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their keen interest, constant encouragement and invaluable guidance during the

Srinivasu, for a kind patronage. We express our sincere thanks to Dr. K Sivaji Babu,

Department of mechanical Engineering for providing the lab during the entire

Project Associates,

Prathyusha Achanta,

Pranoy Yerraguntla,

Ashish Kalipatnapu.

Abstract

One of the most important damage mechanisms in composite

structures.

characterization of the delamination growth in four layered

unidirectional fibre reinforced composite laminates under variations of

crack length, stacking sequence and different load applications. The

analysis has been carried out using Virtual Crack Closure Technique

(VCCT) in combination with Finite Element Methods (FEM) theoretically

and numerically with the help of commercially available Finite Element

Software, ANSYS.

<Summary/Conclusions Briefing>

This work can be useful in analysing the effect of various factors such

as location of the crack and nature of the load on fracture response of

FRP structures, saving a great amount of time for further research in this

field.

CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION

1.2. FIBER REINFORCED POLYMERS

1.3. INTRODUCTION TO FRACTURE

1.3.1 MODES OF FAILURES

1.3.2EXAMPLES OF STRUCTURAL FAILURES CAUSED BY

FRACTURE• MECHANICAL, AERONAUTICAL, OR marine•

CIVIL ENGINEERING

1.4. FRACTURE MECHANICS VS. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS

2. LITERATURE SURVEY

2.1 INTRODUCTION

2.2 TYPOLOGY OF FRP DELAMINATION

2.2.1 INTERLAMINAR CRACKS AND LINEAR ELASTIC

FRACTURE MECHANICS

2.2.2 BASIC ANALYSIS OF INTERLAMINAR FRACTURE

TOUGHNESS

2.3. FRACTURE MODES

2.3.1. MICROSCOPIC ASPECTS

2.4. MAJOR HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN FRACTURE

MECHANICS

2.5. THE STUDY OF DELAMINATION USING NUMERICAL

METHODS

3.1. INTRODUCTIONNTRODUCTION

3.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT

3.3 METHODOLOGY

3.4 ASSUMPTIONS

4.1 INTRODUCTION

4.2 PROBLEM MODELLING

4.3 CASE ONE: PRESSURE LOADING

ANALYSIS OF RESULTS:

4.3.1 ALL LONGITUDINAL FIBRES

4.3.2 ALL TRANSVERSE FIBRES

4.3.3 SYMMETRIC FIBRE ORIENTATION

4.3.4 ANTISYMMETRIC FIBRE ORIENTATION

4.4 CASE TWO: LINE LOADING

ANALYSIS OF RESULTS:

5.4.1 ALL LONGITUDINAL FIBRES

5.4.2 ALL TRANSVERSE FIBRES

5.4.3 SYMMETRIC FIBRE ORIENTATION

5.4.4 ANTISYMMETRIC FIBRE ORIENTATION

5.1 INTRODUCTION

5.2 PROBLEM MODELING

5.3 CASE ONE: UNIFORM PRESSURE

5.3.1 ALL LONGITUDINAL FIBRES

5.3.2 ALL TRANSVERSE FIBRES

5.3.3 SYMMETRIC FIBRE ORIENTATION

5.3.4 ANTISYMMETRIC FIBRE ORIENTATION

5.4 CASE TWO: LINE LOADING

ANALYSIS OF RESULTS:

5.4.1 ALL LONGITUDINAL FIBRES

5.4.2 ALL TRANSVERSE FIBRES

5.4.3 SYMMETRIC FIBRE ORIENTATION

5.4.4 ANTISYMMETRIC FIBRE ORIENTATION

ERROR! REFERENCE SOURCE NOT FOUND.

SCOPE

7 REFERENCES

List of Figures

Fig.2.2 Internal delamination: (a) disposition across the laminate and (b)

(c) open buckled; (d) closed buckled; (e) edge buckled and (f) edge buckled

Fig.2.7.Crack propagation modes: (a) mode I; (b) mode II and (c) mode III

Fig.2.8.Stress field of a resin rich area point and matrix micro crack

Fig.2.9 Crack growth at (a) θ/0 and (b) 0/0 ply interfaces illustrating the

Fig.2.10. Fibre bridging in a mode I inter-laminar crack. The vertical arrow

interface: (a)micro crack formation ahead of the crack tip; (b) micro crack

growth and opening and (c) micro crack coalescence accompanied by shear

cusps

reversed Delamination

Fig. 4.1 Geometry and Loaded model for edge crack at centre interface.

Fig 4.3 Deformed model after cylindrical bending due to uniform pressure

Fig 4.4: Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ from an edge crack with 0-0-0-0

laminate.

Fig 4.5: Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ from an edge crack with 90-90-90-

90 laminate.

Fig 4.6: Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ from an edge crack with 0-90-90-0

laminate.

Fig 4.7: Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ from an edge crack with 90-0-0-90

laminate.

Fig 4.8: Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ from an edge crack with 0-90-0-90

laminate.

Fig 4.9: Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ from an edge crack with 90-0-90-0

laminate.

Fig: 4.10 Loaded model for edge crack opening at centre interface

Fig. 4.11 Deformed model for edge crack opening at centre interface

Fig 4.12 Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ of opening a centre crack with 0-

0-0-0 laminate

Fig 4.13 Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ of opening a centre crack with

90-90-90-90 laminate

Fig 4.14 Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ of opening a centre crack with 0-

90-90-0 laminate.

Fig 4.15 Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ of opening a centre crack with

90-0-0-90 laminate.

Fig 4.16 Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ of opening a centre crack with 0-

90-0-90 laminate

Fig 4.17 Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ of opening a centre crack with

90-0-0-90 laminate.

Fig 5.4 Deformed model after laminate bending due to uniform pressure

load

Fig 5.5: Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ from an edge crack with 0-0-0-0

laminate.

Fig 5.6: Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ from an edge crack with 90-90-90-

90 laminate.

Fig 5.7: Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ from an edge crack with 0-90-90-0

laminate.

Fig 5.8: Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ from an edge crack with 90-0-0-90

laminate.

Fig 5.9: Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ from an edge crack with 0-90-0-90

laminate

Fig 5.10: Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ from an edge crack with 90-0-90-

0 laminate.

Fig. 5.12 Deformed model for centre crack opening at centre interface

Fig 5.13 Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ of opening a centre crack with 0-

0-0-0 laminate.

Fig 5.14 Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ of opening a centre crack with

90-90-90-90 laminate.

Fig 5.15 Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ of opening a centre crack with 0-

90-90-0 laminate.

Fig 5.16 Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ of opening a centre crack with

90-0-0-90 laminate.

Fig 5.17 Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ of opening a centre crack with 0-

90-0-90 laminate.

Fig 5.18 Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ of opening a centre crack with90-

0-90-0 laminate

NOMENCLATURE

1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION

wood, due to their better specific properties. The excellent stiffness to weight

those reinforced with glass or carbon fibres make them very attractive for certain

manufacturing costs, these materials are being used more and more in different

implants, car parts, fluid containers and pipes, small boats and road bridges

increment in the use of this type of material by the general industrial sector.

composite element not only requires the design of the element geometry, but the

design of the material itself. Traditionally, due to the reduced knowledge of the

based on available empirical data. However, this methodology is limited to the

The oldest composite materials appeared long time ago in the nature.

Wood can be seen as a lignin matrix reinforced by cellulose fibres. Human and

bone matrix. The first man made composite was straw-reinforced clay for bricks

and pottery. Present composite materials use metal, ceramic or polymer binders

possible to identify the interface between components. Taking into account their

(matrix). Reinforcement is responsible for the composite high structural properties;

or light metals) with different fibres (glass, carbon, organic and polymeric

They can be distinguished in function of their typology (long o short fibres, random

properties of the resulting composite, which is then known as hybrid. This is the

reinforced with steel rods. When a light core material is sandwiched between two

faces of stiff and strong materials, the result is an improved material called

sandwich.

1.3. INTRODUCTION TO FRACTURE

various modes of structural failure and highlight the importance of fracture induced

failure and contrast it with the limited coverage given to fracture mechanics in

Engineering Education. In the next section we will discuss some examples of well

shall compare the failure load predicted from linear elastic fracture mechanics with

to resist mechanical failure through any (or a combination of) the following modes:

5. Fracture

Most of these failure modes are relatively well understood, and proper

occurring after earthquakes constitute the major source of structural damage, and

are the least well understood. In fact, fracture often has been overlooked as a

simplification is not new, and finds a very similar analogy in the critical load of a

design may result as instability (or buckling) is overlooked for slender members.

Thus failure curves for columns show a smooth transition in the failure mode from

analogy, a cracked structure can be designed on the sole basis of strength as long as

the crack size does not exceed a critical value. Should the crack size exceed this

critical value, then a fracture-based failure results. Again, on the basis of those two

theories (strength of materials and fracture mechanics), one could draw a failure

3. Fracture of airplanes, such as the Comet airliners, which exploded in mid-

air during the fifties, or more recently fatigue fracture of bulkhead in a Japan

4. Fatigue fractures found in the Grumman buses in New York City, which

6. Fatigue crack that triggered the sudden loss of the upper cockpit in the Air

• Civil engineering

cases fractures are man-made and induced for beneficial purposes examples

include:

3. “Biting” of candies.

1.4. FRACTURE MECHANICS VS. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS

We will seek to determine its safe load-carrying capacity using the two

approaches.

linear elastic fracture mechanics approach (as discussed in the next

KI≤ KIc

Where K Iis a measure of the stress singularity at the tip of the crack and KIc is the

The two equations governing the load capacity of the beam according to

On the basis of the above, we can schematically represent the failure envelope of

this beam in fig.where failure stress is clearly a function of the crack length.

On the basis of this simple example, we can generalize our preliminary finding by

the curve shown in Fig. We thus identify four corners: on the lower left we have our

usual engineering design zone, where factors of safety are relatively high; on the

bottom right we have failure governed by yielding, or plasticity; on the upper left

failure is governed by linear elastic fracture mechanics; and on the upper right

zone has been called elasto-plastic in metals, and nonlinear fracture in concrete.

2

LITERATURE SURVEY

2.1 INTRODUCTION

In the previous chapter, it has been stated that the main objective of the

present work is the study of inter-laminar fracture behaviour of four layered cross-

inter-laminar cracks and continues with the application of fracture mechanics basic

2.2 TYPOLOGY OF FRP DELAMINATION

mechanism of composite laminates that can form during any moment of the life of

and [2] the technological causes of the delamination can be grouped in two

pressurised containers. In all these cases, the normal stresses in the interface of

two adjacent plies can originate the loss of adhesion and the initiation of the inter-

laminar crack. The second category includes abrupt changes of section, such as ply

drop-offs, unions between stiffeners and thin plates, free edges, and other

bonded and bolted joints. A third category related to temperature and moisture

effects can be added. The difference between the thermal coefficients of matrix

may originate delamination [3]. Similarly, the differential inflation of the plies

due to the shrinkage of the matrix, formation of resin-rich areas due to poor

quality in lying the plies, etc. [5-6]. Impact is an important source of delamination

laminate, due to the drop of a tool during production, mounting or repairing, or

laminate and can be due to the interaction of matrix cracks and ply interfaces.

the 90º plies of cross-ply laminates are common examples of this type of

delamination. Figure 2.1 shows a replica with an inner delamination growing from a

laminate subjected to axial load [8]. In the replica, some fibre breaks in the 0º ply

can be seen due to the stress concentration near the transverse crack.

0/90 ply interface [8]

Inner delaminations considerably reduce the load-capacity of composite

elements. In particular, when compression loads are applied, the overall flexural

2.2). Although the delamination separates the laminate in two parts, there is an

interaction between the deformation of the one part of the laminate and the

other. Due to this interaction, both parts of the laminate deflect in a similar way.

Fig.2.2 Internal delamination: (a) disposition across the laminate and (b)

deformation of the rest of the laminate. Therefore, the deformation of the near-

surface delaminated part does not necessary follow the deformation of the rest

of the laminate. Consequently, not only the growth of the near-surface

delamination has to be taken into account but also its local stability. [5-6] classified

tension; (c) open buckled; (d) closed buckled; (e) edge buckled and (f)

edge buckled with secondary crack. [5]

static loads either under fatigue conditions. In both cases, the reduction in strength

2.2.1 INTERLAMINAR CRACKS AND LINEAR ELASTIC FRACTURE MECHANICS

are very stiff in the laminate plane and behave as linear elastic materials in

materials are in most cases very low compared to the in-plane tensile strength.

of impacts, fabrication problems, etc.) are present in the material [9]. After

release rate, the delamination will propagate when the energy release rate

achieves a critical value, Gc. According to [10], for any form of elastic behaviour,

the energy release rate can be expressed as a function of the increment of

external work Ue, strain energy Us (kinetic energy is ignored in this case) and

crack increment ∆a. Therefore, for a crack of width b and length a, the

length a+∆a. In point A1 the applied load is P1, the displacement is 1 and

delamination length a. In point A2 the applied load and displacement are P2 and 2,

Therefore, the external work and strain energy of the linear variation

The change in energy is determined by the area OA1A2 (dashed area in the

figure). If linear deformation behaviour is assumed, the straight lines showed in the

For the considered crack increment and width, the increment in crack area

would be b∆a. Thus, as the critical energy release rate can be defined as the change

The compliance of the system depends on the crack length and is defined

as

Taking into account the increments of load and displacement and equation,

or in differential form as

materials, the variation of the applied load with respect the obtained displacement,

as shown in Figure 2.4, is basic. This experimental data, together with the crack

length, is the basis for the calculation of G and the generation of the R-

matrix composites the non-linearity point coincides with the point at which

the initiation of the crack can be observed (see Figure 2.5(a)). However, for tough

matrices a region of non-linear behaviour may precede the observation of the crack

intersection between the load-displacement curve and the line that corresponds to

load occurs before intersection, then the maximum load and corresponding

Fig.2.5.Load-displacement curve for stable crack growth in (a) brittle

crack growth cases. Unstable crack growth is characterised by one or more periods

a local peak load when delamination growth restarts. This behaviour is usually

curves [11]. Figure 2.6 shows a typical load-displacement curve for the case of

Fig.2.6.Load-displacement curve for unstable crack growth

(shearing), mode III (tearing) and in any combination of these (see Figure 2.7). Every

mode has a fracture toughness value and an R-curve associated which are intrinsic

considered. For these materials, the fracture toughness is lowest in this mode

and even if the crack starts to grow under a different mode, the crack will

Fig.2.7.Crack propagation modes: (a) mode I; (b) mode II and (c) mode III

The propagation of delaminations in laminated composite materials is

mainly limited to lie between the strong fibre reinforced layers. In this way, it is

propagation modes. A clear example is the case of transverse matrix cracks growing

in the 90º plies of cross-ply laminates loaded in tension (see Figure 2.1). Once the

crack reaches the strong fibres at the (0/90) interface, the crack is forced to deviate

and change direction in order to remain in the interface. Then, the propagation

mode is changed. In fact, composite delaminations are mostly studied under pure

mode I, pure mode II and mixed-mode I/II. It is generally accepted that the mode III

of the constraints of adjacent plies, as shown by [12] for a layered structure and

delamination in composite laminates are higher in mode III than in the other

modes [9]. In the foregoing the term mixed-mode will stand for the mixed-

critical energy release rate. The stress intensity factor is governed by the local

laminates complicates. [2] state that the use of G for composite materials is

certainly more consistent with the analytical models in use than K, even

energy release rate, Gc, instead of the critical stress intensity factor, Kc, to

preceded by the formation of a damage zone ahead of the crack tip. This damage

zone is characterised by the formation of microcracks in the resin rich areas that

exist between the plies. According to [14], at this microscopic level, the matrix can

will only crack under tensile load conditions (local mode I). Therefore, matrix

microcracks will form and grow in the plane subjected to maximum tensile

stress. Figure 2.8 shows schematically a point of a resin rich area in the ply

interface subjected to mode I (opening) and mode II (shearing) loading and the

Fig.2.8.Stress field of a resin rich area point and matrix microcrack

Under mixed-mode load condition, microcracks ahead of the crack tip form

at an angle from the plane of the plies and grow in this direction. According to [15],

when such a microcrack is located at 0/0 ply interface, where 0 stands for an off-

axis ply, fibres on the off-axis ply allow the propagation of the microcrack through

the ply. Consequently, the crack tip of the delamination migrates through the off-

axis ply. A change in the crack plane can be achieved if the crack tip

encounters the next ply interface. In this case, the study and characterisation

ply interface, the fibres at both 0º plies prevent the propagation of the crack

through the plies. The interlaminar crack is forced to remain adjacent to the fibres

of the ply. The mechanism is represented in Figure 2.9(b). In this case, no change in

the crack plane is present and the study and characterisation of the delamination

become easier. Actually, in order to avoid the crack plane migration, the study of

delaminations in composite laminates is usually carried out using unidirectional

Fig.2.9 Crack growth at (a) θ/0 and (b) 0/0 ply interfaces illustrating the

crack plane migration mechanism [15]

As mentioned, since further growing would require fibre fracture, at 0/0 ply

interfaces the growth of the microcracks is arrested when they reach the

fibres of one of the boundaries of the interlaminar zone. In the general case of

mode I, the matrix microcracks grow relatively parallel to the plane of the

interply boundaries, where the presence of the fibres modifies the damage zone

ahead of the crack tip and increases the stress concentration. This results in the

growth of the delamination by the peeling of the matrix from the fibres. According

to [14], this process justifies the presence of fibres in one of the fracture surfaces

However, the general scenario in delamination test specimens is different.

The presence of fibres bridging both fracture surfaces near the crack tip is

arrest or reduce the propagation of the delamination. In fact, the growth of the

crack involves pulling these bridging fibres from the resin under a tensile stress

state until they finally break. Accordingly, an artificial increment of the material

fracture toughness that depends on the crack extension is observed. For longer

crack lengths, more fibres from both fracture surfaces are bridging the crack. It has

been experimentally found that this effect is more important for higher mode I

contributions and less important for higher mode II dominated fractures [15],[17].

In this case, fibre breakage, broken pullout fibres, behind the crack tip can

structures. Figure 2.10 shows an interlaminar crack with the presence of fibre

Fig.2.10. Fibre bridging in a mode I interlaminar crack. The vertical arrow indicates a

point 20 mm behind the crack tip [19]

For a greater contribution of mode II the size of the damage zone

distance ahead of the crack tip. In addition, the angle between the direction

of the microcracks and the plane of the plies increases up to 45º. The coalescence

of the microcracks results in the growth of the interlaminar crack but with uneven

surfaces. These uneven surfaces are due to the formation of shear cusps or hackles.

For a greater contribution of mode II, more shear cusps form and deeper they

are. In addition, less influence of fibre bridging is observed [20]. The increased

the increases of the measured fracture toughness for this mode, since more

atomic bonds have to be broken [14]. Figure 2.11 shows schematically the

formation and coalescence of mode II microcracks that result in the formation and

surfaces are subsequently subjected to a fatigue process in mode II, the shear

cusps will degrade into matrix rollers due to the effect of the friction between

Fig.2.11.Formation and growth of a mode II delamination at the ply

interface: (a)microcrack formation ahead of the crack tip; (b) microcrack

growth and opening and (c) microcrack coalescence accompanied by shear

cusps

The previous figure shows the formation of the damage zone ahead of

the crack tip for mode II delamination for a non-reversed loading condition. If a

the normal direction to the previous, this is at -45º. Therefore, two sets of

microcracks form at approximately 90º [21]. Figure 2.12 shows the schema of the

microcrack formation ahead of the crack tip for mode II reversed and non-

Fig.2.12.Development of shear microcracks in mode II non-reversed and

reversed Delaminations

As with any engineering discipline approached for the first time, it is helpful

to put fracture mechanics into perspective by first listing its major developments:

2. While investigating the unexpected failure of naval ships in 1913, [23] extended

the solution for stresses around a circular hole in an infinite plate to the more

general case of an ellipse. It should be noted that this problem was solved 3 years

however history remembers only Inglis who showed that a stress concentration

factor of

Prevails around the ellipse (where a is the half length of the major axis, and ρ is the

radius of curvature) 5.

3. Inglis’s early work was followed by the classical studies of Griffith, who was not

not yet a discipline), but rather in the tensile strength of crystalline solids and its

equal to E/10 where E is the Young’s Modulus *24+. With his assistant Lockspeiser,

Griffith was then working at the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE) at Farnborough,

England (which had a tradition of tolerance for original and eccentric young

researchers), and was testing the strength of glass rods of different diameters at

different temperatures [25]. They found that the strength increased rapidly as the

size decreased. Asymptotic values of 1,600 and 25 Ksi were found for infinitesimally

small and bulk size specimens, respectively. On the basis of those two observations,

Griffith’s first major contribution to fracture mechanics was to suggest that internal

minute flaws acted as stress raisers in solids, thus strongly affecting their tensile

strengths. Thus, in reviewing Inglis’s early work, Griffith determined that the

glass strength from the theoretical value to the actually measured value.

dynamical criterion

for fracture by considering the total change in energy taking place during cracking.

During crack extension, potential energy (both external work and internal strain

night Lockspeiser forgot to turn off the gas torch used for glass melting, resulting in

a fire. Following an investigation, (RAE) decided that Griffith should stop wasting his

5. After Griffith’s work, the subject of fracture mechanics was relatively dormant for

about 20 years until 1939 when Westergaard [26] derived an expression for the

6. Up to this point, fracture mechanics was still a relatively obscure and esoteric

science. However, more than any other single factor, the large number of sudden

and catastrophic fractures that occurred in ships during and following World War II

5,000 welded ships constructed during the war, over 1,000 suffered structural

damage, with 150 of these being seriously damaged, and 10 fractured into two

parts. After the war, George Irwin, who was at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory,

made use of Griffith’s idea, and thus set the foundations of fracture mechanics. He

made three major contributions: (a) He (and independently Orowan) extended the

Griffith’s original theory to metals by accounting for yielding at the crack tip. This

resulted in what is sometimes called the modified Griffith’s theory. (b) He altered

surround it by a corrosive environment. In either case the original crack length, and

loading condition, taken separately, are below their critical value. Paris in 1961

proposed the first empirical equation relating the range of the stress intensity

utilized the crack opening displacement (COD) as the parameter to characterize the

strength of a crack in an elasto-plastic solid, and by Rice, who introduce his J

integral in 1968 in probably the second most referenced paper in the field (after

Griffith); it introduced a path independent contour line integral that is the rate of

change of the potential energy for an elastic non-linear solid during a unit crack

extension.

9. Another major contribution was made by Erdogan and Sih in the mid ’60s when

laminates and composites; (iii) numerical techniques; (iv) design philosophies; and

others.

11. In 1976, [27] introduced the fictitious crack model in which residual tensile

stresses can be transmitted across a portion of the crack. Thus a new meaning was

12. In 1979 [28] showed that for the objective analysis of cracked concrete

structure, fracture mechanics concepts must be used, and that classical strength of

2.5. THE STUDY OF DELAMINATION USING NUMERICAL METHODS

materials are solved using finite element methods (FEM) and other numerical

shortly after the first studies about delamination in composites. [29] used a

numerical elasticity solution based on finite differences for the analysis of free

edge delaminations. [30] studied the same problem using a 3-D finite

the distribution of the axial displacements was taken into account. Until this work,

FEM solutions were only available under plane stress or strain conditions. [32]

were the first to obtain sufficiently accurate results of the free edge problem using

a 2-D finite element model. [33] were the first to report the calculation of the

stress singularities in the free edge of the laminate. This work, based on

Lekhnitskii’s stress potentials, was an important contribution and the basis for

other analytical models in the field of composite delaminations. This work was

followed by [34] with a solution to the free edge problem for a ±45 angle ply

laminate.

virtual crack closure technique (VCCT). This technique is based on Irwin’s crack

closure integral [35-37] and assumes that the energy ∆E released when the crack

this technique is considered one of the most rigorous techniques for the analysis of

methods, are based on finite element methods and solve a submodel for

every integration point of the model. It is in the submodel where the mechanical

3

PROBLEM STATEMENT AND METHODOLOGY

3.1. INTRODUCTION

In the previous chapter, the relevant literature available has been reviewed

and scope for the present work has been identified. In this chapter, statement of

the problem of present work and method used for solution of the problem has

been explained.

composite laminates with delamination at two different locations (edge crack and

centre crack) using virtual crack closure technique (VCCT) in combination with finite

element method.

3.3 METHODOLOGY

and bottom crack surfaces. The nodes at both discontinuity (crack) sides have the

same coordinates and are coupled through multi-point constraints. This multi-

point constraint type ties all the degrees of freedom at the tied node to the

coincides with the energy required to close the crack to its original condition, from

reaction forces developed due to the multi-point constraints at the crack tip per

unit area of virtual cracked surface for the considered loading condition.

material properties and crack length are explained in forth coming chapters.

3.4 ASSUMPTIONS

2. State of plane strain is assumed.

3. Each layer of the laminate is a unidirectional continuous fibre reinforced

lamina

4. Each lamina behaves as a transversely isotropic material

5. The behaviour of the structure is geometrically linear

4

4.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter presents the analysis of edge crack laminates supported along two

opposite edges and subjected to two different load cases. In first case, a uniform pressure

is applied on the top surface of the laminate. And in second case, a uniform line load is

applied along the top edge of the laminate parallel to the supported end.

In this section a four layered laminate structure is modelled with the longitudinal

dimension of the plate taken as 100 mm span (L) with a span/depth ratio of 10. Four layers

of equal thickness (10/4=2.5mm) are considered. The width of the plate is considered to be

infinite. The crack location is at one end of the laminate. The length of the crack is varied

from 15mm to 85mm. By trial and error method, comparison of theoretical and analytical

Energy release rate for isotropic material, the crack extension is found to be 0.11mm. . The

Fig. 4.1 Geometry and Loaded model for edge crack at centre interface.

Finite element mesh is generated using 20 node quadratic solid element SOLID95 in

ANSYS software. This element is defined by 20 nodes having three degrees of freedom per

node: translations in the nodal x, y and z directions. The element may have any spatial

orientation. SOLID95 has plasticity, creep, stress stiffening, large deflection, and large strain

capabilities. It has the capability to inherit orthotropic material properties and hence, best

The surfaces between the laminates, apart from those at the crack, are bonded

together using a contact pair. The coincident nodes at the surface of the crack extension

length are coupled. Simply supported boundary condition is applied on the bottom edges

of the x-z plane, i.e.; degrees of freedom along the z-axis are constrained. The plate is also

constrained in the y-direction to imply infinite length, and plane strain condition.

E1=147GPa; E2=E3=10.3GPa

G12=G13=7GPa; G23=3.7GPa

4.3 CASE ONE: PRESSURE LOADING

The transverse uniform pressure of 1 MPa is applied on the surface along the top

Fig 4.3 Deformed model after cylindrical bending due to uniform pressure

The position of the crack is varied between different laminate interfaces, along

with the increase in the length of the crack. The nature of deflection in the Z-axis direction

is studied and the Strain Energy Release Rate in the plate is calculated from the element

tables.

ANALYSIS OF RESULTS:

With respect to Fig 4.4 to 4-9, the total amount of Energy is first used to deform

the crack region transversely and then for the extension of the crack longitudinally. Initially,

the energy required to deform is less. But, as the crack length increases, the energy

required to deform the crack region increases. Hence, more amount of energy has to be

supplied to shear the crack. After a certain crack length, the material resistance of the

laminate decreases. As a result of this the amount energy required to shear the crack

decreases.

4.3.1 ALL LONGITUDINAL FIBRES

120

Edge Crack 0-0-0-0

Top Interface

100 Bottom Interface

Centre Interface

80

G (J/m2)

60

40

20

0

0 20 40 60 80 100

a (mm)

Fig 4.4: Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ from an edge crack with 0-0-0-0 laminate.

1600

Edge Crack 90-90-90-90

Bottom Interface

1200 Centre Interface

1000

G (J/m2)

800

600

400

200

0

0 20 40 60 80 100

a (mm)

Fig 4.5: Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ from an edge crack with 90-90-90-90 laminate.

The amount of energy required shear the crack is very much less when all the fibres are

oriented longitudinally than transversely, as the fibre and crack extension are in the same

direction.

4.3.3 SYMMETRIC FIBRE ORIENTATION

700

Edge Crack 0-90-90-0

Top Interface

600

Bottom Interface

Centre Interface

500

G (J/m2)

400

300

200

100

0

0 20 40 60 80 100

a (mm)

Fig 4.6: Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ from an edge crack with 0-90-90-0 laminate.

450

Edge Crack 90-0-0-90

Bottom Interface

350 Centre Interface

300

G (J/m2)

250

200

150

100

50

0

0 20 40 60 80 100

a (mm)

Fig 4.7: Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ from an edge crack with 90-0-0-90 laminate.

In symmetric fibres there is a very slight difference in the Strain energy release rate at the

top and bottom interfaces. The symmetric nature of the Energy distribution is disrupted by

the proximity of the boundary conditions applied on the bottom layer of the laminate.

4.3.4 ANTISYMMETRIC FIBRE ORIENTATION

600

Top Interface

500 Bottom Interface

Centre Interface

400

G (J/m2)

300

200

100

0

0 20 40 60 80 100

a (mm)

Fig 4.8: Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ from an edge crack with 0-90-0-90 laminate.

600

Edge Crack 90-0-90-0

Top Interface

500 Bottom Interface

Centre Interface

400

G (J/m2)

300

200

100

0

0 20 40

a (mm) 60 80 100

Fig 4.9: Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ from an edge crack with 90-0-90-0 laminate.

The structural resistance when the top layer is oriented 00 is greater than fibres oriented

with 900 at the top layer.

4.4 CASE TWO: LINE LOADING

A line load of 10 N is applied on the line along the top edge of the laminate, parallel

to the supported end.

Fig: 4.10 Loaded model for edge crack opening at centre interface

Fig. 4.11 Deformed model for edge crack opening at centre interface

Analysis of Results:

Fig 4-12 to 4-17 show that the opening up of a crack requires more amount of energy, as

the energy required for deformation of the crack dominates more than the energy required

4.4.1 ALL LONGITUDINAL FIBRES

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

G (J/m2)

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

a (mm)

Fig 4.12 Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ of opening a centre crack with 0-0-0-0 laminate

9

8

7

6

G (J/m2)

5

4

3

2

1

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

a (mm)

Fig 4.13 Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ of opening a centre crack with 90-90-90-90

laminate

5.4.3 SYMMETRIC FIBRE ORIENTATION

3

2.5

2

G (J/m2)

1.5

0.5

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

a (mm)

Fig 4.14 Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ of opening a centre crack with 0-90-90-0

laminate.

3

2.5

2

G (J/m2)

1.5

0.5

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

a (mm)

Fig 4.15 Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ of opening a centre crack with 90-0-0-90

laminate.

4.4.4 ANTISYMMETRIC FIBRE ORIENTATION

3.5

2.5

2

G (J/m2)

1.5

0.5

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

a (mm)

Fig 4.16 Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ of opening a centre crack with 0-90-0-90

laminate

3

2.5

2

G (J/m2)

1.5

0.5

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

a (mm)

Fig 4.17 Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ of opening a centre crack with 90-0-0-90

laminate.

5

5.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter presents the analysis of centre crack laminates supported along two

opposite edges and subjected to two different load cases. In first case, a uniform pressure

is applied on the top surface of the laminate. And in second case, a uniform line load is

applied along the top edge of the laminate parallel to the supported end.

In this model the cross-section of the rectangular dimension plate are taken as 100

mm span (L) with a span/depth ratio of 10. Four layers of equal thickness (10/4=2.5mm)

are considered. The width of the plate is considered to be infinite. The crack location is at

centre of the laminate. The length of the crack is varied from 15mm to 75mm. The crack

Finite element mesh is generated using 20 node quadratic solid element SOLID95 in

ANSYS software. This element is defined by 20 nodes having three degrees of freedom per

node; translations in the nodal x, y and z directions. The element may have any spatial

orientation. SOLID95 has plasticity, creep, stress stiffening, large deflection, and large strain

capabilities. It has the capability to inherit orthotropic material properties and hence, best

The surfaces between the laminates, apart from those at the crack, are bonded

together using a contact pair. The coincident nodes at the surface of the crack extension

length are coupled. Simply supported boundary condition is applied on the bottom edges

of the x-z plane, i.e.; degrees of freedom along the z-axis are constrained. The plate is also

constrained in the y-direction to imply infinite length, and plane strain condition.

E1=147GPa; E2=E3=10.3GPa

G12=G13=7GPa; G23=3.7GPa

5.3 CASE ONE: UNIFORM PRESSURE

The transverse uniform pressure of 1 MPa is applied on the surface along the top

The position of the crack is varied between different laminate interfaces, along

with the increase in the length of the crack. The nature of deflection is studied and the

Strain Energy Release Rate in the plate is calculated from the element tables.

Fig 5.4 Deformed model after laminate bending due to uniform pressure load

5.3.1 ALL LONGITUDINAL FIBRES

45

Centre Crack 0-0-0-0

40 Top Interface

Bottom Interface

35

Centre Interface

30

G (J/m2)

25

20

15

10

5

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

a (mm)

Fig 5.5: Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ from an edge crack with 0-0-0-0 laminate.

400

Centre Crack 90-90-90-90

Top Interface

350

Bottom Interface

300 Centre Interface

250

G (J/m2)

200

150

100

50

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

a (mm)

Fig 5.6: Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ from an edge crack with 90-90-90-90 laminate.

Due to the symmetric nature of crack when at centre interface, the amount of resistance to

deformation is more. When the crack is at the top or bottom interface, the required energy

to propagate the crack is lesser. Due to the constraints on the bottom layer, forces develop

in opposite direction, hence propelling easier crack growth.

5.3.3 SYMMETRIC FIBRE ORIENTATION

180

Centre Crack 0-90-90-0

160 Top Interface

Bottom Interface

140

Centre Interface

120

G (J/m2)

100

80

60

40

20

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

a (mm)

Fig 5.7: Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ from an edge crack with 0-90-90-0 laminate.

160

Centre Crack 90-0-0-90

Top Interface

140

Bottom Interface

120

Centre Interface

100

G (J/m2)

80

60

40

20

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

-20

a (mm)

Fig 5.8: Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ from an edge crack with 90-0-0-90 laminate.

The symmetric nature of the orientation, the energy required at bottom and top surfaces is

almost the same amount. Minor variations in the value of G are only a result of constraints

applied. And also, it is easier to open up a crack at the interface of 0-0 fibres than 90-90.

5.3.4 ANTISYMMETRIC FIBRE ORIENTATION

180

Centre Crack 0-90-0-90

160 Top Interface

Bottom Interface

140

Centre Interface

120

G (J/m2)

100

80

60

40

20

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

a (mm)

Fig 5.9: Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ from an edge crack with 0-90-0-90 laminate

180

160 Top Interface

Bottom Interface

140

Centre Interface

120

100

G (J/m2)

80

60

40

20

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

-20

a (mm)

Fig 5.10: Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ from an edge crack with 90-0-90-0 laminate.

The resistance when the top layer is oriented 00 is greater than when oriented at 900.

5.4 CASE TWO: LINE LOADING

A line load of 1000N is applied on the line along the centre of the laminate, parallel

to the supported end.

Fig. 5.12 Deformed model for centre crack opening at centre interface

Analysis of Results:

The graphs 5.13-5.18 show the constant trend of the amount of energy required to open

up the crack to be a continuous increasing curve with respect to the crack length.

5.4.1 All Longitudinal Fibres

350

300

250

G (J/m2)

200

150

100

50

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

a (mm)

Fig 5.13 Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ of opening a centre crack with 0-0-0-0 laminate.

3000

2500

2000

G (J/m2)

1500

1000

500

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

a (mm)

Fig 5.14 Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ of opening a centre crack with 90-90-90-90

laminate.

5.4.3 SYMMETRIC FIBRE ORIENTATION

1200

1000

800

G (J/m2)

600

400

200

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

a (mm)

Fig 5.15 Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ of opening a centre crack with 0-90-90-0

laminate.

1200

1000

800

G (J/m2)

600

400

200

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

a (mm)

Fig 5.16 Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ of opening a centre crack with 90-0-0-90

laminate.

5.4.4 ANTISYMMETRIC FIBRE ORIENTATION

900

800

700

600

G (J/m2)

500

400

300

200

100

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

a (mm)

Fig 5.17 Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ of opening a centre crack with 0-90-0-90

laminate.

Fig 5.18 Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ of opening a centre crack with 90-0-0-90

1400

laminate.

1200

1000

G (J/m2)

800

600

400

200

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

a (mm)

Fig 5.18 Variation of ‘G’ with respect to ‘a’ of opening a centre crack with90-0-90-0

laminate

6

INTRODUCTION

The energy required for the growth of a crack under shear and opening conditions is

analysed for a four layered cross ply unidirectional fibre reinforced composite laminate

with delamination at two different locations (edge crack and centre crack) using

Trend Pattern

Edge Crack

The energy required to shear the crack in the laminate under shear follows an increasing

trend until a certain crack length and then decreases as the length of the crack increases.

When in opening mode, the energy required to open up the crack almost follows a linear

increasing trend until a definitive crack length and then shows a parabolic growth.

Centre Crack

The energy required to shear and also open up the crack are in a progressively in a

CONCLUSIONS

It is much safer to have centre crack structures than those with an edge crack.

Transverse fibres are safer than longitudinal fibres in the case of presence of a

SCOPE

The above analysis can be extend at various levels

7

REFERENCES

[1]. Kedward, K.T., 1995. Mechanical Design Handbook. (ed.) Rothbart, H.A., Harold, A.

[2]. Pagano, N.J., Schoeppner, G.A., 2000. Delamination of polymer matrix composites:

[3]. Tay, T.E., Shen, F., 2002. Analysis of delamination growth in laminated composites with

[4]. Crasto, A.S., Kim, R.Y., 1997. Hygrothermal influence on the free-edge delamination of

ASTM STP 1285. (ed.) Armanios, E.A. American Society for Testing and Materials,

[5]. Bolotin, V.V., 1996. Delaminations in composite structures: Its origin, buckling,

[7]. Greenhalgh, E., Singh, S., 1999. Investigation of the failure mechanisms for

sequence effect in block amplitude loading of cross-ply composite laminates.

[9]. Robinson, P., Hodgkinson, J.M., 2000. Interlaminar fracture toughness. Mechanical

[10]. Hashemi, S., Kinloch, A.J., Williams, J.G., 1990a. The analysis of interlaminar

London Series A-Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences 427 (1872), pp.

173-199.

[11]. Kusaka, T., Hojo, M., Mai, Y.W., et al., 1998. Rate dependence of mode I

thin films at high stress levels. International Journal of Fracture 110 (4), pp. 371-385.

[13]. Glaessgen, E.H., Raju, I.S., Poe, C.C., 2002. Analytical and experimental studies

carbon fibre reinforced plastics at multidirectional ply interfaces under static and

cyclic loading. Plastics Rubber and Composites Processing and Applications 27 (5), pp.

220-226.

[17]. Tanaka, H., Tanaka, K., 1995. Mixed-mode growth of interlaminar cracks in

[18]. Olsson, R., Thesken, J.C., Brandt, F., Jonsson, N., Nilsson, S., 1996. Investigations of

[19]. Compston, P., Jar, P.Y.B., 1999. The influence of fibre volume fraction on the mode

[20]. Tanaka, K., Tanaka, H., 1997. Stress-ratio effect on mode II propagation of

Fatigue and Fracture 6, ASTM STP 1285. (ed.) Armanios, E.A. American Society for

[21]. Dahlen, C., Springer, G.S., 1994. Delamination growth in composites under

[22]. Timoshenko, S. and Goodier, J.: 1970, Theory of Elasticity, McGraw Hill.

[23]. Inglis, C.: 1913, Stresses in a plate due to the presence of cracks and sharp corners,

[24]. Kelly, A.: 1974, Strong Solids, second edn, Oxford University Press.

[25]. Gordon, J.: 1988, The Science of Structures and Materials, Scientific American

Library.

[26]. Westergaard, H.: 1939a, Bearing pressures and cracks, J. Appl. Mech.

[27]. Hillerborg, A. and Mod´eer, M. and Petersson, P.E.: 1976, Analysis of crack

formation and crack growth in concrete by means of fracture mechanics and finite

[28]. Baˇzant, Z. and Cedolin, L.: 1991, Stability of Structures, Oxford University Press.

[29]. Pipes, R.B., Pagano, N.J., 1970. Interlaminar stresses in composite laminates under

laminates under inplane loading. Journal of Composite Materials 5 (JUL), pp. 354-360.

[31]. Herakovich, C.T., Renieri, G.D., Brinson, H.F., 1976. Finite element analysis of

[32]. Wang, A.S.D., Crossman, F.W., 1977. Some new results on edge effect in symmetric

[33]. Wang, S.S., Choi, I., 1982. Boundary-layer effects in composite laminates: I Free-

[34]. Wang, S.S., Choi, I., 1983. The interface crack between dissimilar anisotropic

pp. 169-178.

[35]. Irwin, G.R., 1958. Fracture I. Handbuch der Physik, VI. (ed.) Flüge, S.

[38]. Camanho, P.P., Dávila, C.G., 2002. Mixed-mode decohesion finite elements for

the simulation of delamination in composite materials. NASA-Technical Paper

[39]. Kim, I.G., Kong, C.D., Uda, N., 2002. Generalized theoretical analysis method

[40]. Krueger, R., 2002. The virtual crack closure technique: history, approach and

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