Nobel Prizes The Nobel Prizes are awarded annually to people (and, in the case of the Peace Prize

, sometimes to organisations) who have completed outstanding research, invented groundbreaking techniques or equipment, or made an outstanding contribution to society in physics, chemistry, literature, peace, medicine or physiology and economics. They are widely regarded as the supreme commendation in their respective subject areas. Those honoured are known as Nobel Laureates. The Prizes were instituted by the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel through his will. They were first awarded in 1901, five years after Nobel’s death. The prize in economics, instituted by the Bank of Sweden, has been awarded since 1969. As of September 2007, a total of 799 Nobel Prizes have been awarded, 777 to individuals (33 of these to women), 20 to organizations and 2 were awarded in different categories. Prize Categories Prize Category Physiology and Medicine Physics Chemistry Literature Peace Economics 2009 winners Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider and Jack W. Szostak Charles K. Kao, Willard S. Boyle and George E. Smith Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Thomas A. Steitz and Ada E. Yonath Herta Müller Barack Obama Elinor Ostrom and Oliver E. Williamson

For information on Nobel Prize winners of previous years, click on the following link: Man Booker Prize The Man Booker Prize for Fiction, also known as the Booker Prize, is one of the world’s most prestigious literary prizes, awarded each year for the best original full-length novel written by a citizen of the Commonwealth or the Republic of Ireland in the English language. The Booker prize was started by Booker McConnel, a multinational conglomerate company in 1969. This award is administered by Book Trust in the United Kingdom. For the year 2007, the prize has been awarded to Ireland novelist Anne Enright for ‘The Gathering’. Source: Year 1969 1970 1971 Author P. H. Newby Bernice Rubens V. S. Naipaul Country United Kingdom United Kingdom Trinidad and Tobago/United Title Something to Answer For The Elected Member In a Free State

1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

Kingdom John Berger United Kingdom J. G. Farrell United Kingdom Nadine Gordimer South Africa Stanley Middleton United Kingdom Ruth Prawer United Kingdom/Germany Jhabvala David Storey United Kingdom Paul Scott United Kingdom Iris Murdoch Ireland/United Kingdom Penelope Fitzgerald United Kingdom William Golding United Kingdom Salman Rushdie India Thomas Keneally Australia J. M. Coetzee South Africa Anita Brookner United Kingdom Keri Hulme New Zealand Kingsley Amis United Kingdom Penelope Lively United Kingdom Peter Carey Australia Kazuo Ishiguro United Kingdom/Japan A. S. Byatt United Kingdom Ben Okri Nigeria Michael Ondaatje Sri Lanka/Canada Barry Unsworth United Kingdom Roddy Doyle Ireland James Kelman United Kingdom Pat Barker United Kingdom Graham Swift United Kingdom Arundhati Roy India Ian McEwan United Kingdom J. M. Coetzee South Africa Margaret Atwood Canada Peter Carey Yann Martel DBC Pierre Alan Hollinghurst John Banville Australia Canada Australia/Mexico United Kingdom Ireland

G. The Siege of Krishnapur The Conservationist Holiday Heat and Dust Saville Staying On The Sea, the Sea Offshore Rites of Passage Midnight's Children Schindler's Ark Life & Times of Michael K Hotel du Lac The Bone People The Old Devils Moon Tiger Oscar and Lucinda The Remains of the Day Possession: A Romance The Famished Road The English Patient Sacred Hunger Paddy Clarke Ha Ha Ha How Late It Was, How Late The Ghost Road Last Orders The God of Small Things Amsterdam Disgrace The Blind Assassin True History of the Kelly Gang Life of Pi Vernon God Little The Line of Beauty The Sea

2006 2007 2008 2009

Kiran Desai Anne Enright Aravind Adiga Hilary Mantel

India Ireland India United Kingdom

The Inheritance of Loss The Gathering The White Tiger Wolf Hall

Ramon Magsaysay Award Ramon Magsaysay Award or the Magsaysay Award is the Asian equivalent of the Nobel Prize. The Ramon Magsaysay Award was established in April 1957 by the trustees of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund (RBF) based in New York City. With the concurrence of the Philippine government, the prize was created to commemorate Ramon Magsaysay, the late President of the Philippines, and to perpetuate his example of integrity in government, courageous service to the people, and pragmatic idealism within a democratic society. Every year the Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation gives away prizes to Asian individuals and organizations for achieving excellence in their respective fields. The awards are given in six categories: • • • • • • Government Service Public Service Community Leadership Journalism, Literature and Creative Communication arts Peace and International Understanding Emergent Leadership

The Ramon Magsaysay Award Winners for 2009 1. Krisana Kraisintu – Thailand 2. Deep Joshi – India 3. Yu Xiaogang – China 4. Antonio Oposa Jr. – Philippines 5. Ma Jun – China 6. Ka Hsaw Wa – Burma For more information on current winners, visit the following link For more information on the Ramon Magsaysay awards, visit the following link

Oscar Awards

Oscar Awards, also called the Academy Awards, are bestowed annually to professionals in the film industry, including directors, actors, and writers for their excellent contribution. The award is presented every year by the American Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS). The formal ceremony at which the awards are presented is one of the most prominent award ceremonies in the world. It is also the oldest award ceremony in the media. The first Academy Awards ceremony was held in May, 1929, at the Hotel Roosevelt in Hollywood to honour outstanding film achievements of 1927 and 1928. Members of the Academy represent 15 general areas – actors, animators and short film makers, art directors and costume designers, cinematographers, composers and songwriters, documentary filmmakers, directors, executives, film editors, makeup artists and hairstylists, producers, public relations specialists, sound technicians, visual effects experts and writers. Visit the following link for a comprehensive list of nominees and winners of the 81st Academy Awards, 2008.

Pulitzer Prize The Pulitzer Prize is awarded for achievements in newspaper journalism, literature and musical composition. Prizes are awarded yearly in twenty-one categories. It was established by Hungarian-American publisher Joseph Pulitzer and is administered by Columbia University in New York City. The major categories are: * Journalism * Letters and drama * Others The category definitions under Journalism are:
• • • • • • • • • • •

Public Service Breaking News Reporting Investigative Reporting Explanatory Reporting Local Reporting National Reporting. International Reporting Commentary Criticism Editorial Writing Editorial Cartooning

S. The Jesse Owens Award is USA Track & Field's highest accolade.asp Bharat Ratna The title ‘Bharat Ratna’ translates literally to ‘the Gem of India’. The first Bharat Ratna was awarded to Dr. The design of the medal was altered a year later in 1955. and a replica is provided to each of the winners. The permanent commemorative award is maintained at USATF National Headquarters. The permanent commemorative Jesse Owens Award is maintained at USATF National Headquarters. Rajendra Prasad. . the first president of India in 1954.usatf. It is the highest civilian award in India given for exceptional contribution to the field of Art. click on the following link: http://www. and a replica is provided to each of the Jesse Owens Established in 1981. presented annually to the outstanding U. The award was instituted by Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan in 1954. Literature. Pandit Bhimsen Joshi was awarded the Bharat Ratna in 2008 for his contribution to the field of Indian Classical Music.• • Breaking News Photography Feature Photography The categories under Letters and Drama are: • • • • • • Fiction Drama History Biography or Autobiography Poetry General Non-Fiction There is one prize given for Music and a number of Special Citations and Awards. Science and Public Service. The award initially carried a gold medal 35mm in diameter having ‘Sun’ on one side and state ‘National Emblem’ on the other. For a complete list of Pulitzer Prize winners for the year 2009. male and female track and field performers. Visit the following link for the list of awardees: http://www.

Freedom Fighter. Freedom Fighter. Freedom Fighter. Literature. Philosopher. Andhra Pradesh Indologist and Sanskrit Maharashtra scholar Posthumous. 11. Trade Unionist. Home Minister Educationist. Dam Architect. Former Chief Minister of West Bengal Freedom Fighter. V. Raman Bhagwan Das Mokshagundam Visvesvarayya Jawaharlal Nehru Govind Ballabh Pant Dhondo Keshav Karve Bidhan Chandra Roy Birth / Awarded death 1888– 1954 1975 1878– 1954 1972 1888– 1954 1970 1869– 1955 1958 1861– 1955 1962 1889– 1955 1964 1887– 1957 1961 1858– 1958 1962 1882– 1961 1962 Notes Second President. 6. 10. 9. V. Author. 2. 4. Last Governor-General. Physician.Complete list of awardees S. Social Reformer. Freedom Fighter Uttar Pradesh Civil Engineer. Jurist Karnataka Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh (now Uttarakhand) Maharashtra 8. 3. Awarded in his birth centenary year. 15. 5. Politician. Nobel-prize winning Physicist Indian state or country of origin Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu 1. 14. 16. Scholar. First Vice President. Giri 1975 1980 Former President. Diwan of Princely state of Mysore First Prime Minister. Second Prime Uttar Pradesh Minister. 7. Rajagopalachari C. Uttar Pradesh Orissa . 13. Freedom Fighter Former Prime Minister Former President. 12. Freedom Fighter. Educationist First President. West Bengal Uttar Pradesh Bihar Purushottam Das 1882– 1961 Tandon 1962 1884– Rajendra Prasad 1962 1963 1897– Zakir Hussain 1963 1969 Pandurang Vaman 1880– 1963 Kane 1972 Lal Bahadur 1904– 1966 Shastri 1966 1917– Indira Gandhi 1971 1984 1894– V.No Name Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan C.

Posthumous. Subbulakshmi Chidambaram Subramaniam 1896– 1991 1995 1888– 1992 1958 1904– 1992 1993 1922– 1992 1992 b. Posthumous. Tata Satyajit Ray A. Gujarat Freedom Fighter. Chief MinisterTamil Nadu Tamil Nadu. 24. Leader of Anti. Minister Tamil Nadu of Agriculture (Father of . Tamil Nadu Freedom Fighter. R. Ambedkar 23. 19. Posthumous. 1931 1997 1898– 1998 1908– 1996 1916– 2004 1910– 2000 1997 1997 1998 1998 Posthumous. Tamil Nadu Actor. Punjab West Bengal Tamil Nadu Freedom Fighter. Freedom Fighter. B.17. Social Maharashtra Reformer. 27. Carnatic music vocalist. 29. 33. former Prime Minister. Former Prime New Delhi Minister Posthumous. West Bengal 1979). P. Chief Minister-Tamil Nadu. 30. Freedom Fighter. 1918 1990 Rajiv Gandhi 1944– 1991 1991 Sardar 1875– 1991 Vallabhbhai Patel 1950 Morarji Deai Abul Kalam Azad J. First Home Gujarat Minister of India. Abdul Kalam Gulzarilal Nanda Aruna Asaf Ali M. Kamaraj Mother Teresa Vinoba Bhave Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan M. Economist and Scholar Second non-citizen and first non-Indian. Nelson Mandela b. S. 18.Social Maharashtra Reformer. Freedom Fighter. Nobel Laureate (Peace. 28. Posthumous. D. Freedom Fighter. ArchitectIndian Constitution. Freedom Pakistan Fighter. 25. First non-citizen. K. scientist.South Africa Apartheid movement. J. Posthumous. Ramachandran 1903– 1976 1975 1910– 1980 1997 1895– 1983 1982 1890– 1987 1988 1917– 1988 1987 1891– 1990 1956 22. 21. 32. 34. G. Former Prime Minister. First Education West Bengal Minister of India Industrialist and Maharashtra philanthropist Film director West Bengal Former President. Freedom Fighter. 26. R. Posthumous. 31. 20.

000. 1933 1999 1890– 1999 1950 Lata Mangeshkar b. Freedom Assam fighter. Year Name 1965 G Sankara Kurup 1966 Tarashankar Bandopadhyaya Kuppali Venkatappagowda 1967 Puttappa (Kuvempu) 1967 Umashankar Joshi 1968 Sumitranandan Pant 1969 Firaq Gorakhpuri 1970 Viswanatha Satyanarayana 1971 Bishnu Dey 1972 Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar' 1973 Dattatreya Ramachandra Works Odakkuzhal (Flute) Ganadevta Sri Ramayana Darshanam Nishitha Chidambara Gul-e-Naghma Ramayana Kalpavrikshamu (A resourceful tree:Ramayana) Smriti Satta Bhavishyat Urvashi Nakutanti (Naku Thanthi) (Four Language Malayalam Bengali Kannada Gujarati Hindi Urdu Telugu Bengali Hindi Kannada . For 2006. Any Indian citizen who writes in any of the official languages of India is eligible for the honour. Sankara Kurup in 1965. a citation plaque and a bronze replica of Vagdevi (Devi Jnanpith Award The Jnanpith Award instituted in 1961 is the highest literary honour conferred in India. Freedom Bihar Fighter. the awards were given for a single work by a writer. From 1982. which is largely owned by the Sahu Jain family of The Times group.00. the award was presented to the eminent Sanskrit scholar Satya Vrat Shastri. 5. 36. 37. The award includes a cheque for Rs. 1929 2001 1916– Bismillah Khan 2001 2006 Bhimsen Joshi b. the goddess of learning). 38. 40. Before 1982. shehnai Bihar maestro Hindustani Classical Karnataka vocalist (Source : http://en. It is presented by the Bharatiya Jnanpith Trust. Social Reformer. Sitar player United States Nobel-prize winning West Bengal Economist Posthumous. 1920 1999 b. 1922 2008 Green revolution). Jayaprakash Narayan Ravi Shankar Amartya Sen Gopinath Bordoloi 1902– 1998 1979 b. Posthumous. 39. 41. the award has been given for a lifetime contribution to Indian literature. Chief Minister Singer Maharashtra Classical musician. The first recipient of the award was Malayalam writer G.wikipedia.35.

R. K. T.Akilan 1976 Asha Purna Devi Strings) Paraja Oriya Yayati Marathi Chitttrappavai Tamil Pratham Pratisruti Bengali Mookajjiya Kanasugalu (Mookajjis 1977 K. K.V. Ananthamurthy Kannada M.C. Gokak (Vinayaka 1990 Bharatha Sindhu Rashmi Kannada Krishna Gokak) 1991 Subhas Mukhopadhyay Bengali 1992 Naresh Mehta Hindi 1993 Sitakant Mahapatra Oriya 1994 U. Narayana Reddy Vishwambhara Telugu 1989 Qurratulain Hyder Akhire Shab Ke Humsafar Urdu V.Shivaram Karanth Kannada dreams) Sachchidananda Hirananda Kitni Navon Men Kitni Bar (How 1978 Hindi Vatsyayan 'Ajneya' many times in many boats?) 1979 Birendra Kumar Bhattacharya Mrityunjay (Immortal) Assamese Oru Desattinte Katha (Story of a 1980 S.Bendre 1973 Gopinath Mohanty 1974 Vishnu Sakharam Khandekar 1975 P. Pottekkatt Malayalam land) 1981 Amrita Pritam Kagaj te Canvas Punjabi 1982 Mahadevi Varma Yama Hindi Chikkaveera Rajendra (Life and 1983 Maasti Venkatesh Ayengar struggle of Kodava King Chikkaveera Kannada Rajendra) Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai | 1984 Malayalam [Kayar {Coir}|] 1985 Pannalal Patel Maanavi Ni Bhavaai (માનવીની ભવાઇ) Gujarati 1986 Sachidananda Rout Roy Oriya Vishnu Vaman Shirwadkar 1987 Natsamrat Marathi (Kusumagraj) 1988 Dr. Vasudevan Nair | 1995 Randamoozham [second Malayalam chance}| 1996 Mahasweta Devi Bengali 1997 Ali Sardar Jafri Urdu "for his contributions to modern 1998 Girish Karnad Kannada Indian drama"[5] 1999 Nirmal Verma Hindi 1999 Gurdial Singh Punjabi 2000 Indira Goswami Assamese .

2001 Rajendra Keshavlal Shah 2002 D. the birth centenary year of Dada Saheb Phalke. the father of Indian cinema. Jayakanthan 2003 Vinda Karandikar 2004 Rahman Rahi 2005 Kunwar Narayan 2006 Ravindra Kelekar 2006 Satya Vrat Shastri Ashtadarshana (poetry) Subhuk Soda. . Kalami Rahi and Siyah Kashmiri [6] Rode Jaren Manz Hindi[3] Konkani[3] Sanskrit[4][7] Gujarati Tamil Marathi Dada Saheb Phalke Award Dada Saheb Phalke Award – The Dada Saheb Phalke Award is the highest honour presented by the Indian government to an artist who. over the years. The first winner of the award was actress Devika Rani. has made a significant contribution to the field of cinema. Tapan Sinha was the recipient of the award for 2006. The award was instituted in 1969.

V.National Awards 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th 27th 28th 29th 30th 31st 32nd 33rd 34th 35th 36th 37th 38th 39th 40th 41st 42nd 43rd 44th 45th 46th 47th 48th 49th 50th 51st 52nd 53rd 54th 55th Year 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Winner Devika Rani B. producer actor. director actor. writer. director. director. producer producer actor. composer. producer director director director director singer . director. director actor singer actor director. director actress cinematographer. Shantaram Bommireddy Nagi Reddy Raj Kapoor Ashok Kumar Lata Mangeshkar Akkineni Nageswara Rao Bhalji Pendharkar Bhupen Hazarika Majrooh Sultanpuri Dilip Kumar Rajkumar Sivaji Ganesan Pradeep B. N. director. Sircar Prithviraj Kapoor Pankaj Mullick Ruby Myers (Sulochana) Bomireddi Narasimha Reddy Dhirendranath Ganguly Kanan Devi Nitin Bose Rai Chand Boral Sohrab Modi Paidi Jairaj Naushad Ali L. producer. Chopra Hrishikesh Mukherjee Asha Bhosle Yash Chopra Dev Anand Mrinal Sen Adoor Gopalakrishnan Shyam Benegal Tapan Sinha Manna Dey Occupation actress producer actor (posthumous) composer (music director) actress Director actor. director. producer actress director actor.R. writer composer (music director) lyricist actor actor actor lyricist director. Prasad Durga Khote Satyajit Ray V. producer director singer director. producer actor. director composer (music director) actor.

Jayakanthan Literature & Education Tamil Nadu India Isher Judge Ahluwalia Literature & Education Delhi India Kunwar Narayan Literature & Education Delhi India Minoru Hara Literature & Education Japan Ramachandra Guha Literature & Education Karnataka India Brijendra Kumar Rao Medicine Delhi India Vaidya Devendra Triguna Medicine Delhi India Khalid Hameed Medicine Satish Nambiar National Security Affairs Delhi India Inderjit Kaur Barthakur Public Affairs Meghalaya India Kirit Shantilal Parikh Public Affairs Delhi India Bhakta B.2009 Name Field State Country G. Prime Minister and President.K.K. the Padma Awards are announced. and after approval of the Home Minister. as well. he fields include services by the government servants and it can be given posthumously. C. This is a civilian award given by the President of India.Padma Bhushan This awards recognizes distinguished service of a higher order to the nation in any field. List of Awardees . Dhananjayan Arts Tamil Nadu India Shanta Dhananjayan Arts Tamil Nadu India Dr. P. Prahalad Literature & Education D.On the basis of the recommendations of the Awards Committee. Rath Science & Engineering Conjeevaram Srirangachari Seshadri Science & Engineering Tamil Nadu India Gurdip Singh Randhawa Science & Engineering Delhi India Sam Pitroda Science & Engineering Delhi India Sarvagya Singh Katiyar Science & Engineering Uttar Pradesh India Thomas Kailath Science & Engineering Kerala India Naganath Nayakawadi Social Work Maharashtra India Sarojini Varadappan Social Work Tamil Nadu India . Sivarama Krishna Murthy Arts Andhra Pradesh India R. Misra Civil Service Haryana India Shekhar Gupta Journalism Delhi India Alappat Sreedhara Menon Literature & Education Kerala India C. Mehta Arts Gujarat India Shamshad Begum Arts Maharashtra India V. Vaidyanathan Ganapathi Sthapati Art Tamil Nadu India S.

Arts Sri Amritsar) Pankaj Advani Sports Technology Shri Surinder Mehta Solutions Dr.2009 Year Name 2009 2009 Balbir Singh Kullar 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 Shashi Deshpande Field Sports Literature & Education State Punjab Karnataka Punjab Karnataka New Delhi Andhra Pradesh Country India India India India India India India Bhai Nirmal Singh Ji Khalsa (Hazoori Padma Shri Awards The Padma Shri Awards are the fourth highest civilian awards conferred by the Government of India to recognize distinguished contribution of Indian citizens in various fields like Arts. Social Science and Public life. K. A. Tareen Arts Literature and Puducherry Education . Sri Darbar Sahib. For complete list of awardees visit: http://en. The award can be given posthumously. The Padma Vibhushan Award was established by Presidential decree on 2nd January. Science.Abhinav Bindra Anil Manibhai Naik Sports Trade & Industry Punjab Maharashtra India India Padma Vibhushan This civilian honour is given by the President of India and is India’s second highest civilian honour. a total of 235 people have been given the award so far.wikipedia. Sports. he award is presented by the Government of India to recognize excellence of Indian citizens in any field and also to recognize notable services to the nation. 1954 and since then. Industry.Brahmanandam Kanneganti J. as well. Education. including services rendered by government servants. List of Awardees . Literature.

John Ralston Marr Education Thilakan Arts Kalamandalam Gopi Arts Mattannoor Sankarankutty Marar Arts Helen Richardson Arts Iravatham Mahadevan Arts Kiran Seth Arts Ameena Ahmed Ahuja Arts Literature and Prof Ngawang Samten Education Prof. Syed Iqbal Hasnain Geography Science & Pramod Tandon Engineering Literature & Dr.2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 Arts Ravindra Nath Shrivastav Jayanta Mahapatra Bannanje Govindacharya Mahendra Singh Dhoni Mathoor Krishnamurty Akshay Kumar Aishwarya Rai Bachchan Bavaguthu Raghuram Shetty Kumar Sanu Udit Narayan Hashmat Ullah Khan Vivek Rajiv Hari Om Bhatia Ameen Sayani Literature and Education Literature & Education Literature & Education Sports Literature & Education Arts Arts Trade & Industry Arts Arts Arts Bihar Orissa Karnataka Jharkhand Karnataka India India India India India Punjab India Maharashtra India Karnataka West Bengal Maharashtra Jammu & Kashmir Tamil Nadu Maharashtra Maharashtra UAE India India India Arts Arts Arts Literature & Dr. architect. Panchapakesa Jayaraman Education India India India United Kingdom Kerala India Kerala India Kerala India Maharashtra India Tamil Nadu India Delhi India Delhi India Tibet India Meghalaya New York India United States of America 1. Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni Sculptor. painter .

Italy and later lived with a sculptor and his wife in the town of Settignano. and many of his works are part of the standard concert repertoire. he was a prolific and highly influential composer of Classical music. Against his father's wishes. However. Impressed. and Michelangelo worked on it from 1534 to 1541. Domenico recommended him to the ruler of Florence. then part of the Holy Roman Empire. which is Mozart’s symphony number 25. Mozart's father Leopold (1719–1787) was one of Europe's leading musical teachers. piano. which took four years (1508 . chamber. the year of Mozart's birth (English. Michelangelo chose to be the apprentice of Domenico Ghirlandaio for three years starting in 1488. Mozart was born to Leopold and Anna Maria Pertl Mozart. in Caprese. Michelangelo was appointed architect of St. Michelangelo died in Rome at the age of 89. and poet. Lodovico.He was a Renaissance sculptor. operatic. Tuscany. painter. in what is now Austria. architect. the capital of the sovereign Archbishopric of Salzburg. was the resident magistrate in Caprese. and designed its dome. His father. Italy where his father owned a marble quarry and a small farm. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican. and choral music. Michelangelo had to constantly stop work on the tomb in order to accomplish numerous other tasks. 2. Mozart is among the most enduringly popular of European composers. His influential textbook Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule was published in 1756. Italy in 1475. Then in 1546. His enormous output of more than six hundred compositions includes works that are widely acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic. the marble Michelangelo's David. in the front room of nine Getreidegasse in Salzburg.1512) to complete. Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart Composer of Classical Music Known widely for the Titan Watches’ signature tune. However. Michelangelo was summoned back to Rome in 1503 by the newly appointed Pope Julius II and was commissioned to build the Pope's tomb. Italy. Michelangelo worked on the tomb for 40 years without ever finishing it. Four years later. Michelangelo attended Lorenzo's school and was influenced by many prominent people who modified and expanded his ideas on art After the death of Lorenzo in 1492. as "A Treatise on the Fundamental Principles of Violin . Michelangelo was born near Arezzo. Due to those interruptions. under the patronage of Julius II. Michelangelo returned to Florence where he produced arguably his most famous work. Piero di Lorenzo de' Medici (new head of the Medici family). Michelangelo was raised in Florence. On February 18 1564. So Michelangelo decided to leave Florence and stay in Bologna. refused to support Michelangelo's artwork. Lorenzo de' Medici. The most famous of those were the monumental paintings on the ceiling of the Vatican's Sistine Chapel. Pope Paul III commissioned the fresco of The Last Judgment on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. From 1490 to 1492.

violin.Playing”. The Hague. DHYAN CHAND Hockey Player Dhyan Chand made great contribution in enhancing prestige of Indian Hockey in the eyes of the world. He was to marry her sister Constanze some four years later in Vienna. accompanied by his mother. Leopold was Wolfgang's only teacher in his earliest years. Mozart's final illness and death are difficult topics for scholars. his mother died (1778). Mozart died around 1 a. taking him with his father to the courts of Munich. Mannheim. The year 1782 was an auspicious one for Mozart's career: his opera Die Entführung aus dem Serail ("The Abduction from the Seraglio") was a great success and he began a series of concerts at which he premiered his own piano concertos as director of the ensemble and soloist. beginning with an exhibition in 1762 at the Court of the Elector of Bavaria in Munich. and Leopold. proud of Wolfgang's achievements. He fell in love with Aloysia Weber. a small Andante (K. Paris. and organ. A note by Leopold records that little Wolfgang had learned several of the pieces at the age of four. in Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh). gave him intensive musical training. 1a) and Allegro (K. he had largely ceased work on his final composition. who later broke up the relationship with him. Some days earlier. when he was five years old. 1b). London (where Wolfgang Amadeus played with the famous Italian cellist Giovanni Battista Cirri). They first came to light when Wolfgang was about three years old. including instruction in clavier. then in the same year at the Imperial Court in Vienna and Prague. On September 23. During his unsuccessful visit to Paris. He was deputy Kapellmeister to the court orchestra of the Archbishop of Salzburg. and a prolific and successful composer of instrumental music. the Requiem. with the onset of his illness. During this trip Mozart met a great number of musicians and acquainted himself with the works of other great composers. Mozart's first compositions. the best in Europe at the time. In Mannheim he became acquainted with members of the Mannheim orchestra. again to Paris. Athletes 1. and Paris. Mozart made several European journeys.m. were written in 1761. Donaueschingen. He was born on 29th August 1906. Leopold gave up composing when his son's outstanding musical talents became evident. Mozart began a tour of Europe that included Munich. 1791 in Vienna. on December 5. A long concert tour spanning three and a half years followed. Mannheim. and back home via Zürich. and Munich. During his formative years. 1777. obscured by romantic legends and replete with conflicting theories. He joined .

Los Angles Olympics (1932) and Berlin Olympics (1936). He started playing hockey in army and was included in the Indian Hockey team for the 1928 Amsterdam Olympics. Chennai. Dhyan Chand helped his country in winning gold medals in hokey in 3 successive Olympics games.1979. 1999. 28 hundreds and 50 half-centuries in his 10. Amsterdam Olympics (1928).000 runs in one-day cricket. Young Sachin wanted to be a fast bowler. His shots have tremendous power and he times the ball perfectly. Dhyan Chand was held in high esteem with in the country as well as abroad. R. Achrekar. By his superior play. Padma Shri. 2008." . making him one of the best batsmen in the world. He even undertook trials at the MRF pace foundation. He knows every shot in the book and makes his own improvisations. Meeting Mr. but his short stature proved to be a hindrance for bowling. in a five-day match series against Australia on the 31st of March 2001. and has not looked back ever at the age of sixteen. Dhyan Chand scored 101 goals at the Olympic games and 300 goals in other international matches and his record is unbroken. Sachin is god fearing and he is married to a doctor Anjali and they have a two children. He is also an effective bowler and also one of the best fielders.Sara and Arjun.000 runs. India won one gold medal in Hockey at Amsterdam Olympics and out of a total of 28 goals scored by Indian hockey Dhyan Chand scored 11 alone. which earned him the title " Hockey Wizard". he is the only Indian cricketer to receive the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna. SACHIN TENDULKAR Master Blaster of India The pride of Indian cricket Sachin Tendulkar was the first batsman to score 10. He then went to England as a part of the national team. he won the Coopers and Lybrand Award for 'Player of the year' and was in the number one position in the Wisden Cricket ratings. Sachin at the age of 16. in Mumbai. He was the captain of the gold medal winner Indian Hockey team in the historic 1936 Berlin Olympics. 1973. India's highest sporting honour for his performance in 1997-1998. He was mentioned in the TIME magazine as the "The greatest living exponent of his craft. Rajiv Gandhi National Awards – Sports in 2005 and Padma Vibhushan. On the personal front. his Cricket Coach and changing his school to Shardashram Vidya Mandir in Dadar marked a turning point in Sachin's cricket career. He died on December 3. made his International debut in ODI’s India v Pakistan at Gujranwala and Tests debut India v Pakistan at Karachi around 1989/90. A perennial crowd-favorite. In January 2008. This all rounder has been the captain of the Indian cricket team twice. British Prime Minister Gordon Brown suggested that Sachin should be conferred with an honorary knighthood for his contribution to international cricket. In 1998. India's fourth highest civilian award. 2. India's second highest civilian award. He has scored a world record. Dhyan Chand had a wonderful command in wielding the hockey stick. Sachin Ramesh Tendulkar was born on April 24.

Haryana. where he won the bronze medal in a lost semifinal bout against Kazakhstan's Bakhtiyar Artayev. After his win. After qualifying for the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics. His father. He was one of the Navaratna (9 gems or the most accomplished men of their times) at the court of Chandragupta Vikramaditya. 5 km from Bhiwani. one of the chief figures in classic Sanskrit literature was also a dramatist and poet. The International Boxing Association (AIBA) announced Vijender as the top-ranked boxer in its annual middleweight (75 kg) category list with 2800 points. Literature 1. a boxer himself. His play 'Abhinjnana Sakunthalam' (Recognition of Sakunthala) is the most well known of all his works and it has been translated into various languages of the world. Including. In 2009 he participated at the World Amateur Boxing Championships where he won bronze. Vijender was picked to train and compete at several international level competitions. Vijender defeated Carlos Góngora of Ecuador 9-4 in the quarterfinals. 'Vikramorvasiyam' and 'Abhijnana Sakunthalam' (plays). the 2006 Commonwealth Games and the 2006 Asian Games in Doha. Epics and lyrics. Kalidasa's works include plays. Kalidasa Writer. is a bus driver.3. In all. He practiced Boxing at the Bhiwani Sports Authority of India where coach Jagdish Singh recognised his talent and encouraged him to take to professional boxing. . Vijender’s early days were spent in his village where he did his schooling. At the Beijing Olympics. Having won medals in different competitions at the national level. before getting a bachelor’s degree when he moved to Bhiwani. 7 works of Kalidasa are available today. Vijender was felicitated with a number of awards. Dramatist Kalidasa. including the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna award—India's highest sporting honour. Mahipal Singh. 'Meghdoot' and 'Ritu Samhara' (lyrics). which guaranteed him a bronze medal—the first ever-Olympic medal for an Indian boxer. Vijender Singh Beniyal Kumar Number 1 Middle Weight Category Boxer in AIBA Ranking Vijender was born on October 29. Vijender was inspired to take to Boxing by younger brother Manoj. Poet. the 2004 Athens Summer Olympics. 'Raghu Vansa' and 'Kumara Sambhavam' (Epics). Vijender competed with European wrestlers in Germany. He is credited for bringing back the sport of boxing into limelight in India. 1985 in a Hindu Jat family in Kalwas village. They are: 'Malavikagnimitra'. Vijender went on to compete at the sub-junior nationals where he won a silver medal for two years in succession.

Kottayam. in defense of former dacoit Phoolan Devi. Arundhati Roy Writer & Social Activist Susanna Arundhati Roy the first Indian woman to have won Britain's prestigious Booker Prize. She quickly became known for her work as screenwriter. was born on 24th November 1961 in Bengal and grew up in Aymanam village.000 as prize and sold nearly 400. When she was just 16. She realized she was a writer during those months in Italy. gives an insight to the social and political life in a village in South India through the eyes of seven year old twins and how it effects/disrupts their small lives. she left her home and settled in Delhi. Then came her debut novel 'The God of Small Things' which shot her into prominence in 1997. During this period she met Gerard Da Cunha a fellow architecture student and married him but their marriage lasted only four years. a film director now her husband who offered her a small role in 'Massey Saab'. she has turned to activism. and wrote the screenplay for Pradip Krishen's film 'Electric Moon' (1992). After she returned from Italy she worked with Pradeep Krishen and they planned an episode television for Doordarshan called the 'Banyan Tree’. She left for Goa. by winning the prestigious British Booker prize in London and becoming an international best seller. Arundhati's parents separated when she was small and she did her formal education in Corpus Christi school run by her mother in Kottayam District. Kerala. a film on college life in India. who she felt had been exploited by Shekhar Kapur's film 'Bandit Queen'. The book won £20. She has been an active participant in public demonstrations against the construction of the Sardar Sarovar Dam on the Narmada river in Western India and has donated a . She was born to parents Mary Roy a well-known social activist who won a landmark Supreme Court verdict that granted Christian women in Kerala the right to their parent's property and father a Bengali Hindu tea planter. Kerala. She went to Italy on a scholarship for eight months to study the restoration of monuments. Then she wrote a series of essays called 'The Great Indian Rape Trick' which attracted media attention. 2. based on her experiences in the University of Delhi. Meghdoot (cloud messenger) is the most excellent work. met Pradeep Krishen. got tired of it after a few months. the former against Indian Governments massive dam projects which displaced millions of poor people and the latter. The book. came back to Delhi. She wrote and starred in 'In Which Annie Gives it Those Ones'. In the years following her success. After a brief stint in the field of architecture. writing 'The Cost of Living' a book comprising two essays 'The Greater Common Good’ (1999) and 'The End of Imagination’ (1998). which took almost five years to complete. making a life out at the beach.As far as literacy merits are concerned.000 copies globally by October that year. she found that it was not for her. There she did her degree in Architecture at the Delhi School of Architecture. its testing of Nuclear weapons. She took a job at the National Institute of Urban Affairs. which didn't materialize and was shelved by the producers after shooting 2-3 episodes.

After completing her studies. She was dismissed when she refused to be an informant for the secret police. She has also spoken on and published several articles such as 'Promotion of equal rights' supporting equal rights for lower caste in India and 'War on Terrorism' (2001) against the Iraq war. Many years later.substantial amount around 1. intolerance and repression to be found there. This unusual woman who has been on several lists of 'the 50 most beautiful women in the world' is not intimated by her success and fame but is an inspiration to all those who seek to speak up against the powers in support of the poor and the oppressed. The Romanian national press was very critical of these works while. Because Müller had publicly criticized the dictatorship in Romania. Drückender Tango in Romania. 1953 in the German-speaking town Nitzkydorf in Banat. takes on Enron the power corporation based in Houston trying to take over Maharashtra's energy sector. With her latest publications. Müller depicts life in a small. Müller emigrated together with her husband author Richard Wagner. After her dismissal. During this period. in the same year. for the cause. in opposition to Ceauşescu’s dictatorship. In these two works. Herta Muller The 2009 Nobel Prize in Literature Winner Herta Müller was born on August 17. Many German Romanians were deported to the Soviet Union in 1945. Romania. Securitate harassed her. From 1973 to 1976. she worked as a translator at a machine factory from 1977 to 1979. Two years later. which was censored in Romania. who has two daughters Pia and Mithva from his previous marriage. she was associated with Aktionsgruppe Banat. Müller studied German and Romanian literature at the university in Timişoara (Temeswar). The Algebra of Infinite Justice. sought freedom of speech. Her parents were members of the German-speaking minority in Romania.5million rupees. 'Power Politics' her latest book published. outside of Romania. Müller was to depict the exile of the German Romanians in the Soviet Union. German-speaking village and the corruption. including Müller's mother who spent five years in a work camp in present-day Ukraine. she was prohibited from publishing in her own country. 3. Müller made her debut with the collection of short stories Niederungen (1982). equivalent to her Booker Prize money. Her father had served in the Waffen SS during World War II. she published the uncensored version in Germany and. in Atemschaukel (2009). Roy was awarded the Sydney Peace Prize in May 2004 for her work in social campaigns and her advocacy of non-violence. Arundhati is carving a niche for herself as a political journalist. She was even arrested along with other protestors for campaigning for the cause. She now lives in Delhi with her husband Pradip Krishen. In 1987. In January 2006 she was awarded the Sahitya Akademi award for her collection of essays on contemporary issues. the German press received them very positively. but she declined to accept it. . a circle of young German-speaking authors who.

he returned to India as a university lecturer and for the next nine years remained at Punjab University before being posted for international duty with UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development).The novels Der Fuchs war damals schon der Jäger (1992). soft-spoken Sikh guided India out of financial trouble and put the country on course to becoming an economic power by opening up the economy to foreign investment and slashing trade barriers. Rao offered him the finance ministry in 1991 under the Congress Government. Hailed to be the cleanest man in Indian politics. Herztier (1994. Singh held several positions throughout the 1980s and early 1990s. P. with chiselled details. and the chance to rescue a sickly economy threatened by an acute balance of payments crisis. Since 1995 she is a member of Deutsche für Sprache und Dichtung. An academician.V Narasimha Rao. Political and Military Leaders 1. During his stint as the finance minister (1991-1996). now in Pakistan. Hamburg. Amrit Kaur on September 26. Swansea. a portrait of daily life in a stagnated dictatorship. A brilliant student. he was Former Finance Minister and author of the post-1991 economic reforms. Kassel. After his Masters in Economics from Amritsar's Hindu College under Punjab University he won scholarships to Cambridge and Oxford. She lives in Berlin. The Land of Green Plums. Manmohan Singh Prime Minister of India Manmohan Singh. 2001) give. 1932 in a small village Gah (West Punjab). He was born to Mr. colleges and other venues in Paderborn. the suave. Two years later. has emerged as the Congress party's frontrunner. Gainsville (Florida). Deputy Chairman of Planning Commission and Chairman of University Grants Commission in 1980s and early 1990's and as the Governor of the Reserve Bank of India from 1982 to 1985 etc. Manmohan Singh won the prestigious Adam Smith prize in 1956 from Cambridge University. the 14th Prime Minister of India and also the first Sikh to reach the country's top legislative position. . best known as ' father of Indian Reforms'. Tübingen and Zürich among other places. in Darmstadt. he was discovered by former Prime Minister Shri. 1996) and Heute wär ich mir lieber nicht begegnet (1997. his academic career was cut short and he joined the government to serve in various capacities. Gurmukh Singh and Mrs. He then joined the Delhi School of Economics as a professor. The Appointment. Warwick. Göttingen. earning a doctorate with a thesis on the critical role of exports and free trade in India's economy. Müller has given guest lectures at universities. The following year. Manmohan Singh secured top marks in almost all the major examinations he wrote. He served as Economic advisor to the finance ministry in the late 70s.

graduating magna cum laude (basically at the head of his class. Singh was reappointed as the Prime Minister of India on May 22. he ended up graduating from Columbia University with a Political Science major specializing in international relations. Obama also published a book called "Dreams from my father" in 1995 and more recently "the Audacity of Hope". 2. In fact. After the Indian National Congress won the 2009 general elections. After his keynote address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention in 2004. After graduating from there. making him the first Indian Prime Minister since Jawaharlal Nehru to return to power after completing a full fiveyear term before this over 40 years ago. they divorced and his father returned to Kenya to continue working in the field of economics. idealistic thoughts. This is where he becomes the first African American president of Harvard's Law Review group. he has never won an election and sits in the upper house. Politically. USA in 1961. His great commitment to civil rights. and his father was from Kenya. Barack Currently lives in the Chicago area and is becoming one of the major candidates of the 2008 presidential elections. who was routed in a parliamentary election in 1999. Barack Obama The 2009 Nobel Peace Prize Winner and 44th President of the USA Barack Hussein Obama was born in Hawaii. His mother was Caucasian and American. he ended up working as a very amazing community organizer and civil rights lawyer in and around Chicago. 2009. He was a very intelligent man who had been schooled in Harvard. Barack Obama was the only serving black Senator. In 2004. ADOLF HITLER Leader of the Third Reich . Years later. Anyways. he became known as one of the most inspirational and freshest new leaders of the Democratic Party. He taught at the University of Chicago's Law School. he got elected to the United States Senate over the conservative republican black candidate Alan Keyes with over 70 percent of the votes. 3. he continued his education at the prestigious Harvard Law School. and during 1996 through 2004. He is married to Gursharan Kaur they have three daughters. When he finished school. and charmingly good looks helped make his Senate Campaign. Barack ended up moving to Indonesia and lived with his mom and new step dad while eventually coming back to Hawaii to finish high school in the states. Manmohan Singh is the classic example of the stateless politician. he served in the Illinois State Senate representing Chicago's South Side.Singh was always an unlikely politician. Both became best sellers fairly soon after being released. or with "honors"). Barack is married to Michelle Obama and also has two daughters named Malia Ann and Sasha. At the age of 2. and only the fifth in the entire United States History.

but in high school he was a very poor student. to unite into one nation. Hitler wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle). wanted to become an artist. Hitler led more than 2. Hitler was in a hospital recovering from temporary blindness possibly caused by a poison gas attack. He ridiculed the Austrian government for recognizing eight languages as official and believed that no government could last if it treated ethnic groups equally. 1889 in Braunau. Hitler protested against paying the debt and said that the Jews and Communists were the cause for Germany's defeat in World War I. The country was bankrupt and millions of people were unemployed. and they called for the cancellation of the Versailles Treaty. The Versailles Treaty that ended the war stripped Germany of much of its territory. the country was in despair. On November 9. Soon after Hitler's birth. The Nazis called for all Germans. He did not have steady work in Vienna. Hitler organized an army for the Nazi party called the Storm Troopers ("Brown Shirts") who were called upon to fight groups seeking to disband the Nazi rallies. moved the family to Linz. instead. When World War I ended. In 1913. he volunteered for service in the German army. . mostly because of his powerful speaking ability. In 1907. While in prison. Hitler became leader of the Nazi party and built up membership quickly. In 1920. When Hitler's mother died in 1907. Hitler's academic abilities angered his father because his father hoped that Hitler would study to become a government worker as he had been. and ordered Germany to pay huge reparations. Hitler only served nine months in prison and when he was released. In this book. the Nazis had become an important minor political party. a worldwide depression hit Germany. he began to rebuild the party again.000 Storm Troopers on a march to seize the Bavarian government. they called for a strong central government. During his time in Vienna Hitler learned to hate non-Germans. Austria. he decided to remain in Vienna. took a variety of odd jobs. Hitler went to Munich. The attempt failed and Hitler was arrested and sentenced to prison for five years for treason. He lived in cheap rooming houses or slept on park benches and he often had to get meals from charity kitchens. He took the entrance exam a year later and failed again. When the army returned to Germany. but only rose to the rank of corporal. By 1929. Alois Hitler. Germany and when World War I began in 1914.Adolf Hitler was born on April 20. Hitler went to Vienna Austria in an attempt to fulfill his dream of becoming an artist. This attempt ended when he failed the entrance exam to the Academy of Fine Arts. forced the country to disarm. He set up a private battle-ready elite guard known as the "Schutzstaffel" (SS). Austria. In 1930. Hitler was a German-speaking Austrian and considered himself German. Hitler was twice decorated for bravery. 1923. he stated his beliefs and plans for Germany's future. Hitler. Hitler attended school in Linz and at first was a good student. however. but. a small town across the Inn River from Germany. his father. Hitler joined the National Socialist German Workers Party known as the Nazis. yet Germany also had the debt of paying for the damage it had caused in World War I. even those in other countries.

After his death. many others in the East and West practice Buddhist teachings to achieve self-awareness. there was no place for freedom. Hitler moved quickly toward attaining a dictatorship. This plan was called the "Final Solution. Siddhartha now got transformed into 'Buddha' or 'enlightened' and the pipal tree under which he got enlightenment became Bodhi tree or Bodhi Vriksha. Buddha delivered his first sermon in Sarnath (near Varanasi). and Russia. Gypsies. he had caused the extermination over 12 million people. When von Hindenburg died in 1934. Negroes. right effort. called the Third Reich. Hitler committed suicide in his bunker on April 30. the Nazis received about 40% of the vote and became the strongest party in Germany. Religious Leaders and Philosophers 1. Poland. GAUTAMA BUDDHA Founder of Buddhism Gautama Buddha was born in 563BC in the Lumbini forests in Nepalese Terai. right speech. right memory and right meditation. Siddhartha left his home and all the royal comforts behind in search of peace and truth. his teachings spread through Asia. and mentally ill persons. Germany surrendered. right thought. Hitler already had control of Germany and he gave himself the title "Fuehrer" (leader). it was Hitler's plan to rid the nation and eventually the world of Jews. By this time extermination camps were being established throughout Germany. Before Hitler was stopped in 1945 by the Allied countries.C. Once in this position. He was the founder of 'Buddhism'. At the age of 29. Today. the religion numbers 500 million followers. Therefore. In July 1932. . Siddhartha got enlightenment when he was sitting in meditation under a pipal tree in Gaya. right livelihood. Under Hitler's government. handicapped. right action. Hitler used extensive propaganda to brainwash the nation into believing his theory about creating the perfect Aryan or Nordic race. On January 30." World War II began in 1939 when Hitler invaded Poland to begin his unification of all German-speaking peoples. People could get rid of the torment of desires by following the Eightfold path: right belief. Buddha attained Nirvana in Kushinagar (UP) in 483 B. The government controlled every part of one's life.1933.He promised to rid Germany of Jews and Communists and to reunite the German speaking part of Europe. President Paul von Hindenburg appointed Hitler Chancellor of Germany.1945 and seven days later. Buddha taught that the root cause of mankind's suffering was desire. Buddha's childhood name was Siddhartha and he was a child with a contemplative bent of mind.

and writings by Aristophanes and Aristotle. The last thing Athens needed was more punishment from Athena for one man inciting its citizens to question her or the other gods. According to the version of his defense speech presented in Plato's Apology. and in a sustained and rigorous dialogue between friends. He was born and lived in Athens. who bore him three sons – Lamprocles. Later in his life he became known as the wisest man in all of Greece. Socrates lived during the time of the transition from the height of the Athenian Empire to its decline after its defeat by Sparta and its allies in the Peloponnesian War. He "followed the argument" in his personal reflection. Anything Socrates wrote himself has not survived. SOCRATES Founder of Western Philosophy Socrates was an ancient Greek philosopher who is widely credited for laying the foundation for Western philosophy. In the Apology. and virtue. Xanthippe is thought to have been an ill-tempered scold. Athens. He was nevertheless found guilty as charged. the Oracle responded negatively. Socrates insists that this is a false charge. He questioned the men of Athens about their knowledge of good. Finding that they knew nothing and yet believed themselves to know much. set out to find men who were wiser than he was. is named after its protecting goddess Athena. Socrates' life as the "gadfly" of Athens began when his friend Chaerephon asked the oracle at Delphi if anyone was wiser than Socrates.2. for instance. beauty. interpreting this as a riddle. The defeat of Athens in the Peloponnesian War was interpreted as Athena judging the city for not being pious. According to accounts from antiquity. Socrates' superior intellect made the prominent Athenians he publicly questioned look foolish. Socrates came to the conclusion that he was wise only in so far as he knew that he knew nothing. At a time when Athens was seeking to stabilize and recover from its humiliating defeat. Sophroniscus and Menexenus – who were all quite young at the time of his death. the Athenian public court was induced by three leading public figures to try Socrates for impiety and for corrupting the youth of Athens. one of his contemporaries. mainly due to her characterization by Xenophon. Socrates married Xanthippe. Traditionally. and contemporary itinerant teachers of wisdom. Socrates. Socrates turned down the pleas of his disciples to attempt an escape . where he spent most of his time in enthusiastic pursuit of wisdom (philosophy). and sentenced to death by drinking a silver goblet of hemlock. Most of what is known about Socrates is derived from information that recurs across various contemporary sources: the dialogues written by Plato. followers. the works of Xenophon. Socrates' father was the sculptor Sophroniscus and his mother Phaenarete. a midwife. This was a time in culture when the Greeks thought of gods and goddesses as being associated with protecting particular cities. one of Socrates' students. turning them against him and leading to accusations of wrongdoing.

Scientists Venkatraman Ramakrishnan The 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry Winner Born in 1952 in Chidambaram. Ramakrishnan earned his B. He is a senior scientist and group leader at Structural Studies Division. During his stint at the varsity. Gandhiji declared untouchability as a sin against God and man. Ramakrishnan conducted a research with Dr Mauricio Montal.Sc. He formulated the path of Satyagraha and protested against the injustice. The most Well-known being: 'Non-Co-operation Movement' (1920). Britain. he worked on a neutronscattering map of the small ribosomal subunit of E Coli. a membrane biochemist and later designed his own 2-year transition from physics to biology.D in Physics from Ohio University in the US and later worked as a graduate student at the University of California from 1976-78. and took up the leadership of the National Freedom struggle. He returned to India in 1916. Ramakrishnan did his PhD in Physics in 1976 from Ohio University. He passed the examination for barrister in 1890 and started practicing Law. There he was disturbed by the oppression of Indians by the whites. Tamil Nadu. in Physics (1971) from Baroda University in Gujarat and later migrated to the US to continue his studies where he later got settled and attained US citizenship. the name given by him to the untouchables. Gandhi launched many Movements to force the British to concede India its Independence. Socrates had a calm death. He went to South Africa to take-up a case. Gandhiji also worked hard for the upliftment of the Harijans. According to the Phaedo. In 1930. MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology. 3. US. 'My experiments with truth' is the famous autobiography written by Gandhiji. He earned his Ph. MAHATMA GANDHI Father of the Nation Mohan Das Karam Chand Gandhi called the father of the nation was born in Porbunder in Gujarat. Cambridge. He has been studying ribosome structure ever since. On 30th January 1948 he was shot dead by a religious fanatic Nathu Ram Godse. . 'Civil Disobedience Movement' (1930) and 'Quit India Movement' (1942).from prison. enduring his sentence with fortitude. drinking the hemlock and dying in the company of his friends. Gandhiji led the famous 'Dandi March' for breaking the Salt Laws. As a postdoctoral fellow at Yale University.

He is also the richest person in the United Kingdom with personal wealth of US$19. In the September 21. Mittal acquired a 1.3 billion. Mittal is the 8th richest person in the world. his king-sized ambitions were evident when he took over steel giant Arcelor to create a new steel behemoth -. young Mittal saw an opportunity and turned the plant around. in the Churu district of Rajasthan. but still holds an Indian passport. he presented the 3-Angstrom structure of the 30S ribosomal subunit. Ramakrishnan discussed the structural basis for the action of each of these drugs.Arcelor-Mittal. He was also awarded a Guggenheim fellowship during his tenure there. He was sent to Indonesia by his father to shut down the family's ailing steel plant and sell the land. he was named one of the "100 Most Influential People" by Time magazine. In May 2007. Lakshmi Niwas Mittal Born on 15 June 1950. a heat-stable bacterium related to one found in the Yellowstone hot springs. As of 2009. Ramakrishnan joined the staff of Brookhaven National Laboratory in the US. After his postdoctoral fellowship. Iscot Steel plant in Trinidad & Tobago. He also serves as a non-executive director of Goldman Sachs.5 Angstrom-resolution structure. To prove that this was no fluke. 2000 issue of Nature. EADS and ICICI Bank and is the chairman of the World Steel Association. L N Mittal left India in the mid-1970s to start his career. he began his collaboration with Stephen White to clone the genes for several ribosomal proteins and determine their three-dimensional structures. He resides in London. With this 5. Instead. Ramakrishnan published two papers. has his company registered in the Netherlands. The Financial Times named Lakshmi Mittal its 2006 Person of the Year. Business Leaders 1. and he used it to make the transition to X-ray crystallography. using previously determined structures.3 million tonne. 2000 issue of Nature. In this paper.In the August 26.000 a day. with an estimated wealth of $25 billion. In the first of these. positioned seven of the subunit's proteins. he is an Indian born industrialist based in the United Kingdom. Ramakrishnan's group identified key portions of the RNA and. Although Mittal Steel was already the world's biggest steel company. He is the CEO and founder of and has been the chairman and CEO of ArcelorMittal since the merge. He was born in Sadulpur village. which was losing $100. He is the richest Indian in the world. One year of Mittal-style . There. His second paper revealed the structures of the 30S subunit in complex with three antibiotics that target different regions of the subunit. Ramakrishnan and his co-workers published the structure of the small ribosomal subunit of Thermus thermophilus. India.

having pledged to give away 85 percent of his fortune to the Gates Foundation. and philanthropist. But it was not all that smooth. Nooyi was named the successor to Steven Reinemund as chief executive officer of the company effective from October 1. He then consolidated all his steel holdings into Mittal Steel.On February 5.S. asked him to take over their ailing steel plants in 1992. Karmet. and currently serves as Chairperson of the U. he s a U. Forbes magazine ranked Nooyi third on the 2008 and 2009 list of The World's 100 Most . he was listed among Time's 100 Most Influential People in the world. the LN Mittal legend was born. businessman. The Mexican government seeing the success that Mittal made of Iscot.-India Business Council. the primary shareholder and CEO of Berkshire Hathaway. She serves as a member of the boards of the International Rescue Committee. investor. Eight years later Mittal Steel became the world's largest steel maker when he took over the US's largest steel producer -.the International Steel Group. She is a Successor Fellow of the Yale Corporation. 2007.and in 2008 was ranked by Forbes as the richest person in the world with an estimated net worth of approximately $62 billion. effective May 2. she was named Chairperson. 2006. He also serves as a member of the board of trustees at Grinnell College. In 2007. The following year Mittal entered the European market. 1930. 2. Indra Nooyi Indra Krishnamurthy Nooyi born October 28. Meanwhile. Warren Buffett Born in August 30. 2006. Buffett was named the top money manager of the twentieth century in a survey by the Carson Group. Buffett is also a notable philanthropist. one of the world's leading food and beverage companies.S. She is a Class B director of the Board of Directors of the New York Federal Reserve. acquiring the 5 million tonne Kazakh steel plant. ahead of Peter Lynch and John Templeton. In 1994 Mittal had differences with his brothers and father. In 1999. She is also a member of the Board of Trustees of Eisenhower Fellowships. 1955) is the Chairperson and Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of PepsiCo. and it was making profits. That move helped him get into America. Catalyst and the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts. On August 14. Mittal had listed Ispat International on the New York and Amsterdam Stock Exchanges in 1997. He is one of the most successful investors in history. and went on to form his own company. Buffett is often called the "Oracle of Omaha"or the "Sage of Omaha"and is noted for his adherence to the value investing philosophy and for his personal frugality despite his immense wealth. 2007.

Albert Einstein (1879-1955) We keep moving forward. News & World Report. Funny. opening new doors.Sam Walton (1918-1992) (Founder of Wal-Mart Stores) . Witty and Inspiring People around the world* "There are only two ways to live your life. Edison (1847-1931) · The Internet is becoming the town square for the global village of tomorrow. . This is where most consulting companies fail. This is bigotry.Fortune magazine has named Nooyi number one on its annual ranking of Most Powerful Women in business for 2006. In January 2008. Funny. but rarely ever employ any of those methods in their own set ups. Try and learn everything there is in your line of business. she was chosen as a recipient of the Padma Bhushan award by the Government of India. In 2008. In 2007. ." . Nooyi was elected Chairman of the US-India Business Council (USIBC). Try new things in your own organization and learn from those experiences. a non-profit business advocacy organization representing more than 300 of the world's largest companies doing business in India. Nooyi leads USIBC's Board of Directors. . she was elected to the Fellowship of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. They tell others so many things. 2008 and 2009.Thomas A. an assembly of more than 60 senior executives representing a cross-section of American industry.S. The other is as though everything is a miracle. because we're curious and curiosity keeps leading us down new paths.Walt Disney (1901(1901-12-05)-1966) The value of an idea lies in the using of it. In 2008. Nooyi was named one of America's Best Leaders by U. . Witty and Inspiring words by Some Famous. One is as though nothing is a miracle.1955 -) · Stay shockingly up to date. and doing new things.Bill Gates (b. 2007.Powerful Women. Quotations Famous.

html Ancient India History is a record of exciting.html http://www.html http://www. .Never before in history has innovation offered promise of so much to so many in so short a time. And if we do it. experience is your worst enemy. but the world as it will Ages have come and brought with them their foundations and Gates ( . Luce (1898 –1967) Founder of Time magazine In times of rapid change.greatbusinessquotes.John Paul Getty (1892-1976) (American Industrialist) “The world has never truly had to develop an ethic of interdependence rooted in our common humanity.leading-learning.html http://www.Isaac Asimov (1920 –1992) Business more than any other occupation is a continual dealing with the future. it is a continual calculation.1955 -) It is change. . inevitable change that is the dominant factor in society today. peaceful era in history.1946) For more such quotes click on the following links: http://thinkexist. .” .Bill Clinton quotes (b. an instinctive exercise in foresight.virginia.cs. the 21st century will be the most interesting. .Henry R. The study of Ancient India begins with the study of the Stone Age. No sensible decision can be made any longer without taking into account not only the world as it is. continuing http://mr_sedivy.

Mesolithic people lived on hunting. They particularly used stone axes. they domesticated animals. Neolithic Age – These people used tools and implements of polished stone. cities and drainage systems. The important development of this age was the emergence of HomoSapiens. the flint industry came up. The period in which they existed was between 1500-600 BC. They had great buildings. Chalcolithic Age Copper was the first metal used by men. 3. The main cities associated with the civilization were Harappa. Vedic Period This period is marked by the entry of the Aryans. ceramics. By the end of the Paleolithic Age.1. Stone Age The Stone Age. They used crude tools made of flakes. Indus Valley Civilization The most important event of ancient Indian history was the development of Indus Valley Civilization. They lived on roots and fruits. They did not know about Iron. Wheat was the main food crops. or the stages of early man can be classified into: Paleolithic Age – This period was essentially the stage of hunters and food gatherers. 2. Trade and agriculture were the main sources of livelihood for the people. 4. who were originally inhabitants of Central Asia around the Caspian Sea and probably came through the Hindu Kush Mountains.a small raw-stone tools. Dwelling pits. They used microlith . . well-planned roads. The main sites which have been found in the excavation are: • Kalibangan in Rajasthan • Lothal in Gujarat (Sea Port) • Banwali in Haryana • Ropar in Punjab. a variety of stone and bone tools and a complete absence of microliths marked this age. fishing and food gathering. Mesolithic Age – This age was the transition between the Paleolithic & the Neolithic Ages. The main feature of this civilization was Town Planning. Cattle. At a later stage. The people of Indus Valley were the first to produce cotton. and covered various regions of Gujarat. Men became food producer. Mohenjo-Daro and Lothal. Mother Goddess was the most important deity of worship. Parashurama became an important axe-wielding hero. • Mohenjodaro in Pakistan (Great Bath) The Indus Valley Civilization existed between 2350 BC and 1750 BC. This Civilization prospered on the banks of river Indus. It extended from Jammu in the North to Daimabad in the South. They had no knowledge of cultivation and house building. sheep and goat were domesticated.

The main Buddhist teachings of the eight–fold path of • right faith • thought • action • livelihood • efforts • speech • remembrance and concentration • belief in nirvana (freedom from the cycle of birth and death) Ahimsa and law of karma were recorded in Triptikas. He died at Kushinagar in U. iv) Sanskrit was first time introduced in India by Aryans. (who later came to be known as Buddha) around 6th century BC. Indra and Agni. Siddhartha. Satyameva Jayate (Truth Alone Triumphs) is taken from Mundaka Upanishad.P. Fire and Water. b) Sam Veda – It dealt with music. c) Yajur Veda – It dealt with formulae. 5. They were four in number. Rise of Religions The two major religions that came into prominence after the vedic period: i) Buddhism . sacrifices and rituals. : a) Rig Veda – The oldest. iii) Metal iron was used for the first time during this period in 1000 BC. viz.The Main Features of the Aryans were: i) They were admirers of nature and worshipped the Sun. ii) The Upanishads: They are the foundation stones of Indian Philosophy and are 108 in numbers. ii) Jainism .P. Siddhartha was born in 567 BC at Lumbini in Kapilavastu (present day Nepal). The following religious books were written during this period: i) Vedas: These were their most sacred books.Initiated by a Kshatriya prince of the Shakya clan. Vayu. Jainism attained peak under Vardhamana Mahavira (the 24th Tirthankara). and delivered his first sermons at Sarnath in U. He became a ‘Jina’ (one who has conquered happiness and misery) and died at Pavapuri (present day Bihar). He was the son of king Shuddhodana. He went in search of truth and attained enlightenment under a pipal tree at Bodh Gaya. d) Atharva Veda – It dealt with medicines. Varun. Mahavira was born at Kundagrama in 540 BC. ii) Indra was an important deity for the Aryans.Initiated by Rishabha Dava (a Kshatriya prince). The major teachings of Jainism were based on the Tri-ratna concept and the Tri-ratna concept was based on . He left his house at the age of 30 years and attained ‘Kaivalya’ (Perfect knowledge) at the age of 42 years. the religious book of Buddhists. and it contained prayers of God.

This dynasty was founded by Shishunag in 413 BC after defeating the last king of the Haryanka dynasty. iii) Nanda Dynasty – This dynasty was founded in 382 BC by Mahapadma Nanda. The Age of Mauryas (321-198 BC) • Chandragupta Maurya was the founder of Maurya Empire. • He defeated Porus. • Kautilya (also known as Chanakya) was in the court of Chandragupta Maurya and he had written the book titled Arthashastra. ii) Shishunaga Dynasty . crossed the river Indus and invaded India. • Ashoka was the first Indian king to talk directly to the people throughout his empire. after establishing his Kingdom in present day Pakistan. Alexander’s Invasion of India • Alexander. • Religious book . • Megasthenese was a Greek ambassador who came in the court of Chandragupta Maurya and wrote the book titled ‘INDICA’. the ruler of Punjab in the Battle of Hydaspes in 326 BC and extended his kingdom till India. • The last king of Maurya empire Brihadratha was killed by his commander in chief Pushyamitra Sunga 9. 8.4th Century BC) Major dynasties of the Magadha Empire were: i) Haryanka Dynasty .a) Right knowledge. • Ashoka fought the Kalinga war (261 BC) and after that war he adopted Buddhism. Kushan Empire The Kushan Empire was founded by the Kushan tribe of the Yuezhi Confederation around 1st century BC. 6. • Ashoka (273-232 BC) was the important king of this dynasty. • Kanishka was the most important king of the empire. Magadha Empire (6th Century BC . It has four lions standing back to back which is adopted as the emblem of modern day Republic.Agam (In Pali Language) • Dilwara Temple at Mount Abu in Rajasthan is a famous religious place of Jainism. 7. • He founded the city of Alexandria in present day Afghanistan. • His capital was at Pursushpura (now Peshawar). • The Ashoka pillar of Sarnath is the most popular of the Eelics left by Ashoka.Bimbisara and Ajatashatru laid the foundation of this dynasty in 684 BC. He founded the Saka Era in 78 AD. b) Right faith c) Right conduct. .

With Chandragupta II began the Vikram Era in 58 BC. • Sangam Literature relates primarily to Pandyan kingdom but also contains information about Cholas and Cheras. Gupta Empire It was founded by Chandragupta I (320-325 AD). • They issued the maximum number of lead coins. Other important kings of the Gupta empire were: i) Samudra Gupta (335-380 AD): He was known as the Napoleon of India. • Chinese Pilgrim.the important ones being at Amaravati and Nagarjuna Konda. ii) Chandragupta II (380-412 AD): He was also known as Vikramaditya. • Both Gandhar and Mathura art forms developed during Kanishka’s reign. a book on the life of Harshvardhana was written by Banabhata. Harshvardhana Harshvardhana was the last important king of North India. South Indian Dynasties 12. His coins depicted him as playing the musical instrument Veena. 10. He started the Gupta Era in 320 AD. who had also written Kadambari. • Hiuen-Tsang. • He was defeated by Pulshekin II of the Chalukya dynasty. • Tolkappiyam is the oldest book of Tamil grammar.• He was responsible for organizing the 4th Buddhist council in Kashmir. • They constructed many buddhist worshipping sites. • Aryabhatta and Kalidas were among the ‘Nine Gems’ or distinguished men at the court of Chandragupta II. Fa-hien came in his court. iii) Kumaragupta I of this dynasty built the Nalanda University (in present day Bihar). 11. • Harshcharita. the Chinese pilgrime came to his court. . (65 BC) • Satakarni was an important king. 12. • His capital was at Kannauj.1 The Sathavanas • This dynasty was founded by Simuka.

• Narasimhavarman I defeated and killed Pulkeshin II and captured Vadani. • According to the Aihole inscriptions.Group of Villages) Names of the Chiefs Rastrik Deshatric Gram Bhojak 12. • Narasimhavarma I was the greatest king. he was known as Vatapi-Konda.4 The Rashtrakutas Founded by Dantidurga in Deccan.3 The Pallavas (560 AD – 903 AD) • The Pallava dynasty was founded by Simhavishnu in 560 AD.He had written the first Kannada book ‘Kavirajamarga. .7th Century AD) • Pulkeshin I founded the Chalukya dynasty and established its capital at Vatapi.978 AD) . • Narshimhavarma II constructed the shore temple of Mahabalipuram and the Kailashnath Temple of Kanchi. • Aparajita Pallav was the last ruler and was defeated by Aditya Chola. their capital was located at Manyakheta or Malkhed. • Mahendravarman I was defeated by Pulakeshin II. iii) Krishna–I built the Kailash Temple at Ellora (in 9th century). • Pulkeshin II (609 AD .2 The Chalukyas (6th .’ and Ratnamalika in Kannada. he defeated Harshvardhana on the banks of river Narmada in 619 AD. 12. • Most of the Buddhist caves at Ajanta and Ellora were structured during the reign of the Chalukyas. and because he defeated Pulakeshin II and captured Badan. He built the Vaikunthaperumal Temple at Kanchi. • Narshimhavarma II was also a worshipper of Vishnu. Greatest kings of the Rashtrakuta dynasty were: i) Govind III (796 AD .642 AD) was the most important king. • Aihole was the temple town of this period. Administrative Units of the Pallavas Mandal (Province) Nadu (District) Village (Kottam . • Their Capital was at Kanch.Three Major Southern Kingdoms 12.814 AD) ii) Amoghavarsha I (814 AD .

The Tughlaq dynasty was founded by Ghiyath-al-din-Tughlag and the period of this dynasty ranges from AD 1320-1414. Later the capital was shifted to Tanjore. He started branding of horses and constructed Siri Fort at Delhi and Alai Darwaza near Qutub Minar. Ibn Buttuta was an important African traveller who visited India in 1333. and Balban was the important ruler of the Slave Dynasty. It is also considered as the beginning of Muslim rule in India.the districts Bhukti . Balban had started the Persian Festival. He was famous for market reforms.Administrative Units of the Rashtrakutas Rashtras . Later Iltutmish got three more floors added to the Minar.5 The Cholas (850 -1200 AD) • The Chola dynasty was founded by Vijayalaya in 850 AD.1014 AD) was an important king.the provinces Visaya . Administrative Units of the Cholas • Mandlam. It was founded by Qutab–uddin Aibak whose capital was at Lahore. 2. • The Cholas were famous for naval power and for their village administration. Ala-ud-din Khilji was one of the most prominent rulers of this dynasty. which was established after the conquest of Muhammad Ghori. • Raja Raja I (985 AD . Important Dynasties: 1. the provinces • Valanadusnadus. “NAUROZ”. the large villages • The Village Assembly was constituted of Urs . the districts • Taniyur. The Qutub Minar at Delhi was also built by Qutab–ud-din Aibak. The Khilji Dynasty was founded by Jalal-ud-din Khilji and its period ranges from AD 1290-1320. the only woman ruler of India.1044AD) was called the Napolean of South India.the assembly of common people. Nagaram .the assembly of merchants. The Slave Dynasty period ranges from AD 1206-1290. Medieval India It is marked by the beginning of the Sultanate of Delhi. Abha .He constructed the Siva Temple at Tanjore which is also famous as Raja Rajeshvar Temple. • Rajendra I (1014 AD. Razia Sultana. • Early capital was situated at Uraiyur. . The period of the Sultanate of Delhi ranges from AD 1206-1526. 3.the assembly of brahmins.the villages 12. .

1 Babur . Bairam Khan. Jama Masjid and Red Fort are the other two famous monuments that were built by him. He established Fatehpur Sikri and Buland Darwaza near Agra. who demolished several religious structures of Hindus. Mughal Dynasty (AD 1526-1857) 5.6 Aurangzeb . 5.The son of Akbar. 5. 6.He is credited with the foundation of the Mughal empire by defeating Ibrahim Lodhi in the First Battle of Panipat on April 20.3 Akbar . who ascended the throne after Akbar’s death. who built the Taj Mahal at Agra.5 Shahjahan . known for his administration and strict sense of justice. 5. in the memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal.Mohammed-Bin-Tughlaq introduced coins of brass and copper. He constructed the ‘Moti Masjid’ in the Red Fort at Delhi and ‘Bibi ka Makbara’ at Aurangabad. who separated religion and politics. his biography Humayu-Nama was written by Gulbadan Begum. 5. fought the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556 and defeated Hemu. He was the husband of Noor Jahan Begum and had built Shalimar and Nishant Bagh. 5. He had transferred his capital from Agra to Delhi. Sikandar Lodhi and Ibrahim Lodhi were the other two prominent rulers belonging to this dynasty.Famous ruler and son of Jehangir. Two important books Akbar-Nama and Ain-e-Akbari were written during Akbar’s tenure by Abul Fazal.He was the next emperor of the Mughal empire after Babur. His autobiography is Tuzk-eJahangiri and his tomb is built at Lahore. Feroz Shah Tughlaq was another important king and he constructed many towns. 5. The Lodhi dynasty was founded by Bahlol Lodhi and the period of this dynasty ranges from AD 1451–1526. The Mughal empire started declining with the attack of Nadir Shah who took with him the famous Kohinoor Diamond to Afghanistan and peacock throne to Iran. He abolished the Jazia Tax. . His tomb is in Delhi. 1526.He was a brilliant administrator who issued the Rupiah and Paisa coins and built the famous Grand Trunk Road from Peshawar to Calcutta. Suri Dynasty (1540-1555): Sher Shah Suri (1540-1545) . 4.4 Jehangir . An excellent leader. started a new religion called Din-e-Ilahi. and his autobiography Baburnama is written in Turkish. Sikandar Lodhi established Agra City and transferred his capital from Agra to Delhi.A very cruel ruler and son of Shahjahan. His tomb is built at Kabul. His tomb is built at Sikandara near Agra.2 Humayun .He was the most successful Mughal emperor. Akbar’s General. and ruled for about 50 years.

Warren Hastings (1774 . Sir Thomas Roe. • The East India Company (EIC) of England came to India in 1602. under the leadership of Lord Clive. • The first English Ambassador.He constructed the Old Fort of Delhi. The French rule in India came to an end. Warren Hastings became the first Governor General of Bengal. • The EIC established its first factory at Surat in 1613. iii) Battle of Buxar (1764) The joint army of Mir Quasim. The first officer of the EIC. The Governor General and his council had all the legislative powers. the British Parliament initiated a series of administrative and economic reforms in India. It is also known as the Black Hole Episode of the Indian history. came to India in 1615 in the court of Jahangir. the then ruler • India.1785) Warren Hastings was the first Governor General of Bengal. Nawab of Awadh and Shah Alam II was defeated by the English army under the leadership of Captain Hector Munro. The post of Governor General for Bengal was created. So Portugal was the European country to start trade with India. He came to power after Humayun and before Akbar Modern India Coming of the Europeans • Vasco-da-Gama discovered the sea route to India in 1498 and he belonged to Portugal. former Nawab of Bengal Suja-ud-Daulah. The Regulating Act (1773) In1773.1858) 1. Captain Hawkins came to India in 1608 in the court of Jahangir. ii) Battle of Wandiwash (1760) It was the decisive battle fought between the English and the French. The foundation of the British .. Governor Generals (1774 . the Nawab of Bengal was defeated by the East India Co. Important Battles of Modern India i) Battle of Plassey (1757) Siraj-ud-Daulah. Supreme Court was established at Calcutta and Sir Elijah Impey became the First Chief Justice of India. the first governor of Bengal.

Empire was laid down by Lord Clive (first Governor of Bengal) and Warren Hastings consolidated it. 2. Lord Cornwallis (1786 - 1793) Lord Cornwallis is known as the father of Indian Civil Services. He introduced the system of the Permanent Settlement, also called the Zamindari System, in 1793 in Bengal. It was an agreement between East India Company and the Bengali landlords (zamindars) for effective agricultural methods and productivity in the empire. 3. Lord Wellesley (1797 - 1805) Lord Wellesely adopted the policy of Subsidiary Alliance. He established the Fort William College at Calcutta. 4. Lord William Bentinck (1828 - 1835) He was the first Governer General of India. He was a famous social reformer. He abolished the Sati system in 1829. He introduced engineering education in India. 5. Lord Dalhousie (1845 - 1856) Lord Dalhousie laid the foundation of railways in India. The first railway line was laid between Bombay and Thane and began operating in 1853. He also started the first telegram line in India between Agra and Calcutta. He introduced the Widow Remarriage Act, opened post offices throughout India, established the Public Works Department, and introduced The Doctrine of Lapse. Viceroys of India 1. Lord Canning (1858 - 1862) Lord Canning was the first Viceroy of India. He abolished The Doctrine of Lapse and also established three major Indian universities at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras. 2. Lord Litton (1876 - 1880) Lord Litton introduced The Vernacular Press Act, to curb the freedom of Indian Press. 3. Lord Rippon (1880 - 1884) Lord Rippon was known as the father of Local Self Government. He started census for the first time in India in 1881.He abolished The Vernacular Press Act and introduced Illbert Bill. 4. Lord Curzon (1899 - 1904) Lord Curzon was responsible for the partition of Bengal into East and West Bengal in 1905. He passed Indian University Act in 1904 and also passed The Indian Monuments Act. 5. Lord Minto (1905 -1910) During his tenure there was great unrest in India because of the the Indian Council Act or the Minto Morley reforms passed in 1909.

6. Lord Hardinge (1910 - 1916) During his tenure a Durbar was held at Delhi in 1911 to greet the King of England, George V. Bengal was unified and Delhi was made the capital in place of Calcutta in 1911. Gate-way of India was constructed to greet him. 7. Lord Chelmsford (1916 - 1921) Under Lord Chelmsford, The Government of India Act of 1919, popularly know as Montague-Chelmsford reform was passed. The Jallianwala Bagh massacre took place on 13th April 1919. Rowlatt Act, also called the Black Bill, was passed in 1919. The Non Cooperation movement started in the year 1920. 8. Lord Reading (1921 - 1925) The visit of the Duke of Connaught and the Prince of Wales to India was boycotted under Lord Reading. Mahatma Gandhi called off Non-cooperation Movement in 1922 due to Chauri-Chaura event. 9. Lord Irwin (1926 - 1931) During Lord Irwin’s reign, the Simon commission visited India in 1928. Civil Disobedience movement was started in India by Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhi - Irwin pact was signed in 1931. The First Round Table Conference was held in London. Indian National Congress boycotted it. 10. Lord Willingdon (1931 - 1936) Under Lord Willingdon, the second and third round table conferences were held at London. The Poona pact was signed between Dr. B R Ambedker and Mahatma Gandhi. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar participated in all thre round conference. 11. Lord Linlithgow (1936 - 1943) Under him elections were held for the first time in 11 Indian states in 1939. Congress ministries were formed in eight out of 11 provisions but subsequently resigned because India was being dragged into the Second World War. 12. Lord Wavell (1943 - 1947) Under him the Cabinet Mission came to India from London. The first meeting of the Constituent Assembly was held on 9th December, 1946. 13. Lord Mountbatten (March 13, 1947 to 14 August 1947) Under him an act for Indian independence was passed by British Parliament. He was the last British Governor General of independent India. Presidents of Indian National Congress (Important Sessions) Session No. 1 3 Year 1885 1887 Place Bombay Madras President W. C. Bannerjee BadurddinTyabji

4 9 21 22 23 33 35 36 57

1888 1893 1905 1906 1907 1917 1918 1919 1939

Allahabad George Yule Lahore Dadabhai Naoroji Banaras G. K. Gokhale Kolkata Dadabhai Naoroji Surat Dr. Rash Bihari Ghosh Kolkata Mrs.Annie Besant Delhi (Annual Session) M. M. Malyviya Amritsar Lala Lajpat Rai Tripura Dr. Rajendra Prasad

Important Socio-Religious Organisations Year 1815 1828 1829 1867 1875 1875 1878 1886 1887 1887 1887 1897 1905 1911 1914 Name of the Organisation Founder Atmiya Sabha Ram Mohan Roy Brahmo Samaj Ram Mohan Roy Dharma Sabha Radhakanta Dev Prarthna Samaj Atmaram Pandurang Swami Dayanand Bombay Arya Samaj Saraswati Madam H.P. Blavatsky New York Theosophical Society and (USA) Col. H.S. Olcott Calcutta Sadharan Brahmo Samaj Anand Mohan Bose Pune (Poona) Deccan Education Society G.G. Agarkar Muhammadan Educational Aligarh Syed Ahmad Khan Conference Bombay Indian National Conference M.G. Ranade Lahore Deva Samaj Shivnarayan Agnihotri Belur Ramakrishna Mission Swami Vivekanand Gopalakrishna Bombay Servents of Indian Society Gokhale Bombay Social Service League N.M. Joshi Allahabad Seva Samiti H.N. Kunzru Place Calcutta Calcutta Calcutta Bombay

Important Milestones of Modern India

Event First War of Independence Government of India Act Formation of Indian National Congress Partition of Bengal Swadeshi Movement Formation of Muslim League Morley–Minto Reforms Home Rule Movement Lucknow Pact


Related Facts Mangal Pandey was a prominent figure. He killed two 1857 British sepoys at Barrackpore. 1858 Direct governance of British Crown over India. 1885 A. O. Hume was the founder. W.C. Banerjee was the first president of Indian National Congress.

1905 Bengal was divided on the basis of religion. 1905 Indian National Congress adopted a resolution on 7th August 1905 to boycott all foreign goods.

1906 Founded by Aga Khan and Salimuddin at Dhaka. 1909 191516 1916 Under these reforms, a separate electorate was made for Muslims during the leadership of Lord Minto. Annie Besant started the movement in September 1916. Congress and Muslim League held their sessions at Lucknow, which strengthened the Hindu–Muslim unity. It gave unstoppable powers to the government to arrest and imprison suspects, without even having a trial. Because of firing, under the orders of General O’ Dyer, many people were killed, while attending a public meeting at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar. This was an anti–British movement started by two brothers Shaukat and Muhammad Ali. Gandhiji pioneered the movement which included the boycott of foreign goods and refusing government work. Simon Commission was dispatched to India in 1927 to study constitutional reforms. Simon Commission was confronted by throngs of protesters in India. Lala Lajpat Rai died of his injuries due to Lathi charge in a procession against the Commission. Gandhiji marched from his Sabarmati Ashram, which was basically a form of protest against the tax on salt imposed by the British Government. Passed on the basis of the Simon Commission report,

Rowlatt Act Jallianwala Bagh Massacre Khilafat Movement Non-Cooperation Movement


1919 1920 1920

Simon Commission


Dandi March (Salt 1930 Satyagraha) Government of 1935

the Constituent Assembly was formed.India Act Quit India Movement Cabinet Mission Plan Formation of the Constituent Assembly 1942 1946 1946 Partition of India 1947 Constitution Enforcement THE EARTH it envisaged the structure of the government under the direct governance of the ‘British Crown’.533 billion years ago. silicon (17. THE COMPOSITION OF THE EARTH The mass of the Earth is approximately 5. It comprises of iron (35. 71% of the Earth is covered by water and only 29% is solid land.1%).57 billion years ago and its largest natural satellite.6%) and aluminum (1. like that of the other terrestrial planets. Indian Independence Act of 1947 was responsible for the partition of India. a liquid outer core that is much less viscous than the mantle. The Earth was formed around 4. Rajendra Prasad. oxygen (28.2%). THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH The interior of the Earth. . a highly viscous mantle.6%). Earth is the third planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the Sun. nickel (1. and it is the only planet in the universe known to support life. 1. and a solid inner core.000 km /p). with an average diameter of approximately 12. and the fifth largest in size. is chemically divided into layers. THE SHAPE OF THE EARTH The Earth’s shape is that of an oblate spheroid. the Moon. 1950. making it the largest solid body in the solar system. Approximately. This envisaged forming an interim government in India Without the Muslim league’s participation under the Assembly predisency of Dr.9%). calcium (1. Earth’s Hydrosphere The abundance of water on Earth is a unique feature that distinguishes ‘The Blue Planet’ from the other planets in the Solar System. around 4. Mahatma Gandhi led this movement and asked the Britishers to leave India. The Earth has an outer silicate solid crust.98 ×1024 kg. was orbiting it shortly thereafter.742 km (~ 40.5%). It is also the largest amongst its planetary system’s terrestrial planets.2%). magnesium (15. 1950 The Constitution came into force on 26th Jan.

The outermost layer of the Earth’s atmosphere is known as the Exosphere. including inland seas. • Mesophere .Above troposphere is the stratosphere. • Ionosphere .Above stratosphere is mesosphere. This layer of calm and clear air is preferred for highspeed jet flights because of the absence of air pockets. which has electrically conducting layers that help in radio communication. and which is the theatre for almost all the weather phenomena. • Exosphere . Earth’s Atmosphere : It consists of the following layers: • Troposphere .Above mesosphere lies the ionosphere. • Stratosphere . . lakes.This is the lowermost part of the atmosphere in which we live. which is important primarily because of the presence of ozone.794 m (12.447 ft). but technically includes all water surfaces in the world.The Earth’s hydrosphere mainly consists of oceans. which is more of a transitional layer. texture of the constituent particles and the process by which they are formed. Kinds of Rocks Rocks are naturally occuring aggregate of minerals. 2. Rocks are classified by their mineral and chemical composition. rivers. more than five times the average height of the continents. The average depth of the oceans is 3. The study of rocks is called Petrology. The transformation of one rock type to another through geographical process is called the Rock Cycle. and underground waters. The Earth’s crust and mantle are formed of rocks.

Longitude is the angular distance.IST refers to the longitude that passes through Allahabad and is hours ahead of the GMT. IMPORTANT GEOGRAPHICAL TERMS i. measured in degrees along the equator. . Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) – GMT refers to the 0º longitude that passes through Greenwich near London. limestone. iii. International Date Line – It is the line that passes through 180º East or West meridian of longitude which falls on the opposite side of the Greenwich meridian. This change leads to the formation of Metamorphic Rocks. sandstone etc. Latitude and Longitude . iii. The process of deposition is called sedimentation. measured in degrees from the centre of the Earth. ii. etc. iv. One day is added when this line is crossed East to West and a day is deducted when the line passes West to East.Types of Rocks i.basalt.Latitude is the angular disance of a point on the Earth’s surface. Examples of the Igneous rock are granite. Metamorphic Rocks – Pressure and change in temprature under the Earth’s surface cause Igneous and Sedimentary rocks to undergo change. Indian Standard Time (IST) . Igneous Rocks – Igneous rocks are formed when the molten magma or lava slowly cools and crystallises within the Earth’s crust. east or west of the Prime Meridian (the meridian that passes through Greenwich near London). Commonly known sedimentary rocks are coal. ii. Sedimentary Rocks – Sedimentary rocks are formed by the deposition of organic and non-organic matter over a period of time.

the Sun shines vertically over the Tropic of Capricorn. vii. Similarly.Perigee refers to the point of the moon when it is at its minimum distance from the Earth.It is a type of whirlwind which is formed by rising air currents associated with large cumulonimbus clouds. On the 22nd of June the sun shines vertically over the Tropic of Cancer and this date is termed as Summer Solstice for the Northern Hemisphere and Winter Solstice for the Southern Hemisphere. In the Indian Ocean. This distance is approximately 364. xii. with extremely strong winds. a place near London. xi. Perihelion . Tornado . Aphelion .It is the name given to a tropical cyclone in the Far East.Aphelion refers to that position of the Earth in its orbit. Hence it is Summer Solstice for Southern Hemisphere and Winter Solstice for the Northern Hemisphere. Meridians .000 kms.000 kms for the Earth. Apogee . Typhoon . when it is at its greatest distance from the Sun.It means two days during the year when the day and night are almost equal throughout the World because the Sun shines vertically over the Equator. March 21st is called the Vernal Equinox and September 23rd is called the Autumnal Equinox. The Earth at perihelion is at a distance of about 147 million kms from the Sun. This term also refers to the position of any other planet or a comet. Perigee . The wind force reaches 12 on the Beaufort scale. The Earth reaches this position during the northern summer. x.The Equator represents the imaginary line passing around the Earth midway between the North and South poles. viii.Apogee refers to the position of the orbit of the moon when it is at its greatest distance from Earth. which passes through Greenwich. Prime Meridian is the 0 degree meridian. xiv. Equinox .Any area of low pressure around which the air turns in the same direction as the Earth is a cyclone. on December 22nd. xiii.It is a tropical storm in the Caribbean or West Pacific Ocean. It divides the Earth into two equal parts. vi. Hurricane .v. It rotates in an anticlockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere and in a clockwise direction in the Southern Hemisphere.Perihelion refers to the nearest point of a heavenly body in its orbit around the Sun. a tropical storm with masses of air turning rapidly round a low pressure area is called a tropical cyclone. Equator . when it is at the greatest distance from the Sun (about 152 million kms). . xvi. This is approximately 406. xv. Solstice . ix. Cyclone .It is the date on which the Sun shines vertically over a tropic when the days and nights are the longest and the shortest.They represent the imaginary lines drawn out on the global map from pole to pole and perpendicular to the Equator.

Estuary .Lines denoting places experiencing equal frost. xxiv.Lines joining places with the same magnetic declination.Lines denoting equal depths in the Sea.Lines joining places experiencing a thunderstorm at the same time.Lines denoting places experiencing equal seismic activity. Isobars .xvii.Lines on the map denoting places experiencing equal pressure. xxii. Isobaths . xix. Isochrones . Isogonics . xx. Isoseismics .Lines joining places located at equal travel time from a common centre. xxiii.It is the tidal mouth of a river where the salt water of the tide meets the fresh water of the river current. Isorymes . xxi. CONTINENTS OF THE WORLD LARGEST AND SMALLEST COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD The 10 Largest Countries . xviii. Isobronts .

The 10 Smallest Countries THE SEAS OF THE WORLD The 10 largest seas of the World and the area covered by them .

000 Sq. is Russia’s Caspian Sea.The world’s largest salt water lake (Inland sea). The 10 highest peaks of the World.100 Sq Km. The largest fresh water lake is Lake Superior. with an area of 82. Km. are as follows * Source – World Atlas . THE PEAKS OF THE WORLD The Tibetan name for Mt. Everest is Chomolungma. which means “Goddess mother of the world”. It has an area of 372. Canada. all of which are in the Himalayas.

CAPITALS AND CURRENCIES Country Afghanistan Albania Algeria Principality of An Dorra Angola Argentina Australia Austria Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belgium Capital Kabul Tirane Algiers Andorra La Vieille Luanda Buenos Aires Canberra Vienna Manama Dhaka Bridgetown Brussels Currency Afghani Lek Dinar Franc Kwanza Peso Australian Dollar Schilling Bahraini Dinar Taka Barbados Dollar Euro .MOST POPULOUS COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD Most Populous Countries SMALLEST POPULOUS COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD COUNTRIES.

Belize Benin Bhutan Belmopan Porto Novo Thimphu Belize Dollar Franc Ngultrum (fixed at par with Indian rupee) Country Bolivia Botswana Brazil Bulgaria Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic (CAR) Chad Chile China Colombia Congo Costa Rica Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Ethiopia Fiji Finland France Gabon The Gambia Capital La paz/Sucre Gaborone Brasilia Sofia Bujumbura Phnom-Penh Yaounde Ottawa Bangui N’Djamena Santiago Beijing Bogota Kinshasa San Jose Havana Nicosia Prague Copenhagen Djibouti Santo Domingo Quito Cairo San Salvador Malabo Addis Ababa Suva Helsinki Paris Liberville Banjul Currency The Boliviano Pula Real Lev Burundi Franc Riel CFA Franc Dollar CFA Franc CFA Franc Peso Renmimbi (Yuan) Colombian Peso Congolese Franc Costan Rican Colon Peso Cyprun Pound The Koruna Danish Krone Djibouti Franc Peso US Dollar and Sucre Egyptian Pound Colon CFA Franc Birr Dollar Euro Euro CFA Franc Dalasi .

George’s Guatemala City Capital Georgetown Tegucigalpa Victoria HK Budapest Reykjavik New Delhi Jakarta Teheran Baghdad Dublin Jerusalem Rome Kingston Tokyo Amman Nairobi Pyongyang Seoul Kuwait City Vientiane Beirut Tripoli Kuala Lumpur Lilongwe Male Port Louis Ulan Bartor Yangon Windhoek Kathmandu Amsterdam Wellington Euro Cedi Euro East Carribean Dollar Quetzal Currency Guyana Dollar Lempira Dollar Forint Krona Rupee Rupiah Rial Iraqi Dinar Euro New Shekel Euro Dollar Yen Dinar Shilling Won Won Kuwaiti Dinar Kip Pound Libyan Dinar Ringgit Kwacha Rufiya Maurituan Rupee Tugrik Kyat Dollar Nepalese Rupee Euro NZ Dollar .Germany Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala Country Guyana Honduras Hong Kong Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kenya Korea (North) Korea (South) Kuwait Laos Lebanon Libya Malaysia Malawi Maldives Mauritius Mongolia Myanmar (Burma) Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Berlin Accra Athens St.

Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Peru Philippines Country Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Romania Russia Rwanda Saudi Arabia Seychelles Singapore South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Sweden Switzerland Syria Taiwan Tanzania Thailand Tunisia Turkey Uganda United Arab Emirates (UAE) United Kingdom (UK) United States of America Uruguay Abuja Oslo Muscat Islamabad Lima Manila Capital Warsaw Lisbon San Juan Doha Bucharest Moscow Kigali Riyadh (Royal).Cape Town (Legislative) Madrid Colombo Khartoum Stockholm Berne Damascus Taipei Dodoma Bangkok Tunis Ankara Kampala Abu Dhabi London Washington D. Jeddah (Administrative) Victoria Singapore City Pretoria (Administrative). Montevideo Naira Krone Rial Rupees New Sol Peso Currency Zloty Euro US Dollar Riyal (QAR) Leu Rouble Franc Rial Rupee Singapore Dollar Rand Euro Rupee Dinar Krona Franc Syrian Pound New Taiwan Dollar Shilling Baht Dinar Turkish Lira Uganda Shilling Dirham Pound Sterling Dollar Peso .C.

Venezuela Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Caracas Sana’a Lusaka Harare Bolivar Rial Kwacha Dollar NATIONAL EMBLEMS OF COUNTRIES NEW NAMES OF COUNTRIES AND STATES .



49th parallel : Boundary line between USA & Canada.IMPORTANT INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARIES Durand Line : Boundary between India & Afghanistan. Maginot Line : Boundary between France & Germany. 38th parallel : Boundary line between North Korea & South Korea. 17th parallel : Defined the boundary between North Vietnam & South Vietnam before the two were united. Siegfried Line : The line between Germany and France INDIA AT A GLANCE India. accounts for about 2. McMohan Line : Boundary between China & India. the seventh largest country of the world.4% of the total world . Hindenburg Line : Boundary between Germany & Poland. Radcliffe Line : Boundary between India & Pakistan.

Therefore. narrows down and ends into the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal on the East and the Arabian Sea on the West. The number of males in 2001 was 53. Alluvial Soil – Alluvial soil is formed due the deposition of particles such as silt.87% of the World population). pulses. Punjab. It measures about 3214 Kms from North to South and 2933 Kms from East to West. Dimensions The land area covered by Indian mainland is 32. the Indian mainland is surrounded by Sri Lanka. This soil type facilitates the cultivation of cereals. The Western coast is rocky while the Eastern coast is shallow. Bhutan and Afghanistan. About 2/3rd of the population is engaged in agricuture and it provides livelihood to about 60% of the population. It covers 30 percent of the total area of the country. ii. India does not have many good harbours. Haryana and parts of West Bengal. this soil type is rich in iron. Nepal.780 Sq Kms. The coastline of India is not indented and the sea on the coast is not very deep. and accounted for 16% of the national income. INDIAN AGRICULTURE India primarily has an agrarian economy. lime and alluminium.13 crore while the number of females was 49. It is the second largest contributor to the national income. The density of population in India is about 324 persons per square km. Towards the West of India lies Pakistan and in the South. The life expectancy is 64 years and the present literacy rate in 2005 was 65. the Indian Ocean in the South and the Bay of Bengal in the East. 87.57 crore. Location India lies on the Northern Hemisphere between parallels of latitude 37o6’ and 8o4’ North and between the Meridians of longitude 68o7’ E and 97o25’ East. The length of the Indian coastline is 7615 Kms. Neighbours To the North of the country lie China. The country stretches southwards and at the Tropic of Cancer.area. sugarcane and wheat.Also known as the cotton soil.38 percent. Black Soil . Only Mumbai and Goa are natural harbours while all the other are artificial. It is the most fertile soil form found in India and is generally found in regions of Uttar Pradesh. the population of India was about 10287 crore (16. It is bounded by the great Himalayas and other snowy mountains in the north. Black soil is generally . The East of the country is surrounded by Myanmar and Bangladesh. About 43% of the total land area in India is under agricultural cultivation. gravel and sand by the rivers in the plains. Bihar. Major Soil Types The major types of soil found in India are: i. It is bounded by Arabian Sea in the West. Population India is the second largest country in the World in terms of population. According to the 2001 census.

Maharashtra. It is mainly found in Kerala. It is mainly found in Tamil Nadu. Laterite Soil – Laterite soil is highly leached and the least fertile soil type found in India. Karnataka and Tamil Nadu and facilitates the cultivation of tea. and cashew nut. Largest Producers of Major Food Crops Crops Rice Wheat Maize Total Coarse Cereals Total Pulses Total Foodgrains Groundnut Rapessed & Mustard Soyabean Suflower Total Oilseeds Cash Crops Sugarcane Cotton Jute & Mesta 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 State West Bengal Punjab Uttar Pradesh Punjab Madhya Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Maharashtra Karnataka Madhya Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Punjab Gujarat Tamil Nadu Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Karnataka Andhra Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Uttar Pradesh Maharashtra Maharashtra Gujarat West Bengal .found in Madhya Pradesh. Red Soil – This soil is red in colour because of the presence of Iron oxides. oil seeds and tobacco. Gujarat. potato and chillies. wheat. iv. iii. Karnataka. millets. Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu and facilitates the cultivation of cotton. Orissa and Chattisgarh and facilitates the cultivation of wheat. coffee.

Gandak. Beas and Sutlej. are short and have limited catchment areas.The rivers on the inland drainage basin consists of those in Western Rajasthan which are very few and short lived. Periyar. Most of these are non-perennial as well. Sone.Tista. like the Sambhar. Chambal. 2) Peninsular Rivers . During monsoon heavy rainfall in the Himalayan region causes frequent floods in these rivers.The Peninsular rivers are only rain fed and fluctuate in volume and a large number of streams dry up after monsoon. The major peninsular rivers are: • Mahanadi • Krishna • Kaveri – known as the “Ganga of South India”. Gomti etc. Ghagra. Bhagirathi State Punjab Jharkhand West Bengal Orissa Karnataka Uttrakhand . These are: 1) Himalayan Rivers – The Himalayan Rivers are snow fed and have water throughout the year.Yamuna. Betwa. • The Ganges and its tributaries. • Brahmaputra and its tributary .The coastal rivers.Jhelum. Ravi. especially on the West Coast. The major Himalayan rivers are: • The Indus and its tributaries. Mithi and Mandovi are major coastal rivers of India. and the Loni that drains into the Rann of Kutch. 4) Rivers of the inland drainage basin .Potato Onion 2 1 2 1 2 Bihar Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Maharashtra Gujarat MAJOR RIVERS OF INDIA There are four major river routes found in India. which is lost in the desert sands. Chenab. • Godavari • Narmada • Tapi (also known as Tapti) 3) Coastal Rivers . Major River Projects Name of the Project Bhakra Nangal Project Damodar Valley Project Farakka Barrage Project Hirakund Dam Project Nagarjunasagar Project Tehri Dam Project River Satluj Damodar Ganga Mahanadi Krishna Bhilangana.

. Major Indian Industries and Industrial Regions • Aircraft . titanium. It is an important mineral used for the production of steel. Maharashtra. 1. Jharkhand. Huge coal reserves exist in Rani Ganj (West Bengal) and Jharia (Jharkhand). These are also the largest aluminium producing areas of the country. Madhya Pradesh. manganese. coal. Mica India’s is the world’s largest producer of Mica. • Cement . 3. Iron Ranked fourth in the world in iron ore production. Manganese Ranked sixth in the world for production of manganese. West Bengal.Bangalore and Kanpur. Andhra Pradesh. • Cotton Textile . The majority of this product (almost 60%) comes from Jharkhand. Since the domestic consumption is not very large most of the Mica produce is exported. 4. India is very rich in iron.INDIA’S MINERAL WEALTH India has certain basic and useful minerals such as iron and coal. Bastar and Durg districts in Chhattisgarh. thorium and mica but does not have large reserves of mineral oil. Rajasthan. aluminium. Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat. 5. 2. A major portion of the deposits is found in Karnataka.Andhra Pradesh. Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir. Coal Ranked third in the production of coal. Gujarat. lead and tin. 80 per cent of the coal is extracted from the mines in West Bengal and Jharkhand. fourth in iron ore. ranks third in the production of coal. limestone. tenth in aluminium and eleventh in crude steel. Goa. sulphur. Singhbhum (Jharkhand). Tamil Nadu. Bonai and Mayurbhanj (all Orissa) are areas with richest iron deposits in the world. India is the largest producer of mica blocks and mica splittings. The major iron ore mines are at Chanda. Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. Jharkhand. Uttar Pradesh. Tamil Nadu. Karnataka. Keonjhar. India is a major exporter of manganese and possesses one-third of the world’s reserves. Apart from Jharkhand. Madhya Pradesh and Orissa are major iron bearing areas. Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu. sixth in bauxite and manganese ore. Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh are the major producers of Mica in the country. Andhra Pradesh.Gujarat. Other coal bearing areas are in Orissa. Jharkhand. Karnataka. India has almost one-fourth of the world’s iron ore reserves. Madhya Pradesh. Bauxite Bauxite is an aluminium ore which is mainly found in Orissa.

Diesel Locomotives at Varanasi.Karnataka. Uttar Pradesh. • Paper . Chennai. • Silk . Dighaghat. Karnataka.Firozabad. Rail Coaches at Integral Coach Factory at Perambur and Rail Coach Factory at Kapurthala. Batanagar.Andhra Pradesh. and Mumbai. Ambala. Agra. • Glass .Maharashtra. West Bengal and Jammu and Kashmir. Jabalpur. Kerala. Amritsar. West Bengal and Tamil Nadu.West Bengal • Leather . • Sugar . Bihar. Saharanpur. Coimbatore and Bangalore.Chittaranjan Locomotives Works at Chittaranjan. Punjab and Tamil Nadu. Orissa.Kanpur. • Jute . Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. Pune.Nepanagar. INDIAN STATES Capital Itanagar Hyderabad Guwahati Patna Raipur Panaji Gandhinagar Chandigarh Shimla Srinagar (Summer) Jammu and Kashmir Jammu (Winter) Jharkhand Ranchi Karnataka Bengaluru Kerala Thiruvananthapuram Madhya Pradesh Bhopal Maharashtra Mumbai Manipur Imphal Meghalaya Shillong Mizoram Aizawl Nagaland Kohima Orissa Bhubaneshwar Punjab Rajasthan Chandigarh Jaipur States Arunachal Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Since Former Capital 1972 — 1956 — 1972 Shillong (1874-1972) 1936 — 2000 — 1961 — 1970 Ahmedabad (1960-1970) 1966 — 1948 — 1948 2000 1956 1956 1956 1960 1947 1970 1972 1963 1948 1966 1948 — — — Kochi (1949-1956) — — — — — — Cuttack (1936-1948) Lahore (1936-1947) Shimla (1947-1966) — . • Rail Engine and Coaches . Chembur. Deonar.

Gujarat One horned rhino.Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttaranchal Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Gangtok Chennai Agartala Dehradun Lucknow Kolkata 1975 1956 1956 2000 1937 1905 — — — — — — INDIAN UNION TERRITORIES States Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar Haveli Daman and Diu Delhi (NCT) Lakshadweep Puducherry Capital Port Blair Chandigarh Silvassa Daman Delhi Kavaratti Puducherry Since 1956 1966 1961 1987 1956 1956 1954 Former Capital — — — — — — — National Parks and Wild Life Sancturies of India Name of the National Parks Gir Forests Kaziranga Sanctuary Manas Sanctuary Chandraprabha Sanctuary Ghana or Keoladeo Bird Sanctuary Dachigam Sanctuary Corbett National Park Kanha National Park Shiv Puri National Park Hazaribagh National Park Periyar Game Sanctuary Dudhwa National Park Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary Nokrek National Park Sariska Sanctuary Ranthambhor National Park State and famous For Home of Asiatic lion. Rajasthan Hangul. Kerala Uttar Pradesh Tamil Nadu Meghalaya Rajasthan Rajasthan . Assam 2nd home of Asiatic lion. Uttaranchal Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Jharkhand Elephants. Assam One horned rhino. Uttar Pradesh Bharatpur. Kashmir Home of Tiger.

Rann of Kutch. Karnataka Nagarhole National Park Karnataka Mudumalai Sanctuary Tamil Nadu Balpakram Sanctuary Meghalaya Bandipur Sanctuary Along the Karnataka .Namdapha National Park Arunachal Pradesh Keibul Lamjo Floating National Park Manipur Palamau Tiger Project Bihar Simlipal National Park Orrisa Ranganthittoo Bird Sanctuary Mysore. West Bengal Wild Ass Sanctuary Wild Ass.Tamil Nadu Border Jaldapara Sanctuary Rhinos. Gujarat Important Towns on Rivers Town Allahabad River At the confluence of the Ganga and Yamuna Ganga Ganga Ganga Ganga Alaknanda Yamuna Yamuna Satluj Satluj Jhelum Gomti Gomti Saryu Ram Ganga Sabarmati Town Kota River Chambal Patna Varanasi Kanpur Hardwar Badrinath Delhi Mathura Ferozpur Ludhiana Srinagar Lucknow Jaunpur Ayodhya Bareilly Ahmedabad Jabalpur Ujjain Surat Jamshedpur Agra Guwahati Kolkata Sambalpur Cuttack Serianagapatnam Hyderabad Nasik Vijayvada Tiruchirapalli Narmada Kshipra Tapti Swarnarekha Yamuna Brahmaputra Hooghly Mahanadi Mahanadi Cauvery Musi Godavari Krishna Cauvery BRANCHES OF SCIENCE Acoustics : The study of sound and sound waves .

A branch of medicine concerned with administration of anaesthetics and the condi : of the patient while under anaesthesia.g. fruits. problems and diseases : A branch of medicine dealing with female diseases of the reproduction system : A branch of medicine studying blood and its disorders : A branch of medicine dealing with liver : A branch of agricultural science dealing with flowers. vegetables.Aerodynamics Aeronautics Anatomy Anaesthesiology Anthropology Archaeology Astrophysics Astronomy Bacteriology Biology Biophysics Botany Cardiology Ceramics Chemistry Cosmetology Cosmology Cytopathology Dermatology Dietetics Entomology Endocrinology Genetics Geology Gerontology Gynaecology Haematology Hepatology Horticulture Hydrology Hygiene Immunology Neuropathology Obstetrics Oncology Ophthalmology Ornithology Orthopaedics : The study of forces acting upon bodies in motion in the air (e. The science of water with reference to its occurrence and properties in the hydrosp : and atmosphere : A branch of medicine dealing with health and its presevation : A branch of medicine dealing with the immune system of the body : A branch of medicine dealing with changes produced by diseases in the nervous sy : A branch of medicine dealing with pregnancy. cul : and history. : The science of heavenly bodies (planets) : A branch of microbiology dealing with bacteria : The science of living organisms. aircraft. : The study of all activities pertaining to aerial locomotion (art of flying) : The science of the structure of th e animal/human body learnt by dissection. : A branch of astronomy dealing with the physical nature of heav enly bodies. labour and child birth : A branch of medicine dealing with tumours : A branch of medicine dealing with eyes and related problems : The science of birds A branch of medicine dealing with diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the skele : system (bones) . A scientific study of the material remains of the past as evidence of man’s life. : The study of the origin and physical and cultural development of mankind.. etc. structure and evolution : The study of diseased cells : A branch of medicine dealing with skin : The science of diet and nutrition : Deals with study of insects : The study of glands : A branch of biology dealing with heredity and the laws that govern it : A study of the chemical composition of the earth’s crust : A branch medicine studying the ageing process. missiles. etc. nature. subdivided into Botany and Zoology : The physics of the vital processes of living organisms : The science of the plant kingdom : A branch of medicine dealing with the heart : The art of making objects from clay : The study of elements. : The study of cosmetics and their use : The study of the universe—its origin. their behaviour and laws of their combination.

Celsius Charles Babbage A.L. Lundstrom Alexander Graham Bell Country France US Hungary Italy Scotland Scotland France Britain France China The Netherlands Germany Sweden England US England US US Scotland US England England US Sweden US Year 1642 1903 1938 1644 1839 1888 1742 1820 1895 1725 1656 1892 1866 1831 1879 1825 1852 1884 1794 1877 1937 1804 1861 1844 1876 . mechanisms and manifestation of : diseases : A study of the life processes of various organs of living organisms : The study and treatment of mental and emotional disorders : A branch of medical science dealing with the use of x-rays for diagnosis and treatm : A branch of biology that deals with animal life SCIENTIFIC INVENTIONS x Adding Machine (Pascaline) Aeroplane Ballpoint Pen Barometer Bicycle Bicycle Tyre Centigrade Scale Computer Cinema Clock (mechanical) Clock (pendulum) Diesel Engine Dynamite Dynamo Electric Lam Electromagnet Elevator Fountain Pen Gas Lighting Gramophone Jet Engine Locomotive Machine Gun Match (safety) Microphone Inventor(s) Blaise Pascal Wright brothers Laszlo Biro E. Torricelli Kirkpatrick J.E. Dunlop A.Paediatrics Pathology Physiology Psychiatry Radiology Zoology : A branch of medicine dealing with child diseases (infants) A branch of medicine that deals with etiologies.E. Lumiere Hsing and Ling-Tsan C.B. and J. Waterman William Murdoch Thomas Alva Edison Sir Frank Whittle Richard Trevithic Richard Gatling J. Sturgeon E G Otis L.L. Hugyens Rudolf Diesel Alfred Nobel Michael Faraday Thomas Alva Edison W.

Gutenberg K. Gillette J. Perier Sir Charles Parsons Thomas Newcombe James Watt Harry Brearley D.C. Bushnell Sir Ernest Swington Samuel F. Shockley and Brattain P Tari Manfredi Wilhelm Roentgen W.C.B. Harrison and A. Morse Alexander Graham Bell Hans Lippershey John Logie Baird Galileo Galilei Bardeen.L. Thimmonnier J. Judson The Netherlands Germany Germany France US Germany US Britain US France France Britain Britain Scotland England US France US US The Netherlands Scotland Italy US Italy Italy Germany US 1590 1885 1885 1785 1888 1455 1895 1850 1849 1829 1775 1894 1712 1765 1913 1776 1787 1837 1876 1608 1926 1593 1948 1808 1462 1895 1891 SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS Instrument Name Ammeter Barometer Uses Instrument used for measuring electric current Instrument used for measuring atmospheric pressure . Janssen Karl Benz Daimler JPF Blanchard John Carbott J. Catlin Walter Hunt B.Microscope Motor Car (Petrol) Motorcycle Parachute Photography (film) Printing Press Razor (safety) Refrigerator Safety Pin Sewing Machine Ship (steam) Ship (turbine) Steam Engine (piston) Steam Engine Stainless Steel Submarine Telegraph Telegraph Code Telephone Telescope Television Thermometer Transistor Typewriter Watch X-ray Zip Fastener Z.

circulatory system. nervous system. etc. tissues are organised to from organs. and organs together form organ system and so on.Calorimeter Cardiograph (ECG) Electrometer Endoscope Galvanometer Hydrometer Hygrometer Lactometer Manometer Micrometer Microscope Periscope Polygraph Salinometer Sphygmomanometer Stethoscope Telescope Transponder Voltmeter Wattmeter The Human Body Instrument used for measuring heat quantity Instrument used for recording movements of the heart Instrument used for measuring small electric current Instrument used to examine internal body organs Instrument used for measuring electric current Instrument used to relative density of liquids Instrument used to measure atmospheric humidity Instrument used to measure relative density of milk Instrument used to measure pressure of gases Instrument used to measure distances Instrument used to very minute objects Instrument used in submarines to views objects above sea level Instrument used to record changes in the physiological process in the body Instrument to measure salinity in liquids Instrument used to measure blood pressure Instrument used to hear sounds produced in the body by the lungs and the heart Instrument used to view distant objects Instrument used to receive and send signals Instrument used to measure the potential electric difference between two points Instrument used to measure the power of an electric circuit The human body is composed of billions of cells to perform various functions. . The cells are organised to from tissues. muscular system. digestive system. Human body consists of many specialised organ systems such as skeletal system. respiratory system.

Muscles in coordinatio bones.1. function. is maintained as a result of muscle. and respiration. When an excess is present in the blood. When the supply of these minerals within the blood is low. Bone marrow is the site of production of red blood cells. such as posture. and the way they are contracted.6 million red blood cells is produced each second by the bone marrow to replace those worn out and destroyed by the liver. The integrated action of joints. . Skeletal muscles also produce more subtle movements that result in various expressions. muscle contraction also fulfills some other impo functions in the body. and heat production. it will be withdrawn from the bones to replenish the supply. Po such as sitting and standing. In addition to movement. joint stability. Differences between each muscle are recog by location. In humans. structure. Vital organs are protected by the skeletal system. and some other tissues provide movement to the body. bones. Bones serve as a storage area for minerals such as calcium and phosphorus. and skeletal muscles produces obvi movements such as walking and running. Muscular system: There are several types of muscles such as cardiac. The muscular syst composed of over 600 muscles. Functions: Its 206 bones form a rigid framework to which the softer tissues and organs of the body are attached. eye movements. ligaments and cartilage that connects them. joints. An average of 2. sm and skeletal muscles that form a part of muscular system. 2. The movement in the body is carried out by the interaction of skeletal and muscular system. Functions: The main function of muscular system is movement. The brain is protected by the surrounding skull and the heart and lungs are encased by the sternum and rib cage. buildup will occur within the bones. the skeletal system is made up of 206 bones and few cartilages. Skeletal system: It is made up of all the bones of the body and tissues such as tendons.

4. which involves inhalation and exhalation m air into and out of the lungs. Together these activities constitute respiration. the cells utilize the oxygen for the specific activities. The exchange of gases between the blood and ti cells is internal respiration. The blood transports the gases to a from the tissue cells. consists of a long continuous tube that extends from the mouth to the anus. Respiratory system: Respiration is the sequence of events that res in the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the atmospher the body cells. bronc alveoli. which process food into molecules that can be absorbed and utilized by the cells of the body. pharynx. After this. stomach. The process of breathing. The tongue and teeth are accessory structures located in the mouth. liver. Finally. pharynx. also called the alimentary canal or gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Digestive system: The digestive system includes the digestive tract and its accessory organs. small intestine.3. The respiratory system w with the circulatory system to provide this oxygen and to remove the products of metabolism. or cellular respiration. These organs secrete fluids into the digestive tract. . there is an exchange of gases between the lungs and the blo This is called external respiration. The salivary glands. larynx. gallbladder. It also helps to regulate pH of the blood. and pancreas are major accessory organs that have a role in digestion. breathing is only one of the activities of the respiratory system The body cells need a continuous supply of oxygen for the metabolic processes that are necessary to maintain life. and large intestine. esophagus. It includes the mouth. It consists of following organs: Nose. The digestive tract. This is cellular metabolism. trachea. We generally associate breathing to be the only function of the Respir system. Functions: The main function of digestive system is to break down the food particles into smaller and smaller particles so that they get absorbed in the blood.

Although the urinary system has a major role in excretion. epididymus. If it fails the other organs cannot tak and compensate adequately. Urinary system: The urinary system consists of the kidneys. The kidneys form the urine and account for the other functions. penis. It consists of the heart. Circulatory system: This system is also known as cardio-vascular system. veins. fallopian tubes. Nutrients and other essential materials pass from capillary blood into fluids surrounding the cells as waste products are removed. The blood is pumped by the heart around a close circuit of vessels. uterus. ureters. It is in the microscopic capillaries that blood performs its ultimate transport function. male reproductive system consists of testes. urinary b and urethra. such as carbon dioxide and water. cervix. scrotum. other organs contribute to the excretory function.5. The reproductive system has following functions (i) to produce sperm and egg cells (ii) to produce hormones (iii) to nurture the developing offspring 7. The skin is another excretory o that rids the body of wastes through the sweat glands. The major task of excretion still belongs to the urinary system. Reproductive system: In humans. The vital role of the cardiovascular system in maintaining homeostasis depends on the continuous and controlled movement of blood through the thousands of miles of capillaries that permeate every tissue and reach every cell in the body. Female reproductive system consists of vagina. Other aspects of its function include regulating concentrations of various electrolytes in the body fluids and maintaining normal p the blood. 6. The liver and intestines exc bile pigments that result from the destruction of hemoglobin. . vas deferens. and glands. The urinary system maintains an appropriate fluid volume by regulating the amou water that is excreted in the urine. a muscular pumping device. The lungs in the respiratory system excrete s waste products. and a closed system of vessels called arteries. and capillaries.

Together these carry out the complex activities of the nervous system. The endocrine glands are also known as ductless glands. These are Pituitary and pineal gland. Endocrine system: The endocrine system. which is made up of numerous cells. He observed the cells while examining a thin slice of cork. A cell is the smallest unit of life and is capable of all living functions. COMPONENTS OF THE BODY I. including nerve. Some glands also have non-endocrine regions that have functions other than hormone secretion. For example. along with the nervous system. the pancreas has a major exocrine portion that secretes digestive enzymes and an endocrine portion that secretes hormones. nerves. functions in the regulation of body activities. and metabolic activities. The human body. regulatory. The ovaries and testes secrete hormones and also produce the ova and sperm. development. newly fertilized cell. gonads(testes and ovaries). Nervous system: The nervous system is composed of organs.8. and connective tissue. Cells are the building blocks of life. . etc. which means ‘a little room’. consist of various tissues. The secretory products of endocrine glands are called hormones and are secreted directly into the blood and then carried throughout the body where they influence only those cells that have receptor sites for that hormone. and communicating system in the body. This is the reason why cells are referred to as the basic structural and functional units of life. Robert Hooke was the scientist who coined the term cell. and memory. principally the brain. It is the center of all mental activity including thought. The nervous system is the major controlling. blood. begins as a single. in turn. thyroid and parathyroid gland. Structural organization of cell The word cell is derived from a Latin word ‘cellula’. adrenal gland. pancreas. These. The endocrine system acts through chemical messengers called hormones that influence growth. There are eight major endocrine glands scattered throughout the body. spinal cord. Cells constitute various components of plants and animals. There are basically two types of glands— endocrine and exocrine gland.} 9. learning.

glucose. 3. It provides mechanical barrier for the protection of the internal contents of cell. elastic. sizes. Functions of plasma membrane: 1. Principles of cell theory A. and living membrane of the cell. 2. Cytoplasm helps in the exchange of material between the cell organelles.The cell theory that all plants and animals are composed of cells and that cell is the basic unit of life was presented by two biologist. It includes features from all cell types. B. nucleotides. All cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells. It acts as a storage organelle of vital chemicals. C. the concept of a “generalized cell” is introduced. There are many different types. For descriptive purposes. except in plant cells where the nucleus is pushed towards . It surrounds the cytoplasm of the cell and regulates the movement of substances in and out of the cell. Functions: 1. such as glycolysis. A cell consists of three parts: the cell membrane. and some amino acids. Schleiden (1838) and Schwann (1839). synthesis of fatty acids. Plasma membrane or cell membrane: The cell membrane (or plasma membrane or plasmalemma) is the outermost covering of the cell that separates the contents of the cell from the external environment. 2. 4. It regulates entry and exit of substances in and out of the cell. It separates the contents of the cell from its surrounding medium. and shapes of cells in the body. vitamins. ions etc. He suggested that all cells arise from pre-existing cells. It is the site of certain metabolic pathways. Therefore. the cell membrane is known as selectively permeable membrane. It gives a definite shape to the cell. Nucleus: The nucleus is round in shape and is the largest organelle of the cell. Cytoplasm: It is the fluid that fills the cell and occurs between the plasma membrane and the nuclear membrane. The cell organelles are suspended in the cytoplasm. It is generally present in the centre of the cell. The cell theory was further expanded by Rudolf Virchow in 1855. thin. the nucleus. Within the cytoplasm lie intricate arrangements of fine fibers and hundreds or even thousands of miniscule but distinct structures called organelles. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in an organism. and between the two. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells. This means that the cell membrane allows the entry of only some substances and prevents the movement of some other materials. Cell membrane is an extremely delicate. such as amino acids. the cytoplasm. 3.

The main function of ribosomes is to act as a site of protein synthesis. It helps in the storage. RER looks rough under a microscope because it has particles called ribosomes attached to its surface. and nucleolus. Cell organelles Endoplasmic Reticulum: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a large network of membrane-bound tubes and sheets. ER serves as a channel for the transport of materials (especially proteins) between various regions of the cytoplasm or between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. It was named after Camillo Golgi. It plays an important role in cellular reproduction. Functions: 1. The ribosomes. The nucleus controls all metabolic activities of the cell. . Ribosomes: These are very small. 3. Functions of nucleus: 1. modification and packaging of products in vesicles. ER also functions as a cytoplasmic framework providing a surface for some of the biochemical activities of the cell. The nucleus is composed of the following components: nuclear membrane. However. the process by which a single cell divides or forms two new cells. are the sites of protein manufacturing. nucleoplasm. Functions: 1. it does not work alone. 2. 4. It is concerned with the transmission of hereditary traits from the parent to the offspring. Golgi Apparatus: The Golgi apparatus is another packaging organelle like the endoplasmic reticulum. it works closely with Golgi apparatus and ribosomes. There are two types of ER—rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). an Italian biologist. They are composed of ribonucleic acids and proteins. The material synthesised near the ER is packaged and dispatched to various targets inside and outside the cell through the Golgi apparatus. 3. The ER functions as a packaging system. which are present in all active cells. 2. round structures found either in free state suspended in the cytoplasm or attached to the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum. The Golgi apparatus is also involved in the formation of lysosomes and peroxisomes.the periphery of the cell because of the central vacuole. It regulates the cell cycle. 2. It consists of a system of membrane bound vesicles arranged approximately parallel to each other in stacks called cisterns. It looks like long tubules or round or oblong bags (vesicles).

These include amino acids. Most of the chemical reactions involved in cellular respiration occur in mitochondria. Chloroplasts also contain various yellow or orange pigments in addition to chlorophyll. also known as autolysis. oils and protein granules are stored. 3. Lysosomes are involved in intracellular digestion of foreign food particles or microbes and are called digestive bags. The purpose of lysosome is to digest worn out cells. These are double membrane organelles which are usually spherical or discoidal in shape. mitochondria are known as the powerhouses of the cell. (though cellular respiration also occur in cytoplasm but very little energy is produced) The energy required for various chemical activities needed for life is released by mitochondria in the form of ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) molecules. They provide energy (in the form of ATP) for vital activities of the living cells. This is why. Hence they are also called as ‘suicidal bags’. Lysosomes are a kind of waste disposal system of a cell. Plastids: Plastids are the organelles that are present only in plant cells. It is a membrane-bound vesicular structure that holds variety of other enzymes. Mitochondria: Mitochondria create energy for the cell and this process of creating energy for the cell is known as cellular respiration. so they are regarded as semiautonomous organelles. Mitochondria are able to make some of their own proteins. Vacuoles store food and nutrients that a cell needs to survive. various organic acids and some proteins. These are found in both plant and animal cells but are much larger in plant cells. Functions of Mitochondria: 1. Chromoplasts containing the pigment chlorophyll are known as chloroplasts. Differences between plant and animal cells . vacuoles are full of cell sap and provide turgidity and rigidity to the cell.Lysosomes: Lysosomes are found in almost all animal-like eukaryotic cells. Leucoplasts are primarily organelles in which materials such as starch. In plant cells. 2. Chloroplasts are important for photosynthesis in plants. Sometimes. Vacuoles: Vacuoles are storage sacs (for solid or liquid contents) found in the cells. The central vacuole of some plant cells may occupy 50-90% of the cell volume. sugars. Mitochondria are the sites of cellular respiration. this organelle is also involved in the self-digestion of cells after their death. There are two types of plastids – chromoplasts (coloured plastids) and leucoplasts (white or colourless plastids).

Vacuoles are present in abundance and larger in size. Plant cells are usually larger than animal cells. It also picks up hormones and uses custom distribution to deliver chemical messages to the organs it comes into contact with. separated by a non-living. • White blood cells fight diseases by producing antibodies. Vacuoles are less in number and small in 4.Animal Cell 1. as well as carrying away harmful waste products such as carbon dioxide. and platelets are suspended in plasma. The blood is the medium through which the entire body is nourished and supported carrying nutrient molecules from digested foods. This liquid material or fluid is known as plasma. Blood Blood is a highly specialised connective tissue present in human body. Except the protozoan Euglena. The plasma membrane of plant cells is surrounded by a rigi wall of cellulose. calle and dictyosomes. Animal cells have a single highly complex 5. Human brain The brain is the main coordinating centre of the body. The nervous system is divided into the central nervous system (CNS) and th peripheral nervous system (PNS). 4. . The central nervous system receives information from all parts of the body a also sends information to the muscles. Plastids (chromoplasts and leucoplasts) are possesses plasti cell present. Animal cells are generally small in size. The communication between the CN the body parts is facilitated by the nerves of the PNS. prominent golgi apparatus. 5. II. Functions of blood: • It transports hormones. It circulates the needed oxygen from the lungs. size. nutrients. 3. It is a vascular tissue that contains cells. As other organs interact with the blood it is in a constant flux of updating and extending its chemical composition. no animal 3. The CNS consists of the brain and spinal while the PNS consists of nerves that connect the central nervous system to different parts of the body. Cell wall is absent. 2. white blood cells (WBC). 2. It is a part of the nervous system that controls and monitors every organ of the body. Red blood cells (RBC). • Red blood cells transport respiratory gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. III. Plant cells have many simpler units of golgi apparatus. waste material to different parts of the body. liquid material. Plant Cell 1.

is responsible for maintaining posture and equilibrium of the body. which is a part of the hindbrain. midbrain. choroid. blood pressure. smelling. pleasure. are controlled by the midbrain and hindbrain. vertical rod called the vertebrae or vertebral column. Midbrain: It has regions that are concerned with the sense of sight and hearing. excitement. and general sensations such as pain. is an important organ for the maintenance of a variety of activities. as you have learnt. but it becomes thick in the anterior . touch. and speech. • • • The external layer is composed of a dense connective tissue and is called the sclera. curved. it needs protection. are involved in the regulation of sexual behaviour and expression of emotional reactions such as. etc. The brain. Some regions of the cerebrum.The brain is divisible into three main regions—forebrain.. and hypothalamus. The cerebellum. The middle layer. There are separate areas in the forebrain that are specialized for hearing. learning. etc. as well as motor regions that control the movement of various muscles such as. The spinal cord is protected by a bony. along with the hypothalamus. taste. The forebrain has sensory regions that receive sensory impulses from various receptors. thalamus. A certain part of the cerebrum primarily controls intelligence. movement of food in the alimentary canal. A brief account of structure and functions of the human eye is given in the following sections. The wall of the eye ball is composed of three layers. The hypothalamus contains many areas that control things such as body temperature. etc. As an important organ. the leg muscles. EYE Our paired eyes are located in sockets of the skull called orbits. The choroid layer is thin over the posterior two-thirds of the eye ball. Hindbrain: Most involuntary actions such as heartbeat. memory. Cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and constitutes fourfifth of its weight. etc. It also coordinates the contraction of voluntary muscles according to the directions of the cerebrum. Hence. Parts of an eye The adult human eye ball is nearly a spherical structure. All these involuntary actions are controlled by the medulla of the hindbrain. Some regions of the midbrain transmit motor impulses to the limbs. The forebrain is also known as the main thinking part of the brain. salivation. It is the main thinking part of the brain. sight. contains many blood vessels and looks bluish in colour. fear. The anterior portion o this layer is called the cornea. it is enclosed by a bony box called the cranium. thinking. urge for eating and drinking. and hin Forebrain: It consists of the cerebrum.

the near point gradually recedes away. For most people. The eye ball contains a transparent crystalline lens which is held in place by ligaments attached to the ciliary body. or (ii) the eyeball has become too small. Hypermetropia Hypermetropia is also known as far-sightedness. In front of the lens. The diameter of the pupil is regulated by the muscle fibres of iris. This defect is called Presbyopia.• • • • part to form the ciliary body. Presbyopia The power of accommodation of the eye usually decreases with ageing. bipolar cells and photoreceptor cells. A person with myopia can see nearby objects clearly but cannot see distant objects distinctly. DEFECTS OF VISION Myopia Myopia is also known as near-sightedness. EAR . This defect arises either because (i) the focal length of the eye lens is too long. The inner layer is the retina and it contains three layers of cells – from inside to outside – ganglion cells. A person with hypermetropia can see distant objects clearly but cannot see nearby objects distinctly. This defect can be corrected by using a concave lens of suitable power. They find it difficult to see nearby objects comfortable and distinctly without corrective eye-glasses. This defect can be corrected by using a convex lens of appropriate power. the aperture surrounded by the iris is called the pupil. The ciliary body itself continues forward to form a pigmented and opaque structure called the iris which is the visible coloured portion of the eye.

The tympanic membrane is composed of connective tissues covered with skin outside and with mucus membrane inside. Anatomically. • The outer ear consists of the pinna and external auditory meatus (canal). whereas the other organisms utilize complex substances. are always broken down or built up into a uniform source of energy that can be used for sustaining various life processes. but they get it from different sources. The ear ossicles increase the efficiency of transmission of sound waves to the inner ear. The Eustachian tube helps in equalising the pressures on either sides of the ear drum. • The external auditory meatus leads inwards and extends up to the tympanic membrane (the ear drum). incus and stapes which are attached to one another in a chain-like fashion. hearing and maintenance of body balance. vitamins.The ears perform two sensory functions. fibers and water . • The malleus is attached to the tympanic membrane and the stapes is attached to the oval window of the cochlea. All the varied sources of energy. • There are very fine hairs and wax. the ear can be divided into three major sections called the outer ear. • An Eustachian tube connects the middle ear cavity with the pharynx. the middle ear and the inner ear. Some organisms utilize simple inorganic sources such as.secreting sebaceous glands in the skin of the pinna and the meatus. FOOD AND NUTRITION The process of intake of any external source of energy or food is called nutrition. These complex substances are broken down into simpler ones before they can be utilized by various life processes for the growth and repair of the body. fats. • The middle ear contains three ossicles called malleus. that any living organism consumes. minerals. proteins. There are seven major classes of nutrients that the body needs: carbohydrates. carbon dioxide and water. All living organisms require energy. The pinna collects the vibrations i the air which produce sound.

leafy vegetable.more than twice the amount we get from carbohydrates or protein. like vitamins A and D. potatoes. Fats: Fat is a nutrient that is an important source of calories. hence it is essential for night vision. such as rice. pork. Protein is made of chains of amino acids. oats. It also repairs or replaces healthy cells and tissues. and K • Water soluble vitamins – Vitamin B complex. They are grouped by their chemical structure. such as fish. chicken. Most foods that are obtained from animals. corn. vegetables or other foods. butter. Functions Vitamin A is essential for growth. plantains and corn are good sources of starch. Plant foods like cereals. fish. tomatoes. Proteins These are necessary for the growth of the cells. Our bodies can make most of the amino acids. It is manly found in animal sources such as codliver oil. They are known as “complete” proteins. There are two basic types of fat. egg. The three different kinds of carbohydrates are starch. milk. A lot of fat is hidden in foods that we eat as snacks. papaya. These starchy foods give us important vitamins and minerals. On the basis of their solubility. Some of the fat that we eat comes from the fat we add in cooking or spread on breads. lentils. and yogurt contain all of the essential amino acids. Fat is found in many foods. beef. rice. Vitamins These are the organic compounds obtained from the food in minute quantity. Plant foods. dried beans. It controls the action of bone cells. In plant sources. Fat also is needed to carry and store essential fat-soluble vitamins. peas. They give us the energy we need to do daily activities. milk. ghee. seeds. too. The deficiency of this vitamin can cause nightblindness. Each type of fat is used differently in our bodies and has a different effect on our health. etc. E. pastries or prepared meals.Carbohydrates: These are the body’s main source of energy. cheese. bread. wheat. . sugar and fibers. pasta. eggs. and C Vitamin A: It is also known as retinol. etc. One gram of fat supplies 9 calories . D. They must be supplied from external sources and perform specific functions. It is main component of rhodopsin. They are considered to be incomplete proteins. vitamins are divided into two categories: • Fat soluble vitamins – Vitamin A. nuts. may be low or lacking in one or more of the amino acids. Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. vitamin A is mainly found in carrot.

cauliflower. . Thus it takes active part in normal coagulation. Functions It helps in the maintenance of normal prothrombin and factor VII in the blood. etc. pulses. The main plant sources of this vitamin are cabbage. beans. corn. etc. papaya.Vitamin D: It is also known as calciferol. Functions It has antioxidative properties. It is required for normal functioning of muscles. nuts. tomato. egg. meat. spinach. etc. milk. Functions: It is essential for proper functioning of the formative cells of various tissues It plays a key role in wound repair. spinach. Vitamin C: It is also known as ascorbic acid. B5 or niacin. Functions It promotes calcium absorption from the intestine. fish. The plant sources include vegetable seed oils sucha s wheat. The main source of this vitamin are cereals. Functions: It is essential for normal growth It is essential basic reactions of metabolism It helps in the formation of fat from carbohydrates. soyabean. etc. It is mainly found in animal sources such as cod liver oil. B6 or pyridoxine. and green vegetables. etc. tomatoes. It is also found in fresh vegetables such as cabbage. It is mainly found in citrus fruits such as amla. Vitamin K: It is also known as phylloquinone. It mainly prevents unwanted oxidation the body. B2 or riboflavin. butter. Vitamin B complex: It includes vitamin B1 or thiamine. Vitamin E: It is also known as tocopherol. It helps in the development of new born. Human diseases 1. B3 or pantothenic acid. The main animal source of this vitamin is egg. ghee. B12 or cyanocobalamin. Infectious diseases A disease caused due to microorganisms is known as an infectious disease. Etc.

candidiasis. multiply. etc. etc.Infectious agents: They are the disease-causing microorganisms which belong to different categories such as: Viruses Some bacteria Some fungi Some unicellular animals Some multicellular animals Infectious agents • Viruses – They are very tiny organisms which are visible only with the help of electron microscope. are some human diseases caused by fungi. They need to infect a host cell to get the required machinery to perform these functions. they lack chlorophyll. v. ringworms. African sleeping sickness. i. Deficiency diseases: These diseases are caused by the deficiency of one or the other nutrient in the diet. hookworm. and Leishmania.. AIDS. are some of the diseases caused by protozoans. • Protozoa – They are simple. are certain human diseases caused by bacteria. pinworms. It includes round worms. tapeworm etc. i. Deficiency of protein may cause Kwashiorkar and marasmus Deficiency of iron causes anaemia Deficiency of iodine causes goitre Deficiency of vitamin A causes night blindness Deficiency of vitamin B1 causes beri-beri . cold (Rhinovirus). anaemia. They cannot grow. malaria. For example. • Fungi – They are plant-like organisms. are certain human diseases caused by viruses. ii. • Bacteria – Bacteria are unicellular organisms that are larger than viruses.. etc. etc. Influenza. typhoid.. which are heterotrophic. they cause diseases through contaminated water. Trypanosoma.e. Diarrhoea. • Multicellular animals like worms – Worms are the parasites that infect intestines of human beings and other animals.. iii. Hence. Athlete’s foot. liver rot.. Their cells have walls. primitive unicellular organisms which include Amoeba. dengue. etc. Whooping cough. anthrax.. They are often found in water as they need moisture for survival. kala azar. cholera. Amoebiasis. 2. are caused by these worms. or reproduce on their own. iv. There are only some bacteria that cause diseases while some other bacteria are useful in nature.

G. Wells William Shakespeare Bana Bhatt .Books and Authors Name of the book Autobiographies Babur–Nama Made in Japan Mein Kamph Moon Walk Sunny Days Wings of Fire Biographies Ain-I-Akbari Akbarnama Idols Shahnama Classic All’s Well that Ends well A Tale of Two Cities Anna Karenina Antony and Cleopatra As You like it Abhijnanshakuntalam Babbit Ceaser and Cleopatra The Comedy of Errors David Copperfield Devdas Sharat Doctor Zhivago Don Quixote Fountain Head Gone with the Wind Gulliver’s Travels Hamlet Iliad Indica The Importance of Being Earnest Invisible Man Julius Caesar Kadambari Author Babur Akio Morita Adolf Hitler Michael Jackson Sunil Gavaskar APJ Abdul Kalam Abul Fazal Abul Fazal Sunil Gavaskar Firdausi William Shakespeare Charles Dickens Leo Tolstoy William Shakespeare William Shakespeare Kalidas Sinclair Lewis George Bernard Shaw Shakespeare Charles Dickens Chandra Chatterjee Boris Pasternak Miguel de Cervantes Ayn Rand Margaret Mitchell Jonathan Swift William Shakespeare Homer Magasthenese Oscar Wilde H.

Kamasutra Kamayani King Lear Macbeth Mahabharata Meghdoot Merchant of Venice Much Ado About Nothing Mudra Rakshas Natya Shastra Nine Days Wonder Odyssey Oliver Othello Paradise Lost Pather Panchali Pride and Prejudice Raghuvamsa Ram Charita Manas Ramayana Ratnavali Rendezvous with Rama Ritu Samhara Robinson Crusoe Romeo and Juliet Savitri Sense and Sensibility Sohrab and Rustum The Tempest The Count of Monte Cristo My Experiments with Truth Three Musketeers Time machine Treasure Island Twelfth Night Twenty Years After Ulysses James Unto This Last Uttar Ramcharita Vanity Fair Vinay Patrika The Virginians Vatsyayan Jai Shankar Prasad William Shakespeare William Shakespeare Ved Vyas Kalidas William Shakespeare William Shakespeare Vishakadutta Bharat Muni John Masefield Homer Charles Dickens William Shakespeare John Milton Bibhuti Bhushan Bandopadhyay Jane Austen Kalidas Tulsidas Valmiki Harsha Vardhan Arthur C Clarke Kalidas Daniel Defoe William Shakespeare Sir Aurobindo Ghosh Jane Austen Mathew Arnold William Shakespeare Alexander Dumas Mahatma Gandhi Alexander Dumas H. Wells R L Stevenson Willam Shakespeare Alexander Dumas Joyce John Ruskin Bhavbhuti William Thackeray Tulsidas William Thackeray .G.

Hyde One Hundred Years of Solitude Other Side of Midnight. S. Narayan Paulo Coelho Arundhati Roy Sir Arthur Conan Doyle Daniel Defoe Mark Twain Lewis Carrol V S Naipaul Vikram Seth Vikram Seth Richard Burton Nicholas Negroponte J D Sallinger Geoffrey Chaucer Rabindranath Tagore Domonique Lapiere Mulk Raj Anand Salman Rushdie Salman Rushdie . Naipaul Aung San Su Kyi Nelson Mandela Jim Corbett Charles Darwin Karan Singh Shobha De A B Vajpayee Adam Smith Mark Twain Eric Segal Robert Louis Stevenson Gabrial Garcla Marquez Sidney Sheldon R. The Swami and Friends The Alchemist The God of Small Things Fiction Adventures of Sherlock Holmes Adventure of Robinson Crusoe Adventures of Tom Sawyer Alice in Wonderland A Bend In the River A Suitable Boy An Equal Music Arabian Nights Being Digital Catcher in the Rye Canterbury Tales Chitra City of Joy Coolie East West Fury Mahadevi Verma V.K. JekyII and Mr.Yama Descriptive Area of Darkness Freedom from Fear Long Walk to Freedom Maneaters of Kumaon Origin of Species Sadar-I-Riyasat Starry Nights Economics New Dimensions of India’s Foreign Policy Wealth of Nations Fantasy Adventures of Tom Sawyer The Class Dr.

Future Shock Godfather Godan The Guide Gulliver’s Travels Half a Life Harsha Charita Inscrutable Americans Interpreter of Maladies Iron in the soul Ivanhoe The Judgement Jungle Book Kim Life Divine Lajja Lolita Love Story Malgudi Days Midnight’s children Moor’s Last Sigh Mother Nice Guys Finish Second Panchatantra Post Office The Satanic Verses Shape of Things to Come Shame The Last Don The Tin Drum Treasure Island Two Leaves and a Bud Unofficial Guide to Ethical Hacking Vish Vriksha War and Peace History Books Arthashastra August 1914 (H) Ben Hur Communist Manifesto Discovery of India Alvin Toffler Mario Puzo Munshi Prem Chand R. Narayan Jonathan Swift V S Naipaul Bana Bhatt Anurag Mathur Jhumpa Lahiri Jean Paul Sartre Walter Scott Kuldip Nayar Rudyard Kipling Rudyard Kipling Aurobindo Ghosh Tasleema Nasreen V. Wells Salman Rushdie Mario Puzo Guenter Grass R L Stevenson Mulk Raj Anand Ankit Fadia Bankim Chandra Chatterjee Leo Tolstoy Kautilya Alexander Solzhenitsyn Lewis Wallace Karl Marx Jawahar Lal Nehru . G. Nabakov Eric Segal R K Narayan Salman Rushdie Salman Rushdie Moxim Gorky B K Nehru Vishnu Sharma Rabindranath Tagore Salman Rushdie H.K.

Giri Fyodor Dostoevsky Eric Berne George Bernard Shaw Swami Dayanand Karl Marx Henry Kissinger Bal Gangadhar Tilak Harold Laski Aristotle Plato Abul Kalam Azad Khushwant Singh T. K.Hindu View of Life India-A Wounded Civilisation India Divided India Wins Freedom Indian Home Rule Indian Philosophy Man and Superman A Passage to India Wake up India The Wonder that Was India Poetry Bharat Bharati Geet Govinda Gitanjali Rubaiyat Philosophy Atlas Shrugged Geet govinda Voice of Conscience Psychology Crime and Punishment Games People Play Man of Destiny Satyartha Prakash Sociology Das Kapital Diplomacy Gita Rahasya Grammer of Politics Politics Republic Sub Regionalism in Asia Surviving Men The Degeneration of India Untouchable Utopia Miscellaneous D. Radhakrishnan V S Naipaul Rajendra Prasad Maulana Abul Kalam Azad M. V. Forster Annie Besant A. Basham Maithili Sharan Gupt Jaya Dev Rabindranath Tagore Omar Khayyam Ayn Rand Jaya Dev V. S. Seshan Mulk Raj Anand Thomas Moore . Radhakrishnan George Bernard Shaw E. M. N.L. S. Gandhi D.

A. S. Brain and Beer Confessions of a Lover District Diary Dragon Fire Dilemma of our time Doctor’s Dilemma Don Juan Ends and Means Fifth Column Farewell to Arms First Among Equals For Whom the Bell Tolls Gathering Storm Glimpses of World History Golden Threshold The Golden Gate Heat and Dust India Unbound Is Paris Burning If I am Assassinated Kumar Sambhava Mother India My Music. My life My Truth A Passage to England To live or Not to Live Triumph Valley of Dolls Worshipping False Gods V.Area of Darkness Between the lines Brave New world Broken wing Beyond Peace Blood. Choudhary Nirad C. Bhutto Kalidas Katherine Mayo Ravi Shankar Indira Gandhi Nirad C. Jhabwala Gurcharan Das Larry Collins & Dominique Lapiere Z. Naipaul Kuldip Nayar Aldous Huxley Sarojini Naidu Richard Nixon David Ogilvy Mulk Raj Anand Jaswant Singh Humphry Hawensky Harold Joseph Laski George Bernard Shaw Lord Byron Aldous Huxley Ernest Hemingway Ernest Hemingway Jeffrey Archer Ernest Hemingway Winston Churchill Jawaharlal Nehru Sarojini Naidu Virkram Seth Ruth P. Choudhary John Kenneth Galbraith Jacqueline Susan Arun Shourie Major Print Media Companies in India .

(ABP LTD. The present editor-in-chief of the group is Mr. Some of the major group publications are l l l The Indian Express – a leading national daily The Sunday Express – a weekly English newspaper Loksatta – a Marathi language daily . The group started out as a newspaper by the name of Ananda Bazar Patrika in 1922. the group publishes 9 other publications. is one of the leading media companies in India. Vivek Goenka.1. The present Chairman and Managing Director of the group is Mr. Presently the group owns 35 national editions. The foundation of the group was laid down by Late Shri Ramnath Goenka. ANANDA BAZAR PATRIKA LTD. INDIAN EXPRESS GROUP The Indian Express group is another leading media company owned by the RPG group. Aveek Sarkar. These include l The Telegraph in Schools – standlone Newspaper by & for school students l Unish Kuri – teen Bengali Magazine 2003 l Ananda Bazar Patrika – a premier Bengali language daily l Anandamela – a children’s monthly magazine in Bengali l Anadalok – a film magazine published in Bengali l Desh – a literary magazine l Boier Desh – another literary magazine in Bengali l Sports World – a sports magazine l The Telegraph – an English language daily l Sunday – an English language weekly magazine l Business World – a weekly business magazine l Career – Fortnightly launched in 2004 l Sanada – Fortnightly Woman Magazine Bengali & Oriya l Star Majha– Marathi 2007.) ABP Ltd. 2. Today along with its flagship newspaper. The Indian Express group started out as a newspaper by the same name in 1932. 14 publication centers and 7 national language dailies. Star News – 2003 The group jointly owns a 24 hour news channel in collaboration with Star India by the name of ‘Star Ananda’ Bengali – 2005. ABP was founded by Prafulla Chandra Sarkar who was also the editor.

HT Media ltd. Mr. The group is a multi-product group and has a number of leading media brands to its name. l l l l l l l l l The Times of India – a leading English language daily The Economic Times – a leading business daily NavBharat Times – a leading Hindi language daily Maharashtra Times – a leading Marathi daily Femina – a women’s magazine published in English Filmfare – a film magazine Times Music – The group’s music label Radio Mirchi – The group’s radio station – The group’s internet portal The present chairperson of the group is Ms. One of the largest Indian media company. today operates with 15 printing facilities across India. was founded in 1924 when its first newspaper. BENNETT COLEMAN & CO. These include. Indu Jain. LTD. is one of the leading media house in India. A flagship company of the KK Birla group.l l l l l l l l l Express Hospitality – Express Travel work – monthly The Financial Express – daily business newspaper Lok Prabha – a weekly Marathi language magazine Jansatta – a Hindi language daily Screen – a film magazine published in Hindi and English Network Magazine – an IT Intelligent Enterprize Express Computer – Weekly express channel business Express Pharma – Express Healthcare Healthcare Management – a pharmacy magazine 3. (TIMES GROUP) The company started its operations in Bombay (Mumbai) in 1838 when the first edition of The Times of India was published. Bennett Coleman & Co. HT MEDIA LTD. HT Media Ltd. Ltd. Today. Some major brands owned by the company are: . Hindustan Times was launched. Vineet Jain is the Managing Director of the group. 4.

Aroon Purie. who has held the position of editor.chief for the last three decades. The group was founded in 1975 by Mr. These include: l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l India Today – a weekly magazine published in Hindi and English Money Today – a monthly financial magazine Business Today – a fortnightly business magazine Men’s Health – a monthly health magazine for men Design Today – a monthly interior design magazine Good Housekeeping – a monthly magazine Travel Plus – a monthly travel magazine Cosmopolitan – a monthly women’s magazine Reader’s Digest – a monthly magazine Golf Digest India – a monthly golf magazine Harvard Business Review – a Harvard Business School management journal Time – Indian issue of the magazine Fortune – Indian issue of the magazine Chartered Accountant – a monthly journal on Chartered Accountancy Today – a daily newspaper Aaj Tak. a India Today Group is the largest media house in – online Hindi newspaper HT Next – a youth newspaper Kadambini – a monthly Hindi magazine Nandan – a popular children’s magazine published in Hindi and English Metro Now – Young Delhities Newspaper Mint – Business Newspaper The present Chairman of HT Media Ltd. Vir Sanghvi is the editor-in-chief. Today the group has 12 magazines.8 FM – Stations Just for Women . 5. a music label. INDIA TODAY GROUP (LIVING MEDIA PVT. Tez – 24 hour Hindi news channels Headlines Today – 24 hour English news channel Thompson Press – The group’s publishing label Music Today – The group’s music label Meow 104. is Mr. a book publishing house and India’s only book club in its bouquet. 4 TV channels. K K Birla. – online newspaper of the group industan – a leading Hindi daily Hindustandainik. Mr. 3 Radio stations. Delhi Aaj Tak.l l l l l l l l l Hindustan Times – a leading English daily Hindustantimes.

Major Indian Magazines Magazine A&M Business World The Week Business Today Computers Today Cosmopolitan Digit Economic & Political Weekly Femina Filmfare Fortune (Indian Edition) Frontline Gentleman Good Housekeeping India Today Intelligent Investor Kadambini Nandan Outlook Publishing House Spectrum Magazines Ananda Bazar Patrika Malayala Manorama Living Media Living Media Living Media Jassubhai Digital Media Sameeksha Trust Bennett Coleman & Co. Some of the other group publications include: l l l l l l l l l l Hindu Business Line – a business daily The Sportstar – a weekly sports magazine Frontline – fortnightly features magazine Survey of the Indian Industry – an annual review on Indian industries Survey of Indian Agriculture – an annual review on Indian agriculture Survey of the Environment – an annual review of the environment Indian Cricket – an annual record book on cricket The Hindu – Daily The Hindu International – Edition Weekly The Hindu International – Monthly & Cumulated annual The present group editor-in-chief is Mr. Rajan Raheja group .6. HINDU GROUP The Hindu group started its operations as a weekly newspaper by the same name in 1878. Today. Bennett Coleman & Co. N. Ram. The newspaper became a daily in 1889. the group’s flagship newspaper is printed from 12 centers. Living Media Hindu Group Express Publications Living Media Living Media Berkshire Hathaway HT Media Ltd. HT Media Ltd.

RPG promoted Indian Express Group Hindu Group K K Birla promoted HT Media Ltd. Bennett Coleman & Co. RPG promoted Indian Express Group Bennett Coleman & Co. Tribune Trust COMMONLY USED BUSINESS AND ECONOMIC ABBREVIATIONS AAGR AAR ABB ADAG ADB ADR AGM APEC APM ASCII ASSOCHAM B2B B2C BIS BOP BPO BRIC Average Annual Growth Rate Average Annual Return Asean Braun Boveri Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group Asian Development Bank American Depository Receipts Annual General Meeting Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Administered Price Mechanism American Standard Code for Information Interchange Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry Business to Business Business to Consumer Bank for International Settlements. CMYK Printech Ananda Bazar Patrika Hindu Group Bennett Coleman & Co. Bureau of Indian Standards Balance of Payment Business Process Outsourcing Brazil India Russia China .Reader’s Digest (Indian Edition) The Sportstar Teens Today Yojana Major Indian Newspapers Newspaper Asian Age Business Standard Financial Express Hindu Business Line Hindustan Times Indian Express Navbharat Times Pioneer Telegraph The Hindu The Economic Times The Times of India Tribune Living Media Hindu Group Living Media Ministry of I&B Publishing House Asian Age Holdings Business Standard Ltd.

Equated Monthly Installment Earnings Per Share Export Processing Zone Employee Stock Ownership Plan Export and Import Bank Foreign Direct Investment Foreign Exchange Management Act Foreign Exchange Regulation Act Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry Foreign Institutional Investor Foreign Investment Promotion Board General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Gross Domestic Product Global Depository Receipt Gross National Product Housing Development Finance Corporation High Net Worth Individuals Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India Investment Information and Credit Rating Agency of India Industrial Development Bank of India Industrial Finance Corporation. International Finance Corporation International Labour Organization International Monetary Fund Indian Petrochemical Corporation Limited Initial Public Offering Insurance Regulation and Development Authority Internal Rate of Return Joint Venture Key Performance Indicators .BSE CAGR CEO CFO CII CIS CMIE CPI CRISIL CRR CSO DIAL EMI EPS EPZ ESOP EXIM Bank FDI FEMA FERA FICCI FII FIPB GATT GDP GDR GNP HDFC HNWI ICICI ICRA IDBI IFC ILO IMF IPCL IPO IRDA IRR JV KPI Bombay Stock Exchange Compounded Annual Growth Rate Chief Executive Officer Chief Financial Officer Confederation of Indian Industries Commonwealth of Independent States Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy Consumer Price Index Credit Rating Information Services of India Ltd. Cash Reserve Ratio Central Static’s organization Delhi International Airport Ltd.

LIBOR LIC M1 M2 M3 MNC MOU NABARD NAFTA NASDAQ NASSCOM NAV NCAER NHAI NPA NRIs NRS NSE NYSE ONGC OPEC OTCEI PETA PLR PPP PSU RBI RPI SAARC SAIL SEBI SENSEX SEZ SLR SME SWOT TISCO UHNWI UNCTAD London Inter-bank Offered Rate Life Insurance Corporation of India Money supply with public M1 + time related deposits + savings deposits. Ultra-high Networth Individual United Nations Conference on Trade and Development . money market funds. Aggregate monetary resources Multi National Corporation Memorandum of Understanding National Bank of Agriculture and Rural Development North American Free Trade Agreement National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation National Association of Software and Service Companies (of India) Net Asset Value National Council of Applied Economic Search National Highways Authority of India Limited Non Performing Assets Non-Resident Indian National Readership Survey National Stock Exchange New York Stock Exchange Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries Over the Counter Exchange of India People for Ethical Treatment of Animals Prime Lending Rate Purchasing Power Parity Public Sector Undertaking Reserve Bank of India Retail Price Index South Asian Association for Regional Coorporation Steel Authority of India Limited Securities and Exchange Board of India Sensitivity Index (of Share Price on BSE) Special Economic Zone Statutory Liquidity Ratio SME Strengths. Opportunities and Threats Tata Iron and Steel Co. Weakness.

A sole proprietor is a single person who owns. vi. the decision making is prompt. producing. 2.” . two or more individuals may decide to pool in their financial ad non-financial resources to start and carry on a business.e. the liability stands unlimited i. SOLE PROPRIETORSHIP When an individual takes the initiative to start an activity related to start a trade or commerce for his own economic benefit. Characteristic of a Sole Proprietorship Business i. if the assets of the are not enough to pay off the business debts the personal assets of the proprietor are also attached to the fir property. Sole Proprietorship 2. After deducting all the expenses that relate to the business from total receipts of the business. selling and distributing goods/services with an aim of earning profits. Three important types of business entities are: 1. “the partnership between persons who have agreed to share the profits of business carried on by all. maintains and manages the whole show in the business.The sole proprietor is the only decision maker and has complete autonom decision making. iii. v.e. All the salaries and other overheads only form a part of the expenses of the sole proprietorship firm. As a result. a sole proprietor may not be in a position to cope with the financial and managerial demands of the present business world. No Separate Legal Entity – In case of sole proprietorship. Quick Decision Making – Since the firm is owned by a single person. what remains is the profit which may either be reinvested in the firm or could be withdrawn by the proprietor. the actions taken by the proprietor are binding upon the firm and vice versa. iv. Unlimited Liability – In case of insolvency of the firm. the owner and the business are considered one a same i. Company 1. PARTNERSHIP An individual i. Partnership 3. Autonomy in Decision Making . Single Ownership ii. Can be winded up without any prior legal notice.e. it is known as sole proprietorship. or any one of them acting for all.VAT WEF WPI YTM Value Added Tax World Economics Forum Whole Sale Price Index Yield to Maturity TYPES OF BUSINESS ENTITIES A business entity is an institution engaged in an economic activity. The Indian partnership act defines partnership as.

An association of two or more persons. Rate of interest to be provided to each partner on his capital v. The agreement is known as The Partnership Deed which is to be properly stamped. Characteristics of a Company . In business terminology. a company “refers to a legal entity formed which has a separate legal entity from its members. Amount of capital to be contributed by each partner iv. to find the following clauses in a Partnership business: i. Commencement and duration of business iii. Originally. Put in simple words. and is ordinarily incorporated to undertake commercial business”. Any variation in the mutual rights and duties of the partners ix Method by which goodwill will be calculated x Procedure by which a partner may retire and the method of payment of his dues xi Treatment of losses arising out of the insolvency of a partner xii Preparation of accounts and their audit 3. The carrying on of business by all.Characteristics of a Partnership Business i. From the point of view. iv. Amount to be allowed to each partner as drawings and the timings of such drawings vii. ii. Existence of business (and not just an agreement) . Whether a partner will be allowed a salary viii. It is usual therefore. it referred to a group of persons who took their meals together. 1956. or any one of them acting for all. iii. Sharing of profits (or losses)of the business. It should be comprehensive to avoid disputes later on. v. COMPANY The word Company etymologically is a combination of two Latin words ‘Com’ meaning ‘with or together’ and ‘Pains’ meaning ‘bread’. Name of the firm and the partnership business. a company is nothing but a group of persons that have come together and have contributed money for some common purpose and have incorporated themselves into a distinct legal entity in the form of a company for the same purpose. the main thing is that relations among the partners will be governed by mutual agreement. Disposal of profits and the ratio in which it would be done vi. An agreement entered into by all persons concerned. A company is formed and registered under the Companies Act. ii.

A common sea official signature of the company under which it operates and carries out its activities. In a court case. Limited Liability – In a company limited by shares.A company is an artificial person and does not have a physical existence. Separate Management – A company is owned by its shareholders but the management of a company is in hands of its managerial force constituted of Board of Directors. liability of the members is limited to the unpaid value shares whereas in a company limited by guarantee. A private company does not need a separate certificate from the Registrar of Companies for the commencement of its business. vii. the company is no longer a public company but is rather a private company. .i.A company has a legal identity distinct from that of its members. if members become less than seven. 1807. it has the capacity to s can be sued in its own name. the entity of the company has been described as following “A com is a person. but that does not affect the continuity of the company. In determining this number of 50. 2. may change from time to time. employee-members and ex-em members are not to be considered. Separate Legal Entity . invisible. Ltd. l Prohibits an invitation to the public to subscribe to any shares in or the debentures of the company. Salomon & Co. iv. iii. it also has a separate property of its ow member can claim to be the owner of the company’s property till the existence of the company. v. The shareholders may or may not constitute a company’s managem ix One Share-One Vote – The voting principle followed by a company is of the pattern where one share con one vote. artificial. distinguished from its owners. If a private company contravenes any of the aforesaid provisions. viii. l Restricts the right of members to transfer its shares l Limits the number of its members to fifty. employees etc. Perpetual Succession – A company’s life does not depend upon the life of its members. intangible and existing in the eyes of law”. ii. Minimum number of members in a public company is seven. liability of the members is limited to such amount as t members may undertake to contribute to the assets of the company. vi. Transferability of Shares – The shares in a company are freely transferable but subject to certain conditio that no shareholder is permanently or necessarily attached to the company. Separate Property – Since the company has a separate legal entity. he has 100 eligible votes in that company. Members of a com may come and go. Thus the management of a company is separate from its owners. Private Company Private company means a company which by its articles of association. Public Company Public Company is a company in which shares are held collectively by the general public rather than a selected few individuals. Legal Entity – Since a company is a separate entity. Salomon vs. it ceases to be a private company and loses all the exemptions and privileges which a private company is entitled to. in the event of it being winded up. Types of Companies 1. If a person holds 100 shares of a company. Common Seal . Minimum number of members in a private company is two.

4. deemed a p company. b) Company limited by the guarantee . However. 5. l Where not less than 25% of the paid up capital of a public limited company is held by the private company. c) Unlimited Company: The liability of the members of an unlimited company is unlimited. after an invitation is made by advertisement or rene deposits from the public (other than from its members or directors or their relatives). Companies deemed to be Public Limited Company A private company will be treated as a deemed public limited company under one of the following circumstances: l Where at least 25% of the paid up share capital of a private company is held by one or more body corporate private company shall automatically become a public company on and from the date on which the aforesaid percentage is so held. charity or other socially useful obj l The company does not intend to pay dividend to its members but apply its profits and other income in prom of its objectives.In this case. . Section 25 Company Under the Companies Act. the Central Government may allow companies to remove the word “Limited / Private Limited” from the name if any of the following conditions are met by: l The company is formed for promoting commerce.A company limited by guarantee is a registered company having the li of its members limited by its Memorandum of Association (MoA) to such amount as the members may respectively thereby undertake to pay if necessary on liquidation of the company.3. religion. such company shall be public company on and from the date when such acceptance or renewal is first made. the liability of the members is limited to the amount of uncalled s capital. under Section 25. The members of limited companies have no liability in cas fully paid up shares. the name of a public limited company must end with the word ‘Limited’ and the name of a private limited company must end with the word ‘Private Limited’. Therefore their li is similar to that of the liability of the partners in a partnership firm. art. science. The liability of the memb pay the guaranteed amount arises only when the company has gone into liquidation and not when it is a go concern. 1956. irrespective of its paid up share capital. a) Company limited by shares . the private company shall be. Limited and Unlimited Companies Companies may be limited. the private company shall become a public company on and from the date on which the aforesaid percentag held. l Where the annual average turnover of the private company during the period of three consecutive financial not less than Rs 25 crores. No member of the company limited by the shares can be called upon to pay more than the face valu shares or so much of it as has remained unpaid. limited by shares or limited by guarantee. l Where a private company accepts deposits from public.

Holding and Subsidiary Companies A company shall be deemed to be a subsidiary of another company if: l l That other company controls the composition of its board of directors That other company holds more than half (>50%) in face value of its equity share capital. under the law of some other country. Germany Kar Benz of Benz & Cie (founded in 1883) & Giffkiev 1924 (as Daimler & Daimler. 8.Wilhelm Maybach Benz AG) of Daimler Motoren Gasellschaft (founded 1890). No 1 Company BMW Headquarters Founded in Munich. Italy Luca Cordero Di Montezemolo William Ford. Germany 1913 Founder Karl & Gustav otto Rapp Present head Dr. Norbert Designation Chairman 2 Daimler AG Stuttgart. is registered in that country and has set up its business in India is called a Foreign Company GLOBAL COMPANIES AND LEADERS AUTOMOBILE S. All the decisions pertaining to its management and operations are taken by the government. 1899 1903 Giovanni Agnelli Henry Ford Dieter Zetsche Chairman 3 4 Fiat Turin. USA . Government Company A Government Company is the one in which 51% or more is held either by the central government or by the state government or is jointly held by the central and the state government. The control of the composition of the Board of Directors of the company means that the holding company has the power at its discretion.6. 7. Jr. to appoint or remove all or majority of directors of the subsidiary company without consent or concurrence of any other person. Chairman Chairman Ford Motors Dearborn. Foreign Company A company that has been incorporated outside India.

USA San Francisco. USA Boulogne – Billancourt. California U. Japan DetroitMinnesota. California. Bezos Len Bosack and John Chambers Sandra Lerner Michael Dell Pierre Omidyar Michael Dell John Donahoe 3 4 5 Cisco Systems Dell Computer eBay 1984 1984 1995 . USA 1982 1994 Founder John Warnock & Charles Gerchke Present Head Shantanu Narayanan Designation CEO & President CEO & President CEO & Chairman Chairman & CEO CEO Jeffrey P. USA Milwaukee. Durant Fritz Henderson William S. France 1870 1908 Yataro Iwasaki Takashi Nishioka William C. Harley and Arthur Keith E Wandell Davidson Louis Renault Carlos Ghosn Sergio Marchionne Fujio Cho Martin Winterkorn 8 1903 9 1899 CEO CEO & Chairman Chairman Chairman 10 11 12 Chrysler LLC Michigan. No 1 2 Company Adobe Systems Amazon. California. Bezos Jeffrey Headquarters Founded in San Jose. USA Texas.5 Honda Motors Tokyo. Japan 1948 Soichiro Honda Satoshi Aoki CEO & Alan Mullaly is President & CEO Chairman Chairman & CEO CEO 6 7 Mitsubishi General Motors Harley Davidson Renault Tokyo. USA Toyota Volkswagen AG Japan Germany 1925 1937 1937 Walter P. USA San Jose. Wisconsin.A Seattle. Washington.S. Chrysler Kiichiro Toyoda Government of Germany IT S.

Microsystems California. Germany 1972 CEO & President 13 SUN Santa Clara. Klaus Tschira and Claus Wellenreuther CEO 11 Oracle California. Miner and Ed Ellison Oates Dietmar Hopp. Japan and German Conglomerate Siemens Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard Hiroaki Kurokawa President 7 Palo Alto. Hewlett Packard California. Chairman CEO Jonathan I. Japan 1935 Fujitsu: Joint Venture between Furukaw a Electric Company. Moore Paul Otellini & Robert Noyce Craig Barett Herman Hollerith Samuel Palmisano Bill Gates and Bill Gates Steve Chairman CEO Paul Allen Ballmer Lawrence J. USA Redmond. USA Santa Clara. USA 1982 Scott McNealy. USA 1977 12 SAP AG Walldorf. Bob Lawrence J. Ellison.6 Fujitsu Tokyo. Hasso Leo Apotheker Plattner. Andy & President Schwartz Bechtolsheim Steve Jobs & Steve Woznaik Steve Jobs CEO 14 1976 15 Accenture Hamilton Bermuda 1989 Founded as consulting division of Anderson William Green Consulting by Arther Anderson & Clarence Delany CEO . USA Apple Computers Cupertino California. Hans-Werner Hector. USA New York. Scott McNealy Vinod Khosla. USA 1939 Mark Hurd President and CEO & Chairman CEO Chairman Chairman and CEO 8 9 10 Intel IBM Microsoft 1968 1888 1975 Gordon E. California.

UK New York . Germany London. Morgan John J. USA California. Texas. William Fargo and John Butterfield Present Head Michael Diekmann Kenneth I.Alcatel) 1928 Larry Page & Sergey Brin Alcate and Lucent Technologies Paul Galvin & Joseph Galvin Randall L. France Schaumburg Illinois.16 17 18 AT & T inc. New York USA London. Stephenson Eric Schmidt CEO CEO Ben Verwaayen CEO Chairman Phillippe Camus Greg Brown President and CEO 19 Motorola BANKS/FINANCIAL SERFVICES S. Google Alcatel-Lucent Dallas. Germany New York City. Mack and Harold Stanley . Kenneth D Lewis Chairman and CEO 4 Bank of America Charlotte. Chenault Designation CEO Chairman and CEO 3 2000 Created by a merger Lord Sharman of Norwich Union Chairman CEO Andrew Moss and CGU plc Amadeo Giannini Several Banks United under one banner called Barclays & Co. UK 1890 1850 Founder Public Company Henry Wells. USA Paris. North Carolina.No 1 2 Company Allianz SE American Express Aviva Headquarters Founded in Munich. USA Frankfurt. USA 1983 1998 2006 (1898 . USA 1812 Through a merger of Vikram Pandit Citicorp and Sir Win CEO Chairman Travelers Group Bischoff Adelbert Delbruck and Ludwig Bamberger Josef Ackermann Chairman and CEO Chairman Chairman and CEO 7 8 9 Deutsche Bank HSBC Morgan Stanley 1870 1865 1935 Thomas Sunderland Stephen Green Henry S. USA 1928 5 Barclays London. UK 1896 Marcus Agius Chairman 6 Citigroup New York.

10 UBS AG Zurich. James Wood Johnson & Edward Mead Johnson Charles Pfizer & Charles Erhardt Colonel Eli Lilly Present Head Designation Sanofi. Starr Liddy Oliver Chace Warren Buffet Chairman CEO & Chairman CEO & Chairman CEO and Chairman Goldman Sachs New York. Indiana. Lachleiter CEO Chairman President & CEO MEDIA S. USA 1998 11 12 13 14 AIG Berkshire Hathaway 1919 1839 1869 1799 Merger of Union Bank of Switzerland Kaspar Villiger & Swiss Bank Corporation Cornelius Vander Edward M. France Leverkusen. USA New York.No 1 Company Headquarters Founded in 2004 Founder Sanofi-Synthelabo acquired Aventis in 2004 Friedrich Bayer & Johann Friedrich Weskott Formed by the merger of Glaxo Wellcome and SmithKline Beecham Robert wood Johnson. Weldon Chairman and CEO 5 6 Pfizer Eli Lilly 1849 1876 Jeff Kindler Sidney Taurel John C. Germany Jean-Francois Dehecq Chris Chairman CEO Viehbacher Werner Wenning CEO 2 Bayer AG 1863 3 Glaxo SmithKline London. UK 2000 Sir Chris Gent Chairman CEO Andrew Witty 4 Johnson & Johnson New Brunswick. Switzerland New York USA Nebraska.Dimon CEO in 2000 PHARMACEUTICALS S.No Company Headquarters Founded in Founder Present Head Designation . USA JP Morgan Chase New York City USA Marcus Goldman Lloyd Blankfien Chase Manhatten Chairman & acquired JP Morgan James L. USA Indianapolis. USA 1886 William C.Aventis Paris.

USA Founded in 1892 Founder Present Head Designation CEO & Chairman Asa Griggs Candler Muhtar Kent 2 3 4 5 6 Colgate was founded in 1806 Roger D Colgate New York. USA 1990 Jeffrey L. MD 1928 and in 1928 it was Casmeyer Justin Palmolive USA Chairman bought by Skala Palmolive John Cadbury Cadbury Schweppes plc Roger Carr Chairman Cadbury plc London. Electrolux Elektomekaniska Elektromekaniska Marcus President Sweden AB AB and Lux AB in Wallenberg Chairman 1919 Dusseldorf. FMCG/CONSUMER DURABLE S. Through the merger 1910 as of Hans Straberg CEO & Stockholm. CEO & Henkel AG 1876 Fritz Henkel Kasper Rorsted Germany Chairman L’Oréal Clichy.Cola Atlanta. and Warner Comm.subsequently purchased by AOL Rupert Murdoch CEO & Chairman 2 Time Warner New York. Korea 1947 CEO . UK 1824 demerged in 2008 Todd Stitzer CEO separated its global confectionery business. USA 1979 Rupert Murdoch Merger between Time Inc. USA 1923 Robert Iger President and Walt and Roy Disney John E.. France 1909 Lindsay Owen Eugène Schueller Jones Jean-Paul Agon Through a merger of the appliance company Goldstar Koo Bon Moo and the chemical company Lucky.No 1 Company Headquarters Coca. Bewkes Chairman and CEO 3 The Walt Disney Company Burbank California. Pepper CEO Chairman Jr.1 News Corp New York. Chairman CEO 7 LG Seoul.

1965 11 12 13 14 15 Philips Sony Sara Lee Unilever 1891 1946 1939 1930 1903 CEO Chairman and CEO CEO Chairman CEO Chairman Formed as a merger Micheal of Lever Brothers Treschow Paul and Margarine Unie Polman James. SchuhFabrik in Adolf Dassler Herbert Hainer CEO Germany 1949 registered as Adidas AG Philip Knight Chairman Philip Knight Oregon.8 Nestlé Procter and Gamble Vevey. UK and Rotterdam Netherlands 1866 Henri Nestle Peter BrabeckLetmathe Paul Bulcke Chairman CEO 9 1837 William Procter & Chairman and Bob McDonald James Gamble CEO Donald M. the Netherlands Tokyo. Kraft Irene Rosenfeld Kraft Foods Illinois. Jeffries CEO & Chairman Chairman & CEO Chairman Headquarters 1 Adidas 2 3 4 5 Nike Polo Ralph New York.No Company Founded in Founder Present Head Designation 1924 as Gebriider Dassler Herzogenaurach. Barnes 10 Pepsi Co. USA London. CEO & Mark Parker Bill Bowerman President 1967 1892 1933 Ralph Lauren David T. USA New York. USA Paris Rene Lacoste Michel Lacoste . Switzerland Cincinnati. L. USA Lauren Abercrombie & Fitch Lacoste New Albany. Abercrombie Ezra Fitch Ralph Lauren Michael S. Kleisterlee Sir Howard Stringer Brenda C. Kendall and Herman W. USA Amsterdam. Ohio. Japan Il1inois. USA 1972 and William J. USA GARMENTS/APPARELS S. Lay through the merger of PepsiCola and Frito-Lay Gerard Philips Masaru Ibuka and Akio Morita Nathan Cummings Chairwoman Indra Nooyi & President & CEO Gerard J.

USA 1907 1971 Founder Toshiya Iwasaki Frederick W. USA Corporation Tommy New York. Jr. Edwin Immelt J. 10 Airbus France 1970 CEO PETROLEUM CORPORATION S. UK Arkansas. USA Leiden. USA 1878 4 5 6 7 8 9 Tokyo.No 1 2 Company Asahi Glass Fed Ex General Electric Canon Arcelor Mittal Virgin Atlantic Wal-Mart Stores inc.No 1 Company BP Headquarters Founded in London. IKEA Boeing Headquarters Founded in Tokyo. Van Emanuel Heusen & Isaac Chirico Phillips Tommy David F. Elihu Jeffrey R. Smith Designation Chairman & CEO Chairman & President Chairman and CEO Chairman and CEO Chairman of the borad & CEO President Chairman CEO President CEO 3 Fairfield. Thomson. Hovston Goro Yoshida and FujioMitarai Saburo Uchida Through the Lakshmi N. USA Hilfiger 1900s 1984 John M. Smith Hayward Designation CEO . Dyer Hilfiger Chairman & CEO President & Director MISCELLANEOUS S. Luxembourg London. merger of Arcelor Mittal and Mittal Steel Richard Branson Sam Walton Richard Branson Stephen Murphy Mike Duke Ingvar Kamprad Anders Dahlvig William Boeing Began as a consortium of European aviation firms W. UK 1954 Founder Present Head Donald Alexander Anthony B. James McNerney. Japan Luxembourg City. Japan Memphis. USA 1937 2006 1984 1962 1943 1916 Thomas Alva Edison.6 7 Phillips-Van Manhatten. the Netherlands Chicago. Smith Present Head Masahiro Kadomatsu Frederick W. New Heusen York.

USA The Hague. USA Formed by the Chairman and merger of Exxon & Rex W. Tillerson CEO Mobil Peter Vosek Jean Kessler CEO Chairman Jorma Ollila Formed by Anti Chairman and Trust breakup of David Reilly CEO Standard Oil Brand/Company Punchlines AUTOMOBILES BRAND/COMPANY Mercedes Benz Mahindra Bolero Wagon R Maruti Suzuki Bajaj Pulsar Splendor + Hyundai Motors Chevrolet Optra Opel Super Splendor Ford Fiesta Bajaj Auto TVS Apache Alto Toyota Corolla Ford Motors Indica V2 Toyota Mahindra Scorpio Honda City ZX Mitsubishi Lancer Bridgestone Audi Tata Safari Dicor Tata Indigo PUNCHLINE Brace Yourself Break Free For the smarter race Count On Us Definitely Male Designed To Excel Drive Your Way For A Special Journey Called Life Fresh Thinking. Better Cars Generation Nayi Bharosa Wohi Go Fida Inspiring Confidence Its Now Or Never Let’s Go Life’s A Journey Make Everyday Exciting More Car Per Car Touch the Perfection Nothing Else Will Do Outperform Own The Road Passion For Excellence Vorsprung Durch Technik (Progress through technology) Reclaim your life Spoil yourself . California. the Netherlands 1999 1907 1879 Chevron Corp.2 3 4 Exxon Mobil Royal Dutch Shell Texas.

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1 Gas company ONGC Making Tomorrow Brighter British Petroleum Beyond Petroleum BPCL Pure for Sure Speed High Performance Petrol Servo 100% Performance Everytime MISCELLANEOUS BRAND/COMPANY Reliance Communication Ventures Ltd. Amway Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. (BHEL) Max Healthcare De Beers Longines IL & FS Kerala Reliance Industries GE Tata Group Berger Paints TAG Heuer Xerox Reynolds Omega Swatch Apollo Hospitals Gati MRF PUNCHLINE A New Way Of Life Better Ideas Better Life Brightening Lives Powering Projects Caring For You For Life Diamonds Are Forever Elegance Is An Attitude Energising Capital Realising Ideas God’s Own Country Growth Of Life Imagination At Work Improving The Quality Of Life Paint Your Imagination Swiss Avant Garde – Grade Since 1860 The Document Company The Pen The World Prefers The Sign Of Excellence Time Is What You Make Of It Touching Lives Ahead is Reach Tyres with Muscle .The Telegraph NDTV Profit Star Sports Aaj Tak Unputdownable News you can Use We know your game Sabse Tez PETROLEUM CORPORATION BRAND/COMPANY PUNCHLINE IOCL Bringing Energy To Life Hindustan Petroleum Future full of Energy Bharat Petroleum Energising Lives GAIL India’s No.

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Tide Duracell. Sunlight. Dio Eterno Adreno Graptor FX Freedom Trendy Topper Scooty Star Shogun Zoom Challenger Comet 250 GF Laser Fazer Gladiator Star City Aquila King V2 YBX Yamaha Nisan X-Trail Motors Mitsubishi Lancer Royal Thunderbird Enfield cruiser Mitsubishi Lancer Pajero Bullet Pajero FMCG COMPANIES Machismo Lifebuoy Clinic Range HUL Brooke Bond Pepsodent Kwality Walls Sunsilk Wheel Annapurna Bru Liril Surf Excel Lakme Breeze Hamam Ayush Ponds Rexona Ala CloseUp Knorr Yellow Label Tea Rin Kissan Axe Margo Lux Fair & Lovely Dove Pears Vim Lipton Tea. Fusion. Glamour. Head & Shoulders Ariel Vicks Whisper Pantene Pro V Bouty. Aviance P&G. Dawn.Dts-i Hero & Honda Super Splendor Dawn Select II LML Energy FX TVS Kinetic Fiero Super XL Nova 35 Zing 80 Luna Libero Prima Victor Apache Velocity Kine Stryker Crux R Freedom Centra Max 100 GF125 4S Boss G5 Passion + Ambition NV CBZ Xtreme Activa Freedom Karizma CD DAWN CD Deluxe Pleasure Supremo HUNK. Oral-B Always Rejoice Pampers Gillette Tide Pringles . Pureit. Crest. Detergent Ivory. ACHIEVER. Breez. Vaseline. Gain.

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Ponds. Rasna. Canon. GE Money. Mumbai Marathon 2008. TVS Star City. Sunfeast. Xbox 360. Kodak. Big 92. Ford Fiesta Lux. Veet. Royal Stag. was founded Naveen by Charles Kshatriya Wakefield Mr. Newport. Maybelline. Lux. Munjal Shri. Microsoft. Killer Jeans. Rupa Macro Man. Clinic Shampoo. Flying Machine. Dhoni Deepika Padukone Abhishek Bachchan Priyanka Chopra Sushmita Sen Yuvraj Singh Sachin Tendulkar Rani Mukherji Saif Ali Khan Katrina Kaif Coke. SBI Cards. Pantene. Aviva. Pepsi.Hrithik Roshan John Abraham Kareena Kapoor M. Brij Mohan Brijmohan Lal Lall Munjal Munjal and Mr. Adidas. Wrangler. Omega. Tag Heuer. ITC John Players. Satyanand Munjal. 1 Company Bajaj Auto Headquarters Founded in Pune 1945 Founder Jamnalal Bajaj Present Head Rahul Bajaj Rajiv Bajaj Designation Chairman MD Managing Director 2 Castrol India Mumbai 1899 3 Hero Group Varied locations for different Group companies Chennai 1956 Castrol. Garnier. Samsung Mobiles. BPCL. Anne French. IOC. Castrol Citizen Eco-Drive Watches. Royal Stag. Asian Paint. Sunsilk. Levis Signature Jeans. Videocon.T V Sundaram Venu Srinivasan Iyengar Chairman Group 4 TVS Motors 1911 Chairman . Brylcreem. Reebok.No. Pepsi. Aveo Aveo. S. Dulux Paints. RCOM. Yamaha. Head & Shoulder. Pantene Shampoo Donear Suiting. Acer. Liril Soap. Dr. Hero Honda Karizma. Provogue. olay. Pepsi. P. Frito Lay. the global brand. Good Night. Lenevo. Boost Titan Raga. Marico. Boro Plus. Sony Ericsson. TajMahal tea Estelle Jewellery. Vivel Di Wills Exide Batteries. Hide-n-seek Biscuits Diet Pepsi. LG. Slice. Globus. Mr. Parachute oil Idea. Fastrack Sunglasses. Nakshatra INDIAN COMPANIES AND LEADERS AUTOMOBILES S. Seagram TVS. Reliance Energy. MRF. O. Royal Stag. Tissot. J Hampstead. Lakmé. Tata Sonata Kingfisher Airlines. Motorola. Nokia.7 FM. Nestle Munch. kiah. Hero Honda Tag Hauer. Frito Lay.

NIIT Bangalore Chennai New Delhi Azim Premji Arun Jain Chairman Chairman and CEO R. Patni. Pawar & Chairman CEO Vijay Thadani . Nandan Nilekani. Mumbai Mumbai Mumbai Gurgaon 1961 1945 1945 1981 Baba Kalyani Baba Kalyani Chairman and CEO J. S. Patni Narendra K Patni CEO and Ashok K.C. Mahindra & Mahindra Anand Chairman MD Ghulam Mohammad Mahindra Jamshedji Tata Ratan Tata Chairman (JRD) R. S D Gopalakrishnan and MD Shibulal. Japan Nakanishi IT S. S Murthy Kris. Chairman CEO Gopalakrishnan.P.Gurnani CEO 7 8 9 Wipro Polaris Software Ltd.Bhargava Indian subsidary of Shinzo Chairman CEO Suzuki. Rajesh Hukku Mr.C. Chairman and Gajendra K. Moser Baer Patni Computers Mumbai New Delhi Mumbai 1991 1983 1978 Narendra K.5 6 7 8 Bharat Forge Mahindra and Mahindra Tata Motors Maruti Suzuki India Ltd. Became B Ramalinga Raju Mahindra and B Rama Raju Satyam in June 2009 1945 1993 1981 Azim Premji Arun Jain Ranjendar S.C. Deepak Puri Rajesh Hukku Mr. K Dinesh and Ashok Arora. Patni 6 Satyam Hyderabad Founded in 1987. Pawar & Vijay Thadani C. 1 Company HCL Corp. N S Narayana NR Honorary Raghavan. Deepak Puri Chairman MD 3 4 5 Oracle Financial Services Ltd. Headquarters Founded in Noida 1976 Founder Shiv Nadar and Ajai Chowdhry Present Head Designation Shiv Nadar Chairman CEO Roshni Nadar 2 Infosys Bengaluru 1981 N R Narayana Murthy.No. Mahindra & Keshub K.

Company 1. D S Parekh Chairman Chairman MD & CEO .10 MphasiS Bengaluru 2000 Merger of U.S. 2. HDFC ICICI Headquarters Mumbai Mumbai Founded in 1977 1955 Founder Hashmukhbhia Parekh Started as collaboration between world Bank.No.D. Company Headquarters Founded in Founder Present Head Designation 1 Air India Mumbai. Maharashtra 1932 2 3 4 Kingfisher Jet Airways IndiGo Bengaluru Mumbai New Delhi 2004 1993 2005 Initially started as Tata Airlines.Ramadorai CEO & MD 11 Tata Consultancy Services Ltd Mumbai 1968 AIRLINES S. by J. a division of Tata Chairman and Sons Ltd. It was Director converted into a public limited company in 1946 Chairman & Vijay Mallya Vijay Mallya MD Naresh Goyal Rahul Bhatiya & Rakesh Gangwal Naresh Goyal Bruce Ashby Chairman CEO 5 SpiceJet New Delhi 2005 It was earlier known as Royal Airways. based IT consulting company MphasiS Andy Mattes Chairman CEO Corporation & the Ganesh Ayyar & Director Indian IT services company BFL. Present Head Designation Mr. a Sanjay Aggarwal reincarnation of Modi Luft. Aravind Jadhav Managing Tata.R. Started as a division of the Tata Group S. Software Ltd. Wadia Group Edgardo Badiali Jehangir Wadia CEO 6 GoAir Mumbai 2004 CEO MD BANKS/FINANCIAL SERVICES S.No.

of India 16. Exchange Ltd. 6. 9.S. D.Vijayan CEO Joseph CEO and MD Massey Rajnikant Patel Dr.D. 1865 Thomas Sutherland 12. 13. Mahajan MD Founder and Rana Kapoor CEO Stephen Chairman Green (CEO – HSBC Naina Lal India branches) Kidwai Chairman and T. Subbarao Ravi Narain CEO Bombay Stock 14. and Lala Harkishen Lal Chakrabarty Sir Maharaja Sayajirao M. Mumbai 1906 8. Parsis & Narayanan Jews lead promoter was Sir Swami Sasson David Rai Bahadur Lala A.No.C.P. NSE 1875 Government of India Mumbai Mumbai 1935 1992 Government of India Government of India Governor MD PHARMACEUTICALS S. England. Hindus. HSBC London. U.Bhatt Sardar Dyal Singh Majithia K. by a special act of the Parliament to provide credit to Indian Industry Yogesh Agarwal Chairman and MD Chairman Chairman and MD Chairman and MD Chairman and MD 7. Mallya Gaekwad III Founded by a group of T. 5.C.S. Mumbai Mumbai 1956 2003 Government of India Jignesh Shah Chairman and MD Chairman and A. New Delhi Bengaluru Mumbai 1943 1906 2004 Government of India O. Company Headquarters Founded In Founder Present Head Designation . 4. Muslims. 10.Government of India and representatives of Indian Industry 3.Mishra Sohan Lal Ammembal Subbarao Pai Rana Kapoor 11. Reserve Bank 15.K. LIC of India MCX Mumbai Andheri.K. IDBI SBI PNB Bank of Baroda Bank of India Oriental Bank Of Commerce Canara Bank Yes Bank Mumbai Mumbai New Delhi Mumbai 1964 1806 1895 1908 Estd.

Switzerland New Delhi 1978 Ms.K. Karnataka and New Jersey USA Mumbai. Mehta Kewal Handa Vijay Mallya CEO 11 12 13 Pfizer India Bayer India Ltd New York Germany 1849 1863 1959 MD Chairman Torrent Ahmedabad Pharmaceuticals Sudhir Mehta Chairman MD Sameer Mehta . Kiran Mazumdar Shaw Dr. Gujarat Mumbai Basel. Anji Reddy Chairman CEO G V Prasad Ajay G Piramal Malvinder Mohan Singh Chairman MD and CEO Chairman & Managing Director Chairman 6 Zydus Cadila Wockhardt Hospital Novartis International AG. Morepen Laboratories 1952 Ramanbhai Patel & Pankaj R. Later on.1 BIOCON Bangalore. Anji Reddy Merger of Many Companies Bhai Mohan Singh Chairman and MD Dr. France 2004 Started as Aventis. SanofiJean-Francois Synthelabo purchased Dehecq Aventis. Subsidary Pfizer Friedrich Bayer U. Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw Ms.B. Haryana Ahmedabad. Patel Indravadan Modi Habil Khorakiwala Merger of CibaGeigy & Sandoz laboratories K.N. Andhra Pradesh Mumbai. Y. Reddy’s Nicholas Piramal Ranbaxy 1935 1984 1988 1937 Khwaja Abdul Hamied Dr. Suri Habil Khorakiwala Daniel Vasella 7 1960 8 1996 Chairman and CEO 9 1984 Sushil Suri Chairman and MD 10 Aventis Sanofi Paris. Maharashtra Gurgaon. Maharashtra Hyderabad. Hamied Chairman and MD 2 3 4 5 Cipla Dr.

of India Ashok Shina Chairman and MD 1984 Govt.S. of India Arun Balakrishanan Chairman and MD 1969 Mukesh Ambani Mukesh Ambani Chairman FMCG/CONSUMER DURABLES S. Godrej Designation Chairman ViceChairman Chairman Chairman and MD Chairman Chairman CEO and MD Karsanbhai Patel Karsanbhai Patel Nandlal Venugopal Dhoot Madhavlal Dhoot Subsidary Uniliver --------Harish Manwani Nitin Paranjape Vineeta Bali Nasli MD Chairman . Uttar Pradesh Mumbai. 2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Company Dabur Godrej Nirma Videocon Hindustan Unilever Ltd. Burman Amit Burman J.MEDIA S. Burman Ardeshir and Pirojsha Godrej Present Head Anand. of India R.N. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Company Headquarters IOC ONGC BPCL GAIL HPCL IPCL New Delhi Dehradun Mumbai New Delhi Mumbai Mumbai Founded Founder Present Head Designation In 1959 Government of India Sarthak Behuria Chairman 1956 Govt. Maharashtra Tamil Nadu Goregaon. of India Dr. Lucknow 1992 1993 1978 Subhash Chandra Karunanidhi Family News Corporation Subhash Chandra Kalanithi Maran Subrato Roy Designation Chairman Chairman and MD Chairman & Managing Director Chairman and MD Group Chairman PETROLEUM CORPORATION S. B. Gujarat Aurangabad Maharashtra Anand Kolkata & Founded In 1884 1897 1969 1987 1933 1892 Founder Dr. 3. 1972 Subhash Ghai Subhash Ghai Maharashtra Mumbai. Company Balaji Telefilms Mukta Arts Zee Telefilms Sun TV Sahara India Pariwar Headquarters Founded In Founder Present Head Mumbai.No.No. 5. S K.Sharma Chairman and MD 1976 Govt.No. (HUL) Britannia Headquarters Ghaziabad. Mumbai.C. Jeetendra 1999 Jeetendra Kapoor Maharashtra Kapoor Mumbai. 4. 1. Tripathi Chairman and MD 1976 Govt. Maharashtra Ahmedabad.

1 2 3 4 Company Arvind Mills Bombay Dyeing Future Group (India) Raymond Headquarters Ahmedabad. Later taken Onkar S. M. 1914 1972 1938 1820 Founded by Late Karam Chand Thapar as Ballarpur Gautam Thapar Paper and Straw to Ballarpur Industries Ltd.K. Maharashtra Mumbai. Gujrat Mumbai. In 1975 Parmanand Deepchand Srichand P Hinduja Hinduja Jaiprakash Gaur Henning Holck-Larsen and Soren Kristian Toubro Ramdutt Goenka Jaiprakash Gaur A. it Mangalam Birla became a world-calss business base. Maharashtra Mumbai. Anil Ambani Mr.S. Chairman 2 Apollo Tyres Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group BILT (Avantha Group) Hinduja Group Jaypee Group Larsen & Toubro RPG Group Perambra. Maharashtra Founded In 1931 1879 1987 1925 Founder Kasturbhai Lalbhai Nowrosjee Wadia Kishore Biyani Lala Juggilal Present Head Designation Mr.No.Industries Bangalore GARMENTS/APPARELS Wadia S.Lalbhai Chaiman & MD Nusli Wadia Kishore Biyani Gautam Hari Singhania Chairman CEO & MD Chairman and MD MISCELLANEOUS S. Kanwar MD over by Raunaq Singh in 1974 Mr. U. Anil Ambani Chairman 3 2005 4 Gurgaon. Maharashtra Mumbai 1945 5 6 7 8. Kumar under Aditya Vikram Birla. Sanjay. Group Maharashtra 1857 The group’s founding father was Ghanshyamdas Birla. Haryana London.No. New Delhi Mumbai. MD & CEO Chairman . Company Headquarters Founded In Founder Present Head Designation 1 Aditya Birla Mumbai. Kerala Mumbai. Maharashtra 1975 Matthew T Maratukallam and Chairman & Jacob Thomas. Naik Harsh Vardhan Goenka MD Chairman Chairman Chairman.

R. 10.G.9.K. India 18. Muthuraman Ratan Tata E. 14. Parmeswaran (Executive Director) Shekar Swamy Madhukar Kamat (MD & CEO) . of India C. 3. Tamil Nadu Pune Gurgaon. Haryana Mumbai New Delhi Delhi Mumbai Gurgaon. 11. Pepsi India CELLULAR/NETWORK PROVIDER S. Swamy/BBDO Mudra Communication Ltd. Company Bharti TeleVentures Essar Group Headquarters Founded In New Delhi Mumbai. DLF Limited Coca-Cola 17. Head Piyush Pandey (Chairman & National Creative Director) Colvyn J. Maharashtra Mumbai. Unitech Ltd. Maharashtra Tuticorin. Haryana 1966 1868 1976 1995 1971 1907 1995 1946 1993 1989 Dhirubhai Ambani Jamshetji Nusserwanji Tata Anil Agarwal Tulsi Tanti Ramesh Chandra JRD -Jamsedji Tata Govt. 1. Harris Suman Shrivastava Kamal Basu (CEO) Arvind Sharma (Chairman & CEO) Ambi M. 12. 2. Sunil Bharti Mittal Chairman Mittal Nand Kishore Ruia Dhirubhai Ambani Shashi Ruia Anil Ambani Chairman Chairman & MD Founder Reliance Navi Mumbai Communication India’s Advertisement Agency Name of the Agency Ogilvy & Mather JWT Euro RSCG Saatchi & Saatchi Leo Burnett FCB Ulka R. Delhi Metro 16. Mukesh Ambani Ratan Tata Chairman and MD Chairman Anil Agarwal Chairman MD Kuldip Kumar & CEO Kaura Chairman and Tulsi Tanti CEO Ramesh Chandra B. Maharashtra 1995 1956 2002 Present Head Designation Mr. Sunil Bharti Mr. Reliance Industries Tata Group Sterlite Industries Suzlon Energy Mumbai. Tata Steel 15.No.Singh ------Subsidary Pepsi Inc.Shreedharan Kushal Pal Singh Atul Singh Sanjeev Chadda CEO CEO Chairman MD Chairman CEO & President CEO 13.

David & Bates Rediffusion McCann-Erickson Contract Advertising Lintas Media Group (LMG) Grey Group (Asia Pacific) Subhash Kamat (CEO) Diwan Arun Nanda (MD & CEO) Prasoon Joshi (National Creative Director) Ravi Deshpande (Chairman & Chief Creative Officer) Lynn de Souza Nirvik Singh (Chairman & CEO) Electronic Media I. Major Productions Some other films produced by the company include: l l l l l l l l Muqaddar Ka Faisla (1987) Agneepath (1990) Gumrah (1993) Kuch Kuch Hota Hai (1998) Kabhi Khushi Kabhi Gham (2001) Kal Ho Naa Ho (2003) Kaal (2005) Kabhi Alvida Naa Kehna (2006) . Present Management With the release of Kuchh Kuchh Hota Hai in 1998. Dharma Productions Dharma Productions is a film production company founded by Late Yash Johar in 1976. Yash Johar’s son Karan Johar made his directorial debut. Major Indian Production Houses 1. Presently he is the Managing Director and his mother Hiroo Johar is the Chairperson of the company. Headquarter Dharma Productions is based in Mumbai. The first film to be produced by the company was Dostana in 1980.

motion pictures and broadcasting.2. Shobha Kapoor is the Managing Director and CEO of the company while her daughter Ekta Kapoor is the Creative Head of the company. UTV is into producing content for television. United Television (UTV) United Television is a leading media and entertainment company of India with offices in South East Asia. UTV Communication (Mauritius) Ltd. The company has 4 subsidiaries: l l l l United Entertainment Solutions Ltd (India). US and UK. . Major Productions Some of the major serials produced by Balaji Telefilms are: l l l l l l Kahaani Ghar Ghar Kii Kahiin To Hoga Karam Apnaa Apnaa Kasamh Se Kasautii Zindagi Kay Kyunki Saas Bhi Kabhi Bahu Thi 3. Headquarter Balaji Telefilms is based in Mumbai. The production house is mainly into producing television serials. Balaji Telefilms Balaji Telefilms is one of the leading production houses of India. UTV Communication (USA) LLC UTV Communication (UK) Ltd. It is run by the Kapoor family. Headquarter UTV is headquartered at Mumbai. with Jeetendra as its Chairman. The company was established 18 years ago by Ronnie Screwvala in 1990. Present Management Ms.

In 1989. is headquartered at Mumbai. It operates two television channels “Sahara One” a general entertainment channel and “Filmy” (2006 Feb) a Hindi movie channel. Manmohan Shetty is the Chairman and Managing Director of the company and his daughter Ms. Sahara One Media and Entertainment Ltd (SOMEL) Sahara One Media and Entertainment Limited (SOMEL) is the media company of the Sahara India Parivar.Present Management Mr. Yash Raj Films . the company processes more them 70 percent of all Hindi films produced in India. In 2006. the firm entered mainstream cinema processing. 6. Adlabs had also entered into television content creation by becoming a majority stakeholder in Siddhartha Basu’s Synergy Communication. Today. Headquarter Adlabs is headquartered at Mumbai. Present Management Mr. Adlabs was founded by Manmohan Shetty in 1978 along with Vasanji Mamania as a small film processing unit catering to ad films. Adlabs Adlabs is the largest entertainment company in India. Pooja Shetty is the whole-time Director of the company. marketing. Ronnie Screwvala is the CEO of UTV. 5. 4. Sahara One Motion pictures is one of India’s largest movie production houses in the business of producing. Subrata Roy is the Managing Worker and Chairman of the Sahara One Media and Entertainment Ltd. and distributing motion pictures in Hindi and other Indian regional languages. Headquarter Sahara One Media and Entertainment Ltd. Adlabs cinema is also one of the largest motion picture exhibitors in India. Anil Ambani who owned Reliance-Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group (ADAG) became a majority stakeholder (51%) in Adlabs. In June 2005. Present Management Mr.

including a cheque of $ 1 million from Andy Bechtolscheim. Yash Raj films became the first Indian production company to create a Corporate Structure. rated Yash Raj Films as the 27th Biggest Film Distribution House in the World and the largest production company as in 2006. Recently it has started a new state-of-the-art studio at Mumbai. Present Management The present Chairman of the company is Yash Chopra. VCD’s and videos under the label “Yash Raj Films Home Entertainment”. The total initial investment raised for the new company was US $1. California. In 2004. the company is also in the business of distributing films. one of the founders of Sun Microsystems. Headquarter Yash Raj films is based in Mumbai. Google was started by Sergey Brin and Larry Page as a research project while undergoing their Ph.Yash Raj Films is a multi–product company set up by Yash Chopra in 1970. The company has its office in Menlo Park.D. Major Productions of Yashraj Productions l l l l l l l l l Kabhi Kabhi (1976) Silsila (1981) Lamhe (1991) Dilwale Dulhaiya Le Jayenge (1995) Dil to Pagal Hai (1997) Mohabbatein (2000) Saathiya (2002) Kabul Express (2006) Chak De! India (2007) was registered on Sep 15. Apart from producing motion pictures in Hindi language. an International film magazine Hollywood Reporter. The search engine was initially nicknamed “Back Rub”. 1997. California. It has also launched a music label by the name “Yash Raj Music” and also produces DVD’s. In 2001. Google Inc. . The domain name google. at Stanford University.1 million. Major Internet Companies 1.

eBay Inc. students of electrical engineering at Stanford University. Products Products and Services offered The major product offerings of Google include the Google Search Engine.Ask Yahoo!. 2. eBay was founded in San Jose. Present Management Eric E. Yahoo Greetings. google Groups. Yahoo Finance.Headquarter The head office of Google inc. California. Technology Larry Page – President. Adwords. Yahoo! Inc Yahoo! Inc was founded by David Filo and Jerry Yang. Yahoo Mail. 3. Google Calendar. Jot Spot. Google Notebook. Schmidt – CEO/Chairman Sergey Brin – President. Orkut. Yahoo 360° . Geocities – a web hosting service. California on September 3. The first item sold by the . Flickr – a public photo album for users. Google Docs and Spreadsheets. Google Earth. Gmail. Yahoo Search and Yahoo Video. Yahoo Education. Ph. but eventually got the name ‘Yahoo! – Yet another hierarchical officious oracle’. Bostock – Chairman Carol Bartz – CEO David Filo – Co-Founder Products and Services offered The major product/service offering of Yahoo include . The online auction site. California. Google Maps and You Tube. Yahoo Messages. Yahoo Groups. Picassa-Web albums. The website was initially named ‘Jerry and David’s guide to the world wide web’.D. My Yahoo – personalized homepage for users. Yahoo networking domain for users. in January 1995. “The Googleplex” is situated at Mountain View. Blogs. Yahoo Gallery. 1995 by computer programmer Pierre Omidyar as auction web. USA Present Management Roy J. Google Talk. Headquarter The present headquarter of Yahoo! Inc is at Sunnyvale.

Headquarter The company is presently headquartered at Seattle. Some of the items sold on the website include Apparel and Accessories. Amazon. Amazon. Books and Magazine. It also facilitates integration with retailers like Target and Marks & Spencer. and other engines for specific search types. apparels. CD’s. Headquarter The company. Kindle launch in Novemeber 2007 is an ebook reader and amazon mp3 was started in January 2008 5. electronics.83. supplemented by Alexa (a subsidiary of Amazon. Cars and Bikes etc. Microsoft Corporation Inc. USA Present Management Jeffrey Bezos – Chairman. CEO and President Products and Services Offered Amazon. computer software. California. but it soon diversified into other product areas which includes DVD’s. Its results derive from Windows Live Search. began as an online bookstore. and food. videogames. The name of the service was changed from auction web to eBay in September 1997. 2004. Camera and Optics. Microsoft Corporation was founded by two students from Harvard went live on April 14. The company was founded by Jeff Bezos in 1994. Amazon. Inc is an American e-commerce company. Amazon. eBay Inc is headquartered at San provides search engine services to the website. Bill Gates .website was a broken laser pointer for which Omidyar earned $14. offers services for access to its catalogue as well as for integration with retailers. Present Management Pierre Omidyar – Chairman John Donahoe – CEO Services Offered eBay is an online auction portal having a varied range of products for sale on the portal.

Inc. 6. Major Television Channels Company NDTV Sony Entertainment Television Star Group Owner Prannoy Roy Kunal Dasgupta (CEO) Uday Shankar (CEO) . Developer Tools. III. is an American global Internet services and media company formerly operated by Time Warner and headquartered in New York. INC. Business Solutions Zune. 1978. 1976. Windows operating system MS Office. Windows Series System. Winamp. Its first international office was opened in Japan on November 1. New Mexico. 1981 to become an incorporated business in the state of Washington. Weblogs. The name became a registered trademark on November 26. Formerly America Online. 1975. or set up international versions of its services. CEO Products and Services ICQ. AIM. Compuserve. New York. The company started its operations from Albuquerque. Goowy. Headquarters New York. and etc. AOL LLC. Xbox 360 and MSN. The company underwent a restructuring on June 25. Washington. First chatroom base text role playing game Black Bayou (2004). Kindle – Nov 2007 – ebook reader Amazon MP3 – Jan 08 Headquarters Microsoft Inc. It has franchised its services to companies in several nations around the world. USA Present Management Bill Gates – Co-founder and Executive Chairman Steve Ballmer – CEO Ray Ozzie – Chief software Architect Craig Mundie – (CRSO) Products and Services offered Some of the major product/service offerings of Microsoft include Ultra Mobile PC.and Paul Allen on April 4. Netscape.. USA Present Management Tim Armstrong. is headquartered at Redmond.

1. Mid-Day Adlabs Value Labs.000 crore. In addition to the Navratna companies. 30 crores or more in three years. Major Radio Stations Station Radio City Radio Mirchi Radio One Big FM Red FM Radio Tadka (95 FM) Fever 104 FM Siddharths Basu Raghav Behl (MD) Living Media Ronnie Screwvala (CEO) Subhash Chandra Owner Star Group Bennett Coleman & Co. 1. The Board of Directors of those companies can approve all decisions relating to capital expenditure and no separate clearance is required from the government.Synergy Communication Network Eighteen TV Today Group UTV Zee Network IV. But the investment is subject to the condition that the total investmen such joint ventures is below 30% of the net worth of the Navratna Company. Malaysian media group – Astro & NDTV Rajasthan Patrika Fever 104 FM PUBLIC SECTOR COMPANIES A public company is one in which 51 per cent or more stake is owned by the government.R The Mini-Ratna designation applies to PSU’s that have made profits continuously for the last 3 years or hav earned a net profit of Rs. the government of India has created another category called Mini . Public sector companies can be broadly classified into : I. In case of equity acquisitions in a joint venture company. At present there are 9 Navratna companies as IPCL & VSNL have been privatized by the government. Navratna Companies l l l l l The Government of India had in 1997 identified 11 public sector undertakings as Navratna companies or cr jewels. Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) . a Navratna company can take an independent dec for investments up to Rs.

Present Management Mr. 1986. K. . Sinha is the Chairman & Managing Director of MTNL. l Headquarter Bharat Heavy Electrical Ltd. S. telecommunication and renewable energy. 2. Present Management Mr. India. control and operation of Delhi Telephone District a Mumbai Telephone District. Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) l The Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) was established on 1st of April. Headquarters Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) is headquartered at New Delhi. l It is a public limited company largely owned by the Government of India (GOI). power generation & transmission. l BHEL manufactures over 180 products under 30 major product groups and caters to core sectors of the Ind Economy viz. l It was established more than 40 years ago in 1962. (BHEL) is headquartered at New Delhi. l BHEL has acquired certifications for quality management systems (ISO 9001). environmental management systems (ISO 14001) and Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OHSMS) 18001). l The company was set up to take over the management. Ravi Kumar is the present Chairman and Managing Director (CMD) of BHEL. P.BHEL is the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in India. in the energy related infrastructure today. transportation. R. Products and Services Offered BHEL offers a wide range of products for: l l l l l power sector industrial production transmission and transportation sectors non-conventional energy sources R & D products The company offers services in l l l l Power Generation Systems transmission systems transportation systems industrial systems.

Services Offered Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) provides fixed line telephone services. Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL) l HPCL came into existence in 1974 after the takeover and merger of the erstwhile Esso and Lube India undertaking by the government. In 1979. 3. Present Management Mr. Headquarters Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL) is headquartered at Mumbai. Products and Services Offered The product/service offerings by the company include l Refined oil for industrial use and export l LPG for domestic consumption offered through its subsidiary HP gas l Lubricants for domestic consumption. Today. ranked at 290th position. Kosan Gas Company was taken over and merged with HPCL and a single entity HPCL came into l existence. HPCL is the second largest oil company in India and is one of the largest PSU companies in terms l revenue. chemical companies. Caltex Oil Refinery India Ltd. Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL) . fertilizer compa l and shipping companies l Aviation fuel and Lubricants l Products and services for retail customers which it markets through Club HP outlets 4. was taken over by the government and was subsequently merged w l HPCL in 1978. cellular services – both GSM & WLL and internet services through both Dial -Up & Digital Subscriber Loop (DSL). l It is also one of the Fortune 500 companies of the world. industrial consumption and exports Bulk fuels and specialties for industrial consumers like power plants. In 1976. Arun Balakrishnan is the present Chairman and MD.

l l l

Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL) was founded in 1976 by the Government of India, when it acquired the Burma Shell group of companies. It was on 1st August, 1977, that the company was renamed Petroleum Corporation Limited. BPCL was also the first refinery to process newly found indigenous crude in the country (at Bombay High BPCL is one of the Fortune 500 companies of the world currently ranked at 325th position.

Headquarters Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL) is headquartered at Mumbai. Present Management Mr. Ashok Sinha is the present Chairman and MD of BPCL. Products and Services Offered The product/service offerings of the company include l l l l l l

Refined oil for industry and export LPG for domestic consumption offered through its subsidiary Bharat Gas Lubricants for domestic consumption, industrial consumption and exports. Fuels and solvents, industrial services and e-business facilities for commercial units. Aviation fuel and lubricants. Retail services - at petrol pumps, speed fuels, in & out stores, petro – card, smart fleet card and ‘Pure for S

5. GAIL (India) Limited

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GAIL (India) ltd. (Erstwhile Gas Authority of India Ltd.), India’s principal gas transmission and Marketin Company, was established by the government of India on August 16, 1984. The company entered into LPG business in February 1991. It began city gas distribution in Delhi in 1997 by setting up the first CNG station. GAIL commissioned its petrochemicals plant in March 1999 at Pata.

Headquarter GAIL (India) Ltd. is headquartered at New Delhi. Present Management Mr. B.C.Tripathi is the present Chairman and Managing Director of GAIL (India) Ltd. Product and Services Offered Apart from marketing of l gas l city gas l CNG GAIL (India) Ltd. has presence in various other product areas. It offers

l l l l l

petrochemical products telecom services Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) power exploration and production of gas and holds participatory interest in 12 exploration blocks in the country.

6. Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL)

l Indian Oil Corporation Limited was founded in 1964 through a merger of Indian Oil Company Ltd. and In Refineries Ltd. l In 1965, Gujarat Refinery was inaugurated. l In 1967, Haldia Barauni Pipeline was commissioned. l In 1969, the company undertook the marketing of Madras Refinery Products. ‘Servo’ the first indigenous lubricant was launched in 1972. l In 1995, Kandla – Bhatinda Pipeline started operations and IOCL launched Indane Home Shoppe. l In 1997 the company entered into LNG business through a JV company, Petronet LNG. l IOCL, in 2000 became the first Indian company to achieve the turnover of Rs. 1,00,000 crore. l In 2001, Chennai Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (CPCL) and Bongaigaon Refinery and Petrochemicals Ltd. (BRPL) were acquired by the company. l In 2003, Lanka IOC Pvt. Ltd. (LIOC) was launched in Sri Lanka. Headquarter Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL) is headquartered at New Delhi. Present Management Mr. Sarthak Behuria is the present chairman and MD of IOCL. Products and Services Offered The product/service offerings of the company include: l l l l l l Refined oil for industrial use and export purposes. LPG for domestic consumption offered by its subsidiary Indane Gas. Lubricants for domestic consumption, industrial consumption and export. Aviation fuel and lubricants. Auto gas – company’s LPG variant which has been launched in selected markets in India. Retail services - at petrol pumps, Xtrapower products for customers and ‘Swagat’ highway flagship retail outlets.

7. Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC)

l In 1955, the Government of India decided to develop oil and natural gas resources in various areas of the country. With this objective, an Oil and Natural Gas Directorate was set up. l In August 1956, the directorate was raised to the state of Commission with enhanced power, but was still u the direct control of the government. l In October 1959, the commission was converted into a statutory body by an Act of the Indian parliament an ONGC was formed. l Since its formation, ONGC has carried out its activities in various parts of the country and also started its overseas operations. The company went offshore in early 70’s when it discovered an oil field at Bombay H l In 1994, ONGC was re-organised as a limited company under the Company Act of 1956. l In 2002 ONGC purchased Mangalore Refinery Pvt. Ltd. (MRPL) from AV Birla group. It also entered the market in 2003 through its subsidiary ONGC Videsh Limited (OVL). l The company has also made investments in Vietnam, Sakhlin (Russia) and Sudan and earned its first reven from the hydrocarbon business in Vietnam. l ONGC is currently ranked 369th on the fortune 500 list. Headquarter ONGC is headquartered in Dehradun. Present Management Mr. R. S. Sharma is the Chairman and Managing Director of the company. Products and Services offered

l ONGC’s diverse activities are handled through the holding company ONGC India and its two subsidiaries ONGC Videsh Limited (OVL) and Mangalore Refinery Pvt. Ltd (MRPL). l ONGC India offers a diversified range of petroleum by-products used mainly for industrial purpose. l ONGC Videsh Llimited (OVL), the company’s overseas arm is engaged is exploration and production acti outside the territorial boundaries of the country. l The company’s subsidiary MRPL produces refined petroleum and by-products used by industrial units and export purposes. 8. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL)

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Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd was formed in October, 2000. It is the largest telecommunication company in India providing comprehensive range of telecom services. BSNL is the largest fixed line service provider in the country having operations across India except Mumb and Delhi.

Headquarters BSNL is headquartered in New Delhi Present Management Mr. Kuldeep Goyal is the present Chairman and Managing Director of the company. Products/Services Offered BSNL offers a wide range of service to its customers. These include: l l l l l Fixed line telephony service Internet service, both Dial-up and Broadband Message carrier services VSAT and VOIP services Intelligent Network (I.N) services

9. Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL)

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Steel Authority of India Limited is the leading steel-making company in India. Incorporated on Jan 23, 19 Ranked amongst the top ten public sector companies in India in terms of turnover, SAIL is a fully integrat iron and steel maker. SAIL produces iron and steel at 5 steel plants located at Bhilai, Bokaro, Durgapur, Rourkela and Asansol Bengal). SAIL featured in 2005 list of Forbes Global 2000 ranked at 764th position.

Headquarter SAIL is headquartered in New Delhi Present Management Mr. S K Roongta is the present Chairman of the company Products offered A broad range of steel products is offered by the company. These include: l Hot and cold - rolled sheets and coils

there were forty-two rail systems in the country. power companies. Indian Railways l l l l l Indian Railway is owned by the GOI. Indian Railway in 1951. automobile companies. The Indian rail network is spread over a distance of 63. transpo over six billion of passengers and freight worth INR 750 million annually. engineering companies. engineering companies. defense industries and importers from other countries. Presently. It is one of the largest and busiest rail networks in the world. Stainless steel and other steel alloys. both the long distance and suburban rail systems in India are operated by the Indian Railways. Other Important Public Sector Undertaking’s (PSU’s) 1. Indian railways are divided into sixteen functional zones These are: Zone Northern Railway North Eastern Railway Eastern Railway South Eastern Railway South Central Railway Southern Railway Central Railway Western Railway Headquarter Delhi Gorakhpur Maligaon Kolkata Secunderabad Chennai Mumbai Mumbai . Railway Zones For administrative purposes.l l l l l Galvanised sheets. All the units were nationalised into a sin unit. Railway product. making it one of the largest rail networks in the world. Iron plates. Electrical sheets and structures. By the year 1947. II. Railways were introduced in India in 16th April 1853 when the first railway line between Bombay and Tha became operational. The company clientele include construction companies. bars and rods. operational on broad metre gauge and narr metre gauge (The Calcutta Metro is also owned and operated by Indian Railways). railways industry.140 km.

S.Khurana is the present Chairman of Indian Railways. Indian Railway also carries out its own production services. Notable Achievement of Indian Railways Some of the notable achievements of Indian railways are: l The Darjeeling Himalayan Railways. while ‘ib’ is the shortest name fo station and longest name is Sri Venkatanarasimharajauvaripeta. l ‘Kharagpur’ railway station has the largest railway platform in the World. Indian Railway also enjoys the distinction of being the world’s largest employer with more than 16 million employees. West Bengal Diesel Locomotive factory at Varanasi. Uttar Pradesh Integral coach factory at Perambur. S. Mr. government of India purchased a majority stake in Tata Airlines and the company was renamed . Diesel modernization works at Patiala. l In 1946. Tamil Nadu. Punjab. a subsidiary of Tata Sons Ltd by J. Ms. l Samjhauta Express and Thar express are two trains run by Indian Railway that connect India and Pakistan. Nilgiri Mountain Railway and Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus (railway in Mumbai) are all world heritage sites accredited by UNESCO. It owns six production units each headed by General Manager who reports to the Railways Board.South Western Railway North Western Railway West Central Railway North Central Railway South East Control Railway East Coast Railway East Control Railway Hubli Jaipur Jabalpur Allahabad Bilaspur Bhubaneswar Hajipur Railway Production Units In addition to its operation of trains. Present Management Presently. Mamata Banerjee is the Union Railway Minister of the Government of India.D. l ‘Lifeline Express’ is a hospital on wheels providing healthcare facilities to people in rural areas. These production units are: l l l l l l Chittaranjan Locomotive Works at Chittaranjan. 2.R. Air India l Air India was originally founded as Tata Airlines in 1932. Tata. Punjab Rail wheel factory at Yelahanka (near Bangalore) Karnataka. Rail coach factory at Kapurthala.

The airline operates its flight on all major international air routes and on some important domestic air routes. In 1994.l l l l Air-India International. The airline at present covers 42 destinations . backed by the Kingdom of Mysore to produce aircrafts in the country. Air India has recently started with “Air India Express”. . Thus. 3. Air-India International was registered on March 8. Aravind Jadhav is the present Chairman & MD of Air India. Ashok Nayak is the present Chairman of HAL. l This is the first public – private partnership in the area of defence avionics (aviation communication). Headquarters HAL is headquartered at Bangalore. Airbus 310’s. Present Management Mr. l The first military aircraft constructed in South Asia was built by HAL. Indian Airlines since 2007 has been amalgamated to be a part of Air India. l buyout helped the Britishers greatly during the second world war. l In 2006. the low cost variant of Air India. Present Management Mr. Headquarter The company is headquartered at Mumbai. the airline was renamed as Air India Limited. Fleet and Network At present Air India has 45 aircrafts which include Boeing 747’s. Air India is now an amalgamati Air India Limited and Indian Airlines. British government bought out the stake of Walchand Hirachand and some other promoters. did not sell its stake in the company. the company entered into a joint venture with Samtel for developing and manufacturing Avionics Display system. 1948 and inaugurated its international service on June 8 with a weekly flight between Mumbai and London.29 international air routes and 13 domestic air routes. Airbus 300’s and Boeing 777’s. In April 1942. The word ‘International’ was dropped by the company 1962. The kingdom of Mysore however. Karnataka. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) l Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) is a major aerospace company under the Ministry of Defence. the company was nationalize l 1944. The company acquired its present name in 1964. It wa established as Hindustan Aircraft in 1940 by Walchand Hirachand.

ii) Market for Private Vehicles The market for private Vehicles can be further classified on two basis. The major players in the market are Mahindra and Mahindra. In 2003. the total number of commercial vehicles grew by 20% and stood at 4025 thousand units. the performance of the commercial vehicle market reflects the overall performance of the economy. Tata and Hindustan Motors. The growth is expected to augment due to a rise in the industrial production and supportive government policies. Automobile Industry The automobile industry in India can be mainly classified on the basis of i) Market for Commercial Vehicles ii) Market for Private Vehicles i) Market for Commercial Vehicles The market for commercial vehicles is a linchpin in the Indian Industrial Sector and responsible for transportation of more than 60 percent of the total freight handled in the country. Ashok Leyland. The commercial vehicle industry has a cyclical nature of demand. Escorts.Products Offered Hindustan Aeronautics Limited is currently involved in the l l l l l l design assembly of aircrafts jet engines helicopters and their components and spares parts communication and navigation equipment HAL has collaboration with Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) to prod PRIVATE SECTOR COMPANIES I. the demand for commercial vehicles has been on a rise. a) Market for Two Wheelers The present market for two wheelers has witnessed rapid growth since the past four . As transportation is involved in every sector of the economy. because the demand is driven by a number of factors such as l l l l l l l industrial growth agricultural production increase in volumes of freight movement road use for freight movement change in freight prices fuel prices government policies Since 2001 – 02.

000. Jan 19. India.000. Headquarter Hero Honda Motors Limited is headquartered at New Delhi. l In 1959. The overall sales of two wheelers are expected to reach 11. Pawan Munjal is the Managing Director of Hero Honda Group.000 units in 2009–10. The total sales of two wheelers in India stood at 5. Hero Honda Motors Limited l l l l l Hero Honda Motors Limited started as a joint venture between Hero group and the Honda Motor Compan Japan in 1984. l It started with the sales of imported two and three wheelers in 1948. In 2000. Products Offered The product range offered by the company includes l Karizma l CD Deluxe l Glamour 2. l Splendor l Passion l Achiever l CD100 SS l Passion Plus l Hunk l Super Splendor l CD Dawn l CBZ Xtreme .years. In the year 1996. Hero Honda became the first company to serve the armed forces with its 100cc Motorcycles. The first motorcycle ‘CD 100’ was produced in 1985. Hero Honda Motors Limited is the single largest two wheeler manufacturer in the world.857.000 units in 2003 – 04. This has grown to 7. Key Players in the Market 1. Brij Mohan Lal Munjal is the present Chairman of the company while Mr. Bajaj Auto obtained license from Government of India to manufacture two and three wheelers. Present Management Mr. company’s brand ‘Splendor” was declared world’s number one largest selling single two wheeler model.548 units in 2006 – 07. Presently. The expected surge in rural demand will play a key role in steering the total demand for two wheelers. Bajaj Auto l Bajaj Auto started its business as M/s Bachraj Trading Corporation Limited in 1945 by Jamnalal Bajaj. The rapid growth in the past two years is attributable to a rise in l l l l l household/consumers income easy availability of finance growing replacement demand introduction of new models increasingly aggressive outlook of the key players.

The Institute of Driving Training and Re (IDTR) was started in 2000. Products Offered The product range offered by the company includes l CT100 l Avenger l Wind l Kawasaki Caliber l Discover l XCD 125 l Pulsar l Kawasaki Eliminator Headquarter Bajaj Auto is headquartered at Pune. incre exports. l At present. l The export of four wheelers from India is also growing at an increasing rate and is expected to grow by 21 percent per annum in the next four years. ambitious expansion plans by the major players of the sector and entry of foreign car manufacture domestic market. l Healthy growth in the disposable incomes of consumers. Maruti Alt Tata Indica topping the list. l As a part of the company’s corporate social responsibility (CSR).87 million in 2009 –10. Key Players in the Market 1. l The domestic sales are expected to grow annually at 12 per cent from 1.l Rahul Bajaj took charge of the business in 1965. l In 2002. b) Market for Four Wheelers l The four wheelers market in India is at present experiencing a boom owing to high domestic demand. Suzuki Motors Corporation increased its stake in Maruti to 54. Maharashtra. l Suzuki Motor Company (now Suzuki Motor Corporation of Japan) was chosen from seven prospective par worldwide and a joint venture agreement was signed between Government of India and Suzuki in October. Bajaj Auto is ranked as world’s fourth largest two and three wheelers manufacturer.06 million vehicles 2004 – 05 to ne 1. Under his leadership. the company tied up with Kawasaki Industries of Japan for technological collaboration and launched Kawasaki Bajaj KB 100 motorcycles. lower EMI’s owing to longer tenure and an impro distribution network will drive the growth in passenger cars and utility vehicles. jointly with Delhi Government to promote safe driving habits among people. Madhur Bajaj is the Vice Chairman of the Bajaj Group. Maruti Suzuki l Maruti Suzuki was established as Maruti Udyog Limited (MUL) in Feb 1981 through an Act of Parliament meet the growing demand for a personal mode of transport.2 percent and became the major stakeholder. Maruti Suzuki is the largest car manufacturer in India. Brands Offered The brands offered by Maruti are . Rahul Bajaj is the present Chairman and Mr. Present Management Mr. l The global export from India is dominated by the small car segment with Hyundai Santro Xing.

the IT industry has become one of the core business sectors of the economy. It achieved a significant milestone by rolling o fastest 300. Brand Offered The brands offered by Hyundai India are: l l l l Santro Xing Accent Elantra Tucson l l l l Getz Verna Embera i 10 Headquarter The company’s headquarters are located at New Delhi Present Management Mr. H.S.l l l l l l Maruti 800 Alto Versa Wagon R Baleno SX4 l l l l l l Omni Gypsy Zen Estilo Esteem Swift Grand Vitara Headquarter The company’s registered and corporate office is located at New Delhi and the workshop is located in Gurgaon. Lheem is the Managing Director of Hyundai Motor India Limited _______________________________________________________________________ ____ II. Bhargava is the chairman of Maruti Suzuki. South Korea. The company exports to over 65 countries globally and has recently ventured into the UK market.C. At present Hyundai Motors India limited is the second largest car manufacturer in India. Hyundai Motor India Limited (HMIL) l l l l l Hyundai Motor India Limited is a wholly owned subsidiary of Hyundai Motor Company. Shizno Nakanishi is the Managing Director & CEO and R. The Company has also been awarded ISO 1400 certification for its sustainable environment management practices. 2. Information Technology Industry l Post Liberalization. Haryana. Present Management Mr.000th export car. The year 2006 had been a significant year for the company. Th company started its operation in India in 1998 – 99. .

Key Players in the Market 1. Headquarter Infosys technologies is headquartered at Bangalore. l The recent findings of NASSCOM – Mc Kinsey report projects a further growth in the revenue of IT indus l It is expected to reach US $87 billion in 2008. Tata Consultancy Services (TCS). Infosys. through its subsidiaries. Apart from its core business area. In the year 1992. l l l l Tata Consultancy Services Limited is a Tata group company. 2.l The annual growth rate of India’s software exports has been consistently over 50 percent since 1991. it became the first Indian company to be listed on NASDAQ and attained SEI – CMM level 5 certification. US – a subsidiary of Infosys Technologies.complete range of IT products/service.6 billion during 2003 – 2004. The company operates nine development centres in India and has over 30 offices in 20 other nations. Today the company has its presence in 34 countries across 6 continents and offers a range of services to it clients.2 million jobs. Infosys Technologies was also responsible for the introduction of “Finacle”. operates in some other business interes well namely i) Progeon – Infosys offers business process outsourcing solution to the global clients through Progeon. by seven IT professionals. the software for Indian Bank iii) industry. Infosys l l l l l l Infosys Technologies Limited (NASDAQ: INFY) is an information technology (IT) company founded at P in 1981. S. R. l According to a report from Ministry of Communication and Information Technology. The main services provided by TCS are . Infosys became a public limited company in India. . In 1999. the company offers IT consulting to c across North America. The report also says that the growth in the IT industry would to creation of about 2. Present Management Mr. The ITeS – BPO ind has grown by about 54 per cent with exports earnings of US $3. l The government’s IT policy aims to use IT as a tool for raising the living standards of population based in areas by enhancing rural connectivity and increasing IT awareness. N. Gopalakrishnan is the Chairman and Managing Director. In 1987 the company set up its first international office in the US in Fremont. TCS commenced its operations in 1968. Narayan Murthy is the Chief Mentor and Chairman of BOD. consultancy services and outsourcing services. ii) Infosys Consulting Inc.

l In 1975. Wipro Technologies l Wipro was set up in 1945 as Western India Vegetable Products Limited with modest presence in Maharash and Madhya Pradesh.Ramadorai is the CEO and Managing Director of TCS. The diversification into IT happened for the company in 1980 when IT services were started in the domest l market. Growth in this sector is also likely to come from consumer upgradation to matured product categories like l processed food. Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) Market l The Indian FMCG sector is the fourth largest sector in the economy with a total market size in excess of US $13.4 billion in 2015.Headquarter The company’s corporate office is at Mumbai. l The size of the FMCG market is set to treble from US $11. l Wipro launched its hardware company in 1981. WIPRO became world’s PCMM level 5 company. WIPRO marketed India’s 1st homegrown PC. 3.6 billion in 2003 to US $33. Present Management Mr. l By 2010. l India is one of the largest emerging markets and the fourth largest economy in terms of purchasing power p with a strong middle class base. Key Players in The Market . In 2001. l Availability of key raw material and cheap labor costs gives India a competitive advantage. Azim Premji is the present Chairman of Wipro Technologies/Wipro Group. S. Ratan N Tata is the Chairman of the Tata Group and Mr. In 1982. the company’s name was changed to Wipro Limi it launched its software product subsidiary – Wipro Systems Limited in 1984. about 200 million people in India are expected to consume processed and packaged food. l The FMCG Industry has strong presence in the Indian Economy and is characterised by a well established distribution network. l In 2000 the company was listed on New York Stock Exchange (NYSE).1 billion. _______________________________________________________________________ ____ III. intense competition between the organised and unorganised segments and low produc costs. Present Management Mr. Headquarter Wipro Technologies is headquartered at Bangalore. which w require a large investment in the food processing industry. The large share of fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) in total individua spending clubbed with the large population base marks Indian as one of the largest FMCG markets.

CEO. . With it. l It was followed by setting up of Lever Brothers Limited in 1933 and United Traders Limited in 1935.1. l In 1931. ‘Dalda’ came to the Indian Market in 1937. l It is also one of the largest exporters in the country and has been recognised as Golden Super Star Trading by the Government of India. Unilever set up its Indian subsidiary by the name Hindustan Vanaspati Manufacturing Company. Vanaspati was launched in 1918. l At present. l The company was renamed from HLL to HUL in late Jun 2007 to provide the optimum balance and the fut benefits and synergies of global alignment with the corporate name of “Unilever”. Present Management Mr. l The three Companies were merged together in 1956 and Hindustan Lever Limited (HLL) was formed. Harish Manwani is the Present non – executive Chairman of the company and Nitin Paranjpe. Products Offered The various products offered by HLL are: Personal Care Lux Lifebouy Liril Hamam Breeze Dove Pears Rexona Fair and Lovely Pond’s Sunsilk Naturals Clinic Pepsodent Close-Up Bru Kwality Wall’s Laundry Surf Excel Rin Wheel Foods Lipton Kissan Knorr Annapurna Appliances Brooke Bond Hindustan Lever Limited has also come out with Pureit The world’s most advanced water purifier. Hindustan Unilever Limited (HUL) l In the summer of 1888. Headquarter Hindustan Unilever Limited has its headquarters at Mumbai. processed foods and Beverages. HUL is India’s largest FMCG company with its presence across varied product categories nam Home and Personal care. Lux and Vim. visitors to the Kolkata harbour noticed crates full of ‘Sunlight’ soap bars embossed the words “Made in England by Lever Brothers”. l In 1895 the company launched Lifebuoy and other famous brands like Pears. began the era of branded Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) in India.

The company ventured into the hotel busine 1975. It also offers a range of lifestyle products and stationery items. the company started its stationery business and also introduced “Wills Lifestyle” range of clothin It made an entry into the packaged foods business in 2001. Essenza De Wills. Chola Mandalam 3) Paperboard & Specialty Papers 4) Packaging 5) Agni Business 6) Information Technology . The company’s ownership was progressively Indianised and the name of the company was changed to IT Limited in 1974. Aim. C. Classmate. Y. c) Lifestyle Retailing – Will Lifestyle. Headquarter ITC Limited is headquartered at Kolkata Present Management Mr. John Players. the company has also marked its presence in hotel industry under tw brand names Welcome Group of Hotels and Sheraton Hotels. Deveshwar is the present Chairman of the company. Mint-O. Gold Flake. Candyman & Bingo. Fashioned. Vare Lit. with the launch of its brand “Kitchens of India 2002. Miss Players d) Personal Care – Farina Di Wills e) Stationery – Expression Greeting Cards. Regalia f) Safety Matches & Agarbattis – Ikon.Axe Vaseline Ayush Lakme 2.Maurya Sheraton. Products Offered Major Brands in various product offerings of company include: 1) FMCG a) Cigarettes – Insignia. Classic. Flake and etc. Delite 2) Hotels . 1910 under the name of ‘Imperial Tobacco Company of Ind Limited. Sunfeast. Capstan. Mangaldeep. The company’s packaging and printing business divisions were set up in 1925 to provide strategic suppor ITC’s cigarette business. b) Food Brands – Kitchens of India. the company launched “Aashirwad” brand of atta and subsequently in 2003 “Sunfeast” brand of bis was launched. India Kings. In 2000. Papercraft. ITC Limited l l l l l l l ITC Limited was incorporated on August 24. Apart from FMCG product offerings.

Vicks Action 500+ 2. Robert A. USA and the name was finally changed Proctor & Gamble. The urban teledensity is expected to cross 50 percent mark by 2009–10 and the rural teledensity would reac l double figures. . Home Production Ariel Tide Detergent and Bar Pantene Olay Joy Heads & Shoulders Pantene Rejoice Pampers _______________________________________________________________________ ____ IV. The total subscriber base in India is expected to grow to 490. Telecom Sector l According to a recent report by CRIS INFAC the Indian Telecom Sector is one of the fastest growing.3 percent. ‘Ariel’ brand of detergent was introduced. In 1964.2 million at the end of 2004 – 05 to 490. Vicks Cough Drops. India was established in 1951. In 1999. The mobile subscriber base is expected to grow from 52. Vicks Formula 44. Vicks Inhaler. In 1967. the pimple cream and subsequently in 1979. a public limited company. RHL introduced ‘CLEARASIL’. In 1991. In 1993. Headquarter P & G India is headquartered at Mumbai. Hygiene & Health Care Whisper. Wireless telephony services (Mobile & fixed wireless) until now account for almost the entire growth in th l sector. Vicks Vapor Rub.0 million suscribers by 2012 at a Compounded l Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 24. Richardson Hindustan Limited (RHL) was formed which obtained a li from the government to produce menthol oil and Vicks range of products. In 1985. high potential telecom markets in the world. Proctor and Gamble India started the marketi Old Spice brand of products. India in 1989. ‘VICKS ACTION was launched.0 m in 2011 – 12. RHL became an affiliate of Proctor & Gamble Company.3. Products Offered 1. Proctor and Gamble India (P & G) l l l l l l Proctor & Gamble started its operation in India when Vicks Product Inc. McDonald is Chairman & CEO of the Company. the name of the company was changed to Proctor & Gamble Hygiene and Health Care Limited.

is India’s leading private sector telecommunication service provider. both for fixed line and wireless services Increase in FDI limit for the sector Government policy of moving from fixed license regime to a revenue share regime Key players in the market 1.l The fixed line subscriber base is expected to grow from 45. Till now. a part of Bharti enterprises. The current telecom boom is likely to sustain itself in future because of many factors: l l l l l Low access charge Reduction in license fee Reduction in tariff rates. the largest telecom company of United Kingdom bought 10% stake in Bharti Tele-Ventures for US $1. Vodafone Essar Vodafone Essar previously known as Hutchison Essar. Headquarter Bharti Tele-Ventures Ltd. The telephone and internet services provided by the company are available in 15 circles. Headquarter Vodafone Essar is headquartered at Mumbai Present Management Mr. The business of Bharti Tele-Ventures has been structured into two main strategic business groups: i) Mobility business group ii) Infotel business group The Mobility Business Group provides GSM mobile services across India in 23 Telecom circles and the Infotel Business Group provides broadband and telephone (fixed line) services. brands its product as ‘Vodafone’. Bharti Tele-Ventures (AIRTEL) Bharti Tele-Ventures limited. Vodafone Essar is owned by Vodafone Group (52%). Essar Group (33%). . Asim Ghosh is CEO of Vodafone Essar and Mr.5 billion..4 million 2009 – 10. Sunil Bharti Mittal is the Chairman and Managing Director of the company. In 2005. and other Indian Nationals (15%). Vodafone Group Plc. is headquartered at New Delhi. Present Management Mr. Arun Sarin is the CEO of Vodafone Group. 2. it is the only company to operate in all 23 circles in India.9 million at the end of 2004–05 to 73.

Jaypee Rewa Cement Plant (JRCL) was set up and subsequently Jaiprakash Industries Limited (JI formed in 1986 by amalgamation of JAPL into JRCL. The company was set up by Shri Jayparakash Gaur in 1979. Jaypee Cement Ltd (JCL) was set up after a merger of JRCL and another Cement Plant Ja Bela Cement Plant (JBCP). he branched off on his ow Civil Contractor in 1958. l In the year 2000. ports and power sector. After his stint with the government of Uttar Pradesh. 2005. the further growth expected i sector would require investments to the tune of Rs.3. Infrastructure Sector l l l l l Infrastructure Development has begun to pick up over the past two years and is set to surge over the next fe years. . the group ventured into power sector and two New Companies – Jaiprakash Hydro Power Ltd. Present Management Mr. l In 1983. have made it easier and cheaper for companies to fund large projects. as Reliance Infrastructure Limited. 6. l The name has since been changed to its present name .196 billion over FY 2005 – 08. All these initiatives would translate into huge earnings for the construction companies.Reliance Communications Limited. According to a recent CMIE (Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy) report. 2 Headquarter Reliance Communications Limited is headquartered at Navi Mumbai. l Jaiprakash Associates Pvt. l In 1992. private participation in the sector. JIL was merged with JIL and Jaiprakash Associates Ltd. JHPL was lis both NSE and BSE and thereby became the first Hydropower Company to be listed on either BSE or NSE India. Jaiprakash Industries (Jaypee Group) l The Jaypee Group is a well diversified infrastructure company of India. Hotel Siddharth (New Delhi) and Hotel Vasant Continental (New Delhi) were set up. l In 2003. under a fresh Certificate of incorporation obtained from the government for the consequent change of name on June 7. The focus of the Public–Private partnership is on development of roads. Reliance Communications Limited (RCL) l Reliance Communications Limited was originally incorporated on July 15. l In 1980. (JAL) was formed in 2005. (JH and Jaiprakash Power Venture Ltd. Key Players in the Market 1. Driven by government initiatives. Anil Dhirubhai Ambani is the present chairman of the company _______________________________________________________________________ ____ V. l The status of the company was changed from private limited to public limited on July 25. 2004 under the Companies Act. (JPVL) were formed. innovative financing schemes and low interest rate on borrowing. Ltd (JAPL) was set up in 1979.

primari Gurgaon (NCR). Abhijit Ranjan is the Chairman and Managing Director of the Company. Offices. 4. l Under its present name the firm went public in 1962. . the company is now focusing on new business area The group has made significant investments in hotels. Present Management Shri Jaiprakash Gaur is the Present Chairman of the Group. Already a major player in locations across the country. l The company was established by Mr. Gammon India l Gammon India Limited is one of the leading construction companies in India.Headquarter Jaiprakash Industries is headquartered at New Delhi. DLF Group l l l l l The DLF Group founded in 1946 is a leading name in India’s real estate Industry. l Gammon India has to its credit the largest river bridge in the world across the river Ganges at Patna. It has been responsible for the development of various urban colonies and townships across India. JG Gammon in 1919 as a firm of civic engineers and contractor whic 1922 was incorporated as a private limited company. GMR Group l GMR Group is an infrastructure development company founded in 1978. 3. l Gammon India Limited is the only Indian construction company to have been accredited with ISO 9001 certification for all fields of civil engineering works. Headquarter DLF Group has its Corporate Office in New Delhi. Shopping Malls and Recreational Spaces like DLF Golf a Country Club. The Group’s existing ra business verticals spans across Homes. Headquarter The Company has its corporate office in Mumbai. infrastructure and Special Economic Zones (SEZ’s) DLF has also entered into a Joint Venture with Laing O’Rourke of UK to develop expressways and airpor the country. Present Management Mr. transportation and business in manufacturing. KP Singh is the present Chairman of the group. Present Management Mr. 2. the lar road bridge in India across the open sea in Mumbai and the first Cable stayed bridge in India. l The group today has major interests in energy.

the group also bagged the contract for restructuring and modernizing Delhi’s International A l jointly with FRAPORT (Frankfurt airport) Headquarter The company has its corporate office at Bangalore. chairman of Tata Sons. launched the famous Central India Spinning. locomotives. automobiles. director-in-charge of T Steel. Many years were spent in surveying the Ind terrain before the group hit gold in the remote coalfields of Bengal which had ore with rich iron content and continuous flow of water. Finally. as he was fondly referred his life. l In 1938. Rao is the founding chairman of the GMR Group. health and hygiene and creation of liveli through empowerment of local communities.Bharat Ratna. In early 2006. banking. hotels and eventually information technology. twice as large as the Koh-i-noor and estimated 1 crore–into a trust for the advancement of learning and research. JRD. 1904. in Bihar (present day Jharkhand). in 1945. Just be India’s Independence. laying the foundation of what now exists as Tata Group. Major Business Groups 1. Milestones . G. Tata Group l Born in a Parsi family in 1839. saw Jamsetji’s projects through to the stage of accomplishm Sir Dorabji always believed that wealth must be put to constructive use.As a part of group’s corporate social responsibility initiative. electric power. GMR Varalakshmi foundation (GMRVF) wa l established in 1991 with focus on education. arrived at group headquarters. l Sir Dorabji Tata. In 1868. in 1992– the rare instances when the award was granted during a person’s lifetime. the relief of distress and other charitable purposes. in 1925. Present Management Mr. JRD Tata was catapulted to be th of India’s largest industrial empire. l For these endeavors. insurance. he sta private trading firm with a capital of Rs. l His travels in the Far East and Europe created a strong desire in him to manufacture cotton goods. l Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhoy Tata (JRD) was born in Paris on July 29. M. l JRD’s passion for flying was fulfilled with the formation of the Tata Aviation Service back in 1932.21000. Towards the end of his career in 19 put all his wealth–including the 245-carat Jubilee Diamond. Bombay House to work under John Peterson. Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata came to Bombay at the age of 14. l Jamsetji had got the approval for building a steel plant in 1895. _______________________________________________________________________ ____ VI. The Tata Iron and Steel Company was founded in 1907 at Jamshedpur. JRD Tata was awarded the country’s highest civilian honour . Weaving and Manufacturing company in 1874 marking the gr entry into Textiles. community services. Tata Steel promoted the Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company (Telco the objective of making locomotives for the Indian Railways. l The group later moved in to steel. aided by his cousin RD Tata. after the death of Sir Nowroji Saklatvala.

Weaving and Manufacturing Company is establish The Indian Hotels Company is established to run a chain of hotels in India. The Tata entered consumer goods. was nationalise . Voltas is established. Tata Chemicals. a division of Tata Sons. the Tata Hydro-Electric power Supply Company. Tata Indica. The birth of the Tata Iron and Steel Company heralds India’s entry into the steel age. is established. developed and manufactured car is launched. India’s major marketing. Central India Spinning. engineering and manufacturing organisation. The new Tata Group corporate mark and logo are launched. It is now one of the country’s leading. is creat The Indian Institute of Science is established in Bangalore. India’s first indigenously designed. Titan Industries – a joint venture between the Tata Group and the Tamil Nadu Industrial Development Corporation (TIDCO) – is set up to manufacture watches. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company is created to publish educational and technical books. detergents and cooking oils. integrated commercial printer. The foundation of the Tata empire is laid. Tata-AIG – a joint venture between the Tata Group and American International Group Inc (AIG) – mar Tata’s re-entry into insurance. (The Group’s insurance company New India Assurance.. Tata Finlay (now Tata Tea).1868 : 1874 : 1902 : 1907 : 1910 : 1911 : 1917 : 1931 : 1932 : 1939 : 1945 : 1952 : 1954 : 1962 : 1968 : 1970 : 1984 : 1996 : 1998 : 1999 : 2000 : 2001 : Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata starts a private trading firm. UK. Tata Teleservices (TTSL) is established to spearhead the Group’s foray into the telecom sector. The first Indian textile mill. Tata Eco Consultancy Services is set up. is established. as The Tata Oil Mills Company starts making soaps. Tata Press is born. now the largest producer of soda ash in the country. Tata Consultancy Services is formed. The first of the three Tata electric companies. Tata Tea acquires Tetley Group. Tata Airlines. a division of Tata Sons. The Tata Engineering and locomotive Company is set up to manufacture commercial vehicles Lakme is established. is established. one of the largest tea producers.

2005 Tata Steel acquires Singapore-based steel company NatSteel by subscribing to 100 per cent equity of it : subsidiary. launches three new products. cumulatively valued at USD 12. Tata Motors launches City Rover – Indic : fashioned for the European market. 2003 Tata BP Solar inaugurates plant. Headquarter The Tata Group’s holding company has its headquarters at Mumbai. Maharashtra.1956). NatSteel Asia. Present Management Mr. The Tata Group Executive Office (GEO) is set up to design and implement change in the Tata G and to provide long-term direction. per : in an all cash deal. 2007 Tata Steel. This deal was also the biggest acquisitio any Indian company till date.04 Billion. Engineering Services/Products TAL Manufacturing Solutions Power Chemicals Communication IT Nelito Systems Consumer Products Services Gl Oper Tata BP Rallies India Solar India Tata Sky Tata Teleservices Tatanet VSNL Tata AutoComp Tata Tata power System Chemicals Tata Holset Tata Motors Tata Pigments Technolgies Tata Projects TCE Consulting Engineers Telco Construction Equipment Co. offered to purchase 100% stake in the Corus Group at 608 p. part of India’s Tata Group. Ratan Tata is the present Chairman of the group. TRF Tata Indian Hotels T McGrawhill (Taj Group) Enterp publishing Taj Housing Development T SerWizSol Tata Tea Corporation Incorp (THDC) Financial T Tata Elxsi Trent Services Intern T Tata Tata Intern Technolgies Ceramics A Tata Tata AIG Consultancy Titan General Tata L Services Industries Insurance (TCS) Tata Tata AIG Life Tata P Interactive Insurance L Systems Tata Asset Management Tata Financial Services Tata .

They became prominent leaders of the Marwari community of Calcutta and held sway in business communities throughout India. automobile tyre. For their outstanding contribution to the Indian business and community services. jute and tea. By the end of 1970s.Voltas Tata Steel Tata Investment Corporation Other Services Tata Quality Management Services Tata Services Tata Strategic Management Group.RPG Group The RPG Group’s business origin can be traced to 1820. Sir Badridas Goenka played an important role in public life and national politics. Along with his brothers and sons. in Rajasthan. he had acquired substantial interests in tea. he promoted three companies in the automobile tyre industry namely Phillips Carbon Black and acquired several others. the Reserve Bank of India. In 1933. embarked on a course of expansion and diversification at an escalating tempo. . Like his father. he became the first Indian to be appointed Chairman of the Imperial Bank of India. the British conferred Knighthood on Sir Hariram Goenka and Sir Badridas Goenka. a position later held by his son Rama Prasad Goenka. he was elected President of the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI). when he progressively retired leaving the management of his business to his three sons. arrived in Calcutta from Dundlod. he played an active role in public life. In the early 1960s. The successful streak of entrepreneurship continued with Keshav Prasad Goenka. cotton textile and electric cables. his business had expanded rapidly with significant diversification in banking. now known as the State Bank of India. he acquired several profitable agencies. jute. Duncan Brothers and Octavius Steel. In 1945. India. to do business with the British East India Company. Keshav Prasad Goenka acquired the two British trading houses. son of Sir Badridas Goenka. when Mr. He managed to steer his companies through the pre-independence and post-independence era and in the 1950s. textiles. He held the position of President of FICCI in 1965. better known as RP Goenka. By the turn of the twentieth century. and became a director of India’s central bank. Group Companies 2. The Goenka’s . Ramdutt Goenka.

2001 : ‘Giant’ hypermarkets is established.. Maharashtra. Harsh Goenka is the present Chairman of the group and Mr.) is acquired 1988 : HMV (His Master’s Voice) is acquired. (ICIL) becomes Zensar Technologies Ltd. 1989 : Harrisons Malayalam Ltd. Present Management Mr. 1995 : RPG Cellular commences its operations. 2000 : International Computers India Ltd.65 billion). this takeover specialist acquired KEC (1982). 1999 : Searle India becomes RPG Life Sciences. HMV (1988). Dunlop (1984). 1996 : RPG Netcom is established. RP Goenka..In 1979. Searle India (1983. From owning four companies.7000 crore turnover mark reaching Rs. Harrisons Malayalam. Mr. led the group to what it is today: a Rs 7. RP Goenka excelled in buying and selling companies. he entrusted the management of the group to his two sons. Asian Cables.CESC. His first purchase was CEAT Tyres of India in 1981. with more than 20 companies in 7 different business sectors. Harsh and Sanjiv Goenka. Sanjiv Goenka is the Vice Chairman of the group.472 crore company (US$ 1. Spencer’s CESC Ltd. Spencer & Co. Raychem RPG (formerly Raychem Corporation) and Zensar Technologies (formerly ICIL) are acquired. Agarpara Jute and Murphy (India) 1983 : RPG Life Sciences (formerly Searle India) is acquired. a Rs. In the 1980s. 2003 : RPG crosses the Rs. In 1990. Milestones 1979 : Inception of RPG Enterprises by Mr RP Goenka. 1997 : MusicWorld and Health and Glow are formed. Asian Cables. Harsh Goenka Chairman and Sanjiv Goenka Vice-Chairman of RPG Enterprises. With razor sharp business instincts. Headquarter The group is headquartered at Mumbai. and ICIM. 1985 : Saregama India (formerly the Gramophone of India Ltd. later renamed RPG Life Sciences). the fortune owned by Keshav Prasad Goenka was shared amongst his three sons. .7472 crore in sales. 700 million group. Phillips Carbon Black. with a turnover of Rs 75 crore. and finally in 1989. RP Goenka became Chairman Emeritus. which comprises Phillips Carbon Black. R P Goenka is the Chairman Emeritus. Agarpara Jute and Murphy India. Foodworld is established.

Noida Power Company Tyres : CEAT Ltd.. Founded in 1926. Spencer’s. insurance. RPG Transmission 3. is ranked as the world’s fourth largest two and three wheeler manufacturer and the Bajaj brand is well-known in over a dozen countries in Europe. travel and finance. spanning automobiles (two-wheelers and three-wheelers). iron and steel. HamaraCD Power Transmission : CESC Ltd. Bajaj Auto. Bajaj Group The Bajaj Group is amongst the top 10 business houses in India. Phillips Carbon Black Ltd. home appliances. Musicworld. Hypermarkets Technology : Zensar Technology. at the height of India’s movement for independence from the British. lighting.RPG Group Companies Retail : Foodworld.. The integrity. Latin America. resourcefulness and determination to succeed which are characteristic of the group today. Its footprint stretches over a wide range of industries. can be traced back . Nitel. the US and Asia. RPG Cables. dedication. The group’s flagship company. CEAT Kelani. RPG Life Sciences Entertainment : Saregama HMV. Speciality : Raychem RPG. the group has an illustrious history. Transmission : KEC International.

In fact. the turnover of the Bajaj Auto. He is one of India’s most distinguished business leaders and is internationally respected for his business acumen and entrepreneurial spirit. He was the first to put the Indian business on the world map. that he was able to give his full attention to the business. This close relationship and his deep involvement in the independence movement did not leave Jamnalal Bajaj with much time to spend on his newly launched business venture. Bajaj Hindustan Ltd. Bajaj Auto Holdings Ltd. Jeevan Ltd. the flagship company.16 billion (USD 936 million) and its product portfolio has expanded and the brand has found a global market. Aditya Birla Group A formidable force in the Indian industry. Ltd. 4. His son. Ltd. founder of the group. Under his leadership. but also diversified into various manufacturing activities. . The Hindustan Housing Co. took charge of the business in 1965. Bajaj Auto finance Ltd. Bachraj Factories Pvt. long before globalization became a buzzword in India. Ltd. Bajaj Electricals Ltd. Ltd. Bachraj & Company Pvt. Kamalnayan Bajaj. Bajaj Allianz Life Insurance Company Ltd. took over the reins of business in 1942. Mukand International Ltd. Ltd. Ltd. Ltd Bajaj Consumer Care Ltd. as far back as 1969. Hind lamps its birth during those days of relentless devotion to a common cause. Mr Aditya Birla dared to dream of setting up a global business empire at the age of 24. Kamalnayan Bajaj not only consolidated the group. Bajaj Sevashram Pvt. Bajaj Allianz General Insurance Company Bajaj Ventures Ltd. Hercules Hoists Ltd. Ltd. Jamnalal Bajaj. has gone up from INR 72 million to INR 46. was a close confidant and disciple of Mahatma Gandhi. Bajaj Group Companies Bajaj Auto Ltd. Hind Musafir Agency Pvt. globalisation meant more than just geographic reach. Ltd. Stainless India Ltd. Bombay Forgings Ltd. Interestingly. Mukand Global Finance Ltd. Jamnalal Sons Pvt. Maharashtra Scooters Ltd. then 27. Gandhiji had adopted him as his son. Present Management The present Chairman and Managing Director of the group. He too was close to Gandhiji and it was only after Independence in 1947. Maharashtra. Baroda Industries Pvt. Rahul Bajaj. Bajaj Internatinal Pvt. Headquarter Bajaj group is headquartered at Pune. for Mr Aditya Birla.

In India they attained the status of the largest single producer of viscose filament yarn. 2000 l Indian Rayon acquires Madura Garments and selected overseas brand rights. starts the Eastern Spinning Mills & Indu : 1966 The Indian Rayon Corporation Ltd. The Indal board is reconstituted. The Group holding goes up to 74. the lowest cost producers in the world and the only producer of line in the textile industry in India. sets up the first Birla jute mill. is acquired. . with Lawson Software (USA).6 percent. grandson of the legendary Ghanshyamdas Birla. the Institute of Management Learning of the Aditya Birla Group. the largest refiner of palm oil. grey cement and rayon grade pulp. his companies rose to be the world’s largest producer of viscose staple fibre. : 1947 Grasim is incorporated. Mr Kumar Mangalam Birla becomes Inda chairman. Birla Software and Consultancy Services (BCSS). : 1990 Mr Kumar Mangalam Birla gets actively involved in the Group’s operations. l ‘Gyanodaya’. l The Group forays into e-business through a strategic alliance of its software arm. Rajasthan. grandson of Shiv Narayan Birla. he single-mindedly drove to put together the building blocks to make his Indian business a global force. back in his home-territory. as part of the overall restruct : of the Group’s financial services business. Therefore. Allen Solly and Peter England. Milestones 1857 The foundation of the Birla Group of Companies is laid by Seth Shiv Narayan Birla–cotton trading ope : commence at Pilani. The group is also the largest producer of aluminium in the private sector. Under his stewardship. : 1995 The group enters the telecommunications sector through a joint venture with AT & T (USA) : 1996 All group companies are consolidated under the umbrella of the Aditya Birla Group. led by Mr. Indian Rayon acquires major world rights for international apparel brands Loui Philippe. 1999 A joint venture with financial services major Sun Life of Canada is inked. : 1965 Aditya Birla. U : 1986 The Birla Growth Fund is set up.He believed that a business could be global even whilst being based in India. is inaugurated. apart from being a producer of cement. the third largest producer of insulators and the sixth largest producer of carbon black. l The Insurance Regulatory Development Authority (IRDA) grants registration in principle to Birla Su Insurance Company. taking the Group to the : the league in the branded apparels sector. Kumar : Mangalam Birla. and further increases to 96 per cent in FY’03. 1919 Ghanshyam Das Birla. l Hindalco acquires Indal. : 1985 India’s first gas-based fertiliser plant in the private sector – Indo Gulf – goes on stream at Jagdishpur. : 1958 Hindalco is incorporated.

Group’s annual revenues are in excess of USD 27 billion. Aditya Birla Nuvo Ltd. petrochemicals (polyester. The Group exports products in excess of USD 15 billion to more than 100 countries in the world. Completion of the : implementation process to de-merge the cement business of L&T and completion of open offer by Gra with the latter acquiring controlling stake in the newly formed company UltraTech. 5. Reliance enjoys global leadership in its businesses. Group Companies Group Companies Grasim Industries Ltd. The group is spearheaded by Grasim. Birla NGK Insulators Bihar Caustic and Chemicals Ltd. founded by Dhirubhai H. Tanfac Industries Ltd. with businesses in the energy and materials value chain. plastics and chemicals). Indian Rayon. Kumar Mangalam Birla is the present Chairman of the group. Present Management Mr.l The Group announces its intention to launch a 450 MW ‘Green Power Project’ in Karnataka. Shree Digvijay Cement Ltd. The flagship company. fibre intermediates. Kumar Mangalam Birla taking over as Chairman. Hindalco Industries Ltd. Ambani (1932-2002). Ultra Tech Cement Ltd. petroleum refining and marketing. Indian Companies Joint Ventures PSI Data Systems Birla Sun Life Insurance TransWorks Birla Sun Life Asset Management Company Ltd Essel Mining & Industries Ltd. is India’s largest private sector enterprise. Reliance Industries Limited (Mukesh Ambani) The Reliance Group. textiles and retail. being the largest polyester yarn and fibre producer in the world and among the top five to ten producers in the world in major petrochemical products. and Indo Gulf Fertilisers. . There are more than 25. Hindalco. Major Group Companies are Reliance Industries Limited (including main subsidiaries Reliance Petroleum Limited and Reliance Retail Limited) and Reliance Industrial Infrastructure Limited. l The merger of Birla AT&T and Tata Cellular is completed to form IDEA. Maharashtra. Idea Cellular Ltd. is a Fortune Global 500 company and is the largest private sector company in India. Headquarter The group is headquartered at Mumbai. Reliance Industries Limited.000 employees on the rolls of Group Companies. The Group’s activities span exploration and production of oil and gas. Under his leadership the group has not only sustained existing empire but is also prospering to new heights. 2004 Board reconstituted with Mr. Birla Sun Life Distribution Company Ltd.

l Reliance’s refinery at Jamnagar was ranked best in Shell Benchmarking for the third consecutive ye ‘Energy and Loss’ performance from amongst 50 refineries worldwide.India’s largest public offering . S& rated BB+. 1993 : Reliance Petroleum Limited public issue . a new model of bu leadership from a base of the broadcast public shareholding. l BSES. Europe. 1995 : Net profit crossed the Rs 1.Reliance Industries became the largest private sector company in India on all majo financial parameters including sales.000 crore mark (Rs 1. University of Pennsylvani for setting an outstanding example of leadership. unparalleled in the I Private sector. profits. Moody’s rated Baa3. Infocomm revolution will cover thousands of villages and hundreds of cities across the country. a multinational telecom company providing bandwidt through its undersea cable network comprising of over 50. l Reliance acquired control of Indian Petrochemicals Corporation Limited (IPCL) . l The merger of Reliance Petroleum Limited with Reliance Industries Limited was announced . transmission a distribution of electricity becomes part of the Reliance Group and Mr. 1996First corporate in Asia to issue 50 and 100 years bond in US debt market. l Reliance strikes oil in an onshore block in Yemen. Investment gra constrained by the Sovereign Ceilings.beginning with Gujarat. Reliance pioneered the first ever Euro Convertible Bond issue by an Indian company.065 crores or US$ 338 million). Anil D Ambani is appointed i Chairman 2004 : l Reliance Industries Limited (RIL) emerged as the ‘Petrochemicals Company of the Year’ at the pres . assets. Middle East and the USA. The in place volume of natural gas is in excess of 7 trillion cub equivalent to about 1. 1994 : Reliance offered the second Euro issue of GDR. stable outlook. engaged in the generation. 2002 : l Reliance Infocomm to launch various telecom services on 28th December .2 billion barrels of crude oil. Rel Infocomm will become a major catalyst for changing the face of India and improving the quality of Indians. l Reliance announced India’s biggest gas discovery in nearly three decades and one of the largest gas discoveries in the world during 2002. 2001 : Reliance Industries Ltd. one of the premier utility companies of the country. where it has an equity oil position. and exports. 97: Reliance became the first private sector company to be rated by international credit rating agencies. became India’s two largest companies in terms o major financial parameters Dhirubhai Ambani was conferred The Economic Times Award for Corporate Excellence for Lifetime Achievement. 1998 : Dhirubhai Ambani was awarded the Dean’s Medal by the Wharton School.Milestones 1977 : Reliance went Public with IPO – Dhirubhai Ambani introduced equity cult in India. constrained by the Sovereign Ceiling. This is the first ever discovery by an Indian priva sector company. net worth. and Reliance Petroleum Ltd.India’s second lar petrochemicals company. 2003 : l Reliance Infocomm acquires FLAG Telecom.larges merger in India .000 kms of undersea fiber optic cable that four continents and connects the key regions of Asia. 1992 : Reliance raised funds by pioneering foray into overseas capital markets with first ever international GD offering by an Indian corporate.

. l Reliance Retail entered the organised retail market in India with the launch of its convenience store under the brand name of ‘Reliance Fresh’. Mumbai Present Management Chairman & Managing Director – Mukesh Ambani 6. l Reliance Industries emerged as the first and only private sector company from India to feature in the Fortune Global 500 list of World’s Largest Corporations. USA l The European Commission approved the acquisition of the German specialty polyester manufacture ‘Trevira’ by Reliance. 2007 : l RIL completes a landmark acquisition of IPCL. and ranks among the top 3 private sector financial services and banking companies. Headquaters RIL is headquatered at Nariman Point.sixth annual Platts Global Energy Awards ceremony in New York. l RIL became the first private sector company in India to record a net profit of US dollar of over 1 bil 2006 : Reliance becomes India’s first private sector enterprise to cross US$2 billion profit mark. Reliance ADA Group Reliance Capital Reliance Capital is one of India’s leading and fastest growing private sector financial services companies. l Reliance announced it had struck gas off the Orissa Coast in the Bay of Bengal. in terms of net worth.

sales. at affordable prices. Reliance Energy Limited Reliance Energy Limited. BIG 92. Reliance Entertainment’s core focus is to build significant presence for Reliance in the Entertainment eco-system: across content and distribution platforms. Reliance Communications Limited The flagship company of the Reliance – ADA Group.big927fm. profits and market capitalization. life and general insurance. production. is the realisation of their founder’s dream of bringing about a digital revolution that will provide every Indian with affordable means of communication and a ready access to information. The company began operations in 1999 and has over 20 million subscribers today. It ranks among India’s top listed private companies on all major financial parameters. Reliance Health In a country where healthcare is fast becoming a booming industry. which has interests in film processing. broadband. one of the largest entertainment companies in India. data services and a wide range of value added services and applications aimed at enhancing the productivity of enterprises and individuals. Reliance ADA Group acquired Adlabs Films Limited in 2005. Health care Delivery and Integrated Health. is a fully integrated utility engaged in the generation. Reliance Media & Entertainment As part of the Reliance . Sports. Internet & mobile portals. including assets.7 FM is already India’s largest private FM radio network with 12 radio stations across the country as on 28th February 2007. It is India’s foremost private sector utility with aggregate estimated revenues of Rs 9. transmission and distribution of electricity. Reliance Health is a focused healthcare services company enabling the provision of solution to Indians. It offers a complete range of integrated telecom services.The company has interests in asset management and mutual funds. DTH and Mobile TV.It also plans to venture into diversified fields like Insurance Administration. private equity and proprietary investments. with many more to be launched in the coming months. . national and international long distance services. Reliance Entertainment has made an entry into the FM Radio business through Adlabs Radio www. exhibition & digital cinema. Music. Reliance Communications Limited.700 crore (US$ 2. These include mobile and fixed line telephony. The company aims at providing integrated health services that will compete with the best in the world. leading to direct opportunities in delivery across the emerging digital distribution platforms: digital cinema.ADA Group.1 billion) and total assets of Rs 10. The key content initiative are across Movies.4 billion). Health Informatics and Information Management and Consumer Health. incorporated in 1929.500 crore (US$ 2. Gaming. Reliance Entertainment is spearheading the Group’s foray into the media and entertainment space. stock broking and other activities in financial services. Having won 45 stations in the recent bidding.

l It made strategic acquisitions of plants in China and the United Kingdom. Its global subsidiaries include Mahindra Europe Srl. l Mahindra & Mahindra rapidly grew from being a maker of army vehicles to a major automobile and tractor manufacturer with a growing global appetite. M&M had become the largest producer of SUVs in India. l The company was set up in 1945 as Mahindra & Mohammed. trade and finance related ser as well as infrastructure development. Russia and several other countries in Africa. The com expanded to indigenous manufacture of Jeep vehicles with a high level of local content under license from Jeep and later American Motors (AMC). Asia. information technology. based in Italy. l Real business activity of M&M began by assembling complete knock down (CKD) Jeeps in 1949. farm equipment. USA. Ma South Africa and Mahindra (China) Tractor Co. Ltd. l M&M is the third largest tractor company in the world. Nissan and Internation Truck and Engine Corporation. l M&M’s Automotive Sector makes a wide rage of vehicles including MUVs. It is the flagship strategic business u the Mahindra Group. develops. M&M has partnerships with international companies like Renault SA. the Mahindra Systems and Automotive Technologies (MSAT). France. Mr. The company is a market leader in the Utility Vehicle segment.Headquater The company has its headquarter in Mumbai Present Management Shri Anil D Ambani is the chairman of Reliance ADAG. l By 2005. manufactures and markets tractors as farm implements. It expanded its operations to secure a significant presence in many more important sectors. to focus on developing components offering engineering services. LCVs and three wheelers. l M&M made its entry into the passenger car segment with Logan in April 2007 under the Mahindra Renault l M&M will make its maiden entry into the heavy trucks segment with Mahindra International. l The company has now transformed itself into a group of business units that caters to the Indian and oversea markets with a presence in vehicles. Europe Latin America. M& the largest manufacturer of MUVs. offering over 20 models including new generation multi-utility vehicles the Scorpio and the Bolero. l M&M soon branched out into manufacturing agricultural tractors and light commercial vehicles (LCVs). after the partition of India. Headquater The company is headquatered in Mumbai . Mahindra & Mahindra l Mahindra & Mahindra Limited (M&M) is a major automaker in India. l M&M’s products are being exported to the USA. USA. the joint vent with International Truck. The company has recently started a sep sector. Gulam Mohammed migrated to Pakistan and became that nation’s first finance minister. It designs. Mahindra USA Inc. It is also the largest manufacturer of tractors in Indi sustained market leadership of around 24 years. 7.. and has three assembly plants in USA. l The company first traded steel with suppliers in England and the United States. Later.

FICCI inspired economic nationalism as a political tool to fight against discriminatory economic policies. FICCI maintains the lead as the proactive business solution provider through research. on the advice of Mahatma Gandhi. Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) The Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) works to create and sustain an environment conducive to the growth of industries in India. always chasing newer agendas. Hari S.Present Management Keshub Mahindra is Chairman and Anand G. Mariwala . Venu Srinivasan – President. Harsh Pati Singhania . FICCI espouses the shared vision of Indian businesses and speaks directly and indirectly for over 2. playing a proactive role in India’s development process. not-for-profit. Its history is very closely interwoven with the freedom movement. drive and mission continue in the ever-changing economic landscape of India. distributive trade and services.Vice President 2. Bhartia – Vice President.000 companies from around 362 national and regional sectoral associations. industry-led and industry-managed organisation. National Association of Software and Service Companies (NASSCOM) .President Mr. CII 3. including SMEs and MNCs and indirect membership of over 90. It has an expanding direct membership of enterprises drawn from large. with a direct membership of over 7000 organisations from the private as well as public sectors. Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) Set up in 1927. medium. partnering industry and government alike through advisory and consultative processes. CII is a non-government. Founded over 112 years ago. interactions at the highest political level and global networking. IMPORTANT GOVERNING INSTITUTIONS 1. With a nationwide membership of over 1500 corporates and over 500 chambers of commerce and business associations. small and tiny segments of manufacturing.Sr.Mahindra is the Vice-Chairman & Managing Director. FICCI is the largest and oldest apex business organization of Indian business. That commitment. Rajan Bharati Mittal .50. it is India’s premier business association. Harsh C. Headquarter CII is headquartered at New Delhi Present Management Mr. Headquarter FICCI is headquartered at New Delhi Present Management Mr.000 business units. Vice President Mr. CII Mr.

NASSCOM Mr. It is a not-for-profit organization. Som Mittal – President. Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI) Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is a board (autonomous body) created by the Government of India in 1988 and given statutory form in 1992 under the SEBI Act 1992. The organisation represents the interests of trade and commerce in India. ASSOCHAM Rajkumar Dhoot. Headquarter SEBI is headquartered at Mumbai. President. it conducts enquiries and enforcement action in its executive function and it passes rulings and orders in its judicial capacity.g. NASSCOM is a global trade body with over 1200 members. and liaisoning with their international counterparts to promote trade between India and other nations. 1860. and interacting with the Government of India on policy issues.000 companies across the country. ASSOCHAM Dilip Modi. software services. It drafts rules in its legislative capacity. Though it has pushed systemic reforms aggressively and successively (e.National Association of Software and Service Companies (NASSCOM) is the premier trade body and the chamber of commerce of the IT software and services industry in India. NASSCOM’s member companies are in the business of software development. Japan and China. the quick movement towards making the markets electronic and paperless). Harsh Mangalik – Vice Chairman. Established in 1920. SEBI has had a mixed history in terms of its success as a regulator. of which over 250 are global companies from the US. judicial and executive. NASSCOM Mr. UK. SEBI has three functions rolled into one body: legislative. Present Management . NASSCOM was set up in 1988 to facilitate business and trade in software and services and to encourage advancement of research in software technology. ASSOCHAM The Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM) is the premiere body of chamber of commerce in India. Vice President. ASSOCHAM 5. Vice President. it currently has a membership of over 200. Headquarter NASSCOM has its headquarters at New Delhi Present Management Mr. EU. it seems to lack the legal expertise needed to sustain prosecutions/enforcement actions. registered under the Indian Societies Act. Pramod Bhasin – Chairman. Present Management Swati Piramal. software products and IT-enabled Services/BPO services. NASSCOM 4.

l Examining domestic agricultural market structures. Conducting. Krishna – Joint Secretary – CM 6. SEBI Dr. National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER) It was established in 1956 as a non-governmental body in Delhi to assist government. It was established on March 15.President.Mr. and analysing surveys that illuminate public policy issues as well as assist private s l decisions l Disseminating research findings Headquarter NCAER is headquartered at New Delhi. K. linkages between agricultural price policy poverty. Vijay L. The council encourages research on Indian themes using Indian data. under the chairmanship of KC Neogy.P. and. Headquarter Finance Commission is headquartered at New Delhi.Chairman. The Prime Minister of India is the ex-officio Chairman of Planning Commission. It is the duty of the Commission to make recommendations to the President as to: l l The distribution between the Union and the States of the Net proceeds of Taxes which are to be. the role of the Panchayats in fostering sustainable development. 280 by a Presidential Order dated November 22. designing. Bhave – Chairman. price policy. or may b divided between them under this Chapter and the allocation between the States of the respective shares of proceeds The principles which should govern the grants-in-aid of the revenues of the States out of the Consolidated of India. Its major activities include: l Developing policy reports for clients.B. NCAER Mr. Nandan Nilekani . 1951.S. NCAE THE PLANNING COMMISSION The Planning Commission is the supreme organ for planning social and economic development in India. Kelkar . civil society and the private sector to make informed policy choices. Finance Commision 7. Finance Commission The First Finance Commission was constituted under Art. 1950. Present Management Mr. C. The committee members also . Verma – Vice President. l Tracking key sectors of the economy for subscribers and forecasting the economic outlook. M. Present Management Mr.

Science and General Administration. The First Five Year plan was implemented in 1951. Five Year Plans The Indian Economy is based on the concept of planning. l Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) – The plan focussed on policies and programmes to increase domestic industrial productivity. executed and monitored by the Planning Commission. l Fifth Five Year Plan (1974-79) – The fifth five year plan aimed at removal of poverty. making the commission the biggest employer of the Indian Economic Services. l Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-07) – This plan has adopted an aggressive approach. l Three Annual Plans (1966-69) l Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-74) – The objectives of the fourth plan were to achieve self-reliance. l Second Five Year Plan (1956-61) – The second plan aimed at a pattern of development leading to a ‘socia society’ framework for the economy. developed. The Tenth plan is currently underway. l Third Five Year Plan (1961-66) – The third plan aimed at achieving the goals enlisted in the first two plan also aimed at achieving self-sufficiency in foodgrains. while the full-time members are experts from various fields like Economics. The commission works through the following divisions l l l General Planning Divisions Special Planning Divisions Programme Administration Divisions The majority of experts in the commission are economists. Industry. employment oppurtunities. The Cabinet Ministers with certain important portfolios act as part-time members of the Commission. reduce the poverty ratio to 20 per cent. 859000 crore. and giv priority to agriculture. This is carried through the fiveyear plans. promote industrial production and exports. increase employment oppurtunities and expand basic heavy industries.2 per cent and ra the per capita income by 3. who is the de-facto executive head of the Commission and enjoys the rank of a Cabinet Minister. l Annual Plans 1990-92 l Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) – The plan aimed at achieving a higher outlay of public sector enterprise meet the demands of various central and state sectors. increase the literacy rate to 72 per cent. l Sixth Year Plan (1979-85) – The sixth plan aimed at achieving a annual growth rate of 5. reduc .5 per cent. and agriculture productivity by increasing the basic fram and by adopting modern technologies.3 per cent. attaining economic reliance and increasing employment oppurtunities in the country. This plan aims at achiev per cent GDP growth. l First Five Year Plan (1951-56) – The first plan aimed at correcting the distortions caused to the economy the World War II.appoint a Deputy Chairman. The tot public sector outlay was Rs. l Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-02) – The plan aimed to achieve an anual growth rate of 6.

is the policy used as a tool to regulate the supply of money in the economy.productive activities like speculative dealings. The policy is therefore also referred to as the policy of ‘Controlled Monetary Expansion’ which implies i. the RBI is fully owned by Government of India. . through a proper fiscal policy tries to maximize revenue sources (taxes) and reduce expenditure. headging etc.infant mortality rate to 45 per 1000 births and clean all major polluted rivers till the end of the plan in 2007 l Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12) – This plan aims to accelerate GDP growth from 8% to 10% and then maintain at 10% in the 12th Plan in order to double per capita income by 2016-17. The pressure on the money supply leads to an increase of prices i.e. The Monetary Policy thus helps the government to exercise control over the money supply in the economy. Presently. So the government. Though originally privately owned. ii. In India. THE MONETARY POLICY The Monetary Policy. regulates the volume of what direction and cost of credit. THE MAJOR PUBLIC SECTOR FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS 1. manages foreign exchange. The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) was set up in April 1935. an inflationary situation. A rise in the fiscal deficit implies a higher borrowing for the government from the RBI.e. thereby reducing fiscal deficits. supports other financial institutions and comes out with the Monetary Policy. Duruvi Subbarao. The basic task of a monetary policy in a developing economy is to meet the credit needs of the growth sectors on the one hand and to curb the supply of money meant to be used in non . Expansion in the supply of money. Restraint on secondary expansion of credit. as the name suggests. the difference between the total revenue earned and the total expenditure incurred by the government. since nationalization in 1949. but was permanently moved to Mumbai in 1937. buys and sells government securities. reduce infant mortality rate to 28 and maternal mortality ratio to 1 p 1000 live births and ensure electricity connection to all villages and BPL households by 2009 and round-th clock power. the monetary policy is regulated by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). The RBI is presently headquartered at Mumbai and the present RBI governor is Dr. RBI is the central bank of India. with its central office at Calcutta (Kolkata) under the Reserve Bank of India Act of 1934.increase literacy rate for persons of age 7 years or more to 85%. The economic impact of such borrowing is that the money supply in the economy decreases. THE FISCAL POLICY The fiscal policy helps the government exercise a control over the fiscal deficit i. The policy in India is designed on the principles mentioned above and exercises various quantitative controls to make the policy effective. It issues notes.

Small scale industries are the industrial units in which the investment in plant and machinery does not exceed Rs. restructuring of credit institutions. employing 17. Mr. Mr.2 million persons account for a share of 36 per cent of India’s exports and 40 per cent of industrial manufacture. The current Government holding in IDBI is about 53%. They are Financing. The National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) NABARD was established on 12th July 1982 to implement the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development Act 1981. Takes measures towards institution building for improving absorptive capacity of the credit delivery syste including monitoring. In the SIDBI charter. Development. In addition. training o personnel. the ownership was transferred from the RBI to the Government of India. Coordination. etc. 1989 envisaged SIDBI to be “the principal financial institution for the promotion. About 3. 1990. and the Agricultural Refinance and Development Corporation (ARDC). 1964. (NSDL). ii. The business domain of SIDBI consists of small scale industrial units. the National Securities Depository Services Ltd.1 million such units. the National Stock Exchange of India (NSE). for orderly growth of industry in the small scale sector. The Small Industrial Development Bank of India (SIDBI) SIDBI was established on April 2.10 million.2. and the Stock Holding Corporation of India (SHCIL). To meet the emerging challenges and to keep up with reforms in the financial sector. The Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) IDBI was established on July 1. 3. In 1976. in tune with national priorities. to undertake an entire gamut of banking activities. Yogesh Agarwal is the present Chairman and Managing Director of the IDBI bank.four basic objectives were set out. . The Small Industries Development Bank of India Act. Rajendra Mohan Malla is the present chairman and managing director of the SIDBI. SIDBI’s assistance flows to the transport. formulation of rehabilitation schemes. which contribute significantly to the national economy in terms of production. It financed some well-known institutes in India like. to catalyze the development of a diversified and efficient industrial structure in the country. by an act of the Parliament as a wholly owned subsidiary of the Reserve Bank of India. 4. IDBI converted into a banking company in 2004. It replaced the Agricultural Credit Department (ACD) and the Rural Planning and Credit Cell (RPCC) of the Reserve Bank of India. The following functions are performed by NABARD i. health care and tourism sectors and also to the professional and self-employed persons setting up small-sized professional ventures. Serves as an apex financing agency for the institutions providing investment and production credit for promoting the various developmental activities in rural areas. employment and exports. IDBI is currently the tenth largest development bank in the world. Promotion. financing and development of industry in the small scale sector and to coordinate the functions of the institutions engaged in the promotion and financing or developing industry in the small scale sector and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

depe agriculture. the share of agriculture in manufacturing and services sector is increasing. AGRICULTURE i) Contribution to GDP Agriculture forms the backbone of Indian economy. iv. Mr. or contentious issues such as reforming labour laws and reducing agricultural subsidies. Many of our small and cottage industries like handloom. Shri Umesh Chandra Sarangi is the present chairman of NABARD. State Governments. The policy aimed at allowing foreign direct investment (FDI) in many sectors of the economy. V. Green Revolution Indian Green Revolution is associated with the use of HYVS (High Yielding Variety Seeds).iii. 26 percent of Gross Domest Product. Since then. ii) Source of Employment Agriculture provides employment to around 65 percent of the total work-force of the country. irrespective of the ruling party. Co-ordinates the rural financing activities of all institutions engaged in developmental work at the field le maintains liaison with the Government of India. . Narasimha Rao and his Finance Minister. it was only in 1996 that foreign investors started showing confidence in the Indian economy and large sectors saw the inflow of foreign capital.4 percent in 1950-51. oil crushing. Undertakes monitoring and evaluation of projects refinanced by it. it contributes approx. It was 55. P. although no party has yet tried to take on powerful lobbies such as the trade unions and farmers. Chemical fertilizers and new technology led to a sharp rise in agricultural production during the middle of 1960. the overall direction of liberalisation has remained the same. IMPORTANT SECTORS OF INDIAN ECONOMY 1. The new economic framework adopted by the government did away with the Licence Raj (investment. Though the agriculture in national income has come down. Mr. weaving. Even though the foreign direct investment ceiling was removed by the government in 1991. rice husking. Manmohan Singh in response to a balance-of-payments crisis being faced by the country. etc. industrial and import licensing) system and ended many public monopolies. iii) Source of Industrial Development Agriculture has been the source of supply of raw material to our leading industries. ECONOMIC LIBERALISATION (1991) The economic liberalisation of 1991 was initiated by the then Indian Prime Minister. Further. the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and national level institutions concerned with policy formulation. even now agriculture contributes a major s the national income in India.

Dr.S. Second Green Revolution Of all the plans. Swaminathan. Norman Borlaug. The production of food grains in 1983-84 was 152 million tones and was hailed by the Government as the Second Green Revolution. Swaminathan is also known as the father of the Green Revolution in India. William Gande. As against the expected annual growth of 3.8 percent for agriculture. Both be to private sector. M. M. the sixth five-year plan was hailed as a great success on the agriculture front. The credit of this goes not only to Nobel Laureate Dr. Haryana. But also to Dr. Dr. During the middle of sixties. Indian agriculture scientists developed a number of new high yielding varieties of wheat by processing wheat seeds imported from Mexico. A similar improvement in variety of rice was also observed.3 percent. agricultural extension and better management. and Western Uttar Pradesh. the second Green Revolution from 1983-84 was said to be for the extension in supplies of inputs and services to farmers. LARGE SCALE INDUSTRIES i) Iron and Steel Industries: Ist Steel Industry at Kulti near Jhari. While the first Green Revolution from 1967-68 arose from the introduction of HYVS of Mexican wheat and rice. the actual growth rate was 4. the second Revolution has spread to the entire North India. Other Revolutions Revolution Yellow Revolution White Revolution Blue Revolution Pink Revolution Grey Revolution Golden Revolution Area Oil Seeds Milk Fish Shrimp Egg Horticulture IMPORTANT INDUSTRIES OF INDIA 1. While the first Green Revolution was confirmed mainly to Punjab.The term Green Revolution was given by Americal Scientist. The first public sector unit was ‘Vishveshvaraya Iron and Steel Works’ at Bhadrawati Public Sector Steel Plants .S. West Bengal Ist large scale steel plant .TISCO at Jamshedpur in 1907 followed by IISCO at Bumpur in 1919.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Location Assistance Rourkela (Orissa) Germany Bhilai (Madhya Pradesh) Russian Govt. Durgapur (West Bengal) Britain Govt. Bokaro (Jharkhand) Russian Govt. Burnpur (West Bengal) Acquired by Private sector in 1976 Vishakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh) Russian Govt. Salem (Tamilnadu) Vijai Nagar (Karnataka) Bhadrawati (Karnataka) Nationalization of Vishveshvaraya Iron and Steel Ltd. (Owned by Central and State Government)

All these are managed by SAIL. (At present all important steels except TISCO, are under Public Sector). Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) was established in 1974 and was made responsible for the development of the steel Industry. Bhilai, Durgapur and Rourkela were established during the Second Five Year Plan. Bokaro was established during the Third while the steel plants at Salem, Vijay Nagar, and Vishakhapatnam were established in the Fourth Five Year Plant. Presently India is the 8th largest steel producing country in the world. ii) Jute Industry : Jute industry is an important industry for a country like India, because not only does it earn foreign Exchange but also provides substantial employment opportunities in agriculture and industrial sectors. Its first modernized industrial unit was established at Reshra in West Bengal in 1855. There are at present 73 jute mills in India, out of which West Bengal has 59 mills, Bihar 3 mills, Uttar Pradesh 3 mills, Andhra Pradesh 4 mills and Assam, Tripura, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh one each. The Jute Industry in the Country is traditionally export oriented. India ranks number one in raw jute and jute goods production and number two in export of jute goods in the world. iii) Cotton and Textile Industry : Oldest industry of India, and employs largest number of workers. It is the largest organized and broad-based industry which accounts for about 4 percent of GDP, 20 percent of manufacturing value added and one-third of total export earnings. The first Indian modernized cotton cloth mill was established in 1818 at Fort Gloaster near Kolkata but this mill was not successful. The second mill named ‘Bombay Spinning and Weaving Co.’ was established in 1854 at Bombay by K.G.N. Daber. iv) Sugar Industry : Sugar Industry is the second largest industry after cotton textile industry among agriculture based Industries in the country.

There are more than 500 installed sugar factories in the country. This industry provides not only employment to a substantial number of persons but also holds the potential of developing other industries related to its by-products. India is now the largest producer and consumer of sugar in the world. Maharashtra contributes over one-third of the total sugar output, followed closely by Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka are the other important producers of sugar. v) Fertilizer Industry : India is the third largest producer of nitrogeneous fertilizers in the world. There are at present, 57 fertilizer units manufacturing a wide range of nitrogeneous and complex fertilizers, including 29 units producing urea and 9 units producing ammonium sulphate as a by-product. vi) Paper Industry : The first mechanized paper mill was set-up in 1812 at Serampur in West Bengal. The Paper Industry in India is ranked among the 15 top global paper industries. vii) Silk Industry : India is the second largest (first being China) country in the world in producing natural silk. At present, India produces about 16 percent silk of the world. India enjoys the distinction of being the only country producing all the five known commercial varieties of silk, viz. Mulberry, Troical rassal, Oak Tussar, Eri and Muga. viii) Petroleum and Natural Gas : First successful oil well was dug in India in 1889 at Digboi, Assam. For exploration purpose, Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) was established in 1956 at Dehradun, Uttranchal. The total oil reserves in India have been estimated to be about 13 crore tones. Domestic production of oil in India is much less to meet the domestic demand. India currently produces just over 32 million tones of crude oil against it annual demand of 105 million tones meeting only 30.5 percent of demand from domestic resources. Marketing and Distribution of Petroleum Products

a) Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (BPCL): By acquisition of Burmah Shell in 1976. b) Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (HPCL): Established in 1974 by acquiring the assets of US compan ESSO Eastern. In 1976, Government acquired Caltex Oil Refining Ltd. and merged it with HPCL. c) Gas Authority of India Ltd. (GAIL): Established in 1984 for handling post-exploration activities relating to natural gas. The company was assigned the priority task of setting up the cross country HBJ (Hazira, Bijap and Jagdishpur) pipeline. Presently GAIL is the largest company in India for marketing of natural gas. NAVRATNAS In 1997, the Government identified nine leading, well performing and high profit making public enterprises as Navratnas (Nine Precious Jewels). Later, on the same year, two more were added to the list.

They have been given special powers including freedom to form new joint ventures, make new investments and authorized to raise money. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. (IOC) Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (BPCL) Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (HPCL) Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd. (ONGC) Indian Petrochemicals Corporation Ltd. (IPCL) Steel Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL) National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd. (NTPC) Bharat Heavy Electronics Ltd. (BHEL) Videsh Sanchar Nigam Ltd. (VSNL) Mahangar Telephone Nigam Ltd. (MTNL) Gas Authority of India Ltd. (GAIL)

Two of these Navratnas, IPCL and VSNL, have been privatized. INSURANCE Insurance has been an important part of the Indian financial system. Until recently, insurance services were provided by the public sector, i.e. life insurance by the Life Insurance Corporation of India and general insurance by the General Insurance Corporation and its four Subsidaries. This insurance industry was opened to the Private sector in August 2000. After the opening, 12 new companies have entered life segment and 9 companies in the non life segment. 1. Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) Established : Sept, 1956 Head Office : Mumbai Zonal Offices : 7 (Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai, Kanpur, Hyderabad, Bhopal) 2. General Insurance Corporation (GIC) Established : Jan 1, 1973 It has four subsidiary companies: 1.National Insurance Company Ltd., Kolkatta 2.The New India Assurance Co. Ltd., Mumbai 3.The Oriental Fire and General Insurance Co.Ltd., New Delhi 4.United India Fire and General Insurance Co. Ltd., Chennai. STOCK EXCHANGES Stock exchange or share market plays a dominant role in mobilizing resources for corporate sector. It is a market for dealing in shares, debentures and financial securities. In the stock exchange, shares and debentures are bought and sold for investment as well as for speculative purposes. There are 24 stock exchanges in the country.

CENSUS-2001 Total Population Males Females Population Growth Males Females Average Yearly Growth Rate Density of population Sex Ratio Literacy Rate Males Females Life Expectancy Child Population : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1,02,70,15,247 531,277,078 495,738,169 21.34% 20.93% 21.70% 1.93% 324 933 65.38 75.85 54.16 62 years 15.42%

TOP STATES IN IMPORTANT PARAMETERS MAXIMUM POPULATION Uttar Pradesh Maharashtra Bihar West Bengal Andhra Pradesh MINIMUM POPULATION Sikkim Mizoram Arunachal Pradesh Goa Nagaland MAXIMUM DECADAL GROWTH RATE Nagaland Sikkim Manipur Jammu and Kashmir Meghalaya MAXIMUM POPULATION DENSITY West Bengal Bihar Kerala Uttar Pradesh Punjab : : : : : : : : : : 16.6 crore 9.7 crore 8.3 crore 8.0 crore 7.6 crore 5.4 lakh 8.9 lakh 10.9 lakh 13.4 lakh 19.8 lakh

: : : : : : : : : :

64.41 32.98 30.02 29.04 29.94 904 880 819 689 482

32 77.53 54.13 54.27 77.51 68.49 82.08 67.74 57.13 47.57 39.57 : : 33.36 : : : : : 87.13 75.86 86.92 88.MINIMUM POPULATION DENSITY Arunachal Pradesh Mizoram Sikkim Jammu and Kashmir Meghalaya MAXIMUM SEX RATIO Kerala Chhatisgarh Tamilandu Andhra Pradesh Manipur MINIMUM SEX RATIO Haryana Punjab Sikkim Uttar Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir MAXIMUM LITERACY RATE Kerala Mizoram Goa Maharashtra Himachal Pradesh MINIMUM LITERACY RATE Bihar Jharkhand Jammu and Kashmir Uttar Pradesh MAXIMUM FEMALE LITERACY RATE Kerala Mizoram Goa Himachal Pradesh Maharashtra MINIMUM FEMALE LITERACY RATE Bihar Jharkhand : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13 42 76 99 103 1058 990 986 978 978 861 874 875 898 900 90.38 .

1 12.7 lakh 9.47 11.35 9.4 37.6 lakh 9294 7903 2029 1894 1411 449 43 1001 989 947 846 821 811 773 .82 42.3 crore 9.2 lakh 0.79 10.24 : : : : : 49.5 lakh 2.86 42.72 14.Jammu and Kashmir Uttar Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh MAXIMUM URBAN POPULATION (%) Goa Mizoram Tamilnadu Maharashtra Gujarat : : : 41.77 49.98 44.97 MINIMUM URBAN POPULATION(%) Himachal Pradesh : Bihar : Sikkim : Assam : Orissa : IMPORTANT PARAMETERS OF UNION TERRITORIES TOTAL POPULATION Delhi Pondicherry Chandigarh Andaman and Nicobar Dadra and Nagar Haveli Lakshadweep POPULATION DENSITY Delhi Chandigarh Pondicherry Lakshadwep Daman and Diu Dadar and Nagar Haveli Andaman and Nicobar SEX RATIO Pondicherry Daman and Diu Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Delhi Dadar and Nagar Haveli Chandigarh : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1.0 lakh 3.5 43.

to the user.03 BASIC COMPUTER TERMINOLOGY A Computer is an electronic device for automatically carrying out a program of instructions.) • PROCESS/EXECUTION.52 81.The computer carries out. but instructs the various parts of the computer in performing these tasks. or executes the program of instructions. a primary storage unit and peripheral devices. or output.18 81. or less than another va • Storage and retrieval operations (saving a program on any of the disks for further use) ANATOMY OF A COMPUTER SYSTEM HARDWARE The hardware consists of the actual physical components of a computer.The results of the computation are fed back.The user feeds in. equal to. or inputs.82 81. Finally it collects the output and sends it to the . The three basic components of a computer system. The tasks that a computer performs can be divided into three categories: • Arithmetic Operations (addition.LITERACY RATE Lakshadweep Delhi Chandigarh Pondicherry Andaman and Nicobar Daman and Diu Dadar and Nagar Haveli : : : : : : : 87. multiplication and division) • Comparison operations (determining whether a given value is greater than. subtraction. which are essentially the same regardless of the type of system. This unit interprets the instructions given by the user and sends out signals to circuits within the CPU to execute these instructions. are: a central processing unit.76 81.49 81. There are three basic main steps to carry out any particular computation: • INPUT. The control unit controls the activities of the CPU. It does not process or store the data.09 60. • OUTPUT. It is a powerful general-purpose machine which can be programmed to do a wide variety of computations. The Central Processing Unit (CPU). his program and data (the data is the information which the program process to produce the desired results of the computations. rightly called the “brain” of the computer is composed of: the control unit and arithmetic/logic unit. The control unit also keeps track of all the programs that have already been executed and the ones which remain to be executed.

The ROM is called so. A logical operation is performed by instructing the computer to make a comparison and then to take an action based on the result of that comparison. This type of memory is of two types: • Random Access Memory or RAM • Read Only Memory or ROM RAM . ROM does not allow anything to be written on it. The programs and data that are entered into a computer to be processed are called input. The Peripheral Devices These devices are input devices.This is the additional memory which is inside the CPU. compact disk and hard disk.The ROM contains programs that are permanently coded by the CPU. Secondary Memory (also called external storage/external memory/storage device/magnetic storage device) is so called because it is found outside the CPU box. there is an immediate requirement of memory. output devices. like monitor screen or a printer. This unit temporarily holds program instruction. The Primary Storage Types of Computer Memory: Based on the different needs. subtraction. each having a unique address and holding a small amount of information. data and the intermediate and final results of processing. which is supplied by the primary memory. . When this data is processed to some meaningful form. which means that when the computer is first switched on.output device. The common examples of secondary storage devices are floppy disks. Unlike RAM. information or program that is present in the memory either gets overwritten by new data or information gets erased when the computer is switched off. i. The word data refers to unorganized facts.e read only because it cannot be written on by the CPU. It consists of various storage locations. multiplication or division and logical operations. The arithmetic/logic unit performs only the mathematical computations like addition. ROM . and secondary storage devices. The address allocated to each storage locations allows the computer to locate items that have been stored in the computer’s memory. primary storage or internal storage) The Primary memory is very important to the immediate processing needs of the computer. RAM is called the Temporary Memory of the computer because the data. the memory in computers is classified into two types: Primary Memory & Secondary Memory Primary Memory (also referred to as main memory. it is called information.

Displaying output on the screen gives the user the result in a convenient readable form. the result is displayed on the monitor or a printer. this output is referred to as soft copy. Although it takes more time to access items in secondary storage devices than in main memory.system programs and application programs. allowing the user to see the information. TYPES OF COMPUTERS . otherwise it is known as non-impact printer. These programs and series of programs are referred to as software. Output Devices The device that gives the processed data or information to us is called the output device. Another very important use of this monitor is that after the processing has been completed by the computer the result is obtained and is flashed on the monitor. main memory. I/O devices and files. it is called an impact printer. OPERATING SYSTEMS Operating System is a set of software modules (Program) within a computer system that governs the control of equipment resources such as processors. WINDOWS-XP. but the main advantage of secondary storage devices over primary ones is that they are less expensive and can store enormous quantities of data. • Monitor: All the data entered from the keyboard. and a light pen. secondary memory. etc. SOFTWARE The computer needs written instructions to solve a problem. first appears on the small TV called monitor. a mouse. Monitors can be Monochro (having a dark background) or Coloured (can display text and pictures in all colours) Printers: The data that has been processed in the computer can be printed on the paper by means of a print • They are classified on the basis of how they work. If the printer creates an impression of the typed letter on paper. floppy diskettes). WINDOWS. If it is required to process these items. Some examples of input devices are a terminal keyboard. These programs are of two types. Some examples of operating system are DOS. This output is called hard copy. Depending on the requirement of the user. they can be transferred back into the primary storage unit of the computer. The Secondary storage devices allow programs. data and processing results to be saved on a storage media (such as magnetic tape. Printing the results on paper is a way of permanently saving the information which can even be used at a later time. a graphics tablet. The system programs direct the computer in its own internal operations while the application programs are written to solve user’s problems. these instructions must be written in a programming language. It is called s because it allows the user of the computer to keep a check on the things that are being typed.Input devices These devices are used to enter data into the computer so that it can be processed.

These programmers have the required knowledge of how to communicate with the computer. 3. 5. This program schedules the order of inp and output operations. the input/output (I/O) management system oversees and coordinates the process. the specific program to be executed. or sometimes into assembly language. analogue computers use the values of continuously varying physical quantities to represent information. The desirable features of analog and digital machines can be combined to create a Hybrid computing system. In contrast to digital computers. the work to be done. and the input/out devices required. Programs Refers to the set of instructions that have to be written for the computer so that it is able to process the data to give the desired information. 6. They are then linked together with other programs. Working a program is called executing or running the program. Utility Programs: Utility programs perform specialized functions. ANALOG & HYBRID COMPUTERS The automatic. These programs are written by only those Computer Professionals called programmers. its output (the object code) is an equivalent description of the algorithm in a machine-oriented language (the source code). 2. 4. Types of Programs The operating system contains several types of programs. They perform commonly needed tasks. I and output devices are assigned to specific programs and information is moved between the devices and memory locations. digital computer was invented in 1833 by Charles Babbage (known as the ‘Father of Computers’) A digital computer is so called because it uses a series of digits to represent all types of information. For example. This program translates the English-like program into machine language. it must use a language translation program. Job control commands are use identify the beginning of a job. is a program that translates high-level language into absolute code. The digits used are called binary digit (0 and 1) also balled bits. It also sends messages to the computer operator if an error occurs or if the computer requires additional direction. The input to the compiler is a description of an algorithm or program in a problem-orie language. Library Programs: Library programs are user-written or manufacturer-supplied programs and subprogram that are frequently used in other programs. The tool that is used for writing the set of instructions is called a computer language. which is partly digital and partly analog. Job Control Program: A job is a unit of work to be processed by the CPU. Utility programs or routines are pre-wr programs to provide procedures commonly required by virtually all applications. a utility pro . Library programs are st in a system library and called into main memory when needed. Language Translation Programs: A computer can only execute instructions that are in machine language which consists of 0s and 1s. Supervisor Program: (also called the monitor or executive) is the major component of the operating syste coordinates the activities of all other parts of the operating system. The job control program translates the job control commands written by a programmmer machine language. In order for the computer to use English-like programs such as those written in Pascal. Com on the other hand. Input/Output Management System: When a user-written program requests information to be transferred or out of main memory. There are two types of language translation programs: interpreters and compilers.DIGITAL. These are: 1.

BASIC. These computer languages have developed a great deal since they were first used. Boot Virus exploit the inherent features of the computer (rather than operating system) to spread and activate. C. to another tape.Program Virus & Boot Virus Program Virus must be written for a specific operating system.can transfer data from a tape to a disk. These language do not require the programmer to understand the technical details of internal computer operations. This was used on computers of the first generation. Each generation has it’s own individual characteristic language. etc. All instructio that had to be given consisted of zeroes and ones. They popular because they allow a lot of data to be collected. Data represented in binary form is stored in the computer as a series of “on” and “off” states of electronic device representing binary digits (or bits) • Second Generation Language: The chief characteristic of second generation language was assembly langu (also referred to as low-level language). so that the programmer longer has to know the address of the location in which a particular value is kept. Computer Viruses are executable computer programs. Oracle and Ingres. As they were very close to the English languages so they were called high level langu Example of such languages are Pascal. So. Their evolution spans about four stages which are referred to as generations. Like biological viruses. • Third Generation Language: The languages used in the third generation were very easy to learn and use o computers. Viruses do not affect the hardware of the computer. which used vacuum tubes. • First Generation Language: This language used for computers consisted of zeroes and ones. COBOL. Mnemonics are nothing but easy remember short-cuts to certain complex instructions. files or disk it has affected. The viruses can and ‘do’ corrupt data and programs. Typer of Virus Mainly. the virus program is activated again and attaches itself to more programs. next time we use our computer. Such huge collections of data is called a database. Most viruses stay active in memory until the system is switched off. Examples of these type of language are dBA FoxPro. Definitions Virus: A virus is a type of program that can replicate itself by making (possibly . these symbolic names are called mnemonics. C++. FORTRAN. This language was also called machine language (also ca binary representation). The use of these mnemonics makes assembly languag programming easier than machine language programming. but not from the file. When we turn off the computer we remove the virus from memory. there are two main types of virus . VIRUS The term ‘virus’ is used to describe virtually any type of destructive software. or to a printer. stored and used for extracting various types of information. • Fourth Generation Language: These languages are used even today with most computers available. Another important improvement of Assemble language over machine language is the use of names to represent storage locations. In this type of language the programmer uses symbolic names to sp various machine operations. they find and attach themselves to a host. Computer Languages The languages that are used to communicate with the computer are called computer languages.

Amiga OS. the term spyware refers to a broad category of malicious software designed to intercept or take partial control of a computer’s operation without the informed consent of that machine’s owner or legitimate user. Linux and even Mac OS. or routing of HTTP requests to advertising sites. for instance by a user sending it over a network or carrying it on a removable medium. displays. however. Adware: Adware or advertising-supported software is any software package which automatically plays. theft of personal information (including financial information such as credit card numbers). Viruses can infect different types of hosts. Additionally. script files of application programs. however. Worm: A worm. viruses can spread to other computers by infecting files on a network file system or a file system that is accessed by another computer. spyware – by design – exploits infected computers for commercial gain. Today’s viruses may also take advantage of network services such as the World Wide Web. Typical tactics furthering this goal include delivery of unsolicited popup advertisements. or it can use a trick to ensure that the virus program is executed when the user wants to execute the (unmodified) host program. monitoring of Web-browsing activity for marketing purposes. Spyware differs from viruses and worms in that it does not usually self-replicate. The most common targets are executable files that contain application software or parts of the operating system. Viruses have existed for many different operating systems. Spyware: In the field of computing. Viruses are sometimes confused with worms. or downloads advertising material to a computer after the software is installed on it or while the application is being used. Additionally. e-mail. blurring the line between viruses and worms. the vast majority of viruses affect Microsoft Windows. Viruses have also infected the executable boot sectors of floppy disks. however. COMPUTER NETWORKING Computer networking is the scientific and engineering discipline concerned with . The main criterion for classifying a piece of executable code as a virus is that it spreads itself by means of ‘hosts’. including MSDOS.modified) copies of itself. and documents that can contain macro scripts. can spread itself to other computers without needing to be transferred as part of a host. a virus can overwrite its host with the virus code. For example. it has come to refer more broadly to software that subverts the computer’s operation for the benefit of a third party. facilitating their spread. and file sharing systems to spread. While the term taken literally suggests software that surreptitiously monitors the user. Many personal computers are now connected to the Internet and to local-area networks. A virus can only spread from one computer to another when its host is taken to the uninfected computer. viruses can infect files in other ways than simply inserting a copy of their code into the code of the host program. Like many recent viruses.

In 1969 the University of California at Los Angeles. office.g. In 1964. and the University of Utah were connected as the beginning of the ARPANet network using 50 kbit/s circuits. metropolitan area networks (MANs) or local area networks (LANs) that are usually limited to a room. WANs are used to connect local area networks (LANs) together. J. built by Internet Service Providers. History Carrying instructions between calculation machines and early computers was done by human users. SRI (in Stanford).C. Others. WANs are most often built using leased lines. Computer networking is sometimes considered a sub-discipline of telecommunications. The same year. building or campus. via Bluetooth) or thousands of miles (e. Categorizing Local area network A local area network (LAN) is a computer network covering a small local area.R. Current LANs are most likely to be based on switched Ethernet or Wi-Fi technology running at from 10 to 10000 Mbit/s. “LAN” usually does not refer to data running over local analog telephone lines. Many WANs are built for one particular organization and are private. or small group of buildings such as a home. The most well-known example of a WAN is the Internet. via the Internet). In September. This is different from personal area networks (PANs).communication between computer systems. Wide area network A wide area network or WAN is a computer network covering a wide geographical area. 1940 George Stibitz used a teletype machine to send instructions for a problem set from his Model K at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire to his Complex Number Calculator in New York and received results back by the same means. University of California at Santa Barbara. In 1968 Paul Baran proposed a network system consisting of datagrams or packets that could be used in a packet switching network between computer systems. . Licklider was hired and developed a working group he called the “Intergalactic Network”. or college. provide connections from an organization’s LAN to the Internet. Such networks involve at least two computers seperated by a few inches (e. office. The defining characteristics of LANs in contrast to WANs are: a) much higher data rates. Linking output systems like teletypes to computers was an interest at the Advanced Research Projects Agency ARPA when. a router connects to the LAN on one side and a hub within the WAN on the other.g. researchers at Dartmouth developed a time sharing system for distributed users of large computer systems. a research group supported by General Electric and Bell Labs used a computer (DEC’s PDP-8) to route and manage telephone connections. and c) they do not involve leased telecommunication lines. At each end of the leased line. b) smaller geographic range . a precursor to the ARPANet. in 1962. so that users and computers in one location can communicate with users and computers in other locations. like a home. at MIT. involving a vast array of most a few kilometers. as on a private branch exchange (PBX).

Network protocols including TCP/IP deliver transport and addressing functions. Protocols including Packet over SONET/SDH, MPLS, ATM and Frame relay are often used by service providers to deliver the links that are used in WANs. X.25 was an important early WAN protocol, and is often considered to be the “grandfather” of Frame Relay as many of the underlying protocols and functions of X.25 are still in use today (with upgrades) by Frame Relay. Benefits of Networks • • • • • • • Exchanging Data Sharing system resources Creation of workgroups Centralized Management Security Access to more than one operating system Enhancement of the corporate structure

Components of Networks

• Server - A server runs the network operating system and offers network services to users at their individual workstations. It offers services such as file, storage, security, resource management, user management. The types of server are 1. File server 2. E-mail server or E-mail gateway 3. Database server 4. Fax server 5. Print server 6. Backup and archive server • Workstations - When a computer is connected to a network, it becomes a node on the network and is calle workstation or client. A workstation’s job has been to execute program files retrieved from the network, a server’s job is to deliver those files to the workstation. • NICs - Network Interface Cards provides interface between the server and workstations. Each computer att to a network requires a network interface card (NIC) that supports a specific networking scheme. The type NICs used usually decides the maximum data transfer rate • Cabling - The network cabling system is the media used to connect the server and the workstations togethe • Shared resources and peripherals - Shared resources and peripherals include storage devices attached to server, optical disk drives, printers, plotters, modem and other equipment that can be used by everyone on t network. NTERNET The Internet, or simply the Net, is the publicly accessible worldwide system of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using a standardized Internet Protocol (IP). It is made up of thousands of smaller commercial,

academic, domestic, and government networks. It carries various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, and the interlinked Web pages and other documents of the World Wide Web. Contrary to some common usage, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not synonymous: the Internet is a collection of interconnected computer networks, linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections etc.; the Web is a collection of interconnected documents, linked by hyperlinks and URLs, and is accessible using the Internet. Creation of the Internet The USSR’s launch of Sputnik spurred the U.S. to create the Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in February 1958 to regain a technological lead. DARPA created the Information Processing Technology Office to further the research of the Semi Automatic Ground Environment program, which had networked country-wide radar systems together for the first time. J. C. R. Licklider was selected to head the IPTO, and saw universal networking as a potential unifying human revolution. Licklider recruited Lawrence Roberts to head a project to implement a network, and Roberts based the technology on the work of Paul Baran who had written an exhaustive study for the U.S. Air Force that recommended packet switching to make a network highly robust and survivable. After much work, the first node went live at UCLA on October 29, 1969 on what would be called the ARPANET, the “eve” network of today’s Internet. In December of 1970, Charles A. Petrik contacted the U.S. Navy and suggested that a special communications network, that the Department of Defence had built for use in the possibility of a nuclear attack, could also be used during peace time. Petrik convinced the military to connect the computers of the U.S. National Laboratories for scientific research purposes, and to allow these labs to get data to other labs faster, and safer. The vast majority of today’s Internet uses version four of the IP protocol (i.e. IPv4), and although IPv6 is standardised, it exists only as “islands” of connectivity, and there are many ISPs who don’t have any IPv6 connectivity at all. The first TCP/IP wide area network was operational by 1 January 1983 , when the United States’ National Science Foundation (NSF) constructed a university network backbone that would later become the NSFNet. (This date is held by some to be technically that of the birth of the Internet.) It was then followed by the opening of the network to commercial interests in 1995. Important separate networks that offered gateways into, then later merged into the Internet include Usenet, Bitnet and the various commercial and educational X.25 networks such as Compuserve and JANET. The ability of TCP/IP to work over these pre-existing communication networks allowed for a great ease of growth. Use of Internet as a phrase to describe a single global TCP/IP network originated around this time. The network gained a public face in the 1990s. In August 1991 CERN in Switzerland publicized the new World Wide Web project, two years after Tim Berners-Lee had begun creating HTML, HTTP and the first few web pages at CERN in Switzerland. In 1993 the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign released the Mosaic web browser version 1.0, and by late 1994 there was growing public interest in the previously academic/technical Internet. By 1996 the word

“Internet” was common public currency, but it referred almost entirely to the World Wide Web. Meanwhile, over the course of the decade, the Internet successfully accommodated the majority of previously existing public computer networks (although some networks such as FidoNet have remained separate). This growth is often attributed to the lack of central administration, which allows organic growth of the network, as well as the nonproprietary open nature of the Internet protocols, which encourages vendor interoperability and prevents any one company from exerting too much control over the network. Today’s Internet Apart from the complex physical connections that make up its infrastructure, the Internet is held together by bi- or multi-lateral commercial contracts (for example peering agreements) and by technical specifications or protocols that describe how to exchange data over the network. Indeed, the Internet is essentially defined by its interconnections and routing policies. Internet protocols In this context, there are three layers of protocols:

• at the lowest level is IP - the datagram which carries a block of data from one node to another next comes TCP & UDP - the protocols by which one host exchanges data with another – the former makin • virtual circuit giving some level of guarantee of reliability, the latter being a best-effort connection-less tran • on top comes the application protocol - the specific messages or data stream used by the • application running on the hosts to talk to each other. Unlike older communications systems, the Internet protocol suite was deliberately designed to be independent of the underlying physical medium. Any communications network, wired or wireless, that can carry two-way digital data can carry Internet traffic. Thus, Internet packets flow through wired networks like copper wire, coaxial cable, and fibre optic; and through wireless networks like Wi-Fi. Together, all these networks, sharing the same high-level protocols, form the Internet. The Internet protocols originate from discussions within the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and its working groups, which are open to public participation and review. These committees produce documents that are known as Request for Comments documents (RFCs). Some RFCs are raised to the status of Internet Standard by the IETF process. Some of the popular services on the Internet that make use of these protocols are e-mail, Usenet newsgroups, file sharing, Instant Messenger, the World Wide Web, Gopher, session access, WAIS, finger, IRC, MUDs, and MUSHs. Of these, e-mail and the World Wide Web are clearly the most used, and many other services are built upon them, such as mailing lists and blogs. The Internet makes it possible to provide real-time services such as Internet radio and webcasts that can be accessed from anywhere in the world.

World Wide Web The World Wide Web (“WWW” or simply the “‘Web”) is a global information space which people can read-from and write-to via a large number of different Internetconnected devices. For example, computers, Personal Digital Assistants, cellular phones, telephone kiosks, etc. The World Wide Web is also available (sometimes only partially) through digital television services, exposing content onto television screens.

THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION Salient Feature 1. The Constituent Assembly was formed by the order of The Cabinet Mission in 1946. 2. Sachida Prasad Sinha was the temporary President of the Constituent Assembly. 3. Dr. Rajendra Prasad was the permanent President of the Constituent Assembly. 4. Dr. B.R. Ambedker was the chairman of the Drafting Committee. 5. B.N. Rao was the legal advisor of the Constituent Assembly. 6. The Constituent Assembly took 2 years 11 months and 18 days to prepare the largest written constitution in the World. 7. Rs. 64 lakhs were spent on the making of the Constitution. 8. The original Constitution consisted of 22 parts, 395 articles but at present it has 22 parts, 444 articles and 12 schedules. 9. It was adopted by the Government of India on the 26th of November, 1949. 10. It was enforced by the Government of India on the 26th of January, 1950. Structure of the Indian Constitution The constitution of India consists of : 1. The Preamble 2.. Parts I to XXII, covering over 449 Articles 3. Schedules 1 – 12 4. An Appendix Fundamental Rights 1. Part III (Articles 12 - 35) of the Constitution deals with Fundamental Rights. 2. Originally, seven Fundamental Rights were listed, but after the 44th Amendment, only six Fundamental Rights exist. These are

Right to Equality (14 . j) To strive for excellence in all spheres of activity. Right to Property used to be a Fundamental Right but after the 44th Amendment it became a legal right. h) To develop a scientific temper. k) Every citizen who is a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or as the case may be ward between the age of 6 & 14 years. show respect to the National Flag and the National Anthem. • Article 55 describes how President is elected. d) To defend one’s country. • The president is elected by the member of an electoral college consisting of the elected members of both House of Parliament and the elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States and the Union Territory of Delhi and Puducherry. The election is held in accordance with the system of proportional representation through secret ballot. Right to Constitutional Remedies (32-33) 3. Fundamental Duties Article (51-A) included in the Constitution in the 42nd Amendment. e) To promote common brotherhood and establish dignity of women. These are: a) To abide by the Constitution. lays down 11 Fundamental Duties that citizens have towards the state. b) To follow the noble ideas of the freedom struggle. Vice president and the parliament.18) b. f) To preserve our heritage and culture.a. Union Executive • Part V (Articles 52-78) describe the functioning of the president. . unity and integrity of India. c) To protect the sovereignty. Culture and Educational Right (29-30) f. Right to freedom of speech (19) c. g) To protect the natural environment. • Every elected member of the Legislative Assembly of a State shall have as many votes as there are multiply of 1000 in the quotient obtained by dividing the pupulation of the State by the total number of the elected members of Assembly. Right to freedom of Religion (25-28) e. Right against Exploitation (23-24) d. i) To safeguard public property.

the Council of ministers with the prime minister as the head. a person must be: a) a citizen of India. • The qualifications of the president are laid down in Article 58. in the exercise of his functions. • Article 61 lays down the procedure for impeachment of the President. • The procedure of election of the Vice-president is laid down in Article 66 and is similar to that of the president. • Article 76 .• The term of the president is 5 years (Article 56 but can serve for any number of terms). • Article 77 says that all executives action of the government of India is to be taken in the name of the president. is to aid and advice the president who shall. reprieves. 1. • If the president is temporarily unable to discharge his duties. The Vice-president is elected by the members of electoral college consisting of the members of both House of Parliament in accordance with the system of proportional representation. To be eligible.the appointment of Attorney General of India. The basic qualifications are the same as that of the president. • Any disputes in connection with the election of a president or Vice-president are to be decided by the Supreme Court. b) has minimum age of thirty-five years. • Article 63-68 lays down the procedure for the Vice-President of India. The Vice-president is ex-officio chairman of the council of states (Rajaya Sabha) and shall not hold any other office of profit. who gives advice to the government of India upon legal matters. and to furnish information relating of the Union as the president may call for. • The monthly salary of the president is Rs. Kinds of Bills i Ordinary Bill .00. In case of a . it is the duty of the prime minister to inform the president about the decision of the Council of Ministers (Article 78). act in accordance with such advice. (Article 71) • The president has a power to grant pardons. • There is no limit as to how many times a person can become President.000 per month. c) is qualified for election as a member of the Lok Sabha • A person is not eligible for election as President if he holds any office of profit under a) central government b) state government c) any local or other authority. respires of remissions of punishment of commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence (Article 72). the vicepresident discharge his functions. • Under Article 74. In this regard. • The term of office of Vice-president is five years.An ordinary bill can be introduced in either of the Houses and can be passed by a simple majority in both the Houses.

Speaker of the Lok Sabha is the deciding authority whether the introduced bill is a Money bill or not. It can be passed only by a special majority. and the Upper House – Rajya Sabha and President.33000 per month and each judge gets Rs.e. iii Financial Bill . The sa the Chief Justice is Rs. . Supreme Court is the apex court of india. The Indian legislature is bicameral i. The retirement age of th judges of the Supreme Court is 65 years.deadlock a joint sitting of both the houses is possible. For more information visit the following websites: indiacode. The Constitution contains provisions related to the Union Judiciary in Articles 124–127.wikipedia.php The Indian Political System INDIAN LEGISLATURE India is the second largest democracy in the world. ii Money Bill (Article 110) – A money bill is concerned with taxation and government bill which is related with revenue and expenditure of the government is a financial bill.html en. INDIAN JUDICIARY Salient Features 1. iv Constitutional Amendment Bill (Article 368) . the Indian Parliament is made up of the Lower House – Lok Sabha. Supreme Court has 26 judges including the Chief Justice. 30000 per month. It can be introduced only in the Lok Sabha after prior recommendation of the President.This bill can be introduced in either of the Houses of the Parliament.

and where there is only one House. Article 256 and 257 require States to comply with the governor. Presently there are 21 High Courts in th country. The Legislative Assembly of each state shall consist of not more than five hundred. The States have also been vested with certain limited powers of legisla with respect to elections. The Governor of a state has the power to grant pardons. • Under Article 151. Andhra Pradesh) legislative council serves as the upper houses of a bicameral legislature. These are to be a placed before Parliament and State Legislature respectively. reprieves or remissions of punishment or to remit o compute the sentence of any person relating to a matter to which the executive power of the State extends. to establish or eliminate State and Union Territories India has 28 States and 7 Union Territories. The president constitutes the Finance Commission at the expiry of 5 The central Government also distributes grants to States through the development plans prepared by the Pla Commission. But such legislation should not be in conflict with any parlime • One of the outstanding features of the Consitution is adult suffrage. and not less than sixty members chosen by direct election. by a majority vote. States and Union Territories • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Article 3 authorises the Parliament. Every person who is not less than 18 ye . reports of the CAG relating to the Union are submitted to the President. who is appointed by the President. Maharastra. There is a Council of Ministers with the Chief Minister as the head to aid and advice the Governor in the ex of his functions. Elections • Under Article 327. High Courts are at the top of hiearchy in the State Judicial System. The retirement age of the judges of a High Court is 62 years. it is known as the Legislative Assembly. Under Article 328. In 6 of India’s 28 state (Uttar Pradesh. stipulated in Article 275. those relating to states are submitted to the Governor. Article 370 provides special status to Jammu and Kashmir in the Consititution.3. Karnataka. The term of the governor is five years unless dismissed by the president or resignation. CAG • The powers and duties of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) are described in Articles 14 150. Bihar. (except Sikkim) The Central government distributes taxes and grants-in-aid to States through the decision of the Finance Commission. and (3) to see the sanction of expenditure. The eligibility for appointment as Governor is that he is a citizen of India and has completed the age of thir years and he should not hold any other office of profit. Parliament is vested with the Supreme power to legislate on all matters relating to electi including election State legislatures. one is known as the Legislative Council and the o the Legilative Assembly. Union Territories are administered by the President through the administrator who is appointed by Presiden President may appoint the Goveror of a state as the administrator of an adjoining Union Territory. He has three main functions: (1) to audit government’s expenditure. (2) to see that the financial rules a obeyed. Where there are two houses of the Legislature of a State. Jammu & Kashmir.

the age has the right to vote in the election to the House of the People and the State Legislative Party. 1950. Eastern. State election commission conducts election of corporations. On October 1. The Army is organised into five operational commmands – Northern.The law which governs all the elections in India as mentioned above is the Representation of People Act. Two Commissioners were appointed for the first time on October 16. Article 325 says that no person will be ineligible for inclusion in. function under their respective Chief of Staff. the provisions of constituting election tribunals h been abolished. Central and Southern and one Training Command – each headed by a Commander-in- . • Article 324 provides that the superintendence. It is on his behalf that the Defence Minister looks after all the matters concerning the Defence Services. According to the 19th Amendment. The Election Commission has a Secretariat at New Delhi consisting of about 300 officials. The three services of Defence i. two additional Election Commissioners were appointed. The Commission presently consists of a Chief Election Commissioner and two Election Commissioners. Army. Originally. However. the Commission had just one Chief Commissioner. bars interference by courts in electoral matters. however. direction and control of election in India to be vested in and Election Commission. 1989 but their tenure lasted only till January 1. Army Indian Army is responsible for the defence and security of India’s territorial area. municipalities and other local bodies. THE ELECTION COMMISSION OF INDIA The Election Commission of India is an autonomous constitutional body created to conduct free and fair elections for the representative bodies in India. (iii) crime. direction and control of the entire process for the conduct of elections for the Parliament and the Legislature of every State and for the offices of the President and the Vice-President of India. and (iv) corrupt or practice. Western. race. caste or sex. The commission has followed the multi-member structure since then. Article 339. with decisions taken by a majority vote. The o grounds for disqualifications are: () non residence (ii) unsoundness of mind. INDIAN DEFENCE The President of India is the Supreme Commander of the armed forces. The Constitution of India has vested in the Election Commission of India the superintendence.e. It was established on January 25. Election petitions are now heard by the High Court in appeals. the responsibility of national defence rests with the Cabinet of Ministers. The Defence Minister is responsible to the Parliament for all matters concerning the Defence. Navy and Air Force. 1950. 1990. 1993. or to claim to be included in spe electoral roll on grounds of religion. however.

First Vice-President of India – Dr. 13. infantry. Vishakhapatnam. First President of India – Dr. 6. Eastern Air Command. engineer corps. and Cochin respectively. The Navy is organised into three operational commands – Western. S. Jawahar Lal Nehru First Woman Prime Minister of India – Mrs. submarines. 10.V.Chief of the rank of Lieutenant General. 3. First Woman Speaker of Lok Sabha – Mrs. army services corps. 2. consists of a number of services such as armoured corps. The Western and the Eastern commands have under them operational fleets like warships. 5. Sucheta Kripalani. regiment of artillery. South-Western Command. with its headquarter at New Delhi.L. 14. First Woman Chief Minister – Mrs. First Chairman of the Rajaya Sabha – Dr. etc. Radhakrishnan. Central Air Command.a Maintainance and a Training command. First Woman IAS Officer – Anna George. The fourth largest Air Force in the World. Eastern. First Speaker of the Lok Sabha – G. First Prime Minister of India – Pt. Mavlankar. and Southern – headquartered at Mumbai. First Sikh President of India – Giani Jail Singh. The Southern Naval Command is responsible for all the training activities of the Navy. army medical corps. Indira Gandhi. Sarojini Naidu. 12. Zakir Hussain. First Woman Central Minister – Rajkumari Amrit Kaur. Navy The Indian Navy is responsible for the defence and security of the Indian water. 4. The designation of The Chief of the Navy is Admiral and he is answerable to the Defence Minister. First Woman Governor of a State – Mrs. Radhakrishnan. 11. Air Force The Indian Air Force is responsible for the defence and security of the Indian airspace. It is headquartered at New Delhi. Rajendra Prasad. Shanno Devi. Kania. First Chief Justice of India – Justice H. 8. The Army. S. The designation of The Chief of the Air Force is Air Chief Marshall and he is answerable to the Defence Minister First in Indian Politics 1. and Southern Air Command and two functional commands . 9. aircrafts and other support ships. 7. intelligence corps. it is organised into five operational commands – Western Command. The Chief of the Army is of the designation General and is answerable to the Defence Minister. . First Muslim President of India – Dr.

This continued till 1944. 26. 22. Chavan.both the Wavell plan and the Simla conference were a failure. l Sri Rajagopalachari along with Mahatma Gandhi wanted the Muslim League to endorse the Indian demand for independence and cooperate with the Congress in the formation of a provincial interim government. 20. Fathima Beevi. First recognised leader of opposition in Rajya Sabha – Lokpati Tripathi.Jinnah demand of Pakistan. First Chief Election Commissioner of India – Sukumar Sen. First Woman Judge of Supreme Court – M. l The Wavell Plan 1945 And The Simla Conference: . Mr.Jinnah refused to accept. because the congress did not accept Mr. Ananthasayanam Ayyangar. First State where Panchayati Raj was implemented (in the whole state) – Rajasthan. immediately after the cessation of hostilities steps shall be taken to set up in India a Constitution making body to frame a new Constitution for India. 27. 29. First Woman IPS Officer – Kiran Bedi.The Cripps mission in March 1942 had proposed that. Fathima Beevi. The British cabinet mission consisting of Lord Patrick Lawrence and Secretary Of State A. First Acting Prime Minister of India – Guljari Lal Nanda. 19. l The Cabinet Mission Plan 1946 For United India: .C. 23. First Lok Sabha Election – 1952 28. First Chairman of Planning Commission – Pt. The Governor General was not prepared to have an interim settlement without the cooperation and consent of the Muslim League. and began negotiations with Lord Wavell. 18. 16. V. 21.V.S.emphasized on ending the British rule in India This movement was suppressed by the government. Alexander and Sir Stafford . 25. First Woman Advocate – Carnelia Sorabji.V. First Woman Judge of Supreme Court – M. First Woman Judge of High Court – Anna Chandi. 30.15. First Woman Chief Election Commissioner (acting) of India – Smt. Niyogi. 17. Rama Devi Legal Awareness HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE (from 1942 to 1947) l The Quit India Resolution 1942:. First Woman Judge – Anna Chandi. Jawahar Lal Nehru. First Chairman of Finance Commission – K. First recognised leader of opposition in Lok Sabha – Y. First Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha – M. 24.

l To frame a Constitution. the tricolor was adopted on the July 22. l Our draft Constitution of India when presented to the President of the constituent assembly. l Indian Independence: . the Muslim League and the congress did not come to any mutual understanding and the congress ruled out the idea of Pakistan.F. l Our first President was Dr. l The date of commencement of the Constitution was 26th January 1950. a horse a bull and a charka was taken from Ashoka’s Pillar in Sarnath. it was adopted on 26th January 1950 and has the words Satyameva Jayayte let Truth alone prevail. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was sworn in as the first Prime minister of independent India. provinces decided to join Pakistan. After Bengal and Punjab had decided that they wanted their ii) respective provinces to be partioned. l The constituent assembly read the draft clause by clause from November 15 1948 to October 17 1949. l The mission recommended that there should be a union of India. Provincial representatives were to be sent in the proportion of 1:10. Rajendra Prasad l The Constituent Assembly appointed the drafting committee on August 29 1947 under the chairmanship of Dr.the Indian Independence Bill was passed by the Parliament on the July 18. l However the Muslim league resolved that the proceedings of the constituent assembly was ultra vires and demanded its dissolution. l The Draft Constitution was ready by October and the ‘Draft Constitution of India was published in February 1948. Sindh and the N. l Lord Mountbatten’s plan of 1947 for transfer of power:i) The partition of India. 1947.Cripps came to Delhi on March 24 1946. 00. l Our national flag. The Muslim league members did not attend.000. the cabinet mission suggested that a constituent assembly be formed consisting of 389 members. l The National Anthem composed by Rabindranath Tagore was adopted on 24th January 1950. l The cabinet suggested its formula on May 16 1946 to resolve the issue As the political parties. l December 9 1946 the constituent assembly first met. l The third reading started from November 14 1949 and finished it on November 26 1949. 1947 l August 15.W. Ambedkar. 1947. On this date the Constitution received the signature of the President Dr. It contained 395 Articles and 8 Schedules. 1947 ended the British Raj in India and the partition of India into India and Pakistan. It contained 315 Articles and 8 Schedules. Rajendra Prasad. l India as Part of the Commonwealth:-India did not sever all ties with the . l Indian Independence Act. l The State Emblem which has three lions.

l Ours being a written Constitution is in the form of a Constitutional document whereas England does not have a written Constitution the Sovereignty the Parliament is based upon traditions. to be l terminated by free will”.British Commonwealth. Legal norms are those which are enforceable in the courts of law and non legal norms are generally practices and conventions of the Constitution which are not enforceable. . they are:i) Distribution of powers ii) Supremacy of the Constitution iii) Written Constitution iv) Rigidity v) Authority of the Courts PREAMBLE l The Preamble literally means preface. Therefore the Parliament which functions under the written Constitution has to adhere to the rules stated under it and cannot have unbridled powers. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru said “it is an agreement by free will. l This historic decision took place in London on April 27th 1949. This historic decision took place in London on April 27th 1949. l It was this decision of India to join the Commonwealth. preliminary statement or intorduction states that India is a Sovereign. l ‘Sovereign’ denotes that our country is not subject to any external authority. l A written Constitution contains the supreme law of the land on the source of the Constitutional law in the country. What we were trying was a mixed economy. to be terminated by free will”. l Though we have often heard that the Indian Parliament is Sovereign. it is sovereign to the extent that India is a sovereign nation and not under any external influence. l Socialist’ herein does not mean that it adheres to any ideas of Socialism but means that it will have Private enterprise as well as State ownership. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru said “it is an agreement by free will. India joined the Commonwealth without any allegiance to the British crown. Socialist. Every organ in the country must adhere to it otherwise it will be declared unconstitutional. Democratic Republic. that the association of these independent nations it was called the ‘Commonwealth of Nations’. l Our Constitution being a federal Constitution has a few characteristics attached to it. WRITTEN CONSTITUTION l The Constitutional laws of the country contain the legal and the non legal norms.

It also scrutinizes the administrative action. Union of India 2002 SC. CITIZENSHIP l A person who is born in the territory of India Citizenship Act – 1955. means that the Constitution ensures equal freedom for all religions. l Articles 5 to 11 of the Constitution lay down as to who are citizens of India at the commencement of the Constitution. THE JUDICIARY l It is very important to have an independent and impartial Judiciary. l The Preamble envisages being a Social Welfare State as stated by the Directive Principles of State Policy l In Aruna Roy v. it was held that the Preamble was part of the basic structure of the Constitution. l According to the Preamble it is the people who have imposed this Constitution upon themselves and will conduct their government through elected representatives. l The judiciary scrutinizes Governmental action in order to assess whether it confirms with the Constitution or not. l Article 5 deals with the Domicile of a person. l The High Court is a Court Of Appeal and can also enforce the Fundamental Rights. l ‘Democratic’ signifies that India has a Parliamentary form of government wherein the government is responsible to an elected legislature.l ‘Secular. l Judicial review is based on the assumption that the Constitution is the supreme law of the land and that all government organs and governmental actions must confirm with the Constitution. But however the term ‘domicile’ has not been defined in the Constitution. l The State shall not make any law that takes away the Fundamental Rights of the people. The Supreme Court. or who has been ordinarily a resident in the territory of India for not less than five years immediately preceding such commencement. l The terms ‘Socialist’ And ‘Secular’ were added by the 42nd Amendment. l ‘Republic’ means where the Head of the State is an elected functionary. the High Court and the lower courts constitute a single judiciary having jurisdiction over all cases arising under any law whether enacted by the Parliament or the State Legislature. The essence of ‘secularism ‘is non discrimination of people by the State on the basis of religious differences. . either whose parents are born in India. shall be a citizen of India. ‘Domicile’ means permanent home. Our Constitution has done everything to make the Supreme Courts and the various High Courts independent of the Executive.

nor dual citizenship. l India has neither State citizenship. 2 provides for overseas Indian citizenship or Dual citizenship POLITICAL AND CIVIL RIGHTS FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS l Concept of Fundamental Rights: i) The fundamental rights were supposed to be basic. ii) Though it was said earlier that the fundamental rights were mutually exclusive but now the courts have held that some of the rights are not mutually exclusive. caste. ii) The fundamental rights in India has its roots in the preamble which the people of India have given to themselves and apart from guaranteeing all that. It is because of this Article that the fundamental rights cannot be infringed by the government.l The Article draws a difference between ‘Domicile’ and ‘Residence’. With time it became the most important thing to protect the rights and liberties of the people to be protected from governmental action. natural and in alienable rights of the man. it also safeguards the interests of the minorities and tries to keep away discrimination. l Fundamental Rights In India i) The framers of the constitution have tried to strike a balance between the rights of the people and the society and the courts have also had a tough time interpreting them.race. guaranteeing religious freedom and protecting other cultural rights. Its domicile and not residence that makes a person an Indian citizen. l Justiciability Of Fundamental Rights i) Article 13 makes the fundamental rights justiciable. RIGHT TO EQUALITY ARTICLE 14 to 18 l Right to equality will encompass : i) Equality before law-Article 14 ii) Prohibition on the grounds of religion .(2003– Citizenship Ammendant Act that further ammends the Citizenship Act. Where there are rights there are certain limitations. sex or place-Article 15 iii) Equal opportunity in matters of employment-Article 16 iv) Abolition of titles-Article 18 l Right to equality Article 14:- . There is single citizenship in India. 155. ‘Domicile’ and five years ‘Residence’ is sufficient to make a person a citizen of India.

2000 ii) Article14 does not allow classification of persons into groups that are treated differently but does not forbid differentiation on the grounds of reasonable classification. caste sex or place of birth-Article15 i) The State may provide special provisions in favour of women and children.R. Probation of discrimination on grounds of religion. State of Rajasthan.I.I. and Padma Bhushan are not to be treated as a title. Abolition of titles-Article 18 i) Untouchability is abolished and its practice in any form is punishable by law. ii) Indra Swahney v. iv) According to the new approach of Article14. Equal opportunity in matters of Employment-Article 16 i) Right to Equality is guaranteed by Article14. 1997 Article14 was invoked to prohibit sexual harassment of women in their workplace on grounds of violation of the right to gender equality. The principle of reasonableness is an essential element of equality. Thus. Abolition of titles-Article 18 i) No titles other than military and academic shall be conferred by the state. Union of India the court held that other that in extraordinary cases reservation should not exceed 50%. Caste should not be the yardstick for social or economic backwardness (SEBC. ii) Right to equality has been recognised as the Basic Structure of the Constitution held in Indra Swahney v. A. RIGHT TO FREEDOM –Article19 . Padma Vibhushan. Union of India A. Article 14 strikes at the arbitrariness of the state action and ensures fairness and equality of State action. Any arbitrary or those actions which are unreasonable are as such discriminatory. Socially and educationally backward classes) within the SEBC further classification between backward and more backward is however permissible. All persons are not equal in all respects and they cannot be treated at par with every body.g. It however does not forbid different treatment of unequals. the reservation we have for the various classes of people is one such example of giving different treatment for unequal). Conferring honors on the people.l l l l i) According to the Article all persons who are in the similar circumstances are to be treated alike in respect to both privileges conferred and the liabilities imposed. race. Article 16 gives Equality of Opportunity in matters relating to appointment or employment in offices under the State.R. v) In Vishaka v. would only result in unequal treatment (e. like Bharat Ratna.

post facto law. public order e. or carry on any occupation. These freedoms are available only to citizens. PROTECTION IN RESPECT OF CONVICTION OF OFFENSES ARTICLE 20 Article 20 gives protection to persons with respect to conviction for offences. Article20 (1) prohibits all convictions or subjections to penalties after the Constitution. l Double Jeopardy Article 20(2) i) Under Article20 (2) no person shall be prosecuted or punished for the same offence more than once. The freedom to trade and occupation should not jeopardize the public order or public health. economic welfare of the community. These freedoms guaranteed under Article 19 are basic freedoms which all persons should enjoy. trade or business Article 19(1) (g). contempt of court. There is no Constitutional bar to a second prosecution and punishment for the same unless the accused has . It means that no one can be punished for any action which was not declared a crime when such an action was done. in respect of an ex. under the Indian Constitution in order to bring a person within the ambit of this Article it has to be shown that he was prosecuted before the court and punished by it for the same offence for which he is prosecuted again. sovereignty and integrity of India. incitement to an offence. Freedom to assemble peacefully Article19(1)(b). The freedom to form associations does not mean several people getting together or voluntarily forming an association but not at the cost of the sovereignty and integrity of India. security of the state. decency or morality. Wherein restrictions have been made on the freedom of movement it has to be reasonable in the interests of the general public or for the protection of the interests of the schedule tribes. To reside and settle in any part of the country Article 19(1)(e).c are protected for general welfare of the people.t. From clause (2) to clause (6) of Article 19 the state has the right to impose certain reasonable restrictions so that the interests of the public. To acquire. These freedoms are restricted in matters related to the security of state. defamation. public order. Freedom to form associations or unions Article19(1)(c) Freedom to move freely throughout the territory of India Article 19(1)(d). The freedom to assembly is restricted so as to maintain public order. but these freedoms do not come without certain restrictions. public order or morality. hold and dispose off property Article 19(1)(f) (this freedom was omitted by the 44th Amendment Act 1978) To practice any profession. l Expost facto laws Article 20(1) i) Ex-post laws are those laws which nullified and punished acts which were lawful when done.l l l l l l l l l l l l l l Freedom of speech Article 19(1)(a).

For sometime the courts were of the view that right to life does not include right to livelihood. This however does not apply to those cases where the accused gives evidence without threat. l Article 22 confers a few rights on the person who is arrested i) Shall not be detained without being informed of the grounds of arrest. or inducement.been punished in the first instance.R. ‘Procedure established by law’ in Article 21 would mean.I. State of Kerala 2000 SC and Rudal Shah v. and unreasonable. The procedure must answer to the test of reasonableness. l PROTECTION AGAINST ARREST AND DETENTION ARTICLE 22 l Fundamental rights can be suspended for the period the emergency is proclaimed but the rights under Article20 and 21 cannot be suspended even then. l Self IncriminationArticle20(3) i) Under Article 20(3) no person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself by a person accused of an offence. l Today progressive judicial interpretation of Article 21 has lead it to greater heights in terms of protecting a person’s life and liberty. iii) The prohibition is only on the person being compelled to give evidence against oneself.the procedure must not be arbitrary. Union of India A. unfair. The ‘procedure established by law’ could deprive a person of his right to life and liberty under Article 21. l It would now mean that the procedure must satisfy certain requisites like being fair and reasonable . State of Bihar ii) recognised the Right to Compensation for the violation of Article21. l Some of the areas which shows the widening horizon of Article21 are:Bandua Mukti Morcha v. not mean a law which has only a semblance of law even if it is arbitrary and unreasonable. Under Article39 (a) men and women equally have the l right to adequate means of livelihood. In Hussain v. The courts now have clearly held that right to life would include right to livelihood because no person can live without the means of living or livelihood. .1984 the court held that the bonded laborers were to be released and rehabilitated as it was i) against the principles enunciated by Article21 and also the Directive Principles of State Policy. ii) To be a witness herein would mean to give oral or written statements against oneself in or out of the court out of compulsion. PROTECTION OF LIFE AND LIBERTY ARTICLE 21 Article 21 gives the fundamental right to life and liberty in accordance to procedure established by law. Article 21 is the procedural Magna Carta protective of right to life and liberty and article 22 draws its strength from it.

I.Right to consult a lawyer. ii) This article has been able to achieve only partial prohibition as there are millions of children in our country who are toiling their childhood away without any one even listening to their plight. A. it was seen that child labour was wide spread.R.R.P. foreign iii) affairs.I.1984 the Supreme Court held that it was the fundamental right of every human being to live with human dignity and free from exploitation. iv) In Bandua Mukti Morcha v. Union of India A. or the security of India. iii) Bandua Mukti Morcha v. other forms of forced labour which includes bonded labour. State of T.C. iii) M. The right to consult a lawyer is not lost if he is released on bail. Lack of education and economic conditions so bad that people were willing to work for any amount of money. All these are instances of punitive detention where in a person is i) detained for the wrong caused by him. In case of preventive detention the object of this is to curtail a person’s ii) liberty so that h is prevented from doing anything injurious. Preventive detention is used for the purposes like defence. i) There were socio economic problems that were growing out of the control which was mainly due to poverty. iii) To be produced before a magistrate within 24 hours of his arrest.N. ii) RIGHT AGAINST EXPLOITATION l Prohibition of Traffic in Human Beings and Forced Labour Article 24. 1997 SC this case was concerning the children being employed in the carpet weaving industry in U. The Supreme Court reiterated the direction of the earlier case and prohibited the employment of children below the age of 14 making arrangements for their education by creating a fund and providing employment to the parents or able bodied adults in the family. l Cannot be detained for a period exceeding 24 hours without the authority of the court. and ‘traffic in human beings’ means to buy and sell human beings like property. In this case the directions were given by the Supreme Court in the context of employing children in the cracker and match factories of Sivakasi. and also includes immoral traffic of women. Union of India. . Mehta v. ii) According to this article no person can be forced to work without payment. l Prohibition Of Employment Of Children In Factories Article 24 i) Most of the India’s poor have many children and because the families feel that the family can be supported by the extra income that the child will bring in. child labour is more of an economic problem than any thing else.

caste. conversion by fraud. It was held by the Supreme Court that such practice should not adversely affect the rights of others including those who are not disturbed by their activities. The minority institution may however reserve up to 50% of the seats of the members of its community.The state shall not discriminate against these institutions while granting aid. CULTURAL AND EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS ARTICLE 29 TO ARTICLE 31 l Article 29 protects the interest of minorities: . curtail practices which are not the integral part of the religion.this article provides the minorities the guarantee to conserve their culture. morality.RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF RELIGION ART 25 TO ART 28 l Religion is an integral part in our lives and India being a country where many religions are followed it has been called a Secular state and the people do have a certain amount of religious tolerance but not enough to shun communal violence which is rampant. we have the remedy under Article 32 when it is infringed. Since we have all the Fundamental Rights conferred to us by the Constitution. race. l Enforcement of fundamental rights . language and their script. l Our constitution guarantees to every person not merely to the citizens freedom to profess. l This Right is remedial in nature. RIGHT TO CONSTITUTIONAL REMEDIES l Under Article 32 the right to move the Supreme Court by appropriate proceedings for the enforcement of rights conferred by way of Fundamental Rights is guaranteed. Religious tolerance is one and being fanatic is an other. l The state however has the authority to step in when it has to maintain public order. Not only was their liberty infringed under Article 21 people also have their rights under Article19 (1) (a) wherein they need not be subjected to sounds they do not like. practice but also to carry out religious obligations and propagate religion. language. l Article 30 gives the minorities to establish and administer educational institutions: . The state shall in no manner restrict this right. This right under Article 32 cannot be taken away or abridged by an Act of the legislature unless the Constitution itself is amended. Article states that when the institution is granted aid by the state then no citizen shall be denied admission on basis of religion. Wherein the institution is receiving no aid then they are free in matters of admission. We should try to maintain the secular feature of our constitution. l No Religion states that prayers have to be done with the help of loud speakers or beating of drums.

the Supreme Court has widened its scope by giving relief to prisoners who are subjected to inhuman and cruel treatment in the prison. judicial as well as quasi judicial bodies. l Mandamus is issued when the government denies jurisdiction when it very well has the jurisdiction under law. ii) Mandamus: . Cases where there has been no specific violation of fundamental right also petitions under Article 32 has been entertained. ii) When it is a writ of habeas corpus then any person. bonded labourers. l A discriminatory administrative decision can be squashed by a writ of mandamus iii) Certiorari: . l Though function of this writ is to release a person unlawfully arrested or detained. The court has to be very careful as there are numerous people who will fritter ways the valuable time of the court with frivolous litigation. The Supreme Court insists that when an alternative remedy is available then that remedy should be availed as extraordinary remedies should not be availed when ordinary remedy is available. Today petitions are filed by public spirited persons who take up issues like pavement dwellers.mandamus is used to enforce the performance of public duties by public authorities which are imposed by law. legislative.i) Article 32 is applicable only if there is an infringement of a fundamental right. but that does not mean that the court will not grant relief under Article 32. letters written to the court. l Who can apply i) When ever there has been an infringement of a fundamental right the person aggrieved by such infraction can file a petition. This writ can be issued to administrative bodies. a relative or a friend can file a petition on behalf of the person who has been detained. iii) In case of public interest litigations any member of the public having sufficient interest can file a petition for the persons against whom a legal injury has been caused by a violation of the fundamental rights are incapable of doing so as they are under poverty or socially or economically disadvantaged. l Various writs i) Habeas corpus: -This writ used to secure a person who has been unlawfully detained without a legal justification.The function of certiorari is to squash a decision already . The court has also acted on basis of news paper reports. ii) Under Article 32 the petitioner can challenge not only the validity of the law but can also question executive action. The court permits the use of this writ for protecting the various personal liberties that have been granted to persons who are arrested and prisoners under the various laws and the constitution. iii) The petition has an alternative under article 226. child labour. and child prostitution. l The main function of this writ is to keep the public authorities within their limits of jurisdiction while carrying out their public functions.

The directive principles lay down certain socio-economic goals which the government of India seeks to achieve. Res judicata is not applicable for this writ. v) Prohibition: . Res judicata l Wherein a matter has been resolved under Article 32 between two parties the same matter between the same parties cannot come up under the same Article. If it is found that he is not entitled to that office then the court will restrain him from holding that office and declare that office vacant. l Prohibition is issued when the matter has not been disposed of but being considered by the body concerned. l The function of certiorari is supervisory. This writ requires the holder of a particular public office to show under what authority he is holding that particular office.both prohibition and certiorari are remedies for the judicial control of quasi judicial bodies and administrative decisions affecting the rights. This writ is issued when the authority is acting under an invalid law. l These directives are not enforceable in the court of law. l The writ of Habeas corpus is an exception to this rule. DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY NATURE l Articles 38 to 51 deals with the Directive Principles of State Policy. The reason behind .made by the lower subordinate court or a tribunal. And so it is issued when the body in question has deposed off the matter and rendered the decision. l This writ protects the citizens from the holder of a public office when he is not entitled to it. A writ of Habeas Corpus has been rejected by the High Court a petition can be filed under Article 32 under the same writ. This concept was borrowed from the Irish Constitution. The function of prohibition is to prohibit the body concerned from proceeding with the matter further. l This principle will be applicable even when the High Court has been moved under Article 226 and a fresh petition has been filed under Article 32. iv) Quo warranto: .This writ is used to control executive action in the areas of making appointments to public offices under relevant statutory provisions judicially.

l l l l the non-justiciability of the principles is that they impose positive obligations on the government. When directive principles override the fundamental rights. Then why have them? It was more to have an awakened public opinion. x) To organize agriculture and animal husbandry Article 48. vii) Provision of free and compulsory education for children Article 45. ix) To regard as its primary duty to improve public health and raise nutritional levels and standard of living Article 47. DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES. Both the directive principles and the fundamental rights have to coexist harmoniously. xi) To protect and improve environment safeguard wildlife and forests of the country Article48A. To abide by treaties and international law Article 51. If the Parliament in its capacity of an amending body amends the Constitution. The fundamental rights are justiciable wherein the directive principles are not. 43. xiii) Independence of judiciary from executive Article 50. v) Welfare of the workers . There has to be a harmonious construction between the directive principles and the fundamental rights. l The obligation it imposes upon the State:i) Directs the State to strive for social.and to promote cottage industries on individual or cooperative basis in rural areas Article 42. and economic equality Article 38(1) ii) To minimize inequality of income Article 38(2) iii) To direct its policy towards controlling material resources Article 39 (b) and concentration of wealth in the hands of few Article 39(c). political. vi) To strive for a uniform civil code Article 44. viii) Educational and economic interests for the weaker sections of the people Article 46. xiv) To promote international peace and security and harmonious relations between countries.this affects the entire economic system of our nation. by which a fundamental right is taken away or is abridged the court cannot declare the Constitutional amendment as wrong. the courts have held that it is the fundamental rights that will prevail. The laws made to implement directive principles cannot take away the fundamental rights. l The rights that the directive principles give its citizens. iv) To enable the citizens to have village panchayats Article 40. Though these are .WHAT IT SEEKS TO ACHIEVE l The directive principle seeks to create certain obligations upon the government and at the same time gives certain rights to its citizens. xii) Places of historical interest to be protected Article 49.

unity and integrity of India. ix) To safeguard public property and to abjure violence x) To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavor and achievement. viii) To develop scientific temper. Indian Legislative Structure CENTRAL GOVERNMENT-THE PARLIAMENT CONSTITUTION OF PARLIAMENT l The Indian Parliament is bicameral i. This directive just does not mean primary education but education till the age of 14 years. and to have compassion for living creatures. vii) To protect and improve the natural environment including forests. i) Right to means of livelihood Article 39(a) ii) Equal work for men and women Article 39(d) iii) Health of the workers Article 39(e) iv) Protection against exploitation and moral and material abandonment Article 39(f) v) To get free legal aid Article 39 A vi) To have humane conditions of work and maternity leave Article 42.. humanism and spirit of enquiry and reform. ii) To cherish and follow the noble ideas which inspired our national struggle for freedom iii) To uphold and protect the sovereignty. lakes rivers and wildlife. Respect the national flag and anthem.non-justiciable rights there are statutes which implement these provisions. FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES l Article 51A contains ten Fundamental Duties which were brought in by the i) To abide by the Constitution . It follows a ‘Parliamentary system’.e. having two houses. iv) To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so. linguistic. to renounce practices derogatory to dignity of women. l The Parliament is constituted by the two houses and the President. v) To promote harmony and the spirit of common brother hood amongst all the people of India transcending religious. It consists ‘House of the People’ or the Lok sabha and the ‘Council of States’ which is the upper house or as we know Rajya Sabha. These three organs are important for the . vi) To value the rich heritage of our composite culture. vii) Participation of workers in the management Article 43A. and regional diversities. viii) Compulsory and free education for children Article 45.

iv) There are some members who are elected and some who are nominated. taxes. and revenue and expenditure of the p money. iii) The members continue for a duration of 6 years. iii) 12 members are nominated by the President.process of legislation by the Parliament. l LOK SABHA . iii) The representatives of the State in the Rajya sabha are elected by the elected members of the State Legisla Assembly. v) There is no difference between them except that the nominated members of the Rajya sabha do not partici the election of the President of India. social sciences. ii) Should not be less than 30 years of age iii) Should possess other qualifications that Parliament may by law prescribe. l Duration i) 1/3rd of the members retire at the end of the second year. Should not hold office of profit under the government. A person cannot be a member for both the houses of the Parliament. art. ii) 238 members are elected representatives of the States and Union Territories. It is also responsible for the legislations. COMPOSITION OF THE RAJYA SABHA AND LOK SABHA:l Rajya Sabha i) The Council of States is a permanent body. as it Parliamentary system. l It is the Parliament that tries to maintain a balance between the executive actions and the legislations. l Disqualification i) ii) iii) iv) Corrupt practices during elections Conviction for an offence leading to imprisonment for more than two or more years. l Qualification i) Should be a citizen of India. ii) The Rajya sabha is not subjected to dissolution as it is a continuing body. l Membership i) The maximum strength of the Rajya sabha has been fixed at 250 members. ii) The Vice-President is the ex-officio chair man of the Rajya Sabha. who have special or practical knowledge of subjects like lite science.

l Duration i) ii) iii) iv) The Lok sabha is not a continuing body.i) The members of the Lok sabha are directly elected by the people. The life of the Lok sabha can be extended when there is a proclaimed emergency. so effectively it is the Prime minister and the Council of Ministers that constitute the Executive. l Membership i) Not more than 530 members are representatives of the state. EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS OF THE CENTRE WORKING OF EXECUTIVE The Union Executive consists of the President. Elections may be held to constitute new Lok sabha before that is done the existing Lok sabha is dissolved The house shall continue for a period of 5 years. iii) Not more than 2 members belonging to the Anglo-Indian community. and the Council Of Ministers. l Disqualification i) ii) iii) iv) Must not be of unsound mind. Though the Constitution gives a lot of functions to the President he actually does not do so without the consultation of the ministers. PRESIDENT l Qualifications For Election As The President-Article58 i) Should be a citizen of India ii) Should have completed 35 years of age iii) Should be qualified for election as a member of the House Of The People iv) Should not hold any office of profit under the Central Government or any of the State Governments. ii) The Speaker is the Chief Officer of the Lok sabha. iii) The Speaker and the Deputy Speaker are chosen by the house amongst the members itself. Should not be discharged or insolvent. It can be dissolved earlier by the President. If should not hold an office of profit. Voluntarily acquired the citizenship or acknowledges the allegiance to another country. ii) Not more than 20 representatives of the union territories. . l Qualification i) A citizen of India ii) Not less than 25 years of age. Prime minister.

l The exercise of the supreme military power can be regulated by an Act of Parliament. Attorney-General. the President can suspend the enforcement fundamental rights. maintaining order. His/her accent is also required for the amendment of the Constitution. l Re-election as President i) The Constitution lays no restrictions on the reelection of the same person to the office of the President. ii) Even after the term expires he continues as President till his successor takes over. and give respites (postpone the execution of a punishment to the future). the Commis investigate the conditions of Backward Classes. ii) Administrative powers:l Appoints the Prime Minister. S/he receives international dignitaries and also represents India . promoting social and economic welfare. and commutation (changing the punishment). S/he can refuse to give acc and send it back for reconsideration. the Judges of the Supreme Court. ii) President is elected by an electoral college which consists of the elected members of both the Houses Parliament and the State Legislative Assemblies. public health. iii) The President may resign by giving in writing addressed to the Vice-President iv) In the event of the death. has to have the accent of the President. l Powers Of The President i) Executive powers:l Initiation of legislation. iii) Legislative powers l Every Bill in order to become a law. education transport. iii) Dr. the Ministers of the Union. welf industrial workers. the Fina Commission. remit punishments (reduce the amount of punishments without changing the punishment). l This military power is exercised in accordance with the Constitution. l Salary i) The salary of the President is Rs. vi) The President is the head of the state. Chief-Justice. In case of the proclamation of an emergency. iv) Powers dealing with defence:l S/he is the supreme commander of the forces. resignation or removal of the President the Vice-President shall act as the Pre until a new President is elected. The executive power vested in the President has to be exercise accordance with the Constitution. Chairman and Members of the Union Public Service.l Manner In Which The President Is Elected.Article55 i) The President of India is not directly elected by the people but by indirect election. ii) He may be elected many numbers of terms. Rajendra Prasad the first President of India was elected twice from 26th January 1950 to 1962.50. Election Commissioner.000 per month. issue ordinances during the recess of the Parliament and can disso the Parliament and convene joint sessions. iii) Election is done in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of a single transferable vote by secret ballot. l Tenure Of The President i) 5 years from the time he enters upon his office. v) Judicial powers:l Can grant pardons. reprieves (temporary suspension of a punishment fixed by law). the Chief Election Commissioner.

President acts as the president when the president is unable to carry out his duties due to illn i) absence. He appoints a minister and can als compel the resignation of the minister. l If a minister within the period of 6 months is not a member of either house of the Parliament ceases to be a . Election is done in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote by secret ballot. iii) Cannot be a member of the Parliament and the State Legislature. VICE-PRESIDENT l The Vice-President is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. resignation or removal of the President the V l President shall act as the President until a new President is elected. COUNCIL OF MINISTERS l The total number of the ministers including the Prime Minister in the Council of Ministers should not excee of the total number of members in the House of People. ii) 35 years of age. l Qualification:i) A citizen of India. The Constitution states that the Prime Minister is the head of the Council of Ministers. Where in the whole m will be treated like a single entity on matters relating to policies as far as being answerable to the parliamen President shall act in accordance to the aid and advice given by the council of ministers but the President ca always ask the Council of Ministers to reconsider such advice. The ministers hold office at the pleasure of the Pre l The Council of Ministers has ‘collective responsibility’ towards the house of people. l Elected:The Vice. The entire functioning of the parliament depends upon the Prime Minister. If the office of the President falls vacant In the event of death. iii) He may also be removed by a resolution by members of the Rajya Sabha and agreed to by the Lok sabh PRIME MINISTER l l l l l l l Since it is a parliamentary form of government the Prime minister have a very important role to play. The Prime Minister is the link between the President and the Ministers. vii) The present President of India is Smt. l Tenure:i) 5 years from the date he enters upon his office. ii) He may resign his office by writing to the President. Vice-President is elected by an electoral college which consists of the elected members of both the Hou ii) Parliament.internationally. The President may be the Head of State but practically it seems that the Prime Minister is the Head of Stat When ever the Prime Minister resigns the entire council of ministers also resign. iv) Should be qualified to be elected as a member of the Rajya Sabha. He is the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha and also of the Council Of Ministers. Pratibha Patil.

ATTORNEY GENERAL OF INDIA –Article 76 l l l A person qualified to be appointed as the judge of the Supreme Court shall be appointed as the Attorney G of India. ii) The total number of judges 25. l Appointment of Judges:i) The Judge of the Supreme Court is appointed by the President of India. iii) The judges of the Supreme Court hold office at the pleasure of the President. It is the senior most Judge of the Supreme Court who is appointed as the Chief Justice.minister. etc It is the sole tribunal to decide matters regarding Centre State relationship and inter -State disputes. iii) Discharge functions conferred to him by the Constitution.I. criminal. It is the final court of appeal in all matters. vii) The Supreme Court has since held that as a matter of rule only the senior most Judge shall be appointe . On two occasio vi) rule was flouted. constitutional.R. Ray was appointed and when he retired Justice Khanna was superceded and Justice Beg was appointed. ii) Perform such duties assigned to him by the President. v) The Constitution does not give any procedure for the appointment of the Chief Justice. Union of India. l l FIRST WOMAN JUDGE OF SUPREME COURT M FATIMA BEEVI (1989) FIRST LAWYER:.CORNELIA SORABJEE (1924) COMPOSITION l Number of Judges:i) Article124 of the Constitution of India provides for the Chief Justice of India. In S.C. The age of retirement is 65. civil. A. SUPREME COURT It is the protector of fundamental rights of the people in exercise of its original as well as appellate jurisdiction It is the ultimate authority to interpret the provisions of the Constitution. 1994 SC The court held that the number of judge iii) should commensurate to the amount of work otherwise the judiciary cannot perform its Constitutional obligations. ii) The Judge of the Supreme Court is appointed by the President of India. Holds office at the pleasure of the President. first when Justice A. Functions of the Attorney General i) To give advice to the Government of India on legal matters. Advocates on Board v. N. The President should consult the Chief Justice of India in the appointment of a Judge other than the Ch iv) Justice of India.

orders or writs. l Appellate jurisdiction Articles 132 to 136 deal with Appellate Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in Constitutional. viii) Hon’ble Mr. it is empowered to issue directions.the Chief Justice of India.. They are Original Appellate Advisory Jurisdiction. Kania was the first Chief Justice of India from 26th Jan. subject to the . final order or sentence in criminal proceeding. The process of removal of a Judge under Article124 (4) was invoked only once against Justice Ramasw iv) in 1991 but turned out in favour of the judge despite support for removal by the committee and the me bar. The removal is a Parliamentary procedure and no subject to judicial intervention unless it has resulted iii) removal of the Judge wherein the finding has to be supported by the Inquiry Committee and also subje the judicial review. l Salary The salary of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Rs 33. POWER TO REVIEW l Under Article137 the Supreme Court can review its own judgments. ii) It deals with appeals involving interpretation of the statutes and also regarding civil matters iii) Article134 empowers the Supreme Court to hear appeals from any judgment. iii) The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction under Article32 regarding the enforcement of Fundamenta Rights.000 and other Judges of the supreme court i) 30.000 JURISDICTION OF POWERS l The Constitution of India grants the Supreme Court three types of Jurisdiction. and the Parliamentarians. It is a court of criminal appeal over the High Courts and creates a right of second l Advisory jurisdiction i) The Supreme Court has advisory jurisdiction in matters which may specifically be referred to it by the President of India under Article143 of the Constitution. 1950 . Justice Hiralal J. l Original Jurisdiction i) Under Article131 the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court extends to any dispute between the Ce and the State. ii) The Supreme Court is not a court of original jurisdiction in all matters between parties. Civil and i) Criminal cases.6th Nov ix) The present Chief Justice is l Qualification of a Supreme Court Judge Article124(3) i) Must be a citizen of India ii) Five years as the Judge of the High court in India iii) Advocate of ten years standing iv) Or in the opinion of the President an eminent jurist l Removal i) A Judge of the Supreme Court can be removed by an order of the President ii) The Presidents power to remove is exercisable only after an address to each House of Parliament.

The others come under the different State H iv) Courts. vii) The salary of the Chief Justice of the High Court is Rs 30. who is a woman or a child or a mentally ill or otherwise a disabled person or an industrial workm entitled to get free legal aid from the Supreme Court Legal Aid Committee. and Calcutta High Court. the Gauhati High Court. and Calcutta High Court.provisions of any law made by Parliament or any rules made by the Supreme Court under Article145. l The Chief Justice And The Judges i) Each High Court comprises of a Chief Justice and other judges as the President may appoint. by either filing a writ petition or by addressing a lette Chief Justice of India. the Nanital High Court (Uttaranchal) and the Bilaspur High Court v) (Chattisgrah) are High Courts which were establishd in 2000. is a victim to a natur calamity. PUBLIC INTEREST LITIGATION l l l l The Supreme Court as started looking into matters in which the interest of public at large is involved. The Ranchi High Court (Jharkand). The Chief Justice of the High Court is appointed by the President in consultation with the Chief Justice ii) India and the Governor of the State. There are eighteen High Courts in the country and three of these High Courts have jurisdiction for mor ii) one State. Like the Bombay High Court.000 JURISDICTION . HIGH COURTS COMPOSITION OF HIGH COURT l The High Courts i) The High Court is the Head of the State’s judicial administration. There are eighteen High Courts in the country and three of these High Courts have jurisdiction for mor iii) one State.000 and the Judges it is Rs 26. the Gauhati High Court. Like the Bombay High Court. This concept is called the ‘Public Interest Litigation’ This concept is unique to the Supreme Court of India as no other court in the world excises this extraordin jurisdiction. Among the Union Territories only Delhi has a High Court . The court can be moved by any individual or group. PROVISION FOR LEGAL AID l If a person belonging to the poor section of the society or the schedule caste or tribe. v) They hold office until the age of 62 years and are removable in the same manner as the Supreme Cour To be legible for appointment as judge one must be a citizen of India and have held judicial office in I vi) for ten years or must have practiced as an Advocate of a High Court for a similar period. iii) THE FIRST WOMAN CHIEF JUSTICE OF A HIGH COURT LEILA SETH (1991) iv) The Chief Justice can also be from another State.

The membership of the Legislative Council is not from territorial constituencies as in the Legislative l Assemblies but by nomination. Or any other legal right it can be exercised even against the Legislature. The minimum number members in the Legislative Assembly should be 60 and the maximum should l 500. or if the Council makes certain amendments to which the Assembly does not agre l A Money Bill shall not be introduced in the Legislative Council. No member shall be the member of the Council and the Assembly at the same time and no member c l the member of the Assembly and the Parliament. ii) Legislative Assembly l The members are elected directly by the people in the State. l But if passed by the Assembly and not by the Council then it lapses. and Madras and Andhra Pradesh continue to have admiralty jurisd WRIT JURISDICTION l l Article226 confers upon the High Courts of India to issue to any person or authority orders or writs for the enforcement of the Fundamental Rights. But the total number of members shall not be le than 40. The Legislative Council (Vidhan Parishad) and the Legislative Assembly (vidhan sabha). ii) In the States of Bihar. A non. l FUNCTION i) Legislative Council and Legislative Assembly l When there are two Houses then the Bill has to be passed by both the Houses. or the abolition of the Legislative Council shall not be considered the Amendment of th iv) Constitution. The High Courts of Calcutta. iii) In all the other States there is only one House which is the Legislative Assembly. Maharastra. l COMPOSITION i) Legislative Council The total number of members in the Legislative Council of a State shall not exceed 1/3 of the total nu l of members in the Legislative Assembly of the State. The creation of. .l l The High Courts have Appellate Jurisdiction and is empower to supervise all courts under its appellate Bill may become an act without the consent of the Legislative Council if the Legislati l Assembly passes the Bill and the Council fails to pass it within three months from the date the Bill w before the Council. Madhya Pradesh. l They are elected once in every five years. Bombay. Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh the legislature is bica where in the States have two houses. When the assembly is dissolved and the Bill pending in the Legislative Council which has not been p l by the Legislative Assembly does not lapse. STATE GOVERNMENT l CONSTITUTION i) The State legislature shall consist of the Governor.

French. Official Languages. Like the Parliament both the Houses perform the function of discussing and debating public issues. At present. and Advocate General of the State. l The Governor is the Head of the State as well as the link between the Centre and the State so as to ensure a smooth functioning of the Constitutional Machinery. Taiwan and Vatican City are not the members.English. Under Article163 the Mini l have no right to advice the Governor in relation to the functions he has to carry on under Constitution to exe his discretion. Sometimes two or more States may have a common Governor. THE UNITED NATIONS ORGANISATION (UNO) The United Nation Organisation came into existence on 24th October 1945. l FUNCTIONS OF THE GOVERNOR l FIRST WOMAN GOVERNOR:-SAROJINI NAIDU (1947) l Each State has a Governor. There is no specific qualification required to be the Chief Minis l State. but may send 5 representatives. there are 192 members in the UNO. The assembly meets at least once in a year. l controlling the State Government.SUCHETA KRIPLANI (1963) The Governor appoints the Chief Minister. Roosevelt. and Chinese (Mandarin) The Principal Organs of the UNO The principal organs of the UNO are: 1. and control of elections. Russian. THE CHIEF MINISTER AND THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS l FIRST WOMAN CHIEF MINISTER:. 2003. Headquarter. summoning. Each state one vote. Vatican City is the permanent observer for the UN.The General Assembly consists of representatives of the member nations. General Assembly . Article164(1-A) the total number of the Ministers l including the Chief Minister and the Council of Ministers should not exceed fifteen percent of the total num the memberd of the Legislative Assembly. Special sessions may . appointment of members of the State Public Service Commission. He is formally appointed by the President. New York City-10017.First Avenue at 46th Street. the Money B shall be deemed to have been passed by both the Houses. l superintendence and direction. By the Constitution (Ninety-first Amendment) act. He maintains peace and tranquility of the State. dissolving the State Legislative Assembly. Spanish. UN Plaza. looking into policies.Whether the Assembly accepts or does not accept the recommendations of the Council.The name was devised by the then US President Franklin D. The Governor can dismiss the Ministers and dissolve the Legislative Assembly. He only has to be the leader of the majority party. Arabic.

UNDP is the UN‘s global development network advocating change and connecting countries to share knowledge and resources which helps build a better countries across the globe. the High commissioner of Refugees and the Managing Director of funds is appointed b General Assembly. 4. However the Secretary General. Kurt Waldheim (Austria) 1972-81 5. Boutros Boutros Ghali (Egypt) 1992-96 7.There are 5 permanent and 10 n permanent members. educational. appointed for a 9 year term. The 5 permanent members are USA. The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) . social.The Charter of the UN provides for an international trusteeship system to safeguar interests of the inhabitants of territories which are not yet fully self-governing and which may have been p thereunder by individual trusteeship agreements. UNICEF concentra activities on providing assistance to children and mothers in developing countries. health and related matters. the Chief Administrative Officer of the organis and an international staff appointed by him under the regulations of the General Assembly. The Secretariat . Trusteeship Council . The Economic Social council consists of 54 member States elected by a two-thirds majority of the General Assembly. UN Secretary Generals 1. aiming at improving th quality of life. as a children’s fund. Javier Perez De Gueller (Peru) 1982-91 6.The International Court of Justice was created by an international treaty. The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) – UNESCO was founded on 16 November 1945 to assist developing countries in their educational projects. Dag Hammarskjold (Sweden) 1953-61 3. 5.It is composed of the Secretary General. cultural.It consists of 15 members. UNESCO is headquartered at Paris France. Trygve Lie (Norway) 1946-53 2. on a request by the Security Council. 4. UNICEF is headquartered at New York. UK. the statute Court. Kofi Annan (Ghana) 1997-2007 8. each of which has one vote. to help the countries in scient development and to build cultural understanding between the nations. 3. 2. US. U Thant (Burma) 1961-71 4. International Court .till date Specific UN Agencies and their Headquarters 1. The expenses of the Court are borne by the UN 6. France and China. The permanent members have the p to veto any decision. US. The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) – UNICEF was initially set up in 1946 as an emergency provide post-war relief to children in different countries. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) – IMF is an international organisation having 184 member count was established in 1945 to promote international monetary co-operation and exchange stability between n . UNDP is headquartered at N York. Today. The 10 non perm members are elected by the General Assembly for a period of 2 years. 3.It is responsible under the General Assembly for carrying out the functio the UN with regard to international. which forms an integral part of the UN charter. 2. and all the members are ipso facto parties to the sta the court.summoned by the Secretary General. Ban Ki Moon (South Korea) 2007. There are 15 judges. Economic and Social Council . Security Council . Presently it has offices in 166 member countries. Russia.

It is headquartered at Geneva. 9. It is headquartered at Gene Switzerland. 4. US. Belgium. Indonesia. For the entire list of members go to http://www. 12. The World Trade Organisation (WTO) – WTO was formed as an international trade body to replace Gene Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) in 1995. The International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) – ICAO was set up in 1944. 7. It is presently headquartered at Gen Switzerland. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD. 13.htm The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) – IAEA was set up in 1957. IMF also provide temporary financial assistance to its member countries to ease their balance of payment. The International Finance Corporation (IFC) – IFC is an affiliate of the World Bank. 10. The International Labor Organisation (ILO) – ILO was set uo in 1919. which in turn would promote economic growth and increase employment opportunities. Switzerland.H. The Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) – FAO was set up in 1945. Austria. US. 6.O was set up in 1946. The INTERPOL – It is headquartered at Lyon. Switzerland. 7. The World Health Organisation (WHO) – W. It is headquartered at Berne. Canada. The Organisation of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) – It is . Cape Verde has been the most recent member of the since 23 July 2008. The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) – It is headquartered at Brussels. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) – ITU was set up in 1932. It is headquartered at Montreal. IMF is headquar at Washington DC. It is headquartere INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES AND THEIR HEADQUARTERS 1. 2. It is presently headquartere Vienna. exporters and importers conduct thei business. It is presently headquartered a Rome. Presently W Bank has 184 member countries and is headquartered at Washinton DC. Belgium. WTO is the only international body dealing with rules trade between the countries to help producers of goods and services. Italy. 11. The Universal Postal Union (UPU) – UPU was set up in 1875. The European Union (EU) – It is headquartered at Brussels.5. The Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) – It is headquartered at Vienna. US. France 5. It is headquartered at Geneva. 3. commonly known as the World Ban The ‘World Bank’ was formed after the Bretton Woods conference in 1944. 14. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) – IMO was set up in 1948. Phillipines. Austria. 8. 15. but begun operations in 1946 aims at providing financial and technical assistance to developing countries around the World. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) – It is headquartered at Manila. The Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) – It is headquartered at Jakarta. and was set up in 19 is headquartered at Washinton DC.wto. Switzerland.

hat-trick. dribble. short jenny. tricks. tripping Golf Best ball. stick. hook. ii. gully trick. dealer. cue hazard. Champions Trophy. grand slam. iii. Federation Cup. queen. let. checkmate. crease. US Open Championships. off side. castle. scratch. links. volley Volleyball Blocking. popping crease. jab lying on. Cup. service. no ball. Tennis – ATP Masters. vi. corner. doubling. Confederations Cup. F Open Championships. LBW. sixer. . Asia Cup. The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) – It is headquartered at Kathmandu. ICC World Cup.Naidu Trophy. Spanish LA Liga. Italian Serie A. Nepal. German Bundeslga. 9.headquartered at Kuwait. free kick. Uber Cup. blocking. smash. love all. tee Hockey Bully. fairway. rubber. long jenny. hit wicket. Badminton – Thomas Cup. finesse. dribble. cover drive. dummy. and UEFA Cup. boundary. striking circle. held ball. Davis Cup. knight. The Red Cross – It is headquartered at Geneva. spin. penalty kick. bunker. Ryder Cup. no trump. fourball. Australian Open Championships. Duleep Trophy. wicket Football Corner kick. spot stroke Babit punch. dormy. Champions Trophy. stumped. leg break. weight in. Hockey – Agha Khan Cup. tie bre Table Tennis Deuce. greed holes. Sultan Azlan Shah Trophy. and Wimbeldon Championships. offside. Dhyan Chand Trophy. drop. half volley. Irani Trophy. king. put. pivot Bauik line. pawn. break. cut. throw in. dribbling. duck. rook. forehand. on drive. ground stroke. C. double fault. knock. Switzerland. scoop. silly point. caddie. crosscourt. Merdeka Cup. Champions Cup. Bridge vulnerable Chess Bishop. Ranji Trophy. FIFA World Cup. Durand Cup. holding. ro stymied. smash Basket. chinaman. free throw. Golf – British Open. caught. smash Tennis Backhand stroke. square leg. volley IMPORTANT CUPS AND TROPHIES i. roll-in. and World Cup. run out. short corner. and Walker Cup. County Championships. niblic. jump ball. cannon. maiden over.K. US Open. par. leg bye. stalemate Cricket Ashes. off break. drop. fault. bolting. straight drive. double fault. Cricket – Ashes. revoke. over pitch. hat-trick. little slam. English Premier League. Football – African Nations Cup. follow on. heave. love point. and W v. goal kick. let. iv. bogey. upper cut. slam. rubber. Santosh Trophy. gambit. screwback. suit. deuce. knockou Chicane. googly. slice. and Sheffield Shield Cup. let. Commonly Used Sports Terminologies Sport Badminton Basketball Billiards Boxing Terms associated with sports disciplines Deuce. NFL Cup. defence. 8. Federation Cup. Gava Border Trophy. bowling.

Louis London Stockholm Antwerp Paris Amsterdam Los Angeles Berlin London Helsinki Melbourne Rome Tokyo Mexico City Munich Montreal Moscow Los Angeles Seoul Barcelona Atlanta Sydney Athens Beijing London (scheduled) .Years & Venues of Major Sports Olympic Games Year 1896 1900 1904 1908 1912 1920 1924 1928 1932 1936 1948 1952 1956 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2012 Commonwealth Games Year 1930 1934 1938 1950 Venue Hamilton London Sydney Auckland Place Athens Paris St.

1954 1958 1962 1966 1970 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 Asian Games Year 1951 1954 1958 1962 1966 1970 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 Cricket World Cup Year 1975 Vancouver Cardiff Perth Jamaica Edinburgh Christchurch Edmonton Brisbane Edinburgh Auckland Victoria Kuala Lumpur Manchester Melbourne Delhi (scheduled) Venue New Delhi Manila Tokyo Jakarta Bangkok Bangkok (originally had to be hosted by Seoul) Tehran Bangkok (originally had to be hosted by Karachi) New Delhi Seoul Beijing Hiroshima Bangkok Busan Doha Guangzhou (scheduled) Venue England Winner West Indies Runner-up Australia .

India Winner Pakistan Netherlands India Pakistan Pakistan Australia Netherlands Pakistan Netherlands Germany Germany Runner-up Spain India Pakistan Netherlands West Germany England Pakistan Netherlands Spain Australia Australia Scheduled Football World Cup Year 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 Venue West Germany Argentina Spain Mexico Italy USA France South Korea & Japan Germany Winner West Germany Argentina Italy Argentina West Germany Brazil France Brazil Italy Runner-up Netherlands Netherlands West Germany West Germany Argentina Italy Brazil Germany France . Malaysia Buenos Aires. Germany New Delhi. Malaysia Monchengladbach. India London. England Lahore. The Netherlands Kuala Lumpur. The Netherlands Kuala Lumpur. Pakistan Sydney. Zimbabwe & Kenya West Indies Indian Subcontinent Australia & New Zealand West Indies India Australia Pakistan Sri Lanka Australia Australia Australia England West Indies England England Australia Pakistan India Sri Lanka Scheduled Venue Barcelona. Argentina Mumbai. Australia Utrecht.1979 1983 1987 1992 1996 1999 2003 2007 2011 2015 Hockey World Cup Year 1971 1973 1975 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 England England Indian Subcontinent Australia & New Zealand Indian Subcontinent England South Africa. Spain Amstelveen.

2010 2014 Tennis Grand Slams Australian Open Year 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 French Open Year 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 South Africa South America Scheduled Men’s Title Winner Runner-up Rafael Nadal Roger Federer (Spain) (Switzerland) Novak Djokovic Jo-Wilfried Tsonga (Serbia) (France) Roger Federer Fernando Gonzalez (Switzerland) (Chile) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Marat Safin (Russia) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Marcos Baghdatis (Cyprus) Lleyton Hewitt (Australia) Marat Safin (Russia) Women’s Title Winner Runner-up Serena Williams Dinara Safina (USA) (Russia) Maria Sharapova Ana Ivanovic (Russia) (Serbia) Serena Williams Maria Sharapova (USA) (Russia) Justine Henin-Hardene Amelie Mauresmo (France) (Belgium) Serena Williams Lindsay Davenport (USA) (USA) Justine Henin-Hardene Kim Clijsters (Belgium) (Belgium) Men’s Title Winner Runner-up Roger Federer Robin Soderling (Switzerland) (Sweden) Rafael Nadal Roger Federer (Spain) (Switzerland) Rafael Nadal Roger Federer (Spain) (Switzerland) Rafael Nadal Roger Federer (Spain) (Switzerland) Rafael Nadal Mariano Puerta (Spain) (Argentina) Women’s Title Winner Runner-up Svetlana Kuznetsova Dinara Safina (Russia) (Russia) Ana Ivanovic Dinara Safina (Serbia) (Russia) Justine Henin-Hardene Ana Ivanovic (Belgium) (Serbia) Justine Henin-Hardene Svetlana Kuznetsova (Belgium) (Russia) Justine Henin-Hardene Mary Pierce (Belgium) (France) Wimbledon Open Year Men’s Title Women’s Title .

2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Winner Roger Federer (Switzerland) Rafael Nadal (Spain) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Runner-up Andy Roddick (USA) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Rafael Nadal (Spain) Andy Roddick (USA) Andy Roddick (USA) Andy Roddick (USA) Winner Serena Williams (USA) Venus Williams (USA) Venus Williams (USA) Amelie Mauresmo (France) Venus Williams (USA) Maria Sharapova (Russia) Runner-up Venus Williams (USA) Serena Williams (USA) Marion Bartoli (France) Justine Henin-Hardene (Belgium) Lindsay Davenport (USA) Serena Williams (USA) U. The games were first played in the ancient Greek kingdom of Elis to honour Zeus. Switzerland. It was only after 1500 years.S. the Greek god of Sky and Thunder. 1894 Baron and his associates decided to make the games a regular sporting event and created the International Olympic Committee (IOC). in 1892 that revival of games was undertaken by Baron Pierre de Coubretin. In June. Olympics were first started in 776 BC in Greece.Open Year 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Men’s Title Winner Runner-up Roger Federer Andy Murray (Switzerland) (United Kingdom) Roger Federer Novak Djokovic (Switzerland) (Serbia) Roger Federer Andy Roddick (Switzerland) (USA) Roger Federer Andre Agassi (Switzerland) (USA) Roger Federer Lleyton Hewitt (Switzerland) (Australia) Women’s Title Winner Runner-up Serena Williams Jelena Janković (USA) (Serbia) Justine Henin-Hardene Svetlona Kuznetsova (Belgium) (Russia) Maria Sharapova Justine Henin-Hardene (Russia) (Belgium) Kim Clijsters Mary Pierce (Belgium) (France) Svetlona Kuznet sova Elena Dementieva (Russia) (Russia) The Olympics The oldest and the largest sporting event in the World. Olympic Symbol (five rings) The Olympic Symbol comprises of five rings linked together to represent sporting . But after the initial games in 776 BC. they became an irregular feature and were restricted only to Greece. the IOC is headqutered at Laussane. Presently.

Started in 1930. America.friendship amongst countries. Africa. These games are held every four years between the years of the Olympic Games. It was in 1978 that the present name of the Commonwelth Games was adopted. Louis London Stockholm Antwerp Paris Amsterdam Los Angeles Berlin London Helsinki Melbourne Rome Tokyo Mexico City Munich Montreal Moscow Los Angeles Seoul Barcelona Atlanta Sydney Athens Beijing London (scheduled) The Commonwealth Games are the second largest sporting event in the World after Olympics. . The table below gives the details of the Commonwealth Games till date. The games were not held from 1939 till 1949. The rings represent the five continents – Europe. The games involve atheletes from Commonwealth Nations (majority erstwhile colonies of the British). the games were originally called the British Empire Games. Year 1896 1900 1904 1908 1912 1920 1924 1928 1932 1936 1948 1952 1956 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2012 Commonwealth Games Place Athens Paris St. Asia and Australia.

The table below gives the details of Asian Games till date. India played a leading role in starting an event for the Asian nations. also called the Asiad. Year 1951 1954 1958 1962 1966 1970 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 Venue New Delhi Manila Tokyo Jakarta Bangkok Bangkok (originally had to be hosted by Seoul) Tehran Bangkok (originally had to be hosted by Karachi) New Delhi Seoul Beijing Hiroshima . The motto of the Asian Games is ‘Ever Onward’. is a sporting event on the lines of the Olympic Games held every four years among atheletes from all over Asia.Year 1930 1934 1938 1950 1954 1958 1962 1966 1970 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 Asian Games Venue Hamilton London Sydney Auckland Vancouver Cardiff Perth Jamaica Edinburgh Christchurch Edmonton Brisbane Edinburgh Auckland Victoria Kuala Lumpur Manchester Melbourne Delhi (scheduled) The Asian Games.

Year 1975 1979 1983 1987 1992 1996 1999 2003 2007 2011 2015 Hockey World Cup Venue England England England Indian Subcontinent Australia & New Zealand Indian Subcontinent England South Africa. Zimbabwe & Kenya West Indies Indian Subcontinent Australia & New Zealand Winner West Indies West Indies India Australia Pakistan Sri Lanka Australia Australia Australia Runner-up Australia England West Indies England England Australia Pakistan India Sri Lanka Scheduled The Hockey World Cup is a premier international field hockey competition organised by the International Hockey Federation (FIH) once every four years. The table below gives the details of each World Cup held till date. The tournament was started in 1971.1998 2002 2006 2010 Cricket World Cup Bangkok Busan Doha Guangzhou (scheduled) The Cricket World Cup is a premier international championship for one day cricket in the world. The table below gives the details of the World Cups held till date. Year 1971 1973 1975 1978 1982 1986 Venue Barcelona. The International Cricket Council (ICC) and is contested by all Test playing nations (presently 10) plus the qualifying teams. The event is organised once every four years by the sport’s governing body. Argentina Mumbai. England Winner Pakistan Netherlands India Pakistan Pakistan Australia Runner-up Spain India Pakistan Netherlands West Germany England . Spain Amstelveen. India London. The Netherlands Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia Buenos Aires.

French Open (held at Paris.1990 Lahore. The table below gives details of the last ten World Cups. Germany 2010 New Delhi. Pakistan 1994 Sydney. Year Venue 1974 West Germany 1978 Argentina 1982 Spain 1986 Mexico 1990 Italy 1994 USA 1998 France 2002 South Korea & Japan 2006 Germany 2010 South Africa 2014 South America Tennis Grand Slams Winner West Germany Argentina Italy Argentina West Germany Brazil France Brazil Italy Runner-up Netherlands Netherlands West Germany West Germany Argentina Italy Brazil Germany France Scheduled The tables below give the last five year championship winners for four major Tennis Grand Slams viz Australian Open (held at Melbourne). Australian Open Year 2009 2008 Men’s Title Winner Runner-up Rafael Nadal Roger Federer (Spain) (Switzerland) Novak Djokovic Jo-Wilfried Tsonga (Serbia) (France) Women’s Title Winner Runner-up Serena Williams Dinara Safina (USA) (Russia) Maria Sharapova Ana Ivanovic (Russia) (Serbia) . The Netherlands 2002 Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia 2006 Monchengladbach.S. India Football World Cup Netherlands Pakistan Netherlands Germany Germany Pakistan Netherlands Spain Australia Australia Scheduled The Football/Soccer World Cup is an international football competition contested by the national teams of the member nations of Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). also called Roland Garros). but could not be held in 1942 and 1946 due to World War II. New York). Australia 1998 Utrecht. Open (held at Flushing Meadows. The tournament started in 1930 and is held every four years. Wimbledon (held at Wimbledon. near London) and U.

2007 2006 2005 2004 Roger Federer (Switzerland) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Marat Safin (Russia) Roger Federer (Switzerland) Fernando Gonzalez (Chile) Marcos Baghdatis (Cyprus) Lleyton Hewitt (Australia) Marat Safin (Russia) Serena Williams (USA) Amelie Mauresmo (France) Serena Williams (USA) Justine Henin-Hardene (Belgium) Maria Sharapova (Russia) Justine Henin-Hardene (Belgium) Lindsay Davenport (USA) Kim Clijsters (Belgium) French Open Year 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 Men’s Title Winner Runner-up Roger Federer Robin Soderling (Switzerland) (Sweden) Rafael Nadal Roger Federer (Spain) (Switzerland) Rafael Nadal Roger Federer (Spain) (Switzerland) Rafael Nadal Roger Federer (Spain) (Switzerland) Rafael Nadal Mariano Puerta (Spain) (Argentina) Women’s Title Winner Svetlana Kuznetsova (Russia) Ana Ivanovic (Serbia) Justine Henin-Hardene (Belgium) Justine Henin-Hardene (Belgium) Justine Henin-Hardene (Belgium) Runner-up Dinara Safina (Russia) Dinara Safina (Russia) Ana Ivanovic (Serbia) Svetlana Kuznetsova (Russia) Mary Pierce (France) Wimbledon Open Year 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Men’s Title Winner Runner-up Roger Federer Andy Roddick (Switzerland) (USA) Rafael Nadal Roger Federer (Spain) (Switzerland) Roger Federer Rafael Nadal (Switzerland) (Spain) Roger Federer Andy Roddick (Switzerland) (USA) Roger Federer Andy Roddick (Switzerland) (USA) Roger Federer Andy Roddick (Switzerland) (USA) Women’s Title Winner Runner-up Serena Williams Venus Williams (USA) (USA) Venus Williams Serena Williams (USA) (USA) Venus Williams Marion Bartoli (USA) (France) Amelie Mauresmo Justine Henin-Hardene (France) (Belgium) Venus Williams Lindsay Davenport (USA) (USA) Maria Sharapova Serena Williams (Russia) (USA) .

area King Khaled International Airport. Kuala Lumpur. IN THE WORLD Airport Animal Largest Tallest Largest & Heaviest Fastest Bay With max.09m) Blue Whale (190 tonnes) Cheetah (Approximately 100 km/hr) Hudson Bay Bay of Bengal Over the Royal Gorge of the Arakansas river. shore line With max. Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) Giraffe (Average height 6.Open Year 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Men’s Title Winner Runner-up Roger Federer Andy Murray (Switzerland) (United Kingdom) Roger Federer Novak Djokovic (Switzerland) (Serbia) Roger Federer Andy Roddick (Switzerland) (USA) Roger Federer Andre Agassi (Switzerland) (USA) Roger Federer Lleyton Hewitt (Switzerland) (Australia) Women’s Title Winner Runner-up Serena Williams Jelena Janković (USA) (Serbia) Justine Henin-Hardene Svetlona Kuznetsova (Belgium) (Russia) Maria Sharapova Justine Henin-Hardene (Russia) (Belgium) Kim Clijsters Mary Pierce (Belgium) (France) Svetlona Kuznet sova Elena Dementieva (Russia) (Russia) THE SUPERLATIVES THE HIGHEST.S. Colorado. LONGEST ETC. Malaysia Suez Canal Kiel Canal Vicos Gorge (Greece) .U. USA Donghai Bridge. LARGEST. BIGGEST. China Bridge HighestSuspension bridge LongestCross-sea bridge Road & Rail Traffic Bridge Building Canal Canyon Highest Big Ship Busiest Deepest Tsing Ma bridge linking HongKong to Lantau island Petronas Twin Towers.

US) Avocado (Vitamin A. Australia Asia (44. Africa The Cullinan Louisiana Superdome. USA Mahabharata Plabeuk Bristle mouth Stone fish Electric Eel Die Zweite Heimat (Germany) Ben Hur and Titanic (11 oscars each) Fountain at Fountain Hills ( Arizona.7 million sq km) The Great Barrier Reef (Australia) China Russia India Vatican City China Grand Coulee Dam.E and Proteins) Cucumber Gulf of Mexico MGM Grand Las Vegas (Nevada) Continent Coral Formation Film Fountain Fruit Gulf Hotel .Largest Church Cinema House City Largest Largest Largest Population Largest Area Largest Smallest Largest Largest in Population Largest in Area Country With largest electorate Smallest in Area With most Land Frontiers Largest Dam Delta Desert Diamond Dome Epic Fish Highest Largest Largest Largest Largest Largest Largest fresh water Most abundant Most venomous Most electric Longest Most Oscars Tallest Most nutritive Least nutritive Largest With the most Grand Canyon (Colarado River) Basilica of St.5 million sq km) Australia (7. Queensland. Tajakistan Ganges Delta (Sundarban Delta ) Sahara desert. Peter (Vatican City) Radio City Music Hall (New York) Mumbai Mount Isa. Columbia River (USA) Rogunskaya dam across river Vakash.C.

Chile Dallol. hottest.Island Lake Library Mountain Museum Ocean Peninsula Park Places Planet Plateau Platform (rail) Port Railway Line Railway Station Religion Rivers Road Sea number of rooms Biggest Largest Deepest Largest fresh water Biggest Biggest non statutory Highest Peak Highest Range Largest Largest and Deepest Largest Largest Coldest Driest Hottest Rainiest Biggest Brightest. New York Condor. Everest (8848 mts) Himalayas. New York Pacific Ocean Arabian National Park of Greenland Antartica Calama. and nearest to the Earth Farthest from Sun Nearest to Sun Most Satellites Highest Longest Largest Busiest Longest Largest Highest Oldest Largest Largest Highest Longest Largest Largest (inland) Greenland Caspian Sea Baikal Lake Lake Superior US Library of Congress (Washinton DC) New York Public Library Mt. Ethiopia Mawsynram near Cherrapunji in Meghalaya Jupiter Venus Neptune/Pluto (Unsolved) Mercury Uranus Tibetan Plateau Kharagpur. Netherlands Trans-Siberian Railway Grand Central Terminal. Bolivia Hinduism Christianity Amazon (6750 km) Kang-ti-Suu Pan American Highway (from Alaska to Brasilia) South China Sea Caspian Sea . West Bengal Port of New York and New Jersey Rotterdam. Asia American museum of Natural History.

Cambodia Burj Dubai Seikan Rail Tunnel (Japan) Laerdal Aurland. Norway The Great Wall of China Angel Falls in Venezuela Khone Falls in Loas Victoria Falls. Namibia Sandiago Zoo Berlin Zoo Zoo .Star Swimming course Telescope Temple Tower Tunnel Wall Waterfall Brightest Longest recognized Largest (radio) Largest (solar) Largest refractor Largest Tallest Longest (Railway) Largest (Road) Longest Highest Widest Largest Largest Largest collection of animals Sirius A ( dog star) English Channel at US National Science Foundation at Kitt Peak National Observatory at Yerkes Observatory Angkor Wat. Zimbabwe Etoha Reserve.

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