Topic: Tractors in Haryana

Mr. Abhishek Dutta

Manoj Kumar Sharma Roll No. RT1902A04 Reg. No. 10904598

1:1) Average Rainfall (mm.28 a.40 .38 (20 %) c. Others (in lakh) (Above 2 hect. (Million Tonnes) (2003-04) 13.15 (47 %) b. The crop production of Haryana can be broadly divided into Rabi and Kharif.4 Fertilizer Consumption (Kgs / Hect. tropical fruits. directly or indirectly. About 80% of the population of the state is agriculture dependent.        No. maize and bajra. The north western part of the state is suitable for the cultivation of Rice.75 (33 %)   Foodgrains Prod.Agriculture in Haryana Haryana is often called the ³Food Mine´ of the country. Small farmers (in lakh) (1-2 hect. exotic vegetables and herbal and medicinal plants. of Villages: 6955 No.) 5. Haryana is self sufficient in producing food grains and is also a major contributor of food grains in meeting the needs of other states of the country. The world famous Basmati Rice is produced here in abundance.): 171 (NP Ratio 3. The major cereals produced in the state include wheat. jawar. Wheat. pulses and vegetables. The minor kharif crops are chillis. rice. in Crore) (2002-03): 34800. groundnut.) 3.2 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (Rs.): 8. bajra. Vegetable and temperate fruits and the south-western part is suitable for high quality agricultural produce. maize and paddy etc.): 455 No. of Villages Inhabited: 6781 Intensity of Irrigation: 177 Percentage of irrigated to net sown area: 82. The main kharif crops in the state include sugarcane. Marginal farmers (in lakh) (Up to 1 hect. There are two agro-climatic zones in the state. of holdings (Total) (in lakh): 17.

yet no significant achievement has been made in this regard so far. causing degradation in soil fertility and further fall in the underground water level.09 lakh hectares. The first recorded use of the word meaning "an engine or vehicle for pulling wagons or ploughs" occurred in 1901. displacing the earlier term traction engine (1859). being the agent noun of trahere "to pull". Agricultural implements may be towed behind or mounted on the tractor. "tractor unit".e. Most commonly.2 percent during 1970-71 to 53. Another common use of the term.09 lakh hectares during 2005-06. Though. and the tractor may also provide a source of power if the implement is mechanised.Area Under Crops The total area under crops has increased considerably since 1970-71. The cropping intensity in the State has enhanced from 139 percent in 1970-71 to 182. the term is used to describe a farm vehicle that provides the power and traction to mechanize agricultural tasks. Tractor A tractor is a vehicle specifically designed to deliver a high tractive effort (or torque) at slow speeds. The agriculture scene in the State is dominated by Paddy-Wheat rotation. During the year 2006-07 the gross area sown is likely to remain the same i.18 percent during 2007-08. especially (and originally) tillage but nowadays a great variety of tasks. The contribution of area under Wheat and Paddy crops to the total gross area sown in the State is likely to increase from 28. The Gross Area Sown was 45.38 percent during 2005-06. the efforts have been made to break the dominance of the Wheat-Paddy rotation.57 lakh hectares in 1970-71 and further increased to 65.99 lakh hectares during 1966-67 and has increased to 49. The word tractor was taken from Latin. . 65. for the purposes of hauling a trailer or machinery used in agriculture or construction. describes the power unit of a semi-trailer truck (articulated lorry).

or for highway workman use with blowtorch cylinders strapped to its sides and a pneumatic drill air compressor permanently fastened over its power take-off. landscape maintenance and excavation purposes. These are often fitted with grass (turf) tyres which are less damaging to soft surfaces than agricultural tires. These technologies are used in modern. . precision farming techniques. and "utility tractors". the idea being to neither overlap and use more fuel nor leave streaks when performing jobs such as cultivating. Many utility tractors are used for non-farm grading. and similar tasks. Some farm-type tractors are found elsewhere than on farms: with large universities' gardening departments. used for general purposes around the farmstead. typically smaller tractors with a low center of gravity and short turning radius. Precision agriculture Space technology has been incorporated into agriculture in the form of GPS devices. A variety of specialty farm tractors have been developed for particular uses. pallet forks and similar devices. The farm tractor is used for pulling or pushing agricultural machinery or trailers. The spin-offs from the space race have actually facilitated automation in plowing and the use of autosteer systems drone on tractors that are manned but only steered at the end of a row.Applications and variations Farm tractor applications The most common use of the term "tractor" is for the vehicles used on farms. for plowing. disking. These include "row crop" tractors with adjustable tread width to allow the tractor to pass down rows of corn. "wheatland" or "standard" tractors with nonadjustable fixed wheels and a lower center of gravity for plowing and other heavy field work for broadcast crops. planting. and "high crop" tractors with adjustable tread and increased ground clearance. and robust on-board computers installed as optional features on farm tractors. tilling. harrowing. often used in the cultivation of cotton and other high-growing row crop plant operations. Small garden or lawn tractors designed for suburban and semirural gardening and landscape maintenance also exist in a variety of configurations. backhoes. in public parks. particularly with loaders. tomatoes or other crops without crushing the plants.

loading trucks. but in some parts of the world a dual 540/1000 rpm PTO is standard and implements are available for either standard in those markets. As the name implies. Industrial tractors are often heavier in construction particularly with regards to the use of steel grill for protection from rocks and the use of construction tires. Removable backhoe attachments almost always have a separate seat on the attachment. the machine usually has a seat that can swivel to the rear to face the hoe controls. breaking asphalt and paving roads. also called a CUT is a smaller version of an agricultural tractor but designed primarily for landscaping and estate management type tasks rather than for planting and harvesting on a commercial scale. Typical CUTs range in from 20 to 50 horsepower (15-37 kW) with available power take off (PTO) horsepower ranging from 15 to 45 hp (11-34 kW). enabling them to empty their load more quickly and efficiently. The front assembly may be a removable attachment or permanently mounted. especially those below 40 horsepower (30 kW). small demolitions. Some buckets have a retractable bottom. Compact Utility Tractor A Compact Utility Tractor. Buckets with retractable bottoms are also often used for grading and scratching off sand. Often the bucket can be replaced with other devices or tools. The mid-mount PTO shaft typically rotates at/near 2000 rpms and is typically used to power such implements as mid-mount finish mower. When the backhoe is permanently attached.Backhoe loader The most common variation of the classic farm tractor is the hoe. CUTs are often equipped with both a mid-mounted PTO and a standard rear PTO. also called a hoe-loader. Row-crop tractor . light transportation of building materials. The rear PTO is standardized at 540 rpms for the North American markets. digging holes. Backhoe-loaders are very common and can be used for a wide variety of tasks: construction. it has a loader assembly on the front and a backhoe on the back. Backhoes attach to a 3 point hitch on farm or industrial tractors. powering building equipment. a front mounted snow blower or front mounted rotary broom.

so they were not well suited to getting into a field of already-planted row crops to do weed control. Garden tractors Garden Tractors (also called Mini Tractors) are small. cultivators/rotavators. as in truck farming). Garden Tractors are generally capable of mounting other implements such as harrows.generally Garden Tractors are more sturdily built. self-propelled guns combined the artillery tractor and its gun into one machine). and reliable²corrected this flaw. with stronger frames. the distinction between a garden tractor and a ride-on lawnmower is often hard to make . Modern row crop tractors have rollover protection systems in the form of a reinforced cab or a roll bar. Visually.3 liter Cummins Diesel engine. horseless carriages combined the motive power into transport vehicles. A row-crop tractor essentially brings together a farm tractor and its cultivator into one machine. Like ride-on mowers. Garden Tractors generally have a vertical-crankshaft engine with a belt-drive to a transaxle-type transmission . affordable. and most especially to cultivating. But they tended to be very big and heavy.A row-crop tractor is a tractor tailored specifically to the growing of row crops (crops grown in rows. axles and transmissions rated for ground-engaging applications. sweepers. The earliest win from introducing tractors to mechanize agriculture was in reducing the heavy efforts of plowing and harrowing before planting. being fitted with horizontal rotary cutting decks. Cultivating can take place anytime from soon after the crop plants have sprouted until soon before they are harvested. rollers and dozer-blades. Garden Tractors are usually designed primarily for cutting grass. in the same way that motive power has been combined into other machinery (for example. Row-crop tractors²light. Several rounds of cultivating may be done over the season. which could often be (almost literally) backbreaking tasks for humans and draft animals. light and simple tractors designed for use in domestic gardens. Modern row-crop tractors The Canadian agricultural equipment manufacturer Versatile makes row-crop tractors that are 250 and 280 horsepower (190 and 210 kW). Early tractors were used mainly to alleviate this drudgery. powered by an 8.

Single-axle tractors. China. Regions where two-wheel tractors are especially prevalent today include India. whilst Allen/Gutbrod tractors had an automotive-type clutch and gearbox. but twowheel tractors still enjoy a loyal following.(usually of 4. spark arrestors on the exhaust tips. when a walk-behind tractor could often be more affordable than a two-axle tractor of comparable power. . Orchard tractors Tractors tailored to use in fruit orchards typically have features suited to passing under tree branches with impunity. and often wire cages to protect the operator from snags. and Southeast Asia. reduced tree-branch-snagging risk (via underslung exhaust pipes rather than smoke-stack-style exhaust. high rate of Indian GDP. However. They tend to be small and affordable. especially where an already-paid-for two-wheel tractor is financially superior to a compact or garden tractor that would have to be purchased. Today's compact utility tractors and advanced garden tractors may negate most of that market advantage. which only takes one axle to provide. although some may also have two-speed reduction gearboxes or a hydrostatic drive). especially in Europe. The key benefit is the power itself. These include a lower overall profile. and large sheetmetal cowlings and fairings that allow branches to deflect and slide off rather than catch). The engines are generally a 1. SWOT o o o o o o o Government support for the agricultural sector. Indian farmer are low income . Easy availability of Finance sale depend on monsoon. Wheel Horse (now part of Toro) garden tractors have horizontalcrankshaft engines with belt-drive. have had many users ever since the beginning of internal combustion engine tractors.or 5-speeds. more often called two-wheel tractors or walk-behind tractors. This was especially true before the 1960s. Government want 4% agriculture growth in 2015 . Farmer have little land for farming . although diesel engine models are also available. a tractor may have one or more axles.or 2-cylinder petrol (gasoline) engine. Two-wheel tractors Although most people think first of four-wheel vehicles when they think of tractors.

etc Government focusing only on growth and agriculture having minimum growth in comparing to other filling . using for other work like. commercial use like contraction . Some part of India is ratio on maximum penetration of tractor . Airplane careering.O T o o o o o Low penetration of tractors in Indian agriculture. Export of tractors worldwide.

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