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raising rabbits
helpful suggestions for beginners
The rabbit has been domesticated for years marketplace contacts. For show purposes
and is adaptable to confinement rearing and or as a hobby, almost any recognized breed
close association with humans. Persons will serve including show strains of the com-
wishing to raise rabbits for fun, profit, or to mercial breeds mentioned above.
supplement the family meat supply should
visit other rabbit raisers and observe their Rabbit shows are educational and fun. Breed-
housing, feeding, and management meth- ing the colored and marked breeds is a chal-
ods. Contact and join a local rabbit club as lenge. To keep abreast of this ever-growing
an excellent means of becoming familiar with industry, all breeders should join specialty
related rabbit information. clubs, and plan and attend shows or schools.

Newcomers wishing to raise show stock Purchasing Stock

should attend several rabbit shows before
buying. Watch the judge handle the animals Care and consideration should be given
and compare breeds. Those choosing meat when purchasing stock for a rabbitry. Un-
production should visit commercial meat less you buy from a reliable breeder, you
producers. may end up with culls. Most breeders will
show you their rabbitry hutch cards and
Whether you raise rabbits for meat and fur, production records. Officers of your local or
wool, laboratory use, or show stock, select state association will be glad to assist you
the breed best adapted to that purpose. It in purchasing stock. Know your purpose for
is never economical to purchase inferior choosing a rabbit breed. Look the stock over
breeding stock. One good producing doe will carefully with emphasis on type, condition,
make more net profit than several inferior and production records. Don’t be afraid to
ones. ask questions.

Commercial rabbitries are set up for the pro- Health

duction of meat at a profit. You’ll want a
breed that will attain the required weight in The best way to keep your animals healthy
a minimum of time, with the best dress-out, is to stay away from sick animals or those
the type of fur that sells at a higher price, with parasites, mange, respiratory, or eye
and stock with a good production record. problems. Keep your animals well fed and
The medium weight breeds with white body in clean, dry housing. If you have a sick rab-
fur (White New Zealands and Californians) bit, isolate it. While doing daily chores, feed
are most popular for meat production, be- and care for the well rabbits first, then treat
cause they produce a more rapid growth and the patients and wash your hands.
a uniform fryer.
The market price of rabbit pelts is higher
for white fur than colored because the white Good housing is very important. The rab-
fur can be dyed to any desired color, while bits, while unable to tell you of their needs
colored pelts have to be carefully matched in housing, are expected to perform in your
and cannot be dyed a lighter color. The pelt cages, raising large healthy litters.
market fluctuates greatly. Often no market
is available for small lots of rabbit pelts. Visit other rabbitries and see the great vari-
ety of cages in use. In planning your rab-
Wool from the Angora rabbit makes a won- bitry, you must decide whether you want
derful yarn and subsequently beautiful ar- single- or double-tier wire cages. There are
ticles, but there is seldom any wool market advantages and disadvantages to each.
available unless it is developed by the You’ll find it much easier to observe your
breeder through fairs, summer shows or stock if the cages are single-tier and at a

height where the inside is visible without building arrangements for future expansion.
bending or stretching. With double-tier
cages, you can house twice as many ani- Welded wire in 1/2" x 1" mesh is recom-
mals under the same roof, but cleaning and mended for making rabbit cages, as such
ventilation can be a problem. floors are almost self-cleaning. Large breeds
will keep cleaner with 3/4" x 1" mesh wire.
A rabbitry should have plenty of fresh air, Use 14-gauge wire for all floors.
but no draft. A draft may cause colds and
pneumonia. Locate your rabbitry in an area Hardware cloth is not recommended as it is
with good drainage. Utilize natural shade if a woven surface with more opportunity for
possible and protect from prevailing winds. manure to cling and rough galvanized edges
The rabbit areas should be fenced to pro- are usually present to irritate the rabbit’s feet.
tect the hutches from stray animals. Fright-
ened rabbits often injure themselves (bro- Cage designs vary with the manufacturers
ken backs) or kill or injure their young. and with the space requirements of the
breed. Depth of the cages depends upon the
Good ventilation inside the house is impor- height of the cage and accessibility of the
tant. In cold areas, rabbit houses should be farthest corner. Thirty inches is the usual
more carefully protected than those in depth although properly designed cages may
milder areas. In general, all houses should be as deep as 36 inches. Except for giant
have insulated roofs to reduce summer heat breeds, 18–24 inches in height is sufficient.
and winter condensation. The use of supple- Hutch doors should be large enough to al-
mental heat is not economically advisable, low room to handle the rabbits easily or in-
but it may still be necessary for sustained stall nest boxes. Humane treatment of ani-
production in below-zero climates. mals suggests that they have adequate room
to turn and stretch. Suggested floor space
Individual hutches should have enough roof allotments are:
overhang to protect from driving rains. The
back and windward sides should be solid. Small breeds—21/2 x 21/2 ft. = 61/4 sq. ft.
Medium breeds—21/2 x 3 ft. = 71/2 sq. ft.
Nonmechanized, multi-unit houses should Large breeds—21/2 x 4 ft. = 10 sq. ft.
include continuous ventilation areas under
the eaves (well above the cages) and lower side If you have more than a few rabbits you
wall area (below the cage floor). Eave ventila- should install automatic waterers and out-
tion is concerned with the area covered by a side metal feeders. In locations which have
two-foot sheet of plywood nailed to the bot- freezing weather, a heating cable in the wa-
tom of the rafters to deflect the incoming air ter line is a necessity. These two features
into the center of the building. An adjustable will save time and prevent contamination of
damper is advisable. During the summer, water and feed.
vents should be open. In winter, they should
be partially closed. Small adjustable center Although experimental data on this subject
ridge ventilators are recommended to allow is not complete, it is suggested that electric
for the escape of excess moisture. lights be used as an aid to reducing fall and
winter breeding problems. A 16-hour day
Larger, commercial rabbit houses require fan- length is recommended; 25-watt globes
type air control. Your county Extension agent should be adequate.
or Extension poultry specialist can assist.
Feeding Your Stock
Aisles should be a minimum of three feet
and end turn areas 10 feet for a feed cart or Proper feeding and care of rabbits is a sci-
wheelbarrow. In addition, consider space and ence. Overfeeding is the most common

problem and has far-reaching side effects. breeders should be given only what they will
Regardless of the number of rabbits raised, clean up each day, or you may restrict the
best results will be obtained by feeding a rations to the ratio of 1 oz. of feed per pound
commercial rabbit pellet. Salt spools are not of body weight (4-lb. rabbit: 4 oz. feed). Im-
necessary with pelleted food. Feed compa- proper feeding causes problems. If the buck
nies have spent considerable time and is overweight, he will be lazy and sluggish
money experimenting with balanced feed and tire quickly. If the doe is overweight,
formulas. The cost of the feed itself isn’t as she may be reluctant to mate, or if she does
important as the cost of the meat produced. breed and conceive, the excess fat on the in-
The casual feeding of green feeds may cause side of her body makes kindling difficult. She
scours and is almost sure to reduce the rate may lose her young or even her own life.
of gain. Some greens, such as burdock and
sweet clover, are injurious to rabbits. Breeding

The goal for commercial rabbit raisers is to There are four methods of breeding: natu-
have 4- to 41/2 lb. fryers in 8 weeks. To achieve ral mating, forced mating, confined mating,
that goal, the young rabbits need a good and artificial insemination.
mother that can produce a lot of milk; they
need feed and water continuously. Without Natural mating—the best method to use. A
water they soon stop eating. doe shows signs of being ready for mating
by restlessness and nervousness, by rub-
Rabbits should be fed once daily, preferably bing her chin on equipment, and by attempt-
in the evening since night is their natural ing to join other rabbits. External signs in
time to feed. In order to insure that the feed females are also associated with coloring of
remains clean and fresh, give them only the vulva. Deep red coloration indicates the
enough to last until the next feeding. Old female will usually accept the male. Usu-
feed or moldy feed is very injurious to rab- ally only one service is necessary. Females
bits. Check inside the feeder to be sure wa- in season should be introduced to the male’s
ter hasn’t entered and caused caked feed in cage, not vice versa. The natural mating
the corners. method gives up to 90% conception.

The doe, from the time she is bred through Forced Mating—This method requires that
her nursing period, should be full fed on a females who do not immediately accept the
high protein diet. She and her litter will eat buck be restrained by a person so the buck
100–120 lb. of feed during the 8-week pe- can mate. Conception rate by this method
riod. The dry doe and buck are fed altogether will not approach the natural mating sys-
differently. Large breeds eat 4 to 6 oz. on tem. Does which have to be restrained
12–15% protein pellets once a day. (A 6-oz. should be eliminated as soon as possible as
tuna fish can holds approximately 5 oz. of their temperament and reluctance to mate
rabbit pellets. A 4-oz. vienna sausage can are inherited factors.
holds approximately 31/2 oz. of pellets for
intermediate size breeds.) Dwarfs need only Confined Mating—This method is not rec-
2 oz. per day per animal. They can be over- ommended because (1) you do not know if
fed very easily if their feed is not rationed. mating occurred, and (2) the animals may
Free access to a choice legume hay, such as permanently injure each other. Eligible fe-
a No. 2 leafy or better grade of alfalfa, is males are kept with a buck for anywhere
also permissible providing a manger type from 24 hours to several days.
feeder is available. Old loose hay in a cage
soon produces mold and sick rabbits. Artificial Insemination—Semen is collected
from males and introduced to females by
Junior bucks and does being developed for artificial means. This technique requires ex-

perience and equipment for good success. 8. Keep one buck to every 10–20 does. Ac-
At this time it is not a practical method to tive high-producing bucks solve most
consider. breeding problems.

How to Breed—General Information 9. Add nest box at 28th day. Normal ges-
tation period for rabbits is 31 days but
1. The small breeds mature sexually ear- varies from 30 to 33 days.
lier than the larger breeds. Small breeds
may be bred at 4 months of age, medium 10. Replace any buck whose record reveals
breeds at 5–6 months, and large breeds small litters or whose offspring show poor
at 9–12 months. Another method of de- type or rate of gain.
termining breeding time is by weight.
Breed does whenever they attain proper 11. Production life of good bucks is from two
size (New Zealand and Californian at 7 to four years. It is normal for males to molt
lbs.). Proper feeding schedules thus in- for a one-month period during the year.
sure earlier reproductive ages. During this time they may not breed.

2. Start bucks one month later than does 12. Production life of good does is two to three
on a limited schedule. years. Save at least one young replace-
ment doe per month for each 24 working
3. Take doe to buck’s cage; leave for one does (50% replacement per year). This
service. After about two minutes return replacement rate will generally cover both
her to her cage. If doe fights buck, remove culling and mortality. Eliminate poorest
immediately. She may be restrained for animals continually.
service or returned several days later.
13. Inbreeding is a much discussed point.
4. If the service is completed, the buck will The answer lies in degree of inbreeding
fall away from the doe. If this charac- and vitality of the stock. If fertility is low
teristic motion is not observed, remove and young are few, misformed, unthrifty,
the doe and place with another buck. or small, try a new unrelated buck.

5. Doe ovulates about 10–13 hours after How To Breed—Fancy Breeds

first service. Some producers take doe
back for second service at this time. This 1. Fanciers producing show stock arrange the
doubles breeding time but may help con- breeding schedule to fit their show calen-
ception percentage during off season dar. Championship quality rabbits take
(July-October). time to condition. Breeding does do not show
well. Mis-scheduled litters reduce the doe’s
6. Experienced producers should gently pal- condition both in fleshing and in fur quality.
pate does 17 days after breeding to see
if doe is pregnant. Litters will be lost if 2. Fanciers often keep a higher percentage
does are handled roughly. Rebreed does of bucks, as several breeds and varieties
that have not conceived. are kept and young bucks are being tested
for results and sale.
7. In small herds, breed does twice to in-
sure large numbers of viable sperm. In 3. Breeders of show stock rely heavily on
large herds when breeding daily, use special matings which appear to “nick” or
bucks every day and breed each doe only produce superior young. These breeding
once. When breeding weekly, bucks may animals should be kept as long as they
service two or three does on the breed- can profitably produce young. Litter size
ing day. is not as important as quality.

How to Breed—Commercial Breeders high, open at the top. Nest boxes with flat
wooden tops provide more privacy for young
1. In commercial meat production herds, the does or does that have littered on the wire.
goal is to maximize the number of sale-
able fryers. Formerly, producers bred does There are many bedding materials available.
every 42 days after kindling (31-day ges- Wood shavings, fine grass hay, and coarse
tation). This 73-day breeding schedule sawdust are most common. Use plenty of
produced five litters or 40 young rabbits nesting material in the nest box in extreme
per year. This is a good program for a cold weather. If straw is used, replenish the
beginner. nest box daily as does may eat large
amounts of the nesting material.
A more intense program now uses a 21-day
breed-back schedule. The animal is bred Does kindle in relationship to time of breed-
every 52 days and produces 6 to 7 litters of ing. Does bred in the morning tend to kindle
young per year. To do this successfully, the in the morning. Those bred in the afternoon
young should be creep-fed milk supplement tend to kindle at night.
feeds to meet their nutritional needs and
reduce their demands on the does. The Observe the expectant mothers frequently
young are removed from the doe by six weeks but do not disturb. Litters born outside the
of age to allow a minimum 10-day dry pe- nest should be warmed immediately and
riod. Does and litters should be observed placed in the nest box in a snug little pile
frequently. Only the best stock will stand covered with fur. Some mothers will join them
this intense schedule. within a few minutes. If there is no response
within a few hours, place the mother in the
2. Replace does that produce fewer than nest box and hold her until the young start
seven healthy babies per litter. to nurse. A rabbit does not cuddle her young
but nurses them quickly (2–4 minutes) in a
3. Whenever superior does not excessively hunched-up position once or twice a day.
overweight fail to litter eight or more
young, check the buck’s record. He may If the doe has more than 8 young, it is ad-
be at fault. This is particularly true with visable to remove the surplus unless you
very young bucks, old bucks, bucks go- know from past experience that that par-
ing into a molt or that are overweight. ticular doe is a good milker and can handle
the larger number. If you have several does,
From Nest Box to Market it is wise to breed more than one at a time.
You can then transfer young from a doe that
Nest boxes in commercial rabbitries are con- may have more than she can handle. The
structed of sheet metal with masonite or wood young exchange easily during the first few
bottoms because of ease of cleaning and dis- days. There is usually no need to rub noses
infecting. Plywood boxes with edges lined with with any kind of odor. Transfer young only
galvanized metal to prevent the doe from eat- between healthy mothers. Diseases such as
ing the wood and apple boxes are used by mastitis are easily spread in this manner.
small producers. Pegboard is practical for
summer since it is cool, lightweight, and du- Keep a record of all transfers, both from
rable. Extra insulation boards are added to whom and to whom the young are moved.
the sides and bottom in the winter. The young which are transferred should be
earmarked with a tattoo mark in the ear
The does need room to get in, have their made by needle pricks.
young, and nurse them. If the box is too
roomy the doe has a tendency to live in it. If a doe has more young than she can raise
Many use a box 18" long, 10" wide, and 8" properly and no other doe is available to

adopt them, cull out the weakest ones. Eight of raising rabbits. Without records one can-
good healthy youngsters have a far better not determine production, mortality, litter
chance at life and will return more money weight at 8 weeks, cost of feed per pound of
than 12 to 14 weaklings. meat, or other desirable traits or facts.

The young are born naked with their eyes There are several types of record forms. The
closed. They grow remarkably fast if the doe most common is the individual hutch card
is a good milker and takes care of them. In that tells the rabbit’s breed, ear number,
about 2 weeks they will have their eyes open birthdate, sire and dam, when and to whom
and in 3 weeks they want to get out of the bred, number in litter and number of young
nest box. It’s important to keep the doe and left at 8 weeks, their weight, and date rebred.
litter on full feed and plenty of fresh water. The rabbit’s three-generation pedigree and
registration number, if registered with the
With good stock and good management, the ARBA, should be available for reference.
meat rabbit should weigh 4 pounds or bet- There is also a stud record card that records
ter at 8 weeks of age. That is the proper time the buck’s pedigree, the does bred, the dates
to market them, and to select what you want of each breeding, and results of each litter.
for breeding stock.
Slaughterhouse Regulations
Young breeders should be checked carefully
for inherited characteristics which are detri- Building an approved slaughterhouse for the
mental to type, health, or production. Dis- processing and sale of rabbits to stores is
card animals with buck teeth, crooked bones expensive and is not economically feasible
or tail, ruptures, abscesses, or any respira- unless large numbers of rabbits are avail-
tory disease symptoms. Family traits, such able on a steady basis. Large producers sell
as uneven growth, color aberrations, sore to already established rabbit slaughter-
hocks, poor disposition, or lack of fertility, houses. Small producers may sell live rab-
should be eliminated to reduce herd man- bits direct to the consumer or to the pro-
agement problems. cessor. No uninspected dressed rabbit sales
may be made to consumers, restaurants, or
Selection of replacement bucks is more criti- markets.
cal than replacement does as the buck is
one-half the genetic complement of all the Killing and Dressing for Home Use Only
litters he sires. That is, he is responsible for
10 to 40 times as many litters as any indi- Slaughter in a clean, sanitary place. The rab-
vidual doe. Use your very best families for bit should be made unconscious prior to
replacement stocks. slaughter by dislocating the neck or by stun-
ning with a sharp blow with a small iron
By 3 months of age, all growing stock should rod at the base of the skull between the ears.
be separated by sex into cages containing To dislocate the neck, hold the animal by
not over 2 rabbits each. By 5 months of age its hind legs with one hand. Place the thumb
the animals should be separated into indi- of the other hand on the neck just behind
vidual cages. Permanent tattoo markings the ears with the fingers under the chin.
should be placed in the left ear of the rabbit Stretch the animal by pushing down on the
at 8 weeks of age to identify it for further neck, while pressing in with the thumb.
record keeping and cage identification if the Raise the animal’s head with a quick up-
rabbit escapes. ward movement to dislocate the neck. This
method causes instantaneous and painless
Records death when done correctly. Immediately sus-
pend the animal by inserting a hook between
Keeping records is the most important part the tendon and the bone of the right hind

leg, just above the hock joint. Quickly cut off Curing the Skins
the head to permit thorough bleeding. Cut
off the tail, the front feet, and the free rear The skins should be shaped while still warm.
leg at the hock joint. Placing the knife under Place the skins flesh side out on wire or board
the skin, cut just below the hock of the sus- stretchers, making sure both front feet cas-
pended leg, then slit open the skin on the ings are on the same side. Clothespins will
inside of the leg to the base of the tail. Con- help hold the hide. Remove all wrinkles from
tinue on across the rabbit’s other rear leg. the skin. Hang in a warm, dry room. The fol-
Separate the edges of the skin from the car- lowing day, examine the pelts to see that the
cass and pull the skin down over the ani- edges are flat and wrinkle-free. Remove all
mal. Care should be taken to avoid cutting fat from the pelts and store as raw pelts in a
the skin; any cut detracts from its value. dry, well-ventilated area free of mice.

After skinning, make a slit along the center Preparation of Pelt

line of the belly, cutting from the breastbone
to the tail. Carefully remove the bladder and The first step in tanning is to thoroughly
take out the entrails. Pinch or cut the gall soften the skin and clean from flesh and fat.
bladder from the liver and leave the heart, A dull knife or old spoon makes a good
liver, and kidneys intact within the body cav- scraper. If the pelt is whole, slit it down the
ity. Unhook the suspended carcass, cut the middle of the belly and soak in clear, cool
remaining hind foot at the hock joint, and water. Change the water several times,
spray the carcass with cold water to flush squeezing, rolling, and working the skin over
away blood and stray hairs. Brush the neck a smooth board or pail until all adherent
thoroughly to remove clotted blood. Place the tissue, fat, flesh, oil, and grease is removed.
carcass in fresh, clean, cold water for not
more than 15 minutes to chill. Longer soak- The age of the animal and thickness of the
ing causes the meat to absorb water and is pelt determine the length of time required
considered an adulteration. Remove the car- to soak and clean the skin. Experience has
cass, drain, and place in a refrigerator cooler. shown that 12–14-week animals have the
most uniform hides. Older animals may
Packaging have uneven pelts or fur areas. Usual soak-
ing time varies between 2 and 3 hours. Ex-
Rabbit can be packed into an attractive 7- cessive soaking may cause hair to slip. Fi-
piece fryer pack. Separate the front legs from nal soaking and working should be done in
the rib cage. Cut across the back at the end lukewarm water containing one ounce of
of the ribs and by splitting along the back- soda or borax per gallon plus a small amount
bone, separate the section into two equal of soap. Remove from borax water, rinse
halves. Leave the center loin in one large several times in lukewarm water, squeeze
piece. Cut the backbone between the two dry, and dip and work again in gasoline to
rear legs and remove from loin section. remove all tissue, dirt, fat, and grease. The
Larger rabbits may be prepared in this same skin is now ready for tanning.
manner, except that each leg would further
be divided into two pieces and the loin sec- Tanning by the Salt-Alum Process
tion cut into a front and a back section.
Ingredients: 16 oz. ammonia-alum sulphate
A waxed box or tray 9" long, 4" wide, and per gallon of water
21/2" deep is suitable for a fryer carcass 4 oz. crystallized sodium carbonate
weighing 13/4 to 21/2 pounds. Arrange the 8 oz. table, noniodized salt per 1/2 gallon of water
cuts attractively. Include the heart, kidney, 1 oz. borax
and liver. If the product is to be frozen, pack- Several pounds of flour to thicken above mix-
age in proper materials to avoid freezer burn. ture

Dissolve 1 lb. of ammonia-alum or potash 5. Record cards and summary sheets.
alum in one gallon of water. Add 4 oz. of
washing soda and 8 oz. of salt; dissolve in The proper way to lift a rabbit is to firmly
/2 gallon of water. Pour the soda-salt solu- grasp the skin over the shoulders. After el-
tion slowly into the alum solution, while stir- evating the rabbit, place it against your body
ring vigorously. Add sufficient flour to make with your other hand under the rabbit’s
a thin paste, first mixing the flour with a rump. Handle the rabbit gently. Never lift a
little water to prevent lumps. rabbit by the ears or legs. This leads to per-
manent injuries.
Tightly tack the previously prepared pelt flesh
side out on a board. Coat with 1/8" of tanning Worm Culture
paste. Allow to dry 24 hours, protected with
paper or sacking. The next day scrape off the Keeping hybrid earthworms beneath rabbit
paste and apply another coat. Thick skins cages reduces odor and fly problems and
may need several applications. Leave the last offers an excellent opportunity for additional
coat on for 3 to 4 days, then scrape, work income from sale of the worms. This type of
the skin in borax water, rinse, and squeeze arrangement works well in open rabbitries
dry, but do not wring. and moderate climates. Inasmuch as worm
beds must be kept wet and rabbits do best
Stretch and work the pelt back and forth at lower humidity levels, the use of worms
flesh side down over the edge of a board as beneath the cages is not recommended in
if shining shoes with a cloth. The more the enclosed rabbitries or in cold climates where
pelt is worked, the smoother and more pli- the beds stay cold for many weeks.
able it will be. If the pelt is not soft enough
when dry, rewet and rework. A sandpaper Worm culture requires extra time and work
block may be used to gently sand the rough to keep the beds turned and to keep them
or thick areas on the wet pelt. A final clean- moist, as well as developing a market and
ing may be given by working the skin in servicing it. If your rabbits are raised in
warm, dry, hardwood sawdust. This will re- closed housing and you want to raise worms,
store luster to the fur. special worm pits should be built outside
the rabbitry and manure moved to the pits.
Tips for Beginners This will allow you to raise both rabbits and
worms under the best conditions and con-
Material and equipment needed vary. Some vert the manure to profit.
things you will find useful are:
1. A tattoo needle and set of numbers. Rabbit Manure
2. A propane torch to burn off excess fur
and disinfect cages and nest boxes after Rabbit manure is a valuable fertilizer sought
they have been emptied of all material. by many horticulturists. Generally speaking
3. Scales to keep an accurate weight record. it is not considered to be a “hot” manure
4. A set of tools including hammer, wire cut- and may be used freely.
ters, pliers, roll of wire, etc., for minor



3’ = SMALL BREEDS 1/2” x 3/4” 1” x 2” 1” x 2” x 331/4”
‹ ›

POSTS ARE 2” x 4”.


1” x 2” BOTTOM END
1” x 8” x 30”
ROOF SLOPE. 1/2” x 3/4”
2” x 4” POST 1” x 2” BOTTOM 14-GAUGE WIRE








6” ”
12 16

REGULAR 16” x 101/2” x 10”
REGULAR 16” x 10”
SMALL 12” x 10”
1/2” PLYWOOD LARGE 20” x 10”

Reprinted with permission from © Midwest Plan Service, Ames, Iowa, 50010.


18” 24”
1” X 1” X 14-GAUGE MESH


” 13”



18” x 15”


18” 12”



5/8” X 5/8” OR 1/2” X 1” FOR LARGER BREEDS






WITH METAL 4” 4” 3/4” 51/2”



2 /2”

10” 43/4” 4” 1/2”

4” 1/4”

4” 7” TABS B



College of Agricultural, Human, and Natural Resource Sciences, Pullman, Washington

Issued by Washington State University Extension and the U.S. Department of Agriculture in
furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914. Extension programs and policies are
consistent with federal and state laws and regulations on nondiscrimination regarding race,
color, gender, national origin, religion, age, disability, and sexual orientation. Evidence of
noncompliance may be reported through your local Extension office. Trade names have
been used to simplify information; no endorsement is intended. Reprinted February 2005.
Subject codes 170, 816. A.