TITLE: TITRATION

AIM: TO DETERMINE THE PURITY OF THE UNKNOWN POTASSIUM ACID PHTHALATE (KHP).
INTRODUCTION: Acid-Base titration is one of many analytical methods used to neutralize an acid or base by finding out its µunknown¶ concentrations. µExperiment 1¶ is based on finding out the purity and concentration of the impure KHP by titration method. KHP is to be used as our primary standard as it fits the criteria being high purity, stable in air, solid which makes it easier to weigh. On the other hand sodium hydroxide was used as our titrant. During this acid-base reaction KHP as our acidic substance contains our ionizing hydrogen. (Shown below) REACTION OCCURING KHP(aq) + NaOH (aq) µP¶ stands for C8H4O42Phenolphalein is used as our indicator so a light pink colour should show as soon as reaction reaches the end-point. In short words for this experiment 1 I will be using titration to make sure I achieve my aim. Part 1: Standardisation of Sodium Hydroxide against Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate. Methods 1. Prepare 250 mL of 0.04 M solution of NaOH by suitable dilution of a stock 2M NaOH solution. 2. Weight three individual 0.2-0.25 samples of primary standard grade KHP into three separate 250 mL conical flasks. 3. Dissolve each sample in 30-50mL distilled water. 4. Add 2 drops of phenolphthalein indicator. 5. Titrate with the 0.04M NaOH solution (in the burette) until the pink colour persists for approximately 30 seconds. RESULT FLASK 1 2 3 MASS (g) 0.2011 0.2106 0.2016 TITRATION VOLUME (mL) 23.83 23.72 23.74 NaKP(aq) + H2 0(l)

Standardisation of sodium hydroxide was produced by suitable dilution of 5mL of 2. PART 2: The determination of Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate in an Impure Sample Method 1.04 M ×0. After finding out that 5mL was needed. it was then put in a 250 mL volumetric flask mixed with distilled water. The titration volume obtained from the burette reading when reaction has reached the endpoint is then used as our volume to find out NaOH concentration since it was our standard solution.25 L V1 = 0.001 mol NaOH = 0.2016) g 3 Mole (KHP) = Average Mass Molar Mass 0. Repeat this analysis in triplicate.01÷2 M V1 = 0.83+23. Molecular Weight of KHP = 204.02376 L y Concentration of NaOH = 0. 4. 5.00mL aliquot of the unknown KHP solution into a 250 mL conical flask.0421 molL -1 NOTE: Standardization of sodium hydroxide was determining its concentration. 3. and then titrated with primary standard (KHP).224 g/mol Molecular Weight of NaOH = 39.72+23. 5mL of NaOH was obtained from this calculation: C1V1= C2V2 2. Quantitatively transfer you¶re impure sample of KHP (sample 67) into 100 mL volumetric flask and make up to the mark with distilled water. Titrate with the standardised NaOH solution until the pink colour persists for approximately 30 seconds.2011 + 0.Calculate the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution. Add 2 drops of phenolthalein indicator. .005 mL = 5mL So 5mL of NaOH needed to prepare the 250 mL titrant.0 M × V1 = 0. Pipette a 25.0M of NaOH. 2.74) mL 3 Average Mass: ( 0.997 g/mol Average Volume: (23.2106 + 0.001 mol 0.2044g 204.001 mol KHP Concentration = Mole Volume 0.224 g/mol y (1:1) MOLE RATIO = Mole NaOH = Mole KHP 0.

00806 L = C 2 × 0.025 L C2 = 0.RESULT FLASK 1 2 3 TITRATION VOLUME (mL) 8.11 8.00806 L 0.025 L -l y Conc( KHP) = 0.06 mL Calculate the concentration of the unknown KHP sample.0421 molL-1 × 0.07 8.0421 molL × 0.01358 molL -1 ERROR IN CONCENTRATION . C1 V1 = C2 V2 0.01 y AVERAGE TITRATION VOLUME = 8. the error in the concentration and hence state the purity of the KHP sample (expressed as %w/w).

There was an average of 8. When using titration method these are advantages and disadvantages I came across: ADVANTAGE Easy to do Cheaper to use DISADVANTAGE Takes a long time to do it.001358 mol × 204. Other methods can be used but volumetric titration is the probably the oldest and one of the most common methods used.01358 molL-1 × 0.73 % NOTE: The last part of this experiment was determining the concentration of KHP in an impure sample.PURITY OF THE KHP SAMPLE Concentration = 0. This result was then used (as shown in the above calculations) to determine the Molarity of the impure sample of KHP. Volume = 100 mL = 0.2773 g Weight Percent (w/w) = Mass of solute Mass of solution 0. Instrument calibration and error must be taken into consideration as it might affect outcome. reacting it with something which forms a precipitate and then weighing the precipitate and comparing it to stoichometric ratios to give the amount of KHP.1L DISCUSSION Other analytical methods can be used for the analysis of the KHP solution such as Precision Coulometry or by Precipitation such that. You don¶t have to be a genius to use only need practice a lot Instruments for use can easily be accessed. In my case sample 67 was assigned to me. This was also simpler then I imagined as reaction was 1:1 mole ratio. After standardisation of sodium hydroxide and finding out its concentration it was then easier to determine the concentration of KHP.2773g 1g 27. .1 L 0.001358 mol Mass = Mole (KHP) × Molar Mass (KHP) 0. After preparing my primary standard solution it was then titrated with the sodium hydroxide solution. Might need a lot of practice before you¶re able to do it successfully to get accurate and precise outcome.06 mL of NaOH needed to neutralise the impure KHP solution.01358 molL -1 Mole(KHP) = Concentration × Volume Mole = 0.224 gmol -1 0.

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