 40 .
Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 CHAPTER 5 GENERAL COMPOENTS DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 41 .
e. They are: 1. These components which offer value of re sistance are known as resistors.. DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 42 . Resistors may have fixed value i.1 W). In electronic equipments carbon resistors are wid ely used because of their smaller size. Such of those resistors whose value can be changed or varied are known as variable resistors. All resistors have three main characteristics: (i) (ii) (iii) Its resistance R in ohms (from 1 ohm to many mega ohms ). 2. Carbon resistors are used when the power dissipation is less than 2W because they are smaller and cost less. Power rating (from several 10 W to 0. whose value cannot be changed and are known as fixed resistors. Tolerance (in percentage) . Carbon resistors.Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 CHAPTER 5 GENERAL COMPONENTS RESISTORS: In many electronic circuit applications the resistance forms the basic part of the circuit. Wire wound resistors. The reason for inserting the resistors is to reduce current or to p roduce the desired voltage drop. Wire wound resistors are used where the po wer dissipation is more than 5W. There are two types of resistors available.
Capacitance can be understood as the ability of a dielectric to store electric charges.Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 PRESET There are two general categories o f variable resistors: 1. The precision type are always wire wound and follow a linear law . The widely used potentiometers are of the standard diameters 19mm. The plates of the capacitor have opposite charge. The resolution of these wire wound resistors is proper than carbon resistors because the wiper has to move from one winding to the other. 31mm. this gives rise to an DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 43 . The general purpose type can again be wire wound type and carbon type . General purpose resistors. rheostats . the linear ity falling with 1%. and 44mm. Its unit is Farad. Precision resistors. 2. These resistors are highly linear.These follows either linear or logarithmic law. presets and decade resistance boxes. The capacitors are named according to the dielectric used.The variable resistors can be broadly classified as potentiometer . where as in ca rbon potentiometers it is continuous. ceramic and electrolytic capacitors. paper. Physically a capacitor has conducting plates separated by an insulator or the d ielectric. CAPACITORS: Devices which can store electronic charge are called capacitors. and mica. The usual tolerances ratings 10 % and 20% are available. 2. named after the Michael Faraday. 3 and 4 watts. Most common ones are air. The general purpose wire wound potentiometers are available in 1. The temperature coefficient depends on the wire used and on the resistors va lues.
and decoupling power supply rails so that.Th e ceramic is used is generally thick because they cannot with stand high potential gradients . TYPES OF CAPACITORS: CERAMIC CAPACITORS : The Ceramic Capacitors use ceramic dielectric with thin film as electrodes bonded to the ceramic .c. medium permittivity and high permittivity types .The leads are so ldered to metal electrodes and the entire assembly is enclosed in a ceramic or epoxy molded cases. capacitors are also crucial to the correct working of nearly every electronic circuit and provide us with a means of storing electrical energy in the form of an electric field.Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 electric field . the supply rails are indistinguishable from zero volts.C. As far as A. Like resistors.these capacitors are available as low permittivity. signal components are concerned. The sheets are then baked and cut to the appropriate shape and size & attached by pressure contact and soldering. These capacitors have low value for large c apacitances at low working voltages.01F can be obtained. silver is fired on to both sides of the ceramic to form the co nductor plates. ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITORS : These capacitors derive the name from electrolyte which is used as a medium to produce high dielectric constants.C. coupling of A. Capacitors have numerous applic ations including storage capacitors in power supplies. monolithic and barrier type. signals between the stages of an amplifier. Round disk are used at high voltages the capacitance of values up to 0. DISC CAPACITORS : In the disk form. The disks are lacquered or encaps ulated in plastic or Phenolic molding. These have high capacitance per unit volume and are very economical. They have tolerance of +20% or ±20%. In general these capacitors have voltage ratings up to 750 V d.In capacitor the electric field is concentrated in the dielectric between the plates. Capacitors are available as tubulardisk. DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 44 .
They are used as µripple filter µ where large capacitance are required at low cost in small space . a diode allows current to pass through it provided it is forward biased and the biasing voltage is more than potential barrier (forward voltage drop) of the diode. Electrolytic capacitors are used in circuits that have combination of D. Transistor: A transistor consists of two pn junction formed by sand witching either p -type or n-type semiconductor between a pair of opposite type. In the field of electronics too we have a valve called semiconductor diode (a counterpart of thermionic valve) for controlling the flow of ele ctric current in one direction. But we use these diodes in circuits for limited pu rposes like converting AC to DC. vo ltage and A. Accordingly. The D.Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 There are two types of Electrolytic capacitors: Aluminum Electrolytic capacitor . Though transistor is only slightly more the 45 years old. Invented in 1948 by J.C.C amplifier. DIODES: To ensure unidirectional flow of liquid we use mechanical valves in its path.C. yet it is fast replacing vacuum tubes in almost all applications. by passing EMF etc. voltage maintains the polarity . By properly arranging these valves in a system we get useful devices such as pumps and locomotives. Tantalum electrolytic capacitors.Brattain of Bell Telephone Laborat ories. t here are two types of transistors namely: n-p-n transistor p-n-p transistor DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 45 . They are also used as µbiased capacitors µ and µdecoupling capacitors µ and even as µcoupling capacitors µ in R. Transistors are far smaller than vacuum tube.H. They are mechanically strong. Bardeen and W. hen ce practically unlimited life and can do some jobs better than vacuum tubes.C. have no filaments and hence need no heating power and may be operates in any position. TRANSISTOR INTRODUCTION : The transistor an entirely new type of electronic device is capable of achieving amplification of weak signals in a fashion comparable and often superior to that realized by vacuum tubes. a transistor has now become the heart of most electronic appliance.
is called bas. taken from each type of semiconductor. Collector: . The middle section is called the base and forms two junctions between the emitter and collector. Transistor manufacturers give these characteristics in the data sheets pu blished by them. man ufacturing techniques and materials used in the manufacturer of transistor and are know as characteri stics. This is the most important factor in t he functioning of a transistor. The se ction on one side is the emitter and the section on the opposite side is the colle ctor. These are two pn junctions.Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 An n-p-n is composed of two n-type semiconductors separated a by thin section of p-type. The emitter is always forward biased w. Base: . These properties depend on the size. CHARCTERISTICS OF TRANSISTORS Whenever we have to decide about the applications of a transistor certain que stion arises. Therefore.The section on one side that supplies charge carriers (electrons or holes) is called the emitter. The collector is always reversing biased. which forms to pn junctions between the emitter and collector. (a) Current gain factor µalpha¶ (E) (b) Current gain factor µbeta¶ (F) (c) Input resistance (Rin) (d) Output resistance (Rout) (e) Cut-off frequency (F E and FF) DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 46 . a transistor may be regarded as a comb ination of two diodes connected back to back.The middle section.The section on the other side that collects the charge is called the collector. allo wing low resistance for the emitter circuit. The base -collector junction is reversed biased and provides high resistance i n the collector circuit. Emitter: . NAMING THE TRANSISTOR TERMINALS : A transistor (pnp or npn) has three sections of doped semiconductors. The middle section is very thin layer.r. a p-n-p is formed by two p-section separated by a thin section of n-type. However. Its function is to remove charges from its junction with the base.t base so that it can supply a large number of majority carriers. The base emitter junction is forward biased. Some of these are ± how much amplification gets from it? What is the highest frequency upto which it can be used? How much power output could we get from it? And what should be the values of different components used in the circuits? The answers to these entire questions lie in the electrical properties of the transistor. There are 3 terminals.
The transformer simply transfers 230 Voltage Alternating Current from primary side to secondary side. to the required level. to deliver the required amount of stabilized and pure power to the circuit.. This turns ration of primary to secondary windings gives the rating of the transformer. Every typical power supply contains one transformer which steps-down the main voltage. The secon dary voltage is depends on the number of turns in secondary winding. isolation etc.Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 (f) Leakage current (g) Maximum permissible limits: 1) Maximum collector voltage 2) Maximum emitter current 3) Maximum Power dissipation (I µco) (Vceo) (IC Max) (P max) POWER TRANSFORMER The main object of this µpower supply¶ is. which is 230V AC.step up. as the name itself implies. based on the turns ration . As per the circuit requirements one can choose the correct type of tr ansformer. The transformers are classified on various parameters: based on the core ± air core. The national standard for line freque ncy of the mains supply is 50 Hz. iron core etc. without altering the voltage and frequency. DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 47 . ferrite core. step down. based on the tapping .centre tap or normal etc.
Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 ADVANTAGERS & LIMITATIONS DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 48 .
y It helps to provide more secure to the passengers. DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 49 . Limitation y The signals may not work when the climate is not good.Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 Advantages & Limitations Advantages y It reduces the risk of getting fire to all bogies. y It prevents the passenger to skip the station.
Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 CONCLUSION Conclusion DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 50 .
DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 51 . Implementation of this technology will make aware of missing the station by the passengers.Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 With the rapid technological advancements in Advance Railway Automation. This technology will meet all the challenges with conventional railway autom ation systems. it will reduce the accidents in railway department.
Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 52 .
Hill.Railway Engineering By Satish Chandra & M.Agarwal.Physics in Technology By R.howstuffworks.Advance Railway Automation 2009-10 BOOKS 1. 4.www.wikipedia.www. Website¶s 1.www.M.Automobile Engineering By Kurazia 2.com 4.www.J.Railway and Automotive Engines By Kirpal Singh.in DEPT OF MECH SJCE MYSORE Page 53 .google.engineersedge. 3.com 3.com 2.co.