Braking of Train Using Fuzzy Controller



This is a complex and challenging problem, but a situation that occurs thousands of times every day. The vehicle of course is a typical freight train. This short paper will introduce the reader to the principles of how train brakes accomplish this remarkable task. Background Freight train brake systems have not changed in basic operation since the 1930's. They are controlled and actuated by compressed air. Each power unit (locomotive) has an air compressor that supplies air for the entire train's braking system. A feed valve in the locomotive regulates the desired pressure that is supplied to the train. This pressure must be at least 70 psi (although most modern systems use 90 psi). A "brake pipe" runs the full length of the train. The brake pipe carries the compressed air from the control unit to the rest of the train. This single source of air carries both the air that powers the brakes as well as the signal to control them. Details of Brake Operation Each rail car has its own brake system. The brake components include a brake cylinder, brake shoes, a dual air reservoir, and a control or AB valve. The AB valve is used to route air from the reservoirs (auxiliary and emergency) to the brake cylinder. The brake cylinders are connected through rods, levers and slack adjusters to the brake shoes. Train brakes are normally off, or unapplied. The return spring in the brake cylinder is used to return the piston and pull the brake shoe away from the wheel and allow the wheel to roll freely. So, in order to apply the brakes, air must be ported from the reservoir to the brake cylinder. There are several ways the engineer can apply braking to the train. He selects the type of braking depending on the nature of the stop desired. SERVICE BRAKING: This is the type of brake application normally used for slowing or stopping. This level of braking is achieved with a 6psi to a 26psi reduction in the brake pipe pressure. When the AB valve senses the difference in pressure air is ported from the reservoir to the brake chamber. Air pressure acts against the piston and brakes are applied. Braking with the Service Brakes offers up to 75% of a train's emergency brake capability.

Fig.1: Flexible Hose Carries the Brake pipe between Cars

Fig.2: A Brake Cylinder and associated Hardware

POWER BRAKING: This means just what it says. When an engineer anticipates a problem may develop or desires to control the speed of the train, an application of the service brakes is made without reducing the throttle. When the train has slowed or the problem does not arise, then the train brakes are released and the

This type of braking has the advantage of reducing the time necessary to achieve Emergency Braking. This results in a quicker stop than an Emergency stop that was not preceded with Service Braking. So. This occurs in emergency. FAST and VERY FAST. SLOW. We are taking Speed of the train from minimum 0 km/h to maximum 150 km/h. An emergency application will cancel throttle to idle (see Power Braking above). our hypothetical 5. EMERGENCY BRAKING: This is all the brake capability that a train has. This type of brake use applies the brakes as fast as possible. The membership functions are shown in Fig. when the brake pipe is vented to the atmosphere. This type of braking is used primarily for train handling as it only slows the train via the locomotives. the AB Valves ports pressure from the Auxiliary and Emergency reservoirs to the brake chamber and all brakes slow the train.526' freight train would take 16 seconds to attain full emergency braking. with the throttle still set. It is utilized. it would take 6 seconds for the last car to sense the pressure drop and begin to start applying the brakes. The membership functions are shown in fig. Thus. As a result. NEAR. Application of Emergency opens the brake pipe to atmosphere on all cars and units sequentially from front to rear. We are taking Distance from minimum o meter to maximum 500 meter.526' long. How Braking Can Be Controlled Using Fuzzy Controller: Here input parameters are distance from Railway Station and speed of the train. if a train were 5.4. Under ideal circumstances the air signal travels at about 921 fps.train continues on. During these 16 seconds the train will have steadily increasing brake application taking effect between 1. when there is an emergency. The whole range is distributed in four levels VERYNEAR. FAR and VERY FAR. On trains operating at 70psi brake pipe pressure this maximum application time is 10 seconds. Output parameter here is the braking power.Distance canbe measured by the sensors installed at the Railway Station and the second input parameter Spped can be measured by the speedometer installed in the train. as implied.5 (the time for braking in the first car to begin) to 16 seconds (the time the last car achieve full braking). DYNAMIC BRAKING: This is using the traction motors of the units in a reverse flow so that they act to slow or stop the train. Special Considerations Utilizing air brakes on a vehicle that is more than 1 mile in length poses some interesting problems. This type of braking cannot compare to train brakes. The whole range is distributed in four levelsVERY SLOW.5 Fig3: Input and Output parameters .

7] sixteen rules are defined. We have compiled 10 such type of results in the table shown below: Fig.6. The membership functions are shown in Fig. In the Rule Block[Fig.29% The 3D graph showing both input parameters and output parameter is shown in Fig 9a & 9b. Fig 6: Membership functions of Braking Power Fig7: Rule Block RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We have used software fuzzyTECH Version 5. The whole range is distributed in four levels VERY LIGHT. Now we are correlating input parameters with output parameter by using If-Then rule. A sample is taken when Distance is 200 metre and Speed is 100 km/h then Braking Power will be 66.7. LIGHT.7 launched by company INFORM Gmbh.1. In this paper we have cosidered two input parameters and got the graphs showing the required Trigger Voltage.Fig4: Membership functions of Distance Fig5: Membership functions of Speed We are taking Braking Power in percentage and from minimum 0 to maximum 100. By using 3D graph we can find out Trigger Voltage for various input values. HEAVY and VERY HEAVY.8: Interactive Debug .

39 a Fig. 8.21 74.21 65. 7. 10.No . 4.9: 3D graph b Fig. 1. DISTANCE(meters) 200 300 500 100 200 100 20 50 450 500 SPEED(km/h) 100 120 40 50 20 100 20 35 135 15 BRAKE POWER (%) 66. 2.21 7.09 65.29 65. 5.21 40.72 65. 9. 6.21 97. 3.21 40.10: General WINDOW of FUZZYTECH .S.

New Delhi [3] Some useful websites. Fuzzy Logic With Engineering Applications (1997). Introduction to Applied Fuzzy Electronics (2004). . Ibrahim. McGraw Hill. Prentice Hall of India.BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] Ahmad M. New Delhi [2] Timothy J Ross.

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