CHAPTER TEN: Democratic Politics, Religions Revival, and Reform, 1824-1840 The Rise of Democratic Politics, 1824

-1832: Republican party tearing b/c of pressures by 1824. Generated by industrialization in New England, spread of cotton in South, Westward expansion. Would lead to divisions between Democrats and Whigs. Republicans suspicious of strong federal government, wanted states rights ² would become Democrats; Republicans who believed that national government should encourage economic development ² became Whigs. Elections to office depended less on education and wealth than on ability to identify and follow the majority; leaders could no longer look down on the people. Democratic Ferment: -Political democratization took many forms. -Most common: Substitution of poll taxes for the requirement that voters own property. -No new Western states had property requirements; Eastern states slowly liberalized their laws. -Written ballots replaced voting aloud (´stand-upµ voting) ² decreased intimidation to vote for certain people. -Appointive offices increasingly elective. -Electoral college survived. -Voters made choice of presidential electors, no longer state legislatures; only six states chose electors in 1824; by 1932, only South Carolina did. -Federalists vs. Republicans allowed expression of will. -Republicans then Federalists tried to woo voters with barbecues. -Each party tried to be the majority. -Political democratization developed at uneven pace. -1820, Repubs and Feds organized. Nominating candidates relied on the caucus, not nomination conventions. Women and free blacks disenfranchised. -Opposing democracy ² political suicide. -Politicians learned that they had to cater to the people. The Election of 1824: -Sectional tensions ended Era of Good Feelings in 1924. -Five candidates (all Repubs) wanted presidency ² John Quincy Adams (New England), John C. Calhoun (South Carolina), William Crawford (Georgia), Henry Clay (Kentucky). -Clay thought he had Western states ² then Andrew Jackson (Tennessee) came, though he wasn·t taken very seriously; gained support of the frontier and Southern opponents of Clay·s American System. -Republican caucus chose Crawford, but the party was no longer united; ¾ Repubs in Congress refused to go to caucus. Crawford had bad stroke. Calhoun impressed with Jackson, withdrew, and ran for VP unopposed. -Jackson won more popular and electoral votes than any other candidate, didn·t get majority required by Constitution. -Election thrown into House of Representatives, had to choose form top three candidates (Jackson, Adams, Crawford).

-Election of 1824 convinced him of the need for a two-party system. -However. by calling Jackson uneducated. or ´Friends of Clay.µ -Martin Van Buren was alert to the political system changes. -Benefited from having no connection to the Monroe Doctrine and the Panic of 1819. Jeffersonians said it was unconstitutional. -New political system started to take shape. as did others such as Van Buren. -Singe-term presidency. No candidate had electoral majority and the House of Reps had decided the controversial outcome. though the popular vote was close. -Adams· party. -1825. ´Corrupt bargainµ plagued Adams·s presidency. -Adams proposed to send delegates to newly independent Latin American nations. rallied behind Adams. -Got Adams elected. angered southerners b/c the black republic of Haiti. -Few realized that a new political system was developing. controversial presidency. this party (Democratic) nominated Jackson for Pres and Calhoun for VP. Alienated supporters by appointing opponents to high offices. created by slave revolutionaries. Repub party had splintered. married wife. -Van Buren was convinced that Jackson could lead the new party. -Without discipline imposed by strong opposition. Adams made Clay secretary of state. His opponents ² National Republicans. proposed program of federal aid for internal improvements. erroneously believing that her past marriage was over. wanting to make alliance between the West and Northeast for a future run for the presidency. -Americans saw him as a link to a virtuous past. to Jackson supporters. seen as hot-tempered by other politicians. -Presidency. John Quincy Adams as President: -Adams didn·t sense changing political climate. was seen as a clash between democracy and aristocracy. not wanting to be associated with just one party in general. Jackson·s support said Adams was in debt.-Clay gave support to Adams. The Election of 1828: -Vicious. ´Jackson menµ. -Adams didn·t seek new bases for support. rich. The Rise of Andrew Jackson: -Jackson·s popularity rose as Adams·s went down. appealed to Americans because it made Jackson seem ordinary. -Americans were either ´Adams menµ. and had a prostitute. . -1828. National Repubs attacked Jackson·s moral character because of his past duels and military executions. -Jackson elected by a huge margin in electoral votes. would be recognized.

Jackson in Office: -Jackson ² presidency was opposed because of alleged corruption. some of Jackson·s Congress supporters passed a high protective tariff that didn·t favor the South. so Calhoun thought that he would succeed him. so he was against the tariffs. two personal issues shook relations between Cal and Jack. vetoed a bill providing money for a road in Kentucky. -Jackson had to maintain key states like PA and soothe the South at the same time. which said that the 1828 tariff was unconstitutional and that states could nullify it. Adams ² votes from New England. South Carolinians thought that tariffs would lead to a possible interference with slavery.µ which was removing officeholders from rival party. -Jackson felt that public officials used aid to woo supporters. Tariff issue. thought that that would be an excuse to maintain tariffs. -When Adams was pres. S. The Liberator.µ Nullification: Tariff of 1828 formed a rift between Jackson and Calhoun. -Opposition to Southern tariffs also rested on the fear the North would pass anti-slavery laws. Jackson promised he would only have a first term. wanted to be President. -Calhoun. -Calhoun believed that federal laws had to benefit everyone equally. rejected federal support. however. -Before 1832 tariff passage. -Anonymously wrote the South Caroline Exposition and Protest. -1830. needed him to increase presidential prospects. . as well as William Lloyd Garrison·s abolitionist newspaper.. Two policies: -Distribute surplus federal revenue to the states. tested South·s loyalty to him. 1831. Hoped it would remove the sectional taint of the tariff. -Strongest support was in the South. Calhoun·s home state. Jackson got the blame for this ´Tariff of Abominations. -Stand on federal aid for internal improvements was much more controversial.C. -Ease down the high tariffs of 1828. but they didn·t satisfy S.-Reflected strong sectional bases of the new parties. Didn·t want to break openly with Jackson. would need support of the South to become Pres.C. a slave revolt by Nat Turner in VA took place. among many issues.µ -Didn·t offer reasons for removing people. -Jackson·s first policy: ´rotation in office. Jackson ² votes form South and Southwest. -Congress passed slightly reduced tariff rates in 1832. because they didn·t favor the South. -Calhoun didn·t like the idea of federal revenue going to sates. AKA ´spoils system. suffered a decline in the 1820·s that voters blamed on tariffs. -Indian Removal Act of 1830 enhanced his popularity there.

BoUS restrained printing and lending money by demanding the redemption of bank notes in specie. Jackson defended them. Exposition. Lead to Panic of . paper money. Bad financial choices in early Pres led him to suspect banks. as secretary of war under Monroe. -Biddle received a bill to recharter the bank.µ Began to send arms. even though chartered by Congress. because his wife was slandered during his campaign. -1832. which provided for reduction of duties between 1833 and 1942. She and husband were snubbed by cabinet members and their wives. Calhoun acknowledged that he wrote the S. took back nullification of the tariffs. Located in Philadelphia. Stockholders: private citizens. who had a reputation for flirting while married to a former husband. The Bank Controversy and the Second Party System. Then Jackson took steps to get rid of the bank forever. and monopolies. -1830. Jackson got documents that Calhoun. 1833-1840: Jackson vetoing and rechartering the Bank of the US ² controversial. -Confrontation at dinner toast: ´Our Union: It must be preserved. national banking.-Peggy Eaton affair ² Secretary of war married Peggy. -Bank of US ² 20 year charter from Congress (1816). . -Jackson won ² hugely popular. Jackson thought Calhoun was trying to destroy him. -SC didn·t abandon nullification principal ³nullified Force Billaccepted Compromise Bill. Henry Clay ran for the National Republicans. Goal: finish off the BoUS. but also said that nullification was unconstitutional. -Widely blamed for Panic of 1819. and federal support for internal improvements. Jackson vetoed it and said it was a privileged monopoly. showing off his American System of protective tariffs.µ -1831. The Bank Veto and the Election of 1832: -Jackson saw gap widening between the rich and the poor. but believed that wealthy often got richer with favors (´privilegesµ) from corrupt legislatures. wanted to keep bank above politics. said he would lower tariffs.C.Only remotely controlled by the government. Stirred opposition in Whig party and stimulated interest in politics. -Jackson called nullification an ´abominable doctrine. Saw Bank of US as guilty. The sword was the Force Bill ² authorized Pres to use arms to collect customs duties in SC. had urged that Jackson be punished for unauthorized raid into Spanish Florida. Could lend lots of money too. -Jackson ran for presidency again in 1832 with Van Buren as running mate. -President: Nicholas Biddle. S. convention nullified the tariffs and forbade the collection of customs duties within the state. -1832. -´Olive branch and the swordµ ² Olive branch was the tariff of 1833 (AKA Compromise Bill).C. not Washington. Didn·t have a problem with rich getting rich with hard work.

though. Irish driven to Democrats. -Temperance and public-school reformers went to Whigs -Whigs committed to Clay·s American System implied an acceptance of active intervention of government to change society. -Nullification. they attracted reformers. Paper encouraged speculative economy ² raised profits and risks. no debt imprisonment. -Jackson hated paper money. merchants. and manufacturers. The Rise of Whig Opposition: -National Repubs became the Whigs in Jackson·s 2 nd term. -Jackson began to remove federal deposits from the Bank. but no official currency. Distrusted immigrants. -Split of Democratic Party created by advocates of soft and hard money. Wanted slavery and sale of liquor to end. Fueled economic development ² made it easier for farmers to get loans. knowing that Jackson would attack the bank. clergymen. -Saw BoUS as evil for different reasons. -Whigs attracted commercial farmers. -Decided to sharply limit the number of state banks that could become home to federal deposits. pet banks. -Hard money advocates ² faction in NY called Locofocos. and bankers in the North and South. The War on the Bank: -Jackson wouldn·t let the bank die a natural death in 1836. In the South they appealed to former nullificationists. In the North. But if note depreciated after its issuance ² wage owners not paid in specie suffered. -State banks clamored for more revenue. placing them in state banks. -Reformers ² got Protestant. wanted free education. -Greatest Whig strength ² Anti-Masonry. -Joined by those who were alienated by Jackson·s policies. especially Irish. -Biddle tried to get further bank loans and credit. -Whigs saw Jackson as a dictator (´King Andrew Iµ). native-born workers to support Whigs. 1840 ² Whig and Democratic parties divided: banks or no banks. -Removal policy enabled state banks to increase their lending capacity with paper money.1837 ² faced Martin Van Buren·s presidency. Whigs were associated with the American patriots who had opposed King George III in 1776. There were ´notesµ redeemable in specie. Whigs developed broader base in the South and North than Nat Reps had. and the number of state-bank depositories multiplied. Jackson forced to sigh Deposit Act ² increased the number of deposit banks and loosened federal control of them. 23 by the end of the year! Called ´pet banks. Grew out of workingmen·s parties in northern cities. et cetera« -Reformers in the North also opposed Jackson. -Absorbed by Democratic party. aligned them with reformers. -Paper money from pet banks and influx of specie ² economy in expansion. and a 10 hour workday. . better education and public morality. Anti-Masons.µ because they were usually selected based on their loyalty to the Democrats. planters.

notably in the South. -Speculative boom of 1835 and ·36 . Workers saw wages drop by 1/3. WP Magnum (North Carolina). and the prices of goods and land to soar. -VB called for the creation of an Independent Treasury: no depositing money into banks. provided that only specie was accepted for public lands. then crashed in 1830. Failed to address banking on state levels³more than 900 banks.µ and in 1838 the Whigs took the governorship and most legislative seats in Van Buren·s own state. the value of bank notes in circulation to triple. three of them being Whigs. -Many turned to William Miller. -Independent Treasury reflected the alliance between government and banking. wone 2/3rds in 1832. Lent money to farmers and businessmen. Economy rose. -July 1836 ² Specie Circular. banks stopped specie payments. Democrats blamed the depression on banks and paper money and wanted hard money. blaming the depression on the Circular. The Election of 1840: -Van Buren gained renomination. -Whigs couldn·t agree on a single candidate. Daniel Webster ² Massachussetts. 1843. 4 anti-Buren candidates from different parts of the country arose. Believed that paper money was bad. though the popular v ote was close. who convinced many that the world would end October 22. -Prices began to fall in 1837. because he was Jackson·s favorite and the heir to Jackson. Specie payments suspended again. Biddle was charged with fraud. -Whigs had no real strategy. The Search for Solutions: -Van Buren called ´Martin Van Ruin. Ended speculative boom. but barely half in 1836. the government would instead hold its revenues. thus allowing the number of banks to double. -Origins of the depression national and international. -Whigs continued endorsing banks to spur econmonic development. -This depression was greater than 1819. The Panic of 1837: -Severe depression struck early into Van Buren·s presidency. NY. -Van Buren won. . William Henry Harrison ² Ohio. -Democrats said the Whigs were trying to divide the vote so that no candidate would receive a majority and that the House of Reps would decide the winner with deals and bargains. BoUS failed.The Election of 1836: -Democrats ran Van Buren. -Britain checked specie flow from its shores to the US in 1836 to restrain outflow of British investment. called America·s second Declaration. Hoped the Circular would reverse the effects of the Deposit Act. one Democrat ² Hugh Lawson White (Tennessee).came from Jackson·s putting money into state banks. -Signed on July 4 th .

Known as Second Great Awakening.µ a group of people who met weekly after camp meetings broke up to encourage morality. He said that humans didn·t have an inclination to sin and said that they could choose whether or not to . -Cane Ridge. New York ´Burned-Over Districtµ home to most revivals. At first Congregationalists and Presbyterians dominated the revivals. William Henry Harrison and John Tyler (VA senator) for VP. not learned ministers. Said that religion was the ´political institutionµ of US. not head. but promoted law.-Whigs settled on one candidate. order. according to Alexis de Tocqueville·s Democracy in America. Basic unit of discipline wa s the ´class. such as the ´anxious seatµ (people became objects of prayer) and the ´protracted meetingµ (went on for a week). -Most successful revivalists were normal people.µ Whigs used that to their advantage. fighting. The Rise of Popular Religion: Religious impulses reinforced American democracy and liberty. Greatest ´harvestµ from Rochester. others not) and believed that everyone could get to heaven. etc. Also rejected Calvinism. also demanded accessible religion. Said Van Buren was a despot. -Rochester was a citywide revival among all denominations. -Charles G. Finney ² Presbyterian minister who conducted many revivals. -Most successful on the frontier: Methodists. -Finney different from Jonathan Edwards. etc. Then went through changes among frontier states. saying that Harrison was a frontiersmen. -Harrison given a clear victory The Second Party System Matures: -Depression and long-cabin campaign brought voters to the polls. Democrats called him a cidersipping ´Old Granny. despite being a Presbyterian. and morality on the frontier. Ministers ² plain words favored by Americans. The Second Great Awakening: -Began in Connecticut during the 1790·s and spread throughout the nation. Politicians continued to appeal to ordinary people. and Finney pioneered cooperation between them all. -Revivals disrupted custom. Said that religion was a matter of the heart. who saw revivals as works of God. the largest Protestant denomination. such as camp meetings (huge revivals were lots of people claimed that the Second Coming of Jesus was near). Finney said revivals were human creations. camp meeting that had ´exercisesµ where people would roll around and jerk. didn·t want drunkenness. Put aside Calvinist creed (some were meant for salvation. Second party system reached a high plateau in 1840 and stayed there for over a decade. -Harrison picked b/c he had few enemies. Americans wanted to be in charge of their own destinies. gave out log-cabin cider. fornication. Americans demanded accessible politics. Eastern Revivals: -Second Great Awakening began to shift to the East in the 1720·s. -Finney came up with speedier conversions. Americans wanted a new religious experience.

The Shakers: -Founder and leader: Mother Anne Lee. -Gained many followers.sin and could even live perfectly (perfectionism). -Name came from a convulsive religious dance that was part of their ceremony. persuaded Smith that Mormons should separate themselves from society. -Smith said he received another revelation in 1843-polygyny. -Women converts outnumbered men 2 to 1. gained acceptance among religious liberals. though he didn·t publicly claim it to be a doctrine. -Doctrines from Lee·s trances and visions. -Lived apart from society. Missouri. -Abstained from sex. positioned America at the center of Christian history. -Basic doctrine: Christ wasn·t divine. NY. -Saw revivals as uncouth emotional exhibitions. and to escape persecution. and Illinois. -Brought their husbands to convert. -Revivalists and Unitarians both rejected Calvinism. though they survived because they found converts and orphans to join their communities. the prophet. -Didn·t like materialism. -Moved to these areas to draw closer to the Indians to convert them. The descendants of Lehi. -Founder Joseph Smith claimed that a vision led him to a book of revelation and to stones to translate it. and small manufactures in Northern towns and cities. where they built a model city. Invented clothespin and circular saw. The Rise of Mormonism: -Very controversial. Critics of Revivals: The Unitarians: -Unitarians doubted revivals could save souls. -Gentiles (non-Mormons) were extremely hostile to the religion. -Appealed to the ´self-madeµ individual. Made him controversial. Completed the translation of the Book of Mormon in 1827. -Finney recognized the participation of women in the Awakening. had departed from the Lord·s ways. . Said that God was both male and female. Able artisans. lawyers. and that Jesus had appeared and performed miracles in the New World. -Would have quickly gone extinct because of abstinence. -Finney had a dignified style that made him appeal to merchants. -Smith and followers moved to Ohio. -Book tells the story of an ancient Hebrew prophet whose descendants came to America. Nauvoo. and both thought that people could change. -Settled in New Lebanon.

but gave their loyalty to causes. not ministers and manufacturers. . who drank as a pastime. -The members were usually mechanics and laborers. -McGuffey readers created a common curriculum. wanted sober workers. Gave women and blacks some say. Reform movements lacked national organizations. -Immigrants. -Made few gains in South. -Alcohol seen as male indulgence that hurt the family. and inequality as sins. Reformers sometimes cooperated with political parties (especially Whigs). -Wanted to extend the school term from two to ten months. South ² suppressed reform. -Success didn·t come easily. -Became first secretary of his states newly-created board of education. -1838. better treatment of criminals and the insane. honesty. women·s rights. ignorance. -1851. -Horace Mann. -School reformers wanted to combat ignorance and cement uniform values. Saw drunkenness. and patriotism. -Wanted to make schools paid for by the states. Protestants created the American Temperance Society. Saw social problems as clashes between good and evil ² reformers thought they were always on God·s side. Maine banned the buying and making of drinking. fueled by religious revivalism. and the establishment of utopias. -Said schools had to ready children for industrial society. -Thought that God would help the economy if people didn·t drink. very structured curriculum. -Annual per capita consumption of alcohol rose until it exceeded seven gallons. emphasized industry. The War on Liquor: -Want of temperance increased during the second half of the nineteenth century. -Leeman Beecher. -Demanded total abstinence. Connecticut revivalist. Abolition. especially Irish Catholics. New England and parts of the Midwest settled by New Englanders ² reform activity. -First temperance organization nationally. Public-School Reform: -School reformers wanted to encourage orderliness in the common people. said that public schools were anti-Irsh and anti-Catholic.The Age of Reform: Men and women tried to improve society. MA stopped selling small amounts of alcohol to restrict individual drinkers. -Factory owners endorsed temperance. most influential reformer for schools. -Year later. -Temperance agitation sprang up after the Panic. sobriety. temperance. -Saw alcohol as a growing problem. -Reformers targeted moderate drinkers in the labor classes. as they were excluded from politics. public education. but North took to it. -Temperance took flight. -MA passed the first compulsory school law. -Wanted standardized books. in the form of Washington Temperance Societies. though 1/3 to ½ of members were women. thundered against alcohol. not parties. -Headed by men.

But the reform movement gave them opportunity for public activity without challenging the belief that their sphere was in the home. they were treated so badly that blacks often preferred segregated schools. -Protestant churches thought that slavery was a sin. -Could not vote. Lucy Stone. -Few southerners were willing to free slaves. who was a huge feminist. -Usually women·s rights advocates gravitated to Garrison. -Women·s role in the abolitionist movement. that the 3/5ths compromise be repealed. had no right to own property when married. -Supporters of school reform -Manufactures. -Gained support from black abolitionists. -Formed abolition societies. Women·s Rights: -Women·s life had many contradictions. Quaker Lucretia Mott. . -Split abolitionist movement. but not social equality. -Launched The Liberator. -Leading feminists: Grimke sisters. Wanted immediate emancipation with no money paid back to southerners. -Economy rested on cotton -Blacks opposed slavery. Abolition: -Abolitionist sentiment declined in the early 19th century. -Black children rarely got schooling. -Relations not always good between black and white abolitionists. and when they did. and that slavery should be abolished. but rallied more behind temperance. -Thought that blacks didn·t belong in American society. -Many feminists didn·t want to attack sexual inequality at first. who wanted immigrants to conform. -Native-born Americans. -Lucy Stone became the first abolitionist to lecture just on women·s rights.-Rural and urban areas needed kids to help work. -Women active in the movement in societies run by men. Quaker. Very radical. -Frederick Douglass and Sojourner Truth both lectured against slavery. -Should abolitionists campaign as a party? -Formed Liberty party. -White abolitionists wanted no slavery. -Benjamin Lundy. -William Lloyd Garrison was the editor. because they saw that school would teach punctuality. and Abby Kelley. which advocated that the slave trade be outlawed. began Genius of Universal Emancipation. -Feminists Sarah and Angelina Grimke wanted to women·s rights to be acknowledged with blacks· rights. -American Colonization Society proposed gradual emancipation and the return of blacks to Africa.

and Brook Farm. and insanity by establishing institutions. also believed that everyone was married to each other. -Brook Farm. Almshouses and workhouses for the poor were built. -Thought that if social arrangements could be perfected. -Poor people also treated better. reformers created substitutes for parental discipline. was the creation of transcendentalists. Led to reformers wanting to figure out what caused crime. and Southerners cited him as an example of what would happen if slavery ended. -Reformers sought solitary confinement for prisoners. -Communistic. as they were shunned by society. like Brook Farm. who had started as Unitarians but then decided to change Christianity by saying that men and women had infinite spiritual capacity. people would be better. -Interest in these communities came from Britain. -Others came: Hopedale. and not just imprison them in regular jails. Sought to change that. -Mott and Stanton organized women·s rights convention. wrote Seneca Falls Declaration. the penitentiary. collapsed. crime.-At the World·s Anti-Slavery Conference. -British Robert Owen founded New Harmony in India na. -Most controversial: Oneida community in NY. He felt that people were shaped by their environments. Utopian Communities: -The belief that people could live perfectly grew into the development of utopian societies. -Dorothea Dix investigated jails and almshouses and found that insane people were treated badly. -Poverty and crime increased during the early-nineteenth-century. Also made a sharp impression on Elizabeth Cady Stanton. established by John Humphrey Noyes. Encouraged the building of insane asylums to get crazy people help. Lucretia Mott and other women were not allowed to be seated. -Oneidans had to stay together. -Attracted writers such as Emerson and Hawthorne. -Noyes was seen by critics as crazy. Penitentiaries and Asylums: -Reformers wanted to combat poverty. near Boston. -To cure crime. -Utopians clearly exemplified the idealism and hopefulness during the Age of Jackson . -Founded by intellectuals as alternatives to the competitive economy. -Oneida survived long after other utopias. Fruitlands.

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