21 February 2005 APTLD Technical Training

intERLab
Pensri Arunwatanamongkol
intERLab/AlT and THNlC
Basics of DNS
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Purpose of naming
· Addresses are used to locate objects
· Names are easier to remember than numbers
· You would like to get to the address or other
objects using a name
· DNS provides a mapping from names to
resources of severaI types
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Names and addresses in general
· An address is how you get to an endpoint
„ Typically, hierarchical (for scaling):
„ 950 Main Street, Phayathai, Bangkok, 10120, Thailand
„ 204.152.187.11, +662-381-6003
· A ¨name¨ is how an endpoint is referenced
„ Typically, no structurally significant hierarchy
„ ¨Steve¨, ¨Kyoto¨, ¨nic.or.th¨
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Naming History
· 1970's ARPANET
÷ host.txt maintained by the SRl-NlC
÷ pulled from a single machine
÷ Problems
· traffic and load
· Name collisions
· Consistency
· DNS created in 1983 by Paul Mockapetris (RFCs 1034
and 1035), modified, updated, and enhanced by a
myriad of subsequent RFCs
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DNS
· A lookup mechanism for translating objects into
other objects
· A globally distributed, loosely coherent, scalable,
reliable, dynamic database
· Comprised of three components
„ A ¨name space¨
„ Servers making that name space available
„ Resolvers (clients) which query the servers about the
name space
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DNS Features: Global Distribution
· Data is maintained locally, but retrievable
globally
÷ No single computer has all DNS data
· DNS lookups can be performed by any device
· Remote DNS data is locally cacheable to
improve performance
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DNS Features: Loose Coherency
· The database is always internally consistent
÷ Each version of a subset of the database (a zone)
has a serial number
· The serial number is incremented on each
database change
· Changes to the master copy of the database are
replicated according to timing set by the zone
administrator
· Cached data expires according to timeout set by
zone administrator
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DNS Features: Scalability
· No limit to the size of the database
÷ One server has over 20,000,000 names
· Not a particularly good idea
· No limit to the number of queries
÷ 24,000 queries per second handled easily
· Queries distributed among masters, slaves, and
caches
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DNS Features: Reliability
· Data is replicated
÷ Data from master is copied to multiple slaves
· Clients can query
÷ Master server
÷ Any of the copies at slave servers
· Clients will typically query local caches
· DNS protocols can use either UDP or TCP
÷ lf UDP, DNS protocol handles retransmission,
sequencing, etc.
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DNS Features: Dynamicity
· Database can be updated dynamically
÷ Add/delete/modify of any record
· Modification of the master database triggers
replication
÷ Only master can be dynamically updated
· Creates a single point of failure
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DNS Concept: DNS Names
· The namespace needs to be made hierarchical
to be able to scale.
· The idea is to name objects based on
÷ location (within country, set of organizations, set of
companies, etc)
÷ unit within that location (company within set of
company, etc)
÷ object within unit (name of person in company)
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Concept: DNS Names contd.
· How names appear in the DNS
÷ Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN)
· WWW.NIC.OR.TH.
labels separated by dots
· DNS provides a mapping from FQDNs to
resources of several types
· Names are used as a key when fetching data in
the DNS
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Concept: DNS Names contd.
· Domain names can
be mapped to a tree.
· New branches at the
'dots'
net com
ripe
www
www
th
or tislabs
-
disi
ws1ws2
-
-
-
-
-
-
ftp
sun
google
moon
-
nic
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· The DNS maps names into data using Resource
Records.
· More detail later
www.nic.or.th. . A 202.28.1.21
Concept: Resource Records
Address Resource
Resource Record
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Concept: Domains
· Domains are ¨namespaces¨
· Everything below .com is in the com domain.
· Everything below or.th is in the or.th domain and in the th
domain.
th domain
com domain
or.th domain
th
com
or
sat
www
edu
isi
tislabs
-
nic
www
ftp
-
-
-
-
-
-
tat
sun
moon
google
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Delegation
· Administrators can create subdomains to group hosts
÷ According to geography, organizational affiliation or any other
criterion
· An administrator of a domain can delegate responsibility
for managing a subdomain to someone else
÷ But this isn't required
· The parent domain retains links to the delegated
subdomain
÷ The parent domain ¨remembers¨ who it delegated the
subdomain to
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th domain
Concept: Zones and Delegations
· Zones are ¨administrative spaces¨
· Zone administrators are responsible for portion of a domain's name
space
· Authority is delegated from a parent and to a child
or.th zone
th zone
nic.or.th zone
th
com
or
sat
www
edu
isi
tislabs
-
nic
www
ftp
-
-
-
-
-
-
tat
sun
moon
google
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Concept: Name Servers
· Name servers answer 'DNS' questions.
· Several types of name servers
÷ Authoritative servers
· master (primary)
· slave (secondary)
÷ (Caching) recursive servers
· also caching forwarders
÷ Mixture of functionality
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Concept: Name Servers contd.
· Authoritative name server
÷ Give authoritative answers for one or more zones.
÷ The master server normally loads the data from a zone file
÷ A slave server normally replicates the data from the master via a
zone transfer
master
slave
slave
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Concept: Name Servers contd.
· Recursive server
÷ Recursive servers do the actual lookups; they ask
questions to the DNS on behalf of the clients.
÷ Answers are obtained from authoritative servers but
the answers forwarded to the clients are marked as
not authoritative
÷ Answers are stored for future reference in the cache
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Concept: Resolvers
· Resolvers ask the questions to the DNS system
on behalf of the application.
· Example applications:
÷ Web browsers
÷ Email
÷ Etc.
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Concept: Resolving process & Cache
Resolver
Question: www.ripe.net A
www.ripe.net A ?
Caching
Iorwarder
(recursive)
root-server
www.ripe.net A ?
Ask net server m X.gtld-servers.net (+ glue)
gtld-server
www.ripe.net A ?
Ask ripe server m ns.ripe.net (+ glue)
ripe-server
www.ripe.net A ?
192.168.5.10
192.168.5.10
Add to cache
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· Resource records consist of it's name, it's TTL, it's class,
it's type and it's RDATA
· TTL is a timing parameter
· lN class is widest used
· There are multiple types of RR records
· Everything behind the type identifier is called rdata
Concept: Resource Records
LabeI
ttI
cIass
type
rdata
www.nic.or.th. 3600 IN A 202.28.1.21
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LabeI ttI cIass type rdata
nic.or.th. 7200 IN SOA ns.in.th. admin.nic.or.th.
(
2001061501 ; Serial
43200 ; Refresh 12 hours
14400 ; Retry 4 hours
345600 ; Expire 4 days
7200 ; Negative cache 2 hours
)
nic.or.th. 7200 IN NS ns.thnic.net.
nic.or.th. 7200 IN NS ns.in.th.
www.nic.or.th. 3600 IN A 202.28.1.21
host15.nic.or.th. 2600 IN A 202.28.1.101
Example: RRs in a zone file
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Resource Record: SOA and NS
· The SOA and NS records are used to provide
information about the DNS itself.
· The NS indicates where information about a given zone
can be found:
nic.or.th. 7200 IN NS ns.thnic.net.
nic.or.th. 7200 IN NS ns.in.th.
· The SOA record provides information about the start of
authority, i.e. the top of the zone, also called the APEX.
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Resource Record: SOA
Timing parameter
Master server
Contact address
Version number
net. 3600 IN SOA A.GTLD-SERVERS.net. nstld.verisign-grs.com. (
2002021301 ; serial
30M ; refresh
15M ; retry
1W ; expiry
1D ) ; neg. answ. ttl
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Concept: TTL and other Timers
· TTL is a timer used in caches
÷ An indication for how long the data may be reused
÷ Data that is expected to be 'stable' can have high
TTLs
· SOA timers are used for maintaining consistency
between primary and secondary servers
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Places where DNS data lives
Registry DB
Master
Slave server
Slave
Cache server
Changes in DNS do not propagate instantly!
Not going to net if TTL>0
Might take up to refresh
to get data from master
Upload of zone
data is local policy
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To remember...
· Multiple authoritative servers to distribute load
and risk:
÷ Put your name servers apart from each other
· Caches to reduce load to authoritative servers
and reduce response times
· SOA timers and TTL need to be tuned to needs
of zone. Stable data: higher numbers
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Selection Slave DNS Servers
· How many name servers for a zone
÷ Multiple servers also spread the name resolution
load, and improve the overall efficiency of the system
by placing servers nearer to the resolvers
÷ Minimum 2 in different networks, physical locations
· 3 or more is recommended
· Lot of is not very useful
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How to find slave service
· Easy to find
÷ Generally slave services run automatically
÷ Many organizations are willing to do for you
÷ Not expensive
· Not easy to find
÷ Slave with special configuration
· Using proprietary system to transfer between master and
slave
· Make sure slave operator has tech skills,
operates reliable host on reliable network
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Restricting Zone Transfers
· Rationale
÷ This is a policy issue
÷ People have different opinions
· Some people think it's a good idea to restrict
zone transfers to particular slaves
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Authorizing Zone Transfers
· Two ways to authorize zone transfers from a
master server:
÷ Using a shared secret (password)
÷ By source lP address
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Shared Secret
· TSlG
÷ Easy to configure
÷ Need to agree a password with the people who
operate your slave servers
key ns1-ns2.zone. {
algorithm hmac-md5;
secret ¨APlaceToBe¨;
};
Zone ¨nic.or.th.¨ {
type master;
file ..;
allow-transfer {
key ns1-ns2.zone.;
};
};
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lP Address
· Checking the source address is a weak way to
authenticate anything, but sometimes it's better than
nothing
· ACLs for Zone transfers
Zone ¨nic.or.th¨ {
Type master;
File ¨master/db.nic.or.th¨;
Allow-transfer {
192.41.170.2;
202.28.1.21;
};
};
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DNSSEC
· Why do we need DNSSEC
· What does DNSSEC provide
· How does DNSSEC work
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DNS Vulnerabilities
Zone file
master
Dynamic
updates
master
slaves
Caching
forwarder
Unauthorized updates
Altered zone data
Cache pollution by
Data spoofing
lmpersonating master
Corrupting data
Cache impersonation
resolver
Server protection
Data protection
Zone administrator
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DNS Protocol Vulnerability
· DNS data can be spoofed and corrupted between
master server and resolver or forwarder
· The DNS protocol does not allow you to check the
validity of DNS data
÷ Exploited by bugs in resolver implementation (predictable transaction
lD)
÷ Polluted caching forwarders can cause harm for quite some time (TTL)
÷ Corrupted DNS data might end up in caches and stay there for a long
time
· How does a slave (secondary) knows it is talking to the
proper master (primary)?
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DNSSEC protects
DNSSEC protects against data spoofing and corruption
· TSlG/SlG0: provides mechanisms to authenticate
communication between servers
· DNSKEY/RRSlG/NSEC: provides mechanisms to
establish authenticity and integrity of data
· DS: provides a mechanism to delegate trust to public
keys of third parties
· A secure DNS will be used as an infrastructure with
public keys
÷ However it is NOT a PKl
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Core Elements
DNSSEC is based on Public Key Cryptography
· Key pair: a private and a public key
· The private key can be used to create signatures
· The signature can be 'validated' with the public key.
· lf the signature over a message validates the message
must have been signed by the holder of the private keys.
· The message is not encrypted
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A little about the lANA
· Jon Postel first started keeping track of numbers
around 1969. (ln a notebook)
· Added staff in the early 80's (Joyce Reynolds,
now RFC editor)
· Started being called ¨the lANA¨ in the late 80's
· Became a function of lCANN in 1998
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What does the lANA do?
· Registers Unique ldentifiers and related
information for use on the lnternet.
· lP Addresses, AS #'s, Port #'s, many others.
including TLD's.
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Country Code Top Level Domains
· Referred to as a ccTLD
· codes are assigned from a table known as lSO-
3166-1
· lANA current practices summary is called lCP1
÷ http://www.icann.org/icp/icp-1.htm
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Services for ccTLD's
· Mainly related to changes in the root zone
or whois data.
÷ Change of DNS servers
÷ Change of lP addresses for DNS servers
÷ Change of POC details (Point Of Contact)
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Whois Data of ccTLDs
· http://www.iana.org/root-whois/th.htm
.th ÷ Thailand
· http://www.iana.org/root-whois/jp.htm
.jp - Japan
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Policy and lCANN
· ccNSO: http://ccnso.icann.org/
· ¨The ccNSO is the policy development body for a
narrow range of global ccTLD issues within the
lCANN structure¨
Joining?
· http://ccnso.icann.org/applications/clean-app.shtml
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Useful links
· lCP1 (lANA practices)
÷ http://www.icann.org/icp/icp-1.htm
· Format, Content, and Technical Requirements
for Requests to Change TLD Contact
lnformation
÷ http://www.iana.org/cctld/contact-change-requests-
09may01.htm
· Template for changes
÷ http://www.iana.org/tld/cctld-template.txt
· Step by step procedure
÷ http://www.iana.org/cctld/nameserver-change-
procedures-13may03.htm
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A little about lDN
· lDN standard RFCs
÷ RFC 3490, RFC 3491, RFC 3492
· lCANN issued a set of guidelines for the
lmplementation of lnternationalized Domain
Names in June of 2003
· Developed collaboratively by lCANN and leading
lnternationalized Domain Names (lDN) registries
http://www.icann.org/general/idn-guidelines-20jun03.htm
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lDN issues
· Naming in some local languages generally use
long words (more characters required)
÷ ASCll: name not longer than 63
÷ Thai: Maximum characters that can be used
as a domain name is about 30-45. (Depends
on naming)
· ASCll Compatible Encoding (ACE) is not human
readable. More difficult to edit Zone file.
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lDN Applications
· Browsers
÷ Netscape, Mozilla, Opera, Safari, Camino,
Epiphany, Firefox, Konqueror and others
· E-Mail
÷ FoxMail
· lDN SDKs and Language support
÷ GNU libidn, JPNlC, VeriSign
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ENUM
· ENUM is a mechanism for mapping telephone
(E.164) numbers to lnternet resource
address(es)
÷ 1 to many
· lnternet resource address(es) are specified as
URl(s).
· Mapping is
÷ Registered using NAPTR records in DNS
÷ referred to by DNS lookup
· End users (Applications) can select URl(s)
according to their preference
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ENUM Mapping
+66 2 524 66 17
7.1.6.6.4.2.5.2.6.6.e164.arpa
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ENUM Resolution
$ORlGlN 7.1.6.6.4.2.5.2.6.6.e164.arpa.
; type order pref flag enumservice regular expression replacement
lN NAPTR 10 100 "u" "E2U+voice:sip" "!^.*$!sip:pensri@sip.ait.ac.th!" .
This domain-name is used to request NAPTR records from the DNS
Database which may contain the end result or, if the flags field is blank,
produces new keys in the form of domain-names from the DNS.
e.g.: voice:h323
voice:tel
sms:tel
email:mailto
web:http
sip
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Thank You!

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