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The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks which allows the billions of users to share the resources and to access information worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies. Internet is a short form of the technical term ‘internetwork’. The Internet is also often referred to as the net.
The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the interlinked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail. Most traditional communications media including telephone, music, film, and television are being reshaped or redefined by the Internet. Newspaper, book and other print publishing have to adapt to Web sites and blogging. The Internet has enabled or accelerated new forms of human interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking. Online shopping has boomed both for major retail outlets and small artisans and traders. Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. Basic Internet Terms Hypertext: Hypertext refers to the text which contains hyperlinks. A hyperlink is used to ‘jump’ to another part of the same page or to load a different web page. Web Page: A web page is an electronic document written in a scripting language called HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) and which contains hyperlinks that enable the user to jump or navigate from one web page to another. Uniform Resource Locator (URL): Each web page has a unique address called a URL that identifies its location on the Internet. For example, http://www.isro.gov.in/home.htm is a url of a webpage. Website: A website is a set of related web pages, published by an organization or individual. Each website is owned and updated by an individual, company or organization. A website is accessed over Internet by accessing its home page. Home Page: A home page is the starting point or a doorway to the website. It is the page from which we can access the content of the website.
password. It was the brainchild of Tim Berners-Lee who is now known as the father of www. Each web page is associated with a unique identifier known as URL (Uniform Resource Locator). The Web had its origin in 1989 at the European Centre for Particle Physics (CERN). While choosing an ISP. Upload is just the opposite of download which refers to the activity of moving data from one’s own computer to a remote computer (server) over the Internet. abbreviated as WWW and commonly known as the Web. the one is said to be online. World Wide Web The World Wide Web. The price of the ISP and other additional services provided by it. Examples of some URLs are: www. view. It is the basic software that is needed to find. Online and Offline: The term online is commonly referred to as connected to the World Wide Web via Internet. Internet Service Provider An Internet Service Provider (ISP) is an organization that provides access to the Internet by which a consumer can utilize the services over the Internet.flipkart.ac. is one of the most popular services available on Internet. the user should check: The speed of the Internet access. one can view web pages that may contain text. the ISP provides software package.com etc. program or other data from the Internet to one’s own computer.With a web browser. images. known as web pages. Whether the ISP provides consistent access to the Internet or does it have frequent down times. Geneva. www.Web Browser: A browser or web browser is an application program that accesses web pages and displays them on the computer screen. and modem to the user or consumer. The web is a system of interlinked hypertext documents.com.in. ISP is also responsible for providing web space on payment basis so that one can create one’s own website. For a monthly fee. retrieve. Offline is just the opposite of online and it refers to the actions performed when the user is not connected to another computer or a network like the Internet. stored on web servers which can be accessed via the Internet. and send information over the Internet.google. Download and Upload: Download refers to the activity of moving or copying a document. and www. videos. username. .iim. and other multimedia and navigate between them by via hyperlinks. When one is connected to the Internet.
browsers. or by using software applications like LogMeIn and TeamViewer. FTP can be done using the command prompt. Some email applications are Gmail. It was the first service developed for the Internet so that government and educational institutions could easily exchange files. and inexpensive way to communicate with other Internet users around the world. It is one of the basic and earliest services of the Internet and the most used application on the Internet too. It allows a user with a minicomputer or a terminal to get connected to a powerful host computer far way and use its processing capacity. Once connected to an IRC server. the user runs a program (IRC client) to connect to an IRC server. Telnet: Telnet is a remote login facility offered by Internet. and various GUI based FTP softwares such as CuteFTP. easy.Services Available on Internet 1. Email over comes most of the problems and delays of getting a physical document from one person to another. Virc and LeafChat. Each channel is devoted to a different topic and all conversions may be public to all or private between two people. The low Internet charges have made telnet a cheap alternative for computing. We can connect to telnet server using command prompt. which accepts the connection. is referred to as the remote compute or telnet server. WS_FTP and FileZilla. the user will usually join one or more channels (chat rooms) and converse with others there. which initiates the connection. and the machine being connected to. FTP allows the user to get access to the files stored in the directory of a remote computer that is connected to the Internet. Generally. Using FTP. . if he/she has access permission on the remote machine. Popular IRC client applications are mIRC. Telnet requires opening an account on host systems by the users. File Transfer Protocol (FTP): FTP is a system of rules and a software program that enables a user to log on to another computer and transfer information between it and his/her computer. 3. The user’s computer. Yahoomail and Hotmail. is referred to as the local computer or telnet client. Internet Relay Chat (IRC): IRC is a service on the Internet that allows people to communicate in real time and carry on conversations via the computer with one or more people. It makes the user believe that the computer he is currently working on is the remote computer itself. one can upload and download files from the remote computer ( FTP server ). 4. Electronic Mail (e-mail): Electronic mail is a fast. 2. It provides the user with the facility to engage in simultaneous (synchronous) online conversations with other users from anywhere in the world.
Consumers are no longer totally dependent on corporations and are increasingly looking to conduct their own business transactions. a specific hardware and software is required. It comprises the business transactions in which both parties interact with each other electronically rather than direct physical contact.5. auctions. B2C. C2B. Video conferencing uses the same technology as internet telephony but it also provides video along with voice. . and other daily needs and home needs come under this category. C2C (Consumer-to-Consumer) C2C refers to the buying and selling of products and services between individuals. Types of e-Commerce Ecommerce can be broken into four main categories: B2B. Internet Telephony and Video Conferencing: Internet telephony is the use of the Internet rather than the traditional telephone company infrastructure. There are many sites offering free classifieds. gifts. E-Commerce Electronic Commerce or e-Commerce is the process of buying and selling of products and services over electronic systems like computer networks including the Internet. For both Internet telephony and Video conferencing. Online stores which sell books. The consumer reviews the bids and selects the company that will complete the project. and C2C. to exchange spoken or other telephonic information. and forums where individuals can perform their business transactions. B2B (Business-to-Business) B2B is the selling between companies. B2C (Business-to-Consumer) B2C refers to a business communicating with or selling to an individual rather than a company. E-commerce refers to a wide range of online business activities for products and services. distributors and wholesalers. The companies include manufacturers. wholesale rather than retail. C2B (Consumer-to-Business) A consumer posts his project with a set budget online and within hours companies review the consumer's requirements and bid on the project.
all year round. information storage and inventory management. the best suppliers and the most suitable business partners worldwide. the consumers show some resistance to switch from physical to electronic stores. however. a company can easily and quickly locate more customers. and electronic money. rather than days or weeks. Maintenance of Website: Website must be maintained and updated regularly which leads to extra labour costs. There is a possibility of doing business with a false company. e-commerce significantly cuts down the cost associated with marketing. The same is the case with e-commerce. Costs involved with bandwidth and other computer and server costs are also has to be considered. Images of the products may be available for viewing. resulting in less traffic on the roads and lower air pollution. Limitations of E-Commerce Every innovation in technology brings certain limitations and drawbacks along with it. . Technical Limitations: There may be a lack of security. invoice and payment confirmation in seconds. reliability.Advantages of E-Commerce Expansion of marketplace globally: The greatest and the most important advantage of ecommerce. Decreasing the costs: For businesses. With minimal capital outlay. is that it enables a business firm or individual to reach the global market. It is difficult to integrate the Internet and e-commerce software with some existing applications and database. paperless transactions. processing. 24 hours a day business facility: Electronic commerce enables customers to shop or do other business transactions 24 hours a day. there by promoting environment friendly business. from almost any location in the world. customer care. Fast Transactions: Customers can receive relevant and detailed information about the transactions like order. So. Less paper: Electronic transactions require less paper than physical transactions which facilitates to save trees. Less Transport: Electronic commerce enables more individuals to work at home and to do less travelling for shopping. standards and some communication protocols. Lack of Trust and Adoptability: Customers do not trust an unknown faceless seller. there is a risk involved in the uncertainty of the quality of the product that the consumer is purchasing. The disadvantages are: Unable to Examine Products Personally: Buying products through the Internet do not allow physical examination of products.
Security: An e-commerce exposes itself to security risks and may be susceptible to destruction and disclosure of confidential data. and transaction risks or virus attacks. The price of a share varies according to economic conditions. An exchange is like a warehouse in which people buy and sell stocks. It is our responsibility to choose a firm that offers online trading service based on success rates. A broker is simply a person who is licensed to trade stocks through the exchange. Possibility of stealing credit card numbers is the real threats in e-commerce activity. Your online broker will execute your trades and store your money and stock in an account." When a business makes a profit. A business can also save its profit or re-invest it by making improvements to the business or hiring new people. A broker can be on the trading floor or can make trades by phone or electronically. trading tools and other factors. customer service response time. The buying or selling the stocks online is known as online trading of stocks. The online brokerages offer advice from live brokers and broker-assisted trades as part of their service. attacks from hackers. The first time a company offers its stock for public sale is called an initial public offering (IPO). Brokers buy and sell stocks through an exchange. Shareholders or stockholders are the people who buy stock and are investing in the future of a company for as long as they own their shares. j . Trading Stocks Online A share of stock is basically a tiny piece of a corporation. it can share that money with its stockholders by issuing a dividend. Before you can trade stocks online. also known as "going public. charging a commission to do so. the performance of the company and investors' attitudes. you have to select an online broker that takes the place of a human broker.
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