!"#$ %&'()*(+,-$.

/012*2+,3*4$
Il nav le usefuI lo desciile sone of lhe pecuIiaiilies of cvleinelic expIanalion.
CausaI expIanalion is usuaIIv posilive. We sav lhal liIIiaid laII ß noved in such
and such a diieclion lecause liIIiaid laII A hil il al such and such an angIe. In
conliasl lo lhis, cvleinelic expIanalion is aIvavs negalive. We considei vhal
aIleinalive possiliIilies couId conceivalIv have occuiied and lhen ask vhv nanv of
lhe aIleinalives veie nol foIIoved, so lhal lhe pailicuIai evenl vas one of lhose fev
vhich couId, in facl, occui. The cIassicaI exanpIe of lhis lvpe of expIanalion is lhe
lheoiv of evoIulion undei naluiaI seIeclion. Ac-coiding lo lhis lheoiv, lhose
oiganisns vhich veie nol lolh phvsioIogicaIIv and enviionnenlaIIv vialIe couId nol
possilIv have Iived lo iepioduce. Theiefoie, evoIulion aIvavs foIIoved lhe palhvavs
of vialiIilv. As Levis CaiioII has poinled oul, lhe lheoiv expIains quile salisfacloiiIv
vhv lheie aie no liead-and-lullei-fIies lodav.
In cvleinelic Ianguage, lhe couise of evenls is said lo le suljecl lo rcs|rain|s. and
il is assuned lhal, apail fion such iesliainls, lhe palhvavs of change vouId le
goveined onIv lv equaIilv of piolaliIilv. In facl, lhe ¨iesliainls¨ upon vhich
cvleinelic expIanalion depends can in aII cases le iegaided as faclois vhich
deleinine inequaIilv of piolaliIilv. If ve find a nonkev sliiking a lvpeviilei
appaienlIv al iandon lul in facl viiling neaningfuI piose, ve shaII Iook foi
iesliainls, eilhei inside lhe nonkev oi inside lhe lvpeviilei. Ieihaps lhe nonkev
couId nol sliike inappiopiiale Ielleis: peihaps lhe lvpe lais couId nol nove if
inpiopeiIv sliuck: peihaps incoiiecl Ielleis couId nol suivive on lhe papei.
Sonevheie lheie nusl have leen a ciicuil vhich couId idenlifv eiioi and eIininale
il.
IdeaIIv~and connonIv~lhe acluaI evenl in anv sequence oi aggiegale is
uniqueIv deleinined vilhin lhe leins of lhe cvleinelic expIanalion. Resliainls of
nanv diffeienl kinds nav conline lo geneiale lhis unique deleininalion. Ioi
exanpIe, lhe seIeclion of a piece foi a given posilion in a jigsav puzzIe is ¨iesliained¨
lv nanv faclois. Ils shape nusl confoin lo lhal of ils seveiaI neighlois and possilIv
lhal of lhe loundaiv of lhe puzzIe: ils coIoi nusl confoin lo lhe coIoi pallein of ils
iegion: lhe oiienlalion of ils edges nusl olev lhe lopoIogicaI ieguIaiilies sel lv lhe
culling nachine in vhich lhe puzzIe vas nade: and so cn. Iion lhe poinl of viev of
lhe nan vho is living lo soIve lhe puzzIe, lhese aie aII cIues, i.e., souices of
infoinalion vhich viII guide hin in his seIeclion. Iion lhe poinl of viev of lhe
cvleinelic olseivei, lhev aie rcs|rain|s.
SiniIaiIv, fion lhe cvleinelic poinl of viev, a void in a senlence, oi a Iellei
vilhin lhe void, oi lhe analonv of sone pail vilhin an oiganisn, oi lhe ioIe of a

*
This ailicIe is iepiinled fion lhe Ancrican 8cnaticra| Scicn|is|. Vc|. 10. No. 8. ApiiI 1967, pp. 29-
32. lv pei-nission of lhe pulIishei, Sage IulIicalions, Inc.

species in an ecosvslen, oi lhe lehavioi of a nenlei vilhin a faniIv~lhese aie aII lo
le (negaliveIv) expIained lv an anaIvsis of iesliainls.
The negalive foin of lhese expIanalions is pieciseIv conpaialIe lo lhe foin of
IogicaI pioof lv rcduc|ic ad aosurdun. In lhis species of pioof, a sufficienl sel of
nuluaIIv excIusive aIleinalive pioposilions is enuneialed, e.g., ¨I¨ and ¨nol I,¨ and
lhe piocess of pioof piocedes lv denonslialing lhal aII lul one of lhis sel aie
unlenalIe oi ¨alsuid.¨ Il foIIovs lhal lhe suiviving nenlei of lhe sel nusl le
lenalIe vilhin lhe leins of lhe IogicaI svslen. This is a foin of pioof vhich lhe
nonnalhenalicaI sonelines find unconvincing and, no doull, lhe lheoiv of naluiaI
seIeclion sonelines seens unconvincing lo nonnalhenalicaI peisons foi siniIai
ieasons~vhalevei lhose ieasons nav le.
Anolhei laclic of nalhenalicaI pioof vhich has ils counleipail in lhe
consliuclion of cvleinelic expIanalions is lhe use of ¨napping
¨
oi iigoious nelaphoi.
An aIgeliaic pioposilion nav, foi exanpIe, le napped onlo a svslen of geoneliic
cooidinales and lheie pioven lv geoneliic nelhods. In cvleinelics, napping
appeais as a lechnique of expIanalion vhenevei a concepluaI ¨nodeI¨ is invoked oi,
noie concieleIv, vhen a conpulei is used lo sinuIale a conpIex connunicalionaI
piocess. ßul lhis is nol lhe onIv appeaiance of napping in lhis science. IoinaI
piocesses of napping, liansIalion, oi liansfoinalion aie, in piincipIe, inpuled lo
ctcru slep of anv sequence of phenonena vhich lhe cvleinelicisl is allenpling lo
expIain. These nappings oi lians-foinalions nav le veiv conpIex, e.g., vheie lhe
oulpul of sone nachine is iegaided as a liansfoin of lhe inpul: oi lhev nav le veiv
sinpIe, e.g., vheie lhe iolalion of a shafl al a given poinl aIong ils Ienglh is iegaided
as a liansfoin (aIleil idenlicaI) of ils iolalion al sone pievious poinl.
The ieIalions vhich ienain conslanl undei such liansfoinalion nav le of anv
conceivalIe kind.
This paiaIIeI, lelveen cvleinelic expIanalion and lhe laclics of IogicaI oi
nalhenalicaI pioof, is of noie lhan liiviaI inleiesl. Oulside of cvleinelics, ve Iook
foi expIanalion, lul nol foi anvlhing vhich vouId sinuIale IogicaI pioof. This
sinuIalion of pioof is sonelhing nev. We can sav, hovevei, vilh hindsighl visdon,
lhal expIanalion lv sinuIalion of IogicaI oi nalhenalicaI pioof vas expeclalIe. Aflei
aII, lhe suljecl nallei of cvleinelics is nol evenls and oljecls lul lhe infcrna|icn
¨caiiied¨ lv evenls and oljecls. We considei lhe oljecls oi evenls onIv as pioposing
facls, pioposilions, nessages, peicepls, and lhe Iike. The suljecl nallei leing
pioposilionaI, il is expeclalIe lhal expIanalion vouId sinuIale lhe IogicaI.
Cvleinelicians have speciaIized in lhose expIanalions vhich sinuIale rcduc|ic ad
aosurdun and ¨napping.¨ Theie aie peihaps vhoIe ieaIns of expIanalion availing
discoveiv lv sone nalhenalician vho viII iecognize, in lhe infoinalionaI aspecls of
naluie, sequences vhich sinuIale olhei lvpes of pioof.
ßecause lhe suljecl nallei of cvleinelics is lhe pioposilionaI oi infoinalionaI
aspecl of lhe evenls and oljecls in lhe naluiaI voiId, lhis science is foiced lo
pioceduies ialhei diffeienl fion lhose of lhe olhei sciences. The diffeienlialion, foi
exanpIe, lelveen nap and leiiiloiv, vhich lhe senanlicisls insisl lhal scienlisls shaII
iespecl in lheii viilings nusl, in cvleinelics, le valched foi in lhe veiv phenonena
aloul vhich lhe scienlisl viiles. LxpeclalIv, connunicaling oiganisns and ladIv
piogianned conpuleis viII nislake nap foi leiiiloiv: and lhe Ianguage of lhe
scienlisl nusl le alIe lo cope vilh such anonaIies. In hunan lehavioiaI svslens,

especiaIIv in ieIigion and iiluaI and vheievei piinaiv piocess doninales lhe scene,
lhe nane oflen is lhe lhing naned. The liead is lhe ßodv, and lhe vine is lhe ßIood.
SiniIaiIv, lhe vhoIe nallei of induclion and deduclion ~and oui docliinaiie
piefeiences foi one oi lhe olhei~viII lake on a nev significance vhen ve iecognize
induclive and deduclive sleps nol onIv in oui ovn aigunenl lul in lhe ieIalionships
anong dala.
Of especiaI inleiesl in lhis conneclion is lhe ieIalionship lelveen ccn|cx| and ils
conlenl. A phonene exisls as such onIv in conlinalion vilh olhei phonenes vhich
nake up a void. The void is lhe ccn|cx| of lhe phonene. ßul lhe void onIv exisls as
such~onIv has ¨neaning¨~in lhe Iaigei conlexl of lhe ulleiance, vhich again has
neaning onIv in a ieIalionship.
This hieiaichv of conlexls vilhin conlexls is univeisaI foi lhe connunicalionaI
(oi ¨enic¨) aspecl of phenonena and diives lhe scienlisl aIvavs lo seek foi
expIanalion in lhe evei Iaigei unils. Il nav (peihaps) le liue in phvsics lhal lhe
expIanalion of lhe nacioscopic is lo le soughl in lhe nicioscopic. The opposile is
usuaIIv liue in cvleinelics: vilhoul conlexl, lheie is no connunicalion.
In accoid vilh lhe negalive chaiaclei of cvleinelic ex-pIanalion, ¨infoinalion¨ is
quanlified in negalive leins. An evenl oi-oljecl such as lhe Iellei K in a given
posilion in lhe lexl of a nessage nign| have leen anv olhei of lhe Iiniled sel of
lvenlv-six Ielleis in lhe LngIish Ianguage. The acluaI Iellei excIudes (i.e., eIininales
lv iesliainl) lvenlv-five aIleinalives. In conpaiison vilh an LngIish Iellei, a Chinese
ideogiaph vouId have excIuded seveiaI lhousand aIleinalives. We sav, lheiefoie,
lhal lhe Chinese ideogiaph caiiies noie infoinalion lhan lhe Iellei. The quanlilv of
infoinalion is convenlionaIIv expiessed as lhe Iog lo lase 2 of lhe inpiolaliIilv of
lhe acluaI evenl oi oljecl.
IiolaliIilv, leing a ialio lelveen quanlilies vhich have siniIai dinensions, is
ilseIf of zeio dinensions. Thal is, lhe cenliaI expIanaloiv quanlilv, infoinalion, is of
zeio dinensions. Ouanlilies of ieaI dinensions (nass, Ienglh, line) and lheii
deiivalives (foice, eneigv, elc.) have no pIace in cvleinelic expIanalion.
The slalus of eneigv is of speciaI inleiesl. In geneiaI in connunicalionaI svslens,
ve deaI vilh sequences vhich iesenlIe slinuIus-and-iesponse ialhei lhan cause-
and-effecl. When one liIIiaid laII sliikes anolhei, lheie is an eneigv liansfei such lhal
lhe nolion of lhe second laII is eneigized lv lhe inpacl of lhe fiisl. In
connunicalionaI svslens, on lhe olhei hand, lhe eneigv of lhe iesponse is usuaIIv
piovided lv lhe iespondenl. If I kick a dog, his innedialeIv sequenliaI lehavioi is
eneigized lv his nelaloIisn, nol lv nu kick. SiniIaiIv, vhen one neuion fiies
anolhei, oi an inpuIse fion a niciophone aclivales a ciicuil, lhe sequenl evenl has
ils ovn eneigv souices.
Of couise, eveivlhing lhal happens is sliII vilhin lhe Iinils defined lv lhe Iav of
eneigv conseivalion. The dog´s nelaloIisn nighl in lhe end Iinil his iesponse, lul,
in geneiaI, in lhe svslens vilh vhich ve deaI, lhe eneigv suppIies aie Iaige
conpaied vilh lhe denands upon lhen: and, Iong lefoie lhe suppIies aie exhausled,
¨econonic
¨
Iinilalions aie inposed lv lhe finile nunlei of avaiIalIe aIleinalives, i.e.,
lheie is an econonics of piolaliIilv. This econonics diffeis fion an econonics of
eneigv oi nonev in lhal piolaliIilv~leing a ialio~is nol suljecl lo addilion oi
sulliaclion lul onIv lo nuIlipIicalive piocesses, such as fiaclionalion. A leIephone
exchange al a line of eneigencv nav le ¨janned¨ vhen a Iaige fiaclion of ils

aIleinalive palhvavs aie lusv. Theie is, lhen, a Iov piolaliIilv of anv given nessage
gelling lhiough.
In addilion lo lhe iesliainls due lo lhe Iiniled econonics of aIleinalives, lvo
olhei calegoiies of iesliainl nusl le discussed: iesliainls ieIaled lo ¨feedlack¨ and
iesliainls ieIaled lo ¨iedundancv.¨
We considei fiisl lhe concepl of feedlack:
When lhe phenonena of lhe univeise aie seen as Iinked logelhei lv cause-and-
effecl and eneigv liansfei, lhe iesuIling picluie is of conpIexIv lianching and
inleiconnecling chains of causalion. In ceilain iegions of lhis univeise (nolalIv
oiganisns in enviionnenls, ecosvslens, lheinoslals, slean engines vilh goveinois,
socielies, conpuleis, and lhe Iike), lhese chains of causalion foin ciicuils vhich aie
c|cscd in lhe sense lhal causaI inleiconneclion can le liaced aiound lhe ciicuil and
lack lhiough vhalevei posilion vas (aililaiiIv) chosen as lhe slailing poinl of lhe
desciiplion. In such a ciicuil, evidenlIv, evenls al anv posilion in lhe ciicuil nav le
expecled lo have effecl al a|| posilions on lhe ciicuil al Ialei lines.
Such svslens aie, hovevei, aIvavs cpcn. (a) in lhe sense lhal lhe ciicuil is
eneigized fion sone exleinaI souice and Ioses eneigv usuaIIv in lhe foin of heal lo
lhe oulside: and (l) in lhe sense lhal evenls vilhin lhe ciicuil nav le infIuenced fion
lhe oulside oi nav infIuence oulside evenls.
A veiv Iaige and inpoilanl pail of cvleinelic lheoiv is conceined vilh lhe
foinaI chaiacleiislics of such causaI ciicuils, and lhe condilions of lheii slaliIilv.
Heie I shaII considei such svslens onIv as souices of rcs|rain|.
Considei a vaiialIe in lhe ciicuil al anv posilion and sup-pose lhis vaiialIe
suljecl lo iandon change in vaIue (lhe change peihaps leing inposed lv inpacl of
sone evenl exleinaI lo lhe ciicuil). We nov ask hov lhis change viII affecl lhe vaIue
of lhis vaiialIe al lhal Ialei line vhen lhe sequence of effecls has cone aiound lhe
ciicuil. CIeaiIv lhe ansvei lo lhis Iasl queslion viII depend upon lhe chaiacleiislics of
lhe ciicuil and viII, lheiefoie, le nc| randcn.
In piincipIe, lhen, a causaI ciicuil viII geneiale a non-iandon iesponse lo a
iandon evenl a| |na| pcsi|icn in |nc circui| a| unicn |nc randcn ctcn| cccurrcd.
This is lhe geneiaI iequisile foi lhe ciealion of cvleinelic iesliainl in anv vaiialIe
al anv given posilion. The pailicuIai iesliainl ciealed in anv given inslance viII, of
couise, depend upon lhe chaiacleiislics of lhe pailicuIai ciicuil~vhelhei ils oveiaII
gain le posilive oi negalive, ils line chaiacleiislics, ils lhieshoIds of aclivilv, elc.
These viII logelhei deleinine lhe iesliainls vhich il viII exeil al anv given posilion.
Ioi puiposes of cvleinelic expIanalion, vhen a nachine is olseived lo le
(inpiolalIv) noving al a conslanl iale, even undei vaiving Ioad, ve shaII Iook foi
iesliainls~e.g., foi a ciicuil vhich viII le aclivaled lv changes in iale and vhich,
vhen aclivaled, viII opeiale upon sone vaiialIe (e.g., lhe fueI suppIv) in such a vav
as lo dininish lhe change in iale.
When lhe nonkev is olseived lo le (inpiolalIv) lvping piose, ve shaII Iook foi
sone ciicuil vhich is aclivaled vhenevei he nakes a ¨nislake¨ and vhich, vhen
aclivaled, viII deIele lhe evidence of lhal nislake al lhe posilion vheie il occuiied.
The cvleinelic nelhod of negalive expIanalion iaises lhe queslion: Is lheie a
diffeience lelveen ¨leing iighl¨ and ¨nol leing viong¨` ShouId ve sav of lhe ial in
a naze lhal he has ¨Ieained lhe iighl palh¨ oi shouId ve sav onIv lhal he has Ieained
¨lo avoid lhe viong palhs¨`

SuljecliveIv, I feeI lhal I knov hov lo speII a nunlei of LngIish voids, and I an
ceilainIv nol avaie of discaiding as unievaiding lhe Iellei K vhen I have lo speII lhe
void ¨nanv.¨ Yel, in lhe fiisl IeveI cvleinelic expIanalion, I shouId le vieved as
acliveIv discaiding lhe aIleinalive K vhen I speII ¨nanv.¨
The queslion is nol liiviaI and lhe ansvei is lolh sullIe and fundanenlaI: cnciccs
arc nc| a|| a| |nc sanc |ctc|. | nav have lo avoid eiioi in nv choice of lhe void ¨nanv¨
in a given conlexl, discaiding lhe aIleinalives, ¨fev,¨ ¨seveiaI,¨ ¨fiequenl,¨ elc. ßul if
I can achieve lhis highei IeveI choice on a negalive lase, il foIIovs lhal lhe void
¨nanv¨ and ils aIleinalives sonehov nusl le conceivalIe lo ne~nusl exisl as
dislinguishalIe and possilIv IaleIed oi coded palleins in nv neuiaI piocesses. If lhev
do, in sone sense, exisl, lhen il foIIovs lhal, aflei naking lhe highei IeveI choice of
vhal void lo use, I shaII nol necessaiiIv le faced vilh aIleinalives al lhe Iovei IeveI.
Il nav lecone unnecessaiv foi ne lo excIude lhe Iellei K fion lhe void ¨nanv.¨ Il
viII le coiiecl lo sav lhal I knov posiliveIv hov lo speII ¨nanv¨: nol neieIv lhal I
knov hov lo avoid naking nislakes in speIIing lhal void.
Il foIIovs lhal Levis CaiioII´s joke aloul lhe lheoiv of naluiaI seIeclion is nol
enliieIv cogenl. If, in lhe connunicalionaI and oiganizalionaI piocesses of lioIogicaI
evoIulion, lheie le sonelhing Iike IeveIs~ilens, palleins, and possilIv palleins of
palleins~lhen il is IogicaIIv possilIe foi lhe evoIulionaiv svslen lo nake sonelhing
Iike posilive choices. Such IeveIs and palleining nighl conceivalIv le in oi anong
genes oi eIsevheie.
The ciicuiliv of lhe alove nenlioned nonkev vouId le iequiied lo iecognize
devialions fion ¨piose,¨ and piose is chaiacleiized lv pallein oi~as lhe engineeis
caII il~lv iedundancv.
The occuiience of lhe Iellei K in a given Iocalion in an LngIish piose nessage is
nol a puieIv iandon evenl in lhe sense lhal lheie vas evei an equaI piolaliIilv lhal
anv olhei of lhe lvenlv-five Ielleis nighl have occuiied in lhal Iocalion. Sone Ielleis
aie noie connon in LngIish lhan olheis, and ceilain conlinalions of Ielleis aie
noie connon lhan olheis. Theie is, lhus, a species of palleining vhich pailIv
deleinines vhich Ielleis shaII occui in vhich sIols. As a iesuIl: if lhe ieceivei of lhe
nessage had ieceived lhe enliie iesl of lhe nessage lul had nol ieceived lhe
pailicuIai Iellei K vhich ve aie discussing, he nighl have leen alIe, vilh lellei lhan
iandon success, lo guess lhal lhe nissing Iellei vas, in facl, K. To lhe exlenl lhal lhis
vas so, lhe Iel-lei K did nol, foi lhal ieceivei, excIude lhe olhei lvenlv-five Ielleis
lecause lhese veie aIieadv pailIv excIuded lv infoinalion vhich lhe iecipienl
ieceived fion lhe iesl of lhe nessage. This palleining oi piediclaliIilv of pailicuIai
evenls vilhin a Iaigei aggiegale of evenls is lechnicaIIv caIIed ¨iedundancv.¨
The concepl of iedundancv is usuaIIv deiived, as I have deiived il, lv
consideiing fiisl lhe naxinun of infoinalion vhich nighl le caiiied lv lhe given
ilen and lhen consideiing hov lhis lolaI nighl le ieduced lv knovIedge of lhe
suiiounding palleins of vhich lhe given ilen is a conponenl pail. Theie is, hovevei,
a case foi Iooking al lhe vhoIe nallei lhe olhei vav iound. We nighl iegaid
palleining oi piediclaliIilv as lhe veiv essence and raiscn d´c|rc of connunicalion,
and see lhe singIe Iellei unacconpanied lv coIIaleiaI cIues as a pecuIiai and speciaI
case.
The idea lhal connunicalion is lhe ciealion of iedundancv oi palleining can le
appIied lo lhe sinpIesl engineeiing exanpIes. Lel us considei an coscrtcr vho is
valching A send a nessage lo ß. The puipose of lhe liansaclion (fion lhe poinl of

viev of A and ß) is lo cieale in ß´s nessage pad a sequence of Ielleis idenlicaI vilh
lhe sequence vhich foineiIv occuiied in A´s pad. ßul fion lhe poinl of viev of lhe
olseivei lhis is lhe ciealion of iedundancv. If he has seen vhal A had on his pad, he
viII nol gel anv nev infoinalion aloul lhe nessage ilseIf fion inspecling ß´s pad.
LvidenlIv, lhe naluie of ¨neaning,¨ pallein, iedundancv, infoinalion and lhe
Iike. depends upon vheie ve sil. In lhe usuaI engineeis´ discussion of a nessage senl
fion A lo ß, il is cuslonaiv lo onil lhe olseivei and lo sav lhal ß ieceived
infoinalion fion A vhich vas neasuialIe in leins of lhe nunlei of Ielleis
liansnilled, ieduced lv such iedundancv in lhe lexl as nighl have peinilled ß lo do
sone guessing. ßul in a videi univeise, i.e., lhal defined lv lhe poinl of viev of lhe
olseivei, lhis no Iongei appeais as a ¨liansnission¨ of infoinalion lul ialhei as a
spieading of iedundancv. The aclivilies of A and ß have conlined lo nake lhe
univeise of lhe olseivei noie piediclalIe, noie oideied, and noie iedundanl. We
nav sav lhal lhe iuIes of lhe ¨gane¨ pIaved lv A and ß expIain (as ¨iesliainls¨) vhal
vouId olheivise le a puzzIing and inpiolalIe coincidence in lhe olseivei´s
univeise, naneIv lhe confoinilv lelveen vhal is viillen on lhe lvo nessage pads.
To guess, in essence, is lo face a cul oi sIash in lhe sequence of ilens and lo
piedicl acioss lhal sIash vhal ilens nighl le on lhe olhei side. The sIash nav le
spaliaI oi lenpoiaI (oi lolh) and lhe guessing nav le eilhei piediclive oi
ieliospeclive. A pallein, in facl, is definalIe as an aggiegale of evenls oi oljecls
vhich viII peinil in sone degiee such guesses vhen lhe enliie aggiegale is nol
avaiIalIe foi inspeclion.
ßul lhis soil of palleining is aIso a veiv, geneiaI phenonenon, oulside lhe ieaIn
of connunicalion oc|uccn oiganisns. The ieceplion of nessage naleiiaI lv cnc
oiganisn is nol fundanenlaIIv diffeienl fion anv olhei case of peiceplion. If I see lhe
lop pail of a liee slanding up, I can piedicl ~vilh lellei lhan iandon success~lhal
lhe liee has iools in lhe giound. The peicepl of lhe liee lop is iedundanl vilh (i.e.,
conlains ¨infoinalion¨ aloul) pails of lhe svslen vhich I cannol peiceive oving lo
lhe sIash piovided lv lhe opacilv of lhe giound.
If lhen ve sav lhal a nessage has ¨neaning¨ oi is ¨aloul¨ sone iefeienl, vhal
ve nean is lhal lheie is a Iaigei univeise of ieIevance consisling of nessage-pIus-
iefeienl, and lhal iedundancv oi pallein oi piediclaliIilv is inlioduced inlo lhis
univeise lv lhe nessage.
If I sav lo vou ¨Il is iaining,¨ lhis nessage inlioduces iedundancv inlo lhe
univeise, nessage-pIus-iaindiops, so lhal fion lhe nessage aIone vou couId have
guessed~vilh lellei lhan iandon success~sonelhing of vhal vou vouId see if vou
Iooked oul of lhe vindov. The univeise, nessage-pIus-iefeienl, is given pallein oi
foin~in lhe Shakespeaiean sense, lhe univeise is infcrncd lv lhe nessage: and lhe
¨foin¨ of vhich ve aie speaking is nol in lhe nessage noi is il in lhe iefeienl. Il is a
coiiespondence lelveen nessage and iefeienl.
In Ioose laIk, il seens sinpIe lo Iocale infoinalion. The Iellei K in a given sIol
pioposes lhal lhe Iellei in lhal pailicuIai sIol is a K. And, so Iong as aII infoinalion is
of lhis veiv diiecl kind, lhe infoinalion can le ¨Iocaled¨: lhe infoinalion aloul lhe
Iellei K is seeningIv in lhal sIol.
The nallei is nol quile so sinpIe if lhe lexl of lhe nessage is iedundanl lul, if ve
aie Iuckv and lhe iedundancv is of Iov oidei, ve nav sliII le alIe lo poinl lo pails of
lhe lexl vhich indicale (caiiv sone of lhe infoinalion) lhal lhe Iellei K is expeclalIe
in lhal pailicuIai sIol.

ßul if ve aie asked: Wheie aie such ilens of infoinalion as lhal: (a) ¨This
nessage is in LngIish¨: and (l) ¨In LngIish, a Iellei K oflen foIIovs a Iellei C, excepl
vhen lhe C legins a void
¨
: ve can onIv sav lhal such infoinalion is nc| IocaIized in
anv pail of lhe lexl lul is ialhei a slalislicaI induclion fion lhe lexl as a vhoIe (oi
peihaps fion an aggiegale of ¨siniIai¨ lexls). This, aflei aII, is nelainfoinalion and
is of a lasicaIIv diffeienl oidei~of diffeienl IogicaI lvpe~fion lhe infoinalion lhal
¨lhe Iellei in lhis sIol is K.¨
This nallei of lhe IocaIizalion of infoinalion has le-deviIed connunicalion
lheoiv and especiaIIv neuiophvsioIogv foi nanv veais and il is, lheiefoie, inleiesling
lo considei hov lhe nallei Iooks if ve slail fion iedundancv, pallein oi foin as lhe
lasic concepl.
Il is fIalIv olvious lhal no vaiialIe of zeio dinensions can le liuIv Iocaled.
¨Infoinalion¨ and ¨foin
¨
iesenlIe conliasl, fiequencv, svnneliv, coiiespondence,
congiuence, confoinilv, and lhe Iike in leing of zeio dinensions and, lheiefoie, aie
nol lo le Iocaled. The conliasl lelveen lhis vhile papei and lhal lIack coffee is nol
sonevheie lelveen lhe papei and lhe coffee and, even if ve liing lhe papei and
coffee inlo cIose juxlaposilion, lhe conliasl lelveen lhen is nol lheielv Iocaled oi
pinched lelveen lhen. Noi is lhal conliasl Iocaled lelveen lhe lvo oljecls and nv
eve. Il is nol even in nv head: oi, if il le, lhen il nusl aIso le in voui head. ßul vou,
lhe ieadei, have nol seen lhe papei and lhe coffee lo vhich I vas iefeiiing. I have in
nv head an inage oi liansfoin oi nane of lhe conliasl lelveen lhen: and vou have
in voui head a liansfoin of vhal I have in nine. ßul lhe confoinilv lelveen us is
nol IocaIizalIe. In facl, infoinalion and foin aie nol ilens vhich can le IocaIized.
Il is, hovevei, possilIe lo legin (lul peihaps nol conpIele) a soil of napping of
foinaI ieIalions vilhin a svslen conlaining iedundancv. Considei a finile aggiegale
of oljecls oi evenls (sav a sequence of Ielleis, oi a liee) and an olseivei vho is
aIieadv infoined aloul aII lhe iedundancv iuIes vhich aie iecognizalIe (i.e., vhich
have slalislicaI significance) vilhin lhe aggiegale. Il is lhen possilIe lo deIinil
iegions of lhe aggiegale vilhin vhich lhe olseivei can achieve lellei lhan iandon
guessing. A fuilhei slep lovaid IocaIizalion is acconpIished lv culling acioss lhese
iegions vilh sIash naiks, such lhal il is acioss lhese lhal lhe educaled olseivei can
guess, fion vhal is on one side of lhe sIash, sonelhing of vhal is on lhe olhei side.
Such a napping of lhe disliilulion of palleins is, hov-evei, in piincipIe,
inconpIele lecause ve have nol consideied lhe souices of lhe olseivei´s piioi
knovIedge of lhe iedundancv iuIes. If, nov, ve considei an olseivei vilh nc piioi
knovIedge, il is cIeai lhal he nighl discovei sone of lhe ieIevanl iuIes fion his
peiceplion of |css lhan lhe vhoIe aggiegale. He couId lhen use his discoveiv in
piedicling ru|cs foi lhe ienaindei~iuIes vhich vouId le coiiecl even lhough nol
exenpIified. He nighl discovei lhal ¨H oflen foIIovs T¨ even lhough lhe ienaindei
of lhe aggiegale conlained no exanpIe of lhis conlinalion. Ioi lhis oidei of
phenonenon a diffeienl oidei of sIash naik~nelasIashes ~viII le necessaiv.
Il is inleiesling lo nole lhal nelasIashes vhich denaicale vhal is necessaiv foi
lhe naive olseivei lo discovei a iuIe aie, in piincipIe, dispIaced ieIalive lo lhe sIashes
vhich vouId have appeaied on lhe nap piepaied lv an olseivei lolaIIv infoined as
lo lhe iuIes of iedundancv foi lhal aggiegale. (This piincipIe is of sone inpoilance in
aeslhelics.

To lhe aeslhelic eve, lhe foin of a cial vilh one cIav liggei lhan lhe olhei is nol
sinpIv asvnneliicaI. Il fiisl pio-poses a iuIe of svnneliv and lhen sullIv denies lhe
iuIe lv pioposing a noie conpIex conlinalion of iuIes.)
When ve excIude aII lhings and aII ieaI dinensions fion oui expIanaloiv
svslen, ve aie Iefl iegaiding each slep in a connunicalionaI sequence as a |ransfcrn
of lhe pievious slep. If ve considei lhe passage of an inpuIse aIong an axon, ve shaII
iegaid lhe evenls al each poinl aIong lhe palhvav as a liansfoin (aIleil idenlicaI oi
siniIai) of evenls al anv pievious poinl. Oi if ve considei a seiies of neuions, each
fiiing lhe nexl, lhen lhe fiiing of each neuion is a liansfoin of lhe fiiing of ils
piedecessoi. We deaI vilh evenl sequences vhich do nol necessaiiIv inpIv a passing
on of lhe sane eneigv.
SiniIaiIv, ve can considei anv nelvoik of neuions, and aililiaiiIv liansecl lhe
vhoIe nelvoik al a seiies of diffeienl posilions, lhen ve shaII iegaid lhe evenls al
each lianseclion as a liansfoin of evenls al sone pievious lianseclion.
In consideiing peiceplion, ve shaII nol sav, foi exanpIe, ¨I see a liee,¨ lecause
lhe liee is nol vilhin oui expIanaloiv svslen. Al lesl, il is onIv possilIe lo see an
inage vhich is a conpIex lul svslenalic liansfoin of lhe liee. This inage, of couise,
is eneigized ou nu nelaloIisn and lhe naluie of lhe liansfoin is, in pail, deleinined
lv faclois vilhin nv neuiaI ciicuils: ¨I¨ nake lhe inage, undei vaiious iesliainls,
sone of vhich aie inposed lv nu neuiaI ciicuils, vhiIe olheis aie inposed lv lhe
exleinaI liee. An haIIucinalion oi diean vouId le noie liuIv ¨nine¨ insofai as il is
pioduced vilhoul innediale exleinaI iesliainls.
AII lhal is nol infoinalion, nol iedundancv, nol foin and nol iesliainls~is noise,
lhe onIv possilIe souice of ncu palleins.

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