You are on page 1of 22

Vietnamese academies of Science & Technologies

The MOU was signed by Prof. Said Irandoust, President, Asian Institute of Technology
(AIT) and Dr. Phan Ngoc Trung, General Director of VPI on 15 June 2010.

The program will be offered at the premises of VPI in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. The
two institutes will provide international training, education and research to PetroVietnam
and other interested parties. They will also participate in graduate education, short
courses and training as well as joint research and will enhance collaboration in education
and research in oil and gas exploration and production between the two institutes. VPI is
a research and development institute and a member of the Vietnam National Oil and Gas
Group (Petrovietnam). It was founded in 1978 to carry out scientific and technologies
studies application, basic surveys and scientific consultancies and training in the field of
petroleum exploration, production, transportation, storage, distribution, processing,
safety, environment, economics and management for Petrovietnam and other
organizations related to petroleum industry in Vietnam and the region. Delegates from
VPI included Dr. Nguyen Hong Minh, Director of Science and Technology Strategy
Division of VPI. Representatives from AIT included Dr. Nitin V. Afzulpurkar, Dean,
School of Engineering and Technology (SET); Dr. Pham Huy Giao, SET; Ms.
Tiamkare Thitithamtada, Program Officer, ERCO and Ms. Tripti Rajbhandari,
Program Officer, SET.
8. Please describe any multilateral or bilateral arrangements between your economy
and other APEC members:

(a) in the field of maritime transport policy and related services, and/or

(b) economic or technical cooperation (if so please outline the projects, their value
and whether your economy is a donor or recipient of cooperation.)


Port State Control (PSC): Australia is a signatory to the Tokyo Memorandum of

Understanding (MOU) on Port State Control and is participating in efforts to establish an
Indian Ocean MOU.

Oil Spill Response: Australia is signatory to separate MOUs with New Zealand, Papua
New Guinea and Indonesia on cooperative oil spill response. Australia is a participant in
the South Pacific Regional Environment Program (SREP) contingency planning
arrangements. Australia is also a signatory to the International Convention on Oil
Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation, 1990.

Training of Seafarers: The Transport Sector Cooperation MOU with Indonesia covers all
transport activities. The MOU includes a maritime training element which embraces
seafarer training.

Accident Investigation: Australia conducts maritime investigations, on a request basis, for

APEC members as recommended in IMO Resolution A84(20).

Vessel Survey: No, although surveys are occasionally performed at the request of other

Vessel classification: No.

Navigational Aids: Australia complies with the IMO Safety of Life at Sea
Convention,1974, regarding safe navigation. Australia is also a member of International
Association of Marine Aids and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA).

Marine Search and Rescue: Bilateral search and rescue arrangements are currently in
place with Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and New Zealand.

Government Sector Linkages Program: Bilateral assistance is provided to Indonesia to

promote economic and technical development. This program applies to all sectors of
government. In the maritime sector assistance has taken the form of the exchange of
government officers and the provision of technical expertise.
APEC Support Program: The Australian Agency for International Aid allocates funds for
projects to be undertaken in APEC economies. The programs must meet APEC
objectives for promoting trade and investment liberalisation and facilitation. Australian
experts have delivered maritime training projects in Indonesia and the Philippines under
the APEC Support Program. Additional projects are being considered for Vietnam, Chile,
Thailand and Singapore.


• Memoranda of Understanding between Transport Canada and three economies

(listed below) exist whereby each memorandum constitutes a general facilitating
document to support the development of technical cooperation between the parties
in all modes of transportation:

- Chile - Ministry of Transport and Telecommunications

- Mexico - Secretaria de Comunicaciones y Transportes

- Vietnam - Ministry of Transportation and Communications

• Regarding the above MOU with Mexico, Annex II "Marine/Ports" sets out areas
(listed below) for technical cooperation:

- Port Planning
- Port Management Training
- Oceanographic Networks
- Vessel Traffic Management
- Search and Rescue
- Pilotage Services
- Maritime Investigations
- Vessel Registration/Cabotage Services
- Management Skills Training (ships officers)
- English Language Training Materials
- Anglosea Language Training Materials
- Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS)
- Port Operations (charges, statistics, security, harbour masters, EDI)

• Transport Canada (Marine Safety) also provides technical instruction to a number

of economies in the safety inspection of ships both in Canada and in the
recipient's economy. Canada participates in marine surveyor exchange programs
with the U.S. and Mexico under the North American Free Trade Agreement
(NAFTA) and under the Tokyo Memorandum of Understanding on Port State
Control. However, these are carried out without formal technical cooperation
agreements between Marine Safety and these economies.
In addition, an "Agreement between the Government of Canada and the
Government of the People's Republic of China on Maritime Transport" applies to
international maritime transport between the parties on an MFN basis. Among
other things, the Agreement is designed to ensure efficient and smooth maritime
transport and open access to harbours and ports in the two economies. The
Agreement covers, inter alia, standards of treatment, mutual recognition of
documents of vessels, taxation, settlement and transfer of funds, entry and
stopover of crew, etc.

(China) See Annex I.

(Hong Kong, China)

HKC has a double taxation relief agreement with the U.S.A. for income derived from
international operation of ships. HKC has recently signed a memorandum of
understanding on double taxation relief with the Mainland of China. Similar
arrangements with a number of other countries are being explored.


a. Indonesia has bilateral shipping agreements with some other countries, e.g.
Vietnam, Germany and Turkey.
b. Association of South East Asian Nation (ASEAN)

There are several maritime cooperation projects which are being undertaken by
the ASEAN which include among others, the development of multimodal
transport and facilitation of goods in transit. The agreement specifically covers
among others the following areas:

entry and exit of vessels engaged in passenger and cargo services, recognition and
chartered vessels flying the flag of Indonesia, Brunei and Philippines to both
contracting parties.


Development study

Vietnam : coastal shipping rehabilitation and development project (1995-1996)

Indonesia : ferry transport maintenance project (1996-1998)

Dispatch of experts (1996)

maritime transportation Philippine 4, Mexico 2

ship & shipbuilding Indonesia 5, Philippine 3, Thailand 1,

seamen training Indonesia 3, Philippine 2, Thailand 4

Project-type technical cooperation

Thailand : project for expansion and modernization of merchant marine training center

(marine technology, 1993-1998)

Loan assistance

Thailand : vocational training and junior college improvement project (shipbuilding,


Philippine : domestic shipping modernization project (1994)

Indonesia : seamen's schools establishment project (marine technology, 1995)

Grant assistance

Indonesia : Balombon Seamen�fs school improvement project (marine technology,



(a)Countries which concluded shipping agreements with Korea : the US, Singapore,
Malaysia, China, Viet Nam.



(a) Mexico and Peoples' Republic of China, singed in July 1984, an Agreement on
Facilitation of Maritime Transport.

(b)Mexico sign with the United States of America in 1989, Bilateral Cooperation
Agreement on Pollution of the Middle Marine by Spilling of Oil and other Harmful

The Ministry of Communication and Transports of Mexico and Department of Transport

of Canada, sign in March 1994: the Annex II to the Memorandum of Understanding
regarding scientific cooperation and technology the field of transport.

The Ministry of Communications and Transports of Mexico, the Department of Transport

of Canada and the Department of Transport of the United States of America , subscribed
in March of 1995, a Memorandum of Understanding regarding scientific cooperation and
technology the field of transport.
The Government of Mexico and Japan, singed in August 1986, an agreement in technical
cooperation, regarding various areas, such as training, studies courses etc.(Mexico is
recipient of cooperation).

(New Zealand) Not applicable.


On July 4, 1999, Peru subscribed a Bilateral Agreement with Thailand on Maritime

Transport, based in reciprocity.

The Ministry of Transport, Communications, Housing and Construction does not receive
any international cooperation in the field of maritime transport.


1. Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) - There are several maritime
cooperation projects which are being undertaken by the ASEAN which include
among others the development of multimodal transport and facilitation of goods
in transit.

Among the APEC member economies, Brunei has a pending agreement in the
Philippines. The agreement specifically covers among others the following areas:
entry and exit of vessels engaged in passenger and cargo services, recognition of
certificates and ship documents and crews documents and chartered vessels flying
the flag of third countries to both contracting parties.

2. East Asian Growth Area (EAGA) - involving the southern province of the
Philippines, northern province/states of Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei. The
maritime cooperation caters to the development and establishment of sea linkages
between and among the participating provinces of the above mentioned countries.
3. Execution of bilateral maritime agreements is being considered with the following
APEC economies.




Economic and technical cooperation - There is an existing technical cooperation between

the Philippines and Norway in so far as the implementation of the 1978 STCW
Convention, as amended is concerned.

1. Singapore has bilateral shipping agreements with some APEC members, e.g.
Republic of Korea, People's Republic of China and Vietnam.
2. Singapore has signed a MOU on Third Party Training Programme (TCTP), which
provides for training assistance to developing countries in the Asia-Pacific

(Chinese Taipei)

(a. 1) Chinese Taipei has concluded the "avoidance of double taxation on revenues
derived from the operation of international shipping enterprises" with the following
economies: USA, South Korea, Singapore, Japan, Indonesian, Australia, New Zealand,
Vietnam, Thailand;

(a. 2) Chinese Taipei has also concluded Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation
with the United States of America.


(a) There are bilateral arrangements on maritime transport with China and Vietnam.

(b) None.

(United States)

APEC member (effective date) Type of agreement

Canada (1970) Multimodal research agreement (no term)

Japan (1994) MOU multimodal S&T Agreement (no term)

Korea (1995) MOU cooperation agreement in transportation S&T

OECD Multimodal, including maritime transport policy and research

Multilateral MOU on technology and policy sharing with the Permanent International
Association of Navigational Congresses (PIANC)

Multilateral MOU with the South Pacific Regional Environmental Protection Program

Multilateral Conference on International Cooperation on Marine Engineering Systems

(ICMES). Exchange of data on vessel information, including safety maintenance,
manpower, and energy saving systems.

Multilateral MOU with World Bank. Includes information exchange and joint research
training and technical assistance.
Multilateral MOU supporting US participation in International Standards Organization
(ISO), TC-8.

Russia (1998) Agreement on technical information, mostly land and air transport.

Russia (1994) MOU on Cooperation in broad areas of transportation related S&T


Russia (1988) Agreement covering joint maritime navigation coordination in Bering Sea.

Multilateral (1994) North America Free Trade Agreement (Canada, Mexico and U.S.). A
trade facilitation agreement extending to transport sectors, which effectively excludes
maritime transportation from coverage.
09:16' AM - Saturday, 05/12/2009
(Issued enclosed with Decision No 272/2003/QĐ-TTg
dated December 31, 2003 by the Prime Minister)
1.1. Achievements
1.2. Weaknesses and causes
2.1. International background
2.2. Domestic background
2.3. Opportunities and challenges
3.1. Opinions on Science and Technology Development
3.2. Objectives for Science and Technology Development by 2010
4.1. Key research tasks of Social Sciences and Humanities
4.2. Key research tasks of Natural Sciences
4.3. Key technology directions for the socio-economic development
Our Party and State has affirmed that Science and Technology development (S&T) together with education
and training development are the first national policies, foundation and motivation for speeding up the
country’s industrialization and modernization process. Although our country is still poor, over the past
time, with the Party and State’s attention, especially efforts and endeavors of S&T professional staff
nationwide, S&T potentials have been strengthened and S&T have had significant contributions to the
socio-economic development and ensured the national defense and security.
However, our current S&T level is generally low as compared with that of other countries in the world and
the region, capacities of creating new technologies are still limited and can’t meet requirements of the
country’s industrialization and modernization process. Our S&T has been faced with being far behind in
strong S&T development tendencies and knowledge-based economy in the world.
The biggest challenges in our country’s socio-economic development are currently the poor quality of
growth, low efficiency and competitiveness of the economy, leading to risks of being a far more backward
country as compared with other countries in the region and it is very difficult to achieve objectives of
industrialization and modernization. This requires S&T to contribute an important role in promoting the
country’s socio-economic development.
The ideology of our country’s S&T development strategy by 2010 is to focus on establishing our S&T
foundation towards modern and integrated directions, striving to reach the average advanced level in the
region by 2010, making S&T to really become a foundation and motivation for speeding up the country’s
industrialization and modernization process.
The S&T development strategy has following key tasks: Developing our country’s S&T integrated,
motivated, strong enough and managed by appropriate mechanisms; strengthening the international S&T
integration; contributing a decisive role in improving the quality of growth and competitiveness of the
economy; serving effectively for objectives of the Socio-Economic Development Strategy for the period
from 2001-2010 approved by the National Assembly Congress IX.
1.1. Achievements
a) Science and Technology potentials have been strengthened and developed
Thanks to the Party and State’s attention and investment, over the past decades we have trained more than
1.8 million of staff from college and tertiary levels with more than 30 thousand people of post-graduation
level (more than 14 thousands are doctors and 16 thousands are masters) and about 2 million technical
workers; among which, around 34 thousands people work directly in S&T field under the State-owned
sector. This is the important human resource for the country’s S&T activities. The reality shows that this
group is able to catch up relatively quickly and master the knowledge, modern technologies in some
branches and fields.
Over the past time, a network of S&T organizations has been set up with more than 1,100 research and
development organizations under every economic sector, among which nearly 500 are non-State
organizations; 197 are universities and colleges, including 30 non-public schools. Infrastructure of
institutes, research centers, laboratories, S&T information centers and libraries have been strengthened and
upgraded. Some good association forms between scientific research, technology development and
production – business have been appeared.
Although the State budget is still limited, with the State’s great efforts, the State budget allocation for S&T
field has reached 2% since 2000, marking an important milestone in the Party and State’s implementation
process of policies on investing in the S&T development.
b) Science and Technology have actively contributed to the socio-economic development
Social sciences and humanities have contributed an important part to explain and affirm scientific and
practical values of Marxism and Ho Chi Minh ideology and the way towards the socialism in Vietnam;
provided the scientific foundation for defining the Party and State’s guidelines, directions and policies; and
contributed to the success of the renovation process in general and the renovation process of economic
thinking in particular.
Results of basic surveys and researches on natural conditions and resources have been served as the
scientific foundation for socio-economic development ways of the country.
S&T have contributed an important part in effectively acquiring, mastering, adjusting and exploiting
technologies imported from foreign countries. As a result, technology capacities in some production and
service branches have been significantly improved and many products and goods had higher
competitiveness. Especially, in agriculture field, S&T have produced many plants and animals with high
quality and productivity, contributing to the shift in agricultural economic mechanisms, changing our
country from importing foods to becoming one of the first exporters of rice and coffee, ect... in the world.
Key research programs on information technology, biology technology, material technology, automation,
mechanic – machinery technology, have contributed to increase internal capacities of some advanced
technology fields and improve productivity, quality and effectiveness of many economic sectors.
Over the past years, S&T have contributed to training and improving human resource capacities, taking
care of people’s health, protecting the environment, keeping identities and developing more good cultural
traditions of the nation.
c) Science and Technology management mechanisms have been step by step renovated
The State management mechanism of S&T organized from the central to local level has sped up the S&T
development, contributing to the implementation of socio-economic objectives of branches and localities.
The implementation of Law on Science and Technology, programs, themes and projects on S&T has
closely focused on the socio-economic development tasks. The mechanism of selecting organizations and
individuals to be in charge of S&T tasks has initially been managed with principles of democracy and
Operations of S&T organizations have been expanded from research – development to S&T production and
service. The autonomy of organizations and individuals in S&T field has initially strengthened. The
autonomy in international cooperation of organizations and individuals working in S&T field has been
Capital sources mobilized for S&T from contracts signed with production – business sectors, bank credits,
international funds and other sources have been significantly increased thanks to policies on diversifying
capital invested in S&T. The budget allocation for scientists has been improved one step by reducing
intermediate phases.
The assignment and decentralization in the State management in terms of S&T have gradually improved
through regulations on functions, tasks and responsibilities of Ministries, ministerial agencies, the People’s
Committee of provinces and cities under the Central government.
d) S&T awareness and using capacities of people have been increasingly improved
Thanks to the Party’s attention, governments at all levels, active operations of S&T organizations,
agricultural, forestry and fishery extension organizations and Information, Education and Communication
activities on S&T impacts on production and daily life, awareness and capacities of acquiring and using
S&T knowledge of people in the past time have been remarkably increased. S&T activities have been
increasingly socialized nationwide.
1.2. Weaknesses and main causes
a) Weaknesses
Although certain achievements have been gained, our S&T field has still faced with many weaknesses,
there exist many big gaps with the world and the region, can’t meet the requirement of being the foundation
and motivation for the socio-economic development.
S&T capacities have still had many weaknesses:
S&T staff still lacks of excellent leaders, "General engineers in charge", especially young high-level S&T
staffs who are able to be successive. The structure of S&T human resources according to occupations and
localities has much inconsistency.
Social investments in S&T are still low, especially those from enterprises. Equipment of research institutes
and universities are generally very insufficient, unsynchorized and backward as compared with advanced
manufacturing units in the same branch.
The education and training system can’t meet requirements of training high-quality S&T human resources,
especially for advanced S&T fields, and can’t response to needs of the S&T development as well the
country’s industrialization and modernization process.
S&T services systems, including S&T information, consultancy for technology transfer, intellectual
properties, standards-measures-quality are still poor in terms of both facilities and capacities for providing
services which can meet requirements of regional and international integration.
There is a lack of organic links among S&T researches, education–training and production–business; and a
lack of closed cooperation among research and development organizations, universities and enterprises.
As compared with other countries in the region and the world, our country is still faced with very big gaps
in potentials and results of S&T activities: ratios of S&T researchers in the population and investment rates
in scientific researches per capita are low; research and development results compliant with international
standards are very few.
In general, our country’s S&T capacities are still poor, can’t timely solve many issues arisen in the
renovation process, can’t closely link with and meet requirements of the socio-economic development.
The technology level of many manufacturing branches is still low and backward:
In addition to newly-invested advanced technologies in some branches and fields such as posts–
telecommunications, petroleum, consumer electronic goods, electricity and cement production, generally
the technology level of our country’s manufacturing branches is currently far behind from 2 to 3
technology generations as compared with that of other countries in the region. This situation limits the
competitiveness of enterprises and of the economy in the context of international and regional integration.
The S&T management mechanism has been slowly reformed and heavily administrative-driven:
The management of S&T activities is mainly focused on inputs, and proper attention isn’t paid to the
management of the output quality and use of research results in practices. S&T tasks don’t really link
closely with demands of the socio-economic development. The assessment and appraisal of research results
are not relevant and compliant with international standards.
The management mechanism of S&T organizations is not appropriate with specialized characteristics of
creative labor and regulations of the socialist-oriented market economy. S&T organizations haven’t been
delegated with adequate autonomy on planning, finance, human resource and international cooperation in
order to promote their dynamics and creativeness.
The management of S&T staff according to civil service regulations is not suitable with S&T activities,
limiting staff rotation and changes. There is a lack of assured regulations so that S&T staff can have their
free opinions, develop their creativeness, are themselves responsible within the legal framework. There
haven’t been effective policies which create motivations for S&T staff, attract and treat talented people
with special attention, the salary scheme still has much inconsistency and can’t motivate S&T staff to be
fully committed with the S&T cause.
The financial management mechanism of S&T activities hasn’t created favorable conditions for scientists
and mobilized many non-State capital sources; the self-financed mechanism of S&T organizations hasn’t
been linked together with the autonomy in the human resource management so the efficiency is limited.
The S&T market slowly develops. Purchase and selling of technologies and circulation of S&T research
results are still limited because of the lack of intermediate organizations, necessary legal regulations,
especially the effective protection system of intellectual property rights.
In summary, the State management of S&T hasn’t been timely reformed with requirements of shifting into
the market economy.
b) Main causes
The Party and State’s guidelines and policies on the S&T development haven’t been fully awarded and
slowly implemented in practice:
The opinion that S&T are the foundation and motivation for the country’s development has been affirmed
in the Party resolutions but it hasn’t been fully awarded and implemented by all levels, branches and
localities during the socio-economic development process in practice.
Many Party and State’s guidelines and policies on the S&T development have been slowly institutionalized
by legal and regulatory documents; the organization and guidance on implementing policies haven’t been
thoroughly carried out so results are very limited.
Capacities of S&T counseling and management agencies at all level are very poor:
The planned, centralized and subsidized mechanism, deeply rooted in thinking and habits of many S&T
staff and managers, have created the inertia, which is very difficult to overcome in new mechanisms, can’t
meet requirements of S&T management renovation in the socialist-oriented market economy in the context
of the globalization and international integration.
The State responsibilities haven’t been clearly identified for S&T activities which should be invested by the
State, for example, key and prioritized S&T fields, strategic studies; development policies; basic
researches; public researches, ect...; and there haven’t been any mechanisms or polices, which are
appropriate for necessary S&T activities and make use of the market mechanism such as researches on
technology use and development and S&T services.
The State management for administrative and non-productive sectors in the S&T system hasn’t been clearly
defined, leading to the fact that the management of S&T organizations is carried out in an administrative
Lessons learnt have been slowly withdrawn for replication of good examples on linking S&T with
education–training and production-business.
The investment in S&T development is limited:
The investment in developing long-term S&T potentials hasn’t been paid proper attention and focused on
key and prioritized fields, leading to the backward S&T infrastructure and low investment efficiency.
There is a lack of planning on training high-level professional staff in prioritized S&T fields, especially
S&T leaders, "General engineers in charge".
The economic management mechanism hasn’t created a favorable environment for the S&T development:
The current economic management mechanism has still maintained the State’s indirect subsidiary and
monopoly of enterprises in many production and business fields, which lead to the fact that State–owned
enterprises aren’t independent and don’t to pay attention to use S&T research results and renovate their
technologies. There is a lack of effective policies to link S&T with production–business and promote
enterprises to use S&T research results. Less-developed financial and monetary systems also don’t create
favorable conditions for enterprises to themselves mobilize investments in S&T.
2.1. International background
a) Science and Technology development trends
The world S&T revolution has continuously developed with increasing speeds, been able to gain
achievements which are breakthroughs, difficult to forecast and have significant impacts on all aspects of
human being’s social life.
Thanks to big S&T achievements, especially information–communication technology, biology technology,
material technology, ect..., the human being’s society is in the process of shifting from the industrial
civilization into the information era, from the natural resource-based economy into knowledge-based one,
bringing in new opportunities for developing countries to cut short the industrialization and modernization
Science and Technology have become direct and first production forces. Strengths of each nation depend
mostly on S&T capacities. Advantages of natural resources and cheap labor become less important. The
role of human resources which have professional and creative capacities has become increasingly decisive
in the context of the economic globalization.
The time to introduce research results into use and technology cycles is more shortened. Competitive
advantages belong to enterprises which know how to make use of new technologies for making new
products and services and meet diversified and changing demands of customers. With strong potentials in
finance and S&T, trans-nation and multi-nation companies have acquired and controlled advanced
technology markets.
In order to adapt to the above contexts, developing countries are adjusting their economic structures
towards directions of quickly increasing industries and services which have high-technology content and
environment-friendly technologies; promoting the transfer of technologies which aren’t material-intensive,
energy-intensive and don’t cause pollution to developing countries. Many of them have given priorities to
training high-level S&T human resources, increasing investment in researches and technology renovation,
especially some selective high-technology directions; strengthening information–communication
infrastructure; creating competitive advantages and reducing development gaps.
b) Globalization and international integration trends
Globalization and international integration trends have increasingly developed. These are cooperation
processes to develop and at the same time the struggling process among countries to protect national
In order to exist and develop in a more severe competitive environment, requirements of labor productivity,
frequent renovations, improved product quality, technology renovation, renovation of organization and
management modalities, have increasingly arisen more seriously. Especially, in the context of the economic
globalization, significant achievements of information–communications technology, tendencies of Internet
popularization, development of e-commerce, e-business, e-banking, e-Government, ect. have created new
competitive advantages for nations and enterprises.
For developing countries, if they don’t actively prepare their human resources, strengthen information –
technology infrastructure, adjust legal regulations, the fact that they will be faced with risks of being left
behind and lost in international relationships is inevitable.
2.2. Domestic background
After 15 years of renovation, our country has gained important achievements, serving as a foundation for
the new development stage: the economy with continuous and high growth rates; the stable political and
social situation; increasingly democratization and socialization tendencies; significantly improved people’s
life; and improved international cooperation relations.
The Party Congress session IX continuously affirms the renovation way towards directions of promoting
the industrialization and modernization process so our country basically becomes an industrial country by
2020; actively taking part in the international economic integration, committing to implement agreements
within the framework of AFTA, US–Vietnam Bilateral Trade Agreement, actively preparing for WTO
entry; strengthening the reform of State-owned economic sector, developing collective economic forms,
encouraging private businesses, strongly supporting small and medium enterprise sector; and speeding up
the administrative reform, ect.
Our country’s socio-economic development strategy for the period from 2001to 2010 affirms the overall
objective: Moving our country out of the less developed situation, obviously improving the people’s
spiritual and material life, creating the foundation so that by 2020 our country basically becomes an
modern-oriented industrial country; human resources, S&T capacities, infrastructure, economic potentials,
national defense and security are strengthened; the socialist-oriented market economy is basically
established; the position of our country in the international world is improved.
Within that framework, S&T have tasks of timely providing the scientific foundation for the Party and
State’s important policies and decisions; practically contributing to improving the efficiency and
competitiveness of the economy, and meeting strategic objectives of the socio-economic development
strategy by 2010.
2.3. Opportunities and challenges
a) Opportunities
The Party and State always appreciate the S&T development cause, the Party Congress IX continuously
affirms that S&T together with education and training development are first national policies, foundation
and motivation for the country’s industrialization and modernization process.
In the context of the economic globalization with multi-lateral and diversified international relations, our
country has favorable opportunities to acquire scientific knowledge, technologies, resources and experience
of advanced organization and management from foreign countries in order to quickly strengthen the
national S&T capacities and meeting requirements of the socio-economic development.
By making use of achievements of the modern S&T revolution, our country can go straight to modern
technologies in order to shorten the industrialization and modernization process and gaps in the economic
development as compared with advanced countries. With abundant intellectual potentials, if we have proper
policies on human resource development, our country can soon go to some fields of the knowledge-based
The country’s renovation process has set new premises for our S&T development in the coming time. The
fact that our economy has experienced high and continuous economic growth rates over the past time is a
favorable condition for increasing investments in S&T development, and at the same time promotes the
technology renovation and use of S&T achievements in the economy, especially with pressures of
competition in conditions of the regional and international integration.
b) Challenges
In the context of dynamic and unforeseen development of both S&T and economy of the modern world,
abilities to catch up opportunities and make use of external resources depend much on the S&T level and
capacities of each nation. The biggest challenge for our S&T development is currently to quickly improve
S&T capacities to cut short the industrialization and modernization process in conditions of being a poor
country, limited investment capitals, level of economic and S&T development far behind that of many
countries in the world and the region.
In the tendency of the knowledge-based economy development, advantages of natural resources and cheap
labor are gradually taken over by those of human resources of high-level profession and creative capacities.
If our country doesn’t soon shift the occupation structure, improve professional levels and skills of the
labor force, we wont’ have the competitiveness with other countries in the region in terms of outside
investment attraction and advanced technologies.
In the international integration of economic and S&T, our country is faced with difficulties in changing and
establishing new mechanisms in economy, trade, finance, banking, intellectual property…. appropriate with
international rules. This situation, if we don’t soon overcome, will hinder the success of the regional and
international integration.
With the above opportunities and challenges, if we don’t have breakthrough policies and decisions on
renovating our economic regulations, S&T management mechanisms and strong measures to enhance the
national S&T capacities, risks of being left far behind in terms of the economy and S&T and of depending
on imported technologies for a long time are inevitable.
3.1. Opinions on Science and Technology development
Leading opinions on S&T development have been clearly stated in the Party and State documents such as
the Resolution of the Central Government 2 Session VIII, Law on Science and Technology, Documents of
Party Congress IX and recently the Conclusion of the Central Conference 6 Session IX. These opinions
need to be more specific and developed appropriate with new domestic and international context for the
period from now to 2010.
a) S&T development is the first national policy, foundation and motivation for promoting the country’s
industrialization and modernization process
For S&T to quickly become the foundation and motivation for promoting the country’s industrialization
and modernization process, the State should have policies and pay special attention to the S&T
development: considering investment in S&T is the investment for development; giving priorities to invest
and build the technical infrastructure, develop human resources; creating strong material and spiritual
motivations for individuals to carry out S&T activities, and praise and treat talented people with specially
b) The S&T-based socio-economic development, S&T development with focus on socio-economic
objectives, national defense and security
Important guidelines, decisions, programs, projects on the socio-economic development should be based on
S&T foundation; S&T tasks focused on effectively achieving socio-economic objectives. Every branch and
level should promote researches and widely use of S&T achievements in socio-economic activities,
national defense, security, orientation of development strategies, policy making, planning, and organization
and implementation plans.
c) Links should be ensured between science and technology with education and training; between science
and technology; between social sciences and humanities, natural sciences and technical sciences.
Links between S&T with education–training should firstly be carried out in universities, research and
development organizations; at the same time there should be suitable promoting mechanisms with
administrative measures to create cooperation and coordination among these organizations. Links among
social sciences and humanities, natural sciences and technical sciences and between science and technology
should be carried out based on inter-branch researches in order to solve integrated socio-economic issues
and develop sustainable the country.
d) The acquisition of the world S&T achievements should be strengthened, at the same time internal S&T
capacities brought into full play and the efficiency of using national S&T potentials improved.
In the context of deeper globalization and international integration, international cooperation on S&T
should be promoted in order to exploit opportunities brought in by the globalization. In our country’s
current situation, it is necessary to import technologies from developed countries in order to timely meet
development demands of economic and technical branches; at the same time improve internal S&T
capacities to acquire effectively modern S&T achievements of the world. The management mechanism
should be renovated to exploit maximum available domestic S&T capacities, at the same time quickly
acquire and efficiently use the world S&T achievements.
đ) The State investment should be focused on key and prioritized fields, at the same time the socialization
of S&T activities strengthened.
The State focuses investments in key and concentrated fields; linking in a synchronized way between
developing infrastructure, providing equipment with investing in S&T human resource training and
implementing completely works so that they can soon display the investment efficiency. This opinion
should be fully awarded right in the preparation of 5-year S&T development plans and annual plans with
focus on key S&T activities stated in the S&T development strategy. The State encourages organizations
and individuals of all economic sectors domestically and internationally to participate in research, use and
investment in S&T development.
3.2. Science and Technology Development Objectives by 2010
The S&T Development Strategy by 2010 is focused on the implementation of 3 key objective groups.
a) It is ensured that the scientific foundation is provided for the shortened industrialization, socialist-
oriented sustainable development and successful integration in the global economy
S&T, especially social sciences and humanities focused on developing theoretical and practical basis for
the shortened industrialization, establishing the socialist-oriented market economy regulations; formulating
the scientific foundation to make guidelines, policies, planning, socio-economic development plans,
sustainable development solutions and successful integration into the regional and global economy; and
timely solving other theoretical and practical issues arisen in the daily life.
b) It contributes a decisive role in improving the quality of growth of the economy and the competitiveness
of products and goods and ensuring the national defense and security
By 2010, S&T should contribute a decisive role in creating obvious changes in productivity, quality and
efficiency in some important economic branches.
Research and wide use of technical advancements should be promoted in agriculture-forestry-fishery and
processing industries of agricultural products and foods in order to effective use tropically biological
resources, increase added values and competitiveness of exported agricultural products equivalent to those
of other countries with developed agriculture in the region, contribute to shift the rural economic structure,
create more jobs, and significantly improve the people’s life and conditions of our rural areas by 2010.
Small and medium enterprise sector and craft industry should be supported, the quality, added values and
the competitiveness of products increased, meeting domestic consumption demands and for exports.
Capacities of acquiring, mastering, adapting and improving modern technologies imported from foreign
countries should be enhanced in some fields of services, infrastructure (finance, banking, posts,
telecommunications, transportation, airlines, ect) to ensure the international relevance and compliance,
successful integration into the regional and global economy.
Some high-technology industries should be established and developed; information- communication
technology and biology technology be developed to become economic branches with high growth rates,
meeting increasingly high domestic demands and contributing to increase export turnovers.
c) S&T capacities should be established and developed at the average advanced level in the region
S&T potentials should be developed at the average advanced level in the region:
The speed of increasing investment ratios of S&T from the State budget should be ensured higher than that
of increasing expenditures from State budget, at the same time sources of non-State budget investments in
S&T should be strengthened. It is striving that the whole society’s total investment in S&T reaches 1% of
GDP in 2005 and 1.5% of GDP by 2010.
Human resources should be developed with high quality, appropriate qualifications and professions for
prioritized S&T directions, for demands of the socio-economic development and be allocated according to
territories. It is striving that by 2010 the quality of S&T staff should be improved and developed at the
average advanced level of other countries in the region.
Some research–development organizations and some universities which are of the average advanced level
in the region should be established in some key technology fields and some strong scientific branches of
The first-stage construction of two high-technology zones should be completed in Hoa Lac and Ho Chi
Minh City; some approved key national laboratories be put into operation and effectively exploited;
technical infrastructure of some important S&T service providers in terms of S&T information, standards –
measures - quality be upgraded.
A network of S&T organizations which are capable of integrating internationally and link closely with
education–training, production–business should be established.
The management mechanism of advanced S&T should be set up, relevant and compliant with international
The management mechanism of S&T should be renovated appropriate with the market economy,
characteristics of S&T activities and international integration; creative motivations for S&T staff produced;
the efficiency of S&T activities improved.
S&T capacities should be improved:
By 2010, our S&T will be able to acquire, master and use effectively imported modern technologies;
capable of doing researches and using some modern technologies, especially information technology,
biology technology, advanced material technology, automation technology, mechanic–electronic
technology; and catch up with the global level in some Vietnam’s strong scientific fields.
4.1. Key research tasks of Social sciences and humanities
a) Theoretical and practical researches on Vietnam’s development way
Researches should be continued to make clear the way towards the socialism which are appropriate with
Vietnam’s geographical, human and social conditions and adapted to current changes in the international
Theoretical and practical basis should be studied for the shortened industrialization process; as well as
solutions for speeding up the industrialization and modernization process and the country’s sustainable
b) Researches on economic, political, legal, cultural, social, defense and security issues
Researches should be conducted on the nature of the socialist-orientated market economy; issues of the
renovation process and regulations of the socialist-oriented market economy in Vietnam be established in a
synchronized manner. The scientific foundation should be provided for the country’s socio-economic
development strategies, key branches and regions. Solutions should be recommended to improve
competitive capacities of the economy, participatory capacities in international financial–monetary
The political system should be renovated, solutions for the implementation process be recommended and
the democracy be promoted, roles of the ruling Party be strengthened, and the State administrative
organism be reformed. The socialist-oriented jurisdictional State should be developed. Proprietary
relationships and the issue that Party members can run private business should be studied. Changes in the
social structure and managements of the social development in Vietnam should be studied under
circumstances of the socialist-oriented market economy.
The legal system should be developed and improved, making the legal framework for the synchronized
establishment and development of regulations of the socialist-oriented market economy and the
international integration. Issues of the national defense and security in 10 coming years should studied,
serving for the development and protection of the country.
The historical progress, Vietnamese culture and new Vietnamese cultural values should be studied
comprehensively and systematically, advanced Vietnamese culture with a lot of national identities be
c) Researches on Vietnam human development
Basic studies should be conducted on human beings and human resources as the social subject, who has
high educational level, bears a lot of humanities and good cultural values of the nation, absorbs cultural and
civilized mankind quintessence, and meet increasing requirements of the country’s industrialization and
modernization process.
d) Researches on forecasting the world development tendencies
The nature, characteristics and content of the modern S&T revolution and the development of the
knowledge-based economy in the 21st century should be studied, paying attention to the social aspect and
impacts of this revolution on Vietnam’s development process.
Key development trends in the world and the region in first decades of the 21st century as well as multi-
facial impacts of the globalization process should be studied and forecasted. Key development movements
and trends in the world and the region should be forecasted, opportunities and advantages be made use at
the maximum level, disadvantages and risks be protected and reduced at minimum level, and every source
be focused for the country’s development and protection cause.
The modern capitalism in the globalization context, its political, economic, social, cultural impacts, and
new subjects in international relations which have direct effects on Vietnam’s development strategies
should be continued to study in order to clearly define Vietnam’s position, roles, steps and integration
polices into global and regional institutions.
4.2. Key research tasks of natural sciences
The State has paid attention to develop basic researches in natural sciences, especially applied-oriented
basic researches. For the period by 2010, basic researches in natural sciences should be carried out with
focus on some following directions:
a) Basic researches are applied-oriented to support the selection, acquisition, adaptation and improvement
of advanced technologies imported from foreign countries and then Vietnam’s specialized technology are
created, especially in information technology, biology technology, advanced material technology,
automation, mechanic and electronic technology.
b) Researches are carried out to make clear use values of many types of our country’s natural resources,
serving as the basis to develop ways and select technologies to efficiently exploit. It is necessary to pay
proper attention to research potentials of biological diversification and precious natural resources which
become exhausted due to over-exploitation and degrading environment.
c) Researches are carried out on the essence and rules of the nature and its impacts on our country’s socio-
economic life, paying attention to meteorological and natural factors in biological regions and forecasting
to prevent natural disasters (storms, floods, forest fires, land slides, land cracking, erosion of river banks,
sea sides, alluvium at river-mouths and damp-months, droughts, ect...).
d) Basic issues are studied on the East Sea to forecast marine benefits, build works on the sea, exploit
integrated marine benefits, develop sustainable the marine economy, and ensure the national defense and
đ) Some theoretical research fields which Vietnam has advantages are developed such as mathematics,
theoretical physics...
4.3. Key technological directions for the socio-economic development
During the period from now on to 2010, our country needs to focused on the development of some key
technologies include advanced technologies, which have significant impacts on modernizing economic-
technical branches and ensuring the national defense and security; create favorable conditions for forming
and developing some new branches, and increase the competitiveness of the economy; new technologies
can make use of our country’s advantages of tropical agriculture and abundant labor force in rural areas and
create products for export and jobs with high income for population classes.
a) Information-Communication Technologies (ICT)
It is focused on research and development of:
New technologies in communications field: wide bandwidth services; circuit-switching systems; high-
volume cable transmission systems; aaccessing technologies; mobile information systems, new-generation
Internet; satellite information technologies; network management technologies; digital broadcasting and
television technologies.
Software industry: databases, content technology, multi-media technology, geographical and graphic
information systems; development of web-based software; solutions on "resource management of
organizations"; open source software; software development process; processes of assessment, certification
and quality improvement of software; design and development of applied computerized systems.
Researches on artificial intelligence, special attention is paid to Vietnam’s specialized issues: identification
of Vietnamese characters, image processing, Vietnamese identification; knowledge technology;
professional systems; automatic translation.
Basic researches should be carried out to use in some selective fields: mathematics in computerization;
some inter-branch selected directions such as nano technology, new- generation electronic components,
serving as the basis for the development of nano-level computerized applications.
The use of information - communication technology should be promoted in all fields of the economy,
society, life, defense and security:
In the State management from the central to local level, it is necessary to pay proper attention to
information systems and databases for the State management activities and the development of e-
It is required that economic and technical fields should be soon relevant and compliant with regional and
international levels such as posts, banking, finance, tourism, trade, especially e-commerce; so are in fields
of energy, transportation, defense, security, ect... Projects on computerization and information and
communication services should be implemented in enterprises. Information and communication should be
used in rural areas.
Knowledge is popularized and information-communication technologies used in education and training
from lower secondary to tertiary level; in scientific researches, surveys and exploration of natural resources
and changes in fields of environment, health care, culture and tourism monitored.
Information-communication technologies are developed and information-communication technology
industry established:
The infrastructure of the information–communication industry is developed modern, relevant and
compliant with international standards. The content industry, information-communication industry and
software industry are built to serve the domestic market and for exports; at the same time, technology
transfer capacities, joint-venture and association are made use to develop selectively assembling and
manufacturing units of modern computer components and equipment in order to acquire the domestic
market share and for exports. The information–communication industry is developed to become an industry
with fast growth rates and high export turnovers.
b) Biology technologies
Foundation technologies are established and developed for the biology technology to reach the advanced
level in the region, including:
Gene technology (AND re-combination).
Industrial-oriented micro-biology technology.
Enzyme-protein technology for the development of food and pharmacy industries.
Cell technology (flora and fauna) for selecting and producing new breeds in agriculture, forestry,
aquaculture and developing cell therapy in healthcare.
Development of biology technology in national economic branches:
Biology technology in agriculture (agriculture-forestry-fishery): developing multiplication factories of
plants and animals without any diseases, producing high-quality seeds; applying techniques of biology
technology in producing high-quality plants and animals, ensuring the competitiveness in domestic and
foreign markets, focusing on groups of food plants, vegetables, fruits, forestry trees, animals, marine
products; developing the production of biological product processing industry to protect plants and animal
on the small and medium scale.
Biology technology in processing: serving the production of domestic consumer goods and for exports.
Biology technology in pharmacy: ensuring products for the preventive healthcare (vaccines, antibiotics,
diagnosis biological products), and the control of food safety and hygiene.
Biology technology in environment: controlling, processing, appraising environment, focusing in industrial
zones, trade village areas, farms for processing agricultural products; treating solid wastes, sewage, exhaust
fumes and overcoming oil over-floating incidents; and protecting biological diversification.
Establishment and development of Vietnam’s biology industry:
Every economic sector is encouraged to establish and develop biology technology enterprises to
manufacture products for other economic branches, consumption and exports.
The State invests in establishing some key biology industries such as breed industry, pharmacy industry
(vaccines, antibiotics, diagnosis biological products), and the control of food safety and hygiene, biological
product processing industry to protect plants and animals, good processing industry, petroleum processing
c) Advanced material technologies
It is necessary to research, develop and use effectively following technology directions:
Mental material technology: based on domestic natural resources, studying to select appropriate metallurgy
technology such as electric furnace, balst furnace–closed moving furnace, non-tumbler technology to
produce high-quality steel alloy, other alloys with integrated usage functions for manufacturing mechanics,
construction, transportation, chemicals, petroleum, defense; studying technology of producing aluminum
alloy for machinery manufacturing and defense; technology of producing mental based composites used in
electricity, electronics, medicine and biology.
Polymer and composite material technology: studying to use technologies of producing soft – heat based
composite materials and solid-heat based materials by glass, basalt and carbon fibers for transports,
agriculture, aquaculture and defense; polymer composite materials used for electricity and electronics in
hard conditions; biological destroying polymer, polymer for treating environmental pollutions.
Electronics and photon material technology: studying to use technologies of producing photon-electronic
and photon materials and components for telecommunications, automation; producing high-quality
magnetic blocked materials, amorphous and nano membranes used in exploration industry, electricity,
electronics and automation; producing faradic materials and components used in measurement and
Medicine–biology material technology: studying technologies of producing some materials used in health
care to replace some body parts of human beings: biological polymers, carbon composites, physical
regulating materials, growth regulating materials, spongy carbonic materials, bi-ô-xi-tan materials.
Nano material technology: study to produce polymer-based and metal-based nano composites used in
economic–technical branches; using nano structure as catalysis in petroleum and environment treatment.
Carrying out applied-oriented basic researches in some nano technologies which have high possibilities of
using in Vietnam.
d) Automation and electronic-mechanic technologies
Automation, electronic-mechanic technologies are researched and used in order to improve the quality,
production efficiency, contributing to improve the competitiveness of enterprises and economy:
Designing and manufacturing technologies with supports of computers (CAD/CAM) are used in some
manufacturing branches for exports as knitting, tailoring, leather-making and mechanics (in key fields of
the whole equipment, motive machinery; tool machinery; mechanics for agriculture–forestry–fishery and
processing industry; ship-building engineering; ship building; electronic–electric equipment; automobile
mechanics–transportation mechanics).
Software are self-designed and developed, systems of controlling, monitoring, collecting and processing
data (SCADA) are assembled and maintained.
Comprehensively integrated automation technologies are used to improve the efficiency of the whole
production cycle of enterprises.
Computerized number-controlling technologies (CNC) in machinery systems are used and disseminated for
processing and manufacturing fields, serving domestic demands and for exports.
Automation technologies are widely used for measurement and information processing for manufacturing,
weather and disaster forecasts and environment protection.
Robot techniques (especially intelligent robots and parallel robots) are studied to use and develop, priorities
given to unsafe production parts, in harmful environment, in some high-technology industrial production
assembly lines and for defense and security.
Some mechanic- electronic products are researched and manufactured, especially in some key mechanic
fields (tool machinery, motive machinery, electronic–electric equipment, automobile mechanics and
measure and control equipment).
Designing technologies are used and developed, electronic–mechanic systems are manufactured (including
the hardware and software), especially embedded controlling systems; priorities given to applied software
and designing solutions. Imitation techniques are developed, especially virtual sample making
technologies, in order to optimize high-technology products used in fields of robots, ship-building, accurate
machines, wind energy equipment, ect.
Some new and potential electronic-mechanic directions are initially researched such as micro-electronic
and mechanic systems (MEMS) and nano-electronic and mechanic systems (NEMS).
đ) Atomic energy and types of new energy
Nuclear electricity is developed: studying to select technologies for projects on nuclear electricity factories,
imported technologies are acquired and mastered to operate the factories safely and highly efficiently.
Atomic techniques, radiation and radio-active isotopes are studied and widely used in national economic
branches, health care, geology, hydrography and environment; the safety of nuclear radiation in researches
is ensured, atomic energy is developed and used; radio-active wastes are managed.
Studies on new types of energy are strengthened to develop and use in remote and far areas and islands as
solar energy, wind energy, biological energy, ect.
e) Cosmology technologies
Cosmology technologies are studied to develop: acquiring, mastering technologies and launching small
satellites to observe the Earth and land-receiving stations, for demands of scientific researches, the socio-
economic development, national defense and security. Vietnam’s cosmology S&T potentials are developed
to be capable of designing, manufacturing small satellites, land-receiving stations; developing some
commercialized cosmological equipment; and mastering missile technologies and techniques by 2010.
Using cosmology technology: technologies of remote sensing and global positioning are studied and
transferred for scientific researches and basic surveys on natural conditions and resources; monitoring the
environment; making planning on land use and territory; forecasting and monitoring natural disasters;
raising and catching marine products; positioning means of transportation; and serving the national defense
and security, ect.
g) Mechanic–machinery technologies
Advanced technologies are studied and used in the mechanic–machinery industry, which should be
developed strong enough to provide some equipment and machines, meeting domestic demands and for
Mould-making technology: using technology of fresh and self-stiffened mould-making with standardization
of mould-making materials and technology of accurate casting with strengthened mechanization and
automation, investing in refining equipment and fast analyzing and testing equipment; technologies of
battered forging, moulding lamination, melting pressing, pressing and battering after solidifying;
technologies of automatic or semi arc electric welding and some modern welding technologies as plasma
welding, electronic spray clustered welding ect.
Mechanic processing technology: together with upgrading and modernizing existing equipment and
machines, it is necessary to wide use CAD/CAM/CNC technologies in processing centers in order to
improve the product quality and flexibly change product designs; linking electronics and mechanics for
automatizing designing and monitoring, testing and measuring processes.
Surface processing technology: investing in processes of thremal treatment, plated painting, spraying,
infiltrating thoroughly on the surface of advanced levels.
(Ban hành kèm theo Quyết định số 272/2003/QĐ-TTg ngày 31 tháng 12 năm 2003 của Thủ
tướng Chính phủ)

1.1. Những thành tựu
1.2. Những yếu kém và nguyên nhân chủ yếu
2.1. Bối cảnh quốc tế
2.2. Bối cảnh trong nước
2.3. Cơ hội và thách thức
3.1. Quan điểm phát triển khoa học và công nghệ
3.2. Mục tiêu phát triển khoa học và công nghệ đến năm 2010
4.1. Các nhiệm vụ trọng tâm nghiên cứu trong khoa học xã hội và nhân văn
4.2. Các nhiệm vụ trọng tâm nghiên cứu trong khoa học tự nhiên
4.3. Các hướng công nghệ trọng điểm phục vụ phát triển kinh tế - xã hội


(Ban hành kèm theo Quyết định số 171/2004/QĐ-TTg ngày 28 tháng 9 năm 2004 của Thủ tướng
Chính phủ)

1. Những đổi mới bước đầu
2. Những yếu kém và nguyên nhân
1. Mục tiêu
2. Quan điểm
3. Nguyên tắc
1. Hoàn thiện cơ chế xây dựng và tổ chức thực hiện nhiệm vụ khoa học và công nghệ
2. Đổi mới cơ chế quản lý và hoạt động của các tổ chức khoa học và công nghệ
3. Đổi mới cơ chế, chính sách đầu tư tài chính cho hoạt động khoa học và công nghệ
4. Đổi mới cơ chế quản lý nhân lực khoa học và công nghệ
5. Phát triển thị trường công nghệ
6. Hoàn thiện cơ chế hoạt động của bộ máy quản lý nhà nước về khoa học và công nghệ

ĐOẠN 5 NĂM 2006 - 2010
( Ban hành kèm theo quyết định số: 67/2006/QĐ-TTg ngày 21/03/2006 của Thủ tướng Chính