You are on page 1of 17

Extreme Broadband Testing

The Adtech AX/4000 Broadband Test System

Broadband Testing and the Adtech AX/4000
The 21st century opens with the astonishing growth of telecommunications and the
Internet. Each day, more of our physical world moves into the digital domain. Music,
literature, technology, and conversation are routinely digitized and distributed worldwide
with telepathic efficiency. A fledgling electronic commerce industry has already produced
enormous celebrity and success.
None of this would be possible without broadband networks.
As one would expect, the current expansion of broadband traffic is
exponential, both in the amount of information transported and in
the number of ways to deliver it. At the same time, competitive
pressures to provide higher performance at lower costs are churn-
ing the industry at a frantic pace.

Broadband Testing Today

Because network performance, reliability, and availability have
become so critical, broadband testing requires much more sophis-
tication now than it did several years ago. With its early roots in
the ATM industry, the AX/4000 Broadband Test System has evolved into an essential
tool for testing the performance and quality of service (QoS) of multiple transmission
technologies including IP, ATM, Ethernet, and Frame Relay. Designed with feedback from
the networking companies and switch manufacturers who buy and use it, the AX/4000
provides the fastest, most comprehensive, and most flexible broadband testing solution
available anywhere.

High-Speed Programmable Hardware

Adtech engineers pioneered the design of fully programmable hardware for broadband
testing. The AX/4000 now embodies some of the most extensive applications of field
programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) ever developed. The system’s unique architecture
enables users to program their test modules on site to support the latest developments
in broadband testing.
In addition to flexibility, the primary advantage of using
high-performance FPGAs is pure speed. Compared to soft-
ware-based testing solutions, only the AX/4000’s FPGA
hardware-based architecture is fast enough to provide more than
one million* full-rate measurements and statistics continuously
and in real time.

An Outstanding Investment
How many computers have you had since 1994? How many of
these do you still use today? Unlike other system architectures,
the Adtech AX/4000 is fully scalable and absolutely future proof!
Our latest 2.488 Gbps IP test modules will work perfectly inside
the 155 Mbps ATM systems we shipped in 1994. So will
any AX/4000 products and software we develop beyond
the year 2000! This unprecedented commitment to value
Unlike that old plaid
and product stability means you do not have to search for
jacket, your Adtech
and justify a different test system every one or two years.
AX/4000 system will not
go out-of-date.

* Based on a mainframe chassis with eight mAX

Generator/Analyzer modules installed.

The AX/4000 is completely modular and
designed for maximum flexibility and
scalability. It is a multi-port system that can
currently test four different transmission
technologies (IP, ATM, Ethernet, and Frame
Relay) simultaneously at speeds up to
2.488 Gbps. The AX/4000 also supports
multiple users and multiple
control options including
Windows,® UNIX,®and
any C or Tcl compatible
platform. You can even
create a virtual AX/4000
system spanning the
globe by linking multiple
AX/4000 systems in
different cities and
operating them as a
single cohesive unit. 3
Broadband Test
Traffic Generation
Because real-world broadband traffic is
complex and constantly changing, you
cannot depend on simple, repetitive
packets to test networks and switches. For
this reason, all AX/4000 Generator and
Generator/Analyzer modules include the
most sophisticated hardware traffic gener-
ators ever built and come with precision
tools for creating unlimited traffic variations
and detail. Setup “wizards” and logical
functional blocks allow you to build even
the most massive and complex traffic
streams quickly and easily.
All AX/4000 generators are specifically
tuned for the transmission technology
being tested. For example, ATM traffic gen-
erators include special traffic shapers to
control the release of cells based on peak
and sustainable cell rates and maximum
burst sizes. IP traffic generators include
sophisticated modeling to recreate the
wide range of packet length distributions
found in IP traffic.
Every AX/4000 Generator, Generator/Analyzer, and Generator/Dual Analyzer module includes a
sophisticated traffic generator with multiple traffic sources, each with its own real-time traffic distri- Multiple Traffic Sources
bution model, sequencing, and prioritization. Multiple traffic sources allow realistic simu-
lations of multimedia traffic and multiple
classes of service. Every AX/4000 genera-
tor has multiple independent traffic
sources and each source can generate its
own user-defined traffic patterns.

Traffic Distribution Models

Broadband traffic is anything but steady.
Packets and cells flow in bursts with peri-
odic and seemingly random distributions.
To create realistic test traffic, the generator
includes multiple real-time distribution
models. These models range from single
manually triggered packets to complex
Markov Modulated Poisson Process distri-
butions. Any one of the distribution models
can be assigned to any one of the multiple
traffic sources. And if these distribution
models don’t meet your exact needs, you
can modify them to create your own
custom distributions.

User Defined Traffic
Content and Sequencing
In addition to creating an extremely wide
range of packet and cell types, the
AX/4000 allows you to program sequences
of packets with looping, jumps, repeats
and conditional branching.

Traffic Prioritization
You can simulate multiple classes of ser-
vice by prioritizing each traffic source. For
example, you can assign a higher priority to
constant bit rate (CBR) traffic and a lower
priority to variable bit rate (VBR) traffic
sources. After generating the traffic, you
can use an AX/4000 analyzer to check
your device’s ability to maintain proper
QoS levels.

Traffic Shaping, Policing,

and Error Injection
With the AX/4000, you can shape and
modify generated traffic to check the polic-
ing and error handling capabilities of the
equipment under test. Shaping also helps
determine the effect errors will have on the
overall throughput and reliability of a
You can police traffic generated by a
system under test to confirm that it is
shaping traffic properly. You can also inject
errors randomly or manually and set them
to hit any byte or even certain bits within
specific bytes. With manual error injection,
you can send an eight-bit binary error pat-
tern that is easy to trace after it leaves the
generator. Error injection enables you to
test your equipment’s error detection and
error handling capabilities.

IP packet lengths can be varied using simple fixed or random distributions. For even more realistic
and flexible simulations of IP traffic, the AX/4000 Quad Modal Distribution allows up to four packet
length distributions per traffic source. 5
Full-Rate Traffic
The speed and capacity of AX/4000 Gener-
ator/Analyzer and Generator/Dual Analyzer
modules allow very large scale analysis of
broadband streams continuously and at
full rate. The analyzer portions of these
modules automatically identify and supply
continuous QoS and performance mea-
surements for thousands of substreams
simultaneously. A single AX/4000 mAX
module can easily provide over 125,000
full-rate measurements continuously and
in real time—all without missing a single
packet or cell!

Bi-Directional Analysis
AX/4000 Version II and mAX Genera-
The Main Analyzer screen displays information for up to 4,095 different substreams.
tor/Dual Analyzer modules allow
bi-directional monitoring and analysis from
a single port. For example, this function
provides the essential capability to monitor
and decode both sides of an SVC call
setup conversation and to compare the
performance of traffic moving in two

Automatic Traffic Filters

Depending on the module used, the ana-
lyzer can identify and analyze up to 4,095
separate substreams simultaneously
based on a variety of criteria such as
packet or cell identifier or the type of
packet or cell received. The analyzer can
also filter substreams based on specific
content making it easy to monitor specially
tagged substreams and test blocks.
The AX/4000 provides complete statistics for every substream in real time.

Full-Rate Capture
In addition to providing live statistics, the
analyzer can also capture traffic at full rate
for further analysis or protocol decoding.
Captures can be triggered manually or
automatically based on specific events or
errors and can include packets or cells
received before, after, or both before and
after the trigger event.
Because data capture is at full rate,
the analyzer captures every single byte of
every packet or cell received during the
capture period. The standard 16 MB cap-
ture capacity can be expanded up to 128
MB by adding additional capture memory.

Full-Rate QoS
The AX/4000 can maintain over 125,000
simultaneous QoS measurements per port
at full rate and in real time. All statistics
can be saved on disk for further analysis
and for printing detailed test reports. Real-time histograms and charts provide a graphical view of traffic including interarrival times,
transit delays, IP datagram lengths and any of four different measurements per time flow.
Histograms and Charts
The analyzer’s histograms and charts pro-
vide a graphical view of the analyzer
statistics in real time. These include
interarrival time, transit delay and packet
lengths. Up to 32 histograms and 16
charts can be viewed simultaneously.

Protocol Decoders
Optional ATM, Frame Relay and IP protocol
decoders provide detailed protocol analysis
of captured data.
The AX/4000 IP protocol decoder
package includes over 20 protocol decod-
ers derived from a powerful new AX/4000
protocol-decoding engine. These decoders
include all major Internet protocols in use

The AX/4000 automatically filters

and analyzes data, video, and voice
traffic at full rate and in real time. 7
AX/4000 Applications and
Control Options
In addition to powerful test features, the AX/4000
has many different control options to support virtu-
ally any test environment. These include both
standard and custom applications. In addition to a
flexible user interface, the AX/4000 also supports
remote multi-user access—a powerful option for
testing large, distributed networks.

Windows and UNIX Controller Software

Our highly acclaimed controller software, available in both
Windows and UNIX versions, has a very intuitive graphical
user interface with many powerful features for getting the
most from your AX/4000 compo-
nents. Test setup is logical and quick
and when tests are running, the software
displays real-time data and statistics that
are thorough and easy to understand.

Custom Programming Tools

Tool Command
Software Tools for Custom and
With the AX/4000 C Function Library, you can create your own
Automated ATM Test Applications custom and automated AX/4000 applications that can run on any

C Function Library ANSI C compatible platform. Included in this library are the same
control features provided in our Windows and UNIX controller
The AX/4000 Tcl (tool command language) package makes it
even easier to create your own AX/4000 applications. This popu-
lar scripting language does not require extensive programming
Telcordia Technologies experience and typically uses less code (in some cases 90
Test Suites percent less) than standard C language applications.
The Telcordia (formerly Bellcore) Confor-
mance and Interoperability Test Suites,
licensed by Adtech, provide the most com-
prehensive set of ATM and Frame Relay
test packages ever developed for a system
as powerful as the AX/4000.
These test suites include thousands of
individual test cases for user- and network
side equipment based on ATM layer,
Q.2110 (SSCOP), UNI 3.1, UNI 4.0 and
PNNI standards.
The Test Suite Manager developed by
Adtech engineers combines a complete
user interface for the test suites with many
options for manag-
ing batch tests and
reporting test TM

Multi-User, Multi-System
Remote Access
With an Ethernet control module installed in the AX/4000 chassis, The Virtual Broadband Test System
the system can be connected to an Ethernet-based LAN for
Another ingenious feature of the AX/4000 controller software is its ability to
access by remote
function as a virtual broadband test system. To build a virtual test system,
users. Because
simply select the test modules you need from any of the AX/4000 systems
every test module in
on your network. Once selected the modules will operate together as if they
the chassis has its
were located inside a single chassis. In addition to individual users access-
own address on the
ing multiple AX/4000 systems, multiple users can access modules inside
network, users can
one or more systems on the network.
access the modules
they need and leave
the remainder for
others to use. This
enables multiple
users to access the
same chassis

Multiple users in different cities can access mod-

ules located inside the same AX/4000 system.
The software also indicates which
modules are in use and even
who is using them.

For large networks,
multiple AX/4000 sys-
tems can be installed at
major switching sites and
controlled remotely from a
centralized network opera-
tions center. This network of
AX/4000’s can provide valu-
able local testing and monitoring as well as enable
network-wide tests between multiple network nodes. Because it
can be controlled from a central location, remote distributed
testing is also faster and more cost effective than dispatching
field service technicians to local sites.

One-Way Transfer Delay Measurements

One-way transfer delays between two sites cannot be measured
unless both locations are synchronized with identical timestamps.
A global positioning system (GPS) option allows two AX/4000 sys-
tems located anywhere in the world to share a common GPS
timestamp for accurate one-way transfer delay measurements
from one end of a network to the other. 9
The AX/4000
Extended Family
The AX/4000 is not
simply a box but a
full-featured system
with the industry’s
largest selection of
physical interfaces,
full-rate test features for
ATM, Frame Relay,
Ethernet, and IP, and a
wide variety of control
options. No other system
can match the breadth
and scalability of the
AX/4000. Whether
testing a single ATM chip
design in a lab or
monitoring multiple
remote switching centers
on a global IP network,
the AX/4000 provides a
complete yet perfectly
practical solution for
testing broadband
operation, performance
and QoS.

AX/4000 Product Selection Guide
Layer 2 ATM Testing Products AX/4000 Test Modules
mAX Version II ATM Network 2.488
G — P/N 401401 G — P/N 401312 Impairment Emulator Gbps
G/A — P/N 401400 G/A — P/N 401311 U — P/N 400314 P/N
G/AA—P/N 401405 G/AA — P/N 401314 B — P/N 400315 400319
Part No. Description G G/A G/AA G G/A G/AA U B G/A
400319P OC-48c Single Mode ATM n
400324 OC-12c/STM-4c Single Mode n n
400325 OC-12c/STM-4c Multimode n n
400329 622 Mbps UTOPIA Level 2 n n
400323 UTOPIA n n n n n n n n
400326 UTOPIA Level 2 n n n n n n n n
400301 OC-3c/STM-1 Single Mode n n n n n n n n
400305 OC-3c/STM-1 Multimode n n n n n n n n
400306 STS-3c/STM-1 (G.703) n n n n n n n n
400307 155 Mbps UTP-5 n n n n n n n n
400322A STS-1 n n n n n n n n
400302A DS3 Monitor n n n n n n n n
400303A E3 Monitor n n n n n n n n
400321 DS2 n n n n n n n n
400310 ATM 25.6 Mbps n n n n n n n n
400309A E1 Monitor n n n n n n n n
400308A DS1 Monitor n n n n n n n n
Protocol Decoders
400409 ATM SVC Signalling n n n n n
400472 IP Protocol Decoding Package n n n n n
400411 Frame Relay/ATM n n n n n
400412 ATM LANE n n n n n
400460 ATM PNNI n n n n n
400461 ATM NNI B-ISUP/B-ICI n n n n n
400462 ATM IMA n n n n n
400470A Protocol Decoding Pkg (SVC, IP pkg, FR, LANE, PNNI) n n n n n
400463 STM SPVC/SPVP n n n n n
Emulation Option
400407 OAM Function Test Software n n n n n n n
401501 ATM SVC Signalling n n n n n n
401520 2.488 Gbps ATM SVC Signalling n
401550 155 Mbps B-ISUP SVC Signalling n n n n n n
401510 622 Mbps ATM SVC Signalling n n n
400510 ABR n n n n n n
400511 622 Mbps ABR n n n
400471 AAL 2 Generation/Analysis Test Software n n n n n n n
400316 Bidirectional Emulator upgrade n
Call Telcordia Test Suites n n n n n n n
Call Telcordia PNNI Emulator

G–Generator only module U–Unidirectional ATM Network Impairment Emulator module
G/A–Generator/Analyzer module B–Bidirectional ATM Network Impairment Emulator module (uses mix of any two ATM
G/AA–Generator/Dual Analyzer module (two identical interfaces required) interfaces up to 155.52 Mbps) 11
AX/4000 Product Selection Guide
Layer 2 Ethernet Testing Products AX/4000 Test Modules
mAX ATM Network 2.488
Version II
G — P/N 401401 Impairment Emulator Gbps
G — P/N 401342
G/A — P/N 401400 U — P/N 400314 P/N
G/A — P/N 401327
G/AA—P/N 401405 B — P/N 400315 400320
Part No. Description G G/A G/AA G G/A G/AA U B G/A
401324 Ethernet 10-100BaseT n n n n
Protocol Decoder
400472 IP Protocol Decoding Package n n

Layer 2 Frame Relay Testing Products

Version II
G — P/N 401326
mAX ATM NIE 2.488
G/A — P/N 401315
G/AA—P/N 401325
401317 Frame Relay Synchronous n n n n n n
401318 Frame Relay DS3 n n n n n n
401319 Frame Relay T1/E1 n n n n n n
401321 Frame Relay HSSI n n n n n n
401322 Frame Relay E3 n n n n n n
400472 IP Protocol Decoding Package n n n n
401540 FRF.4/FRF.10 SVC Signalling Protocol Decoder n n n n n n
401530 Frame Relay SVC Signalling Emulation Option n n n n n n
Call Telcordia Test Suites n n n n n n

Layer 3 IP Testing Products

mAX Version II ATM NIE 2.488
400320P OC-48c Single Mode POS n
401382 IP POS/ATM/FR OC-12c/OC-3c Single Mode n n
401383 IP POS/ATM/FR OC-12c/OC-3c Multimode n n
401384 IP POS/ATM/FR OC-3c Single Mode n n
401385 IP POS/ATM/FR OC-3c Multimode n n
401380 IP Gigabit Ethernet Single Mode n n
401381 IP Gigabit Ethernet Multimode n n
400472 IP Protocol Decoding Package n n n n n
400473 Voice-over-IP Protocol Decoding Package n n
401560 PPP over ATM Emulation Option n n
Call Telcordia Test Suites n n n n n n n

G–Generator only module U–Unidirectional ATM Network Impairment Emulator module
G/A–Generator/Analyzer module B–Bidirectional ATM Network Impairment Emulator module (uses mix of any two ATM
G/AA–Generator/Dual Analyzer module (two identical interfaces required) interfaces up to 155.52 Mbps)

The AX/4000 Broadband Test System

Mainframe and Portable

The AX/4000 is available with a 16-slot
mainframe or a four-slot portable chassis.
Both are functionally identical except for the
number of available slots. All AX/4000 com-
ponents will operate in either chassis.

Control Modules
Control modules provide the interface Standard GPIB
between the chassis and an external control- Control Module
ler such as a PC or a workstation. Control
modules are available with a high-speed
IEEE-488 GPIB connector for direct cable con- Control Module
nection to a controller or with a 10BaseT
Ethernet connector for a network connection.
Networking the AX/4000 enables multiple GPS-Ethernet
remote users to access the system. Control Module
In addition to providing a controller inter-
face, control modules have connectors for
sharing common timestamps with other
AX/4000 systems. The GPS/Ethernet Control
Module also has connectors for receiving a
universal timestamp anywhere in the world
using an optional global positioning system
(GPS) receiver.

The controller is an external PC or workstation
connected to the chassis via a GPIB cable or
Ethernet-based LAN. Adtech’s highly acclaimed
controller software is available in both Windows
and UNIX versions.
A complete library of C
Functions and Tcl exten-
sions is also available for
those requiring custom
test applications.
A full line of Telcordia™
Technologies test suites
provides off-the-shelf,
conformance and
interoperability testing. 13
The AX/4000 Broadband Test System
The AX/4000 is a fully modular system with interchangeable test modules, port interfaces, and
chassis types. Although there are thousands of different combinations possible for a single
chassis system, determining which components are needed can be done in three basic steps.

1 Select a chassis and control options. All

test modules and port interfaces will work in
2 Select the test modules. Each test
module is essentially a single port tester that can
3 Select the port interfaces. Port inter-
faces provide the physical interfaces that connect
either chassis. The primary differences between operate independently or as part of a larger the test modules to the equipment or network
the two are the mainframe has 16 free slots and multi-port test setup. Pages 4-7 describe some of under test. Port interfaces are interchangeable
can be rack mounted. The portable has four free the basic test functions. The selection guide in the and most will work with more than one test
slots and a handle for easy transport. back will help you determine which products are module. Generator, generator/analyzer and
Each chassis is shipped with the control available for each test module. unidirectional emulator modules require one
module of your choice. The control module pro- interface. Generator/dual analyzer and
vides the interface for connecting the chassis to a bi-directional emulator modules require two
controller PC or workstation, either by direct interfaces.
cable connection or via an Ethernet-based LAN.
The AX/4000 can be controlled from a PC,
UNIX workstation, or any C compatible plat-
form. Adtech provides a comprehensive
Windows-based graphical user
interface that is also avail-
able in a UNIX
version. Or you
can write your
own control
application using
our C Function
library and Tcl

2 3

The AX/4000 Broadband Test System


Ethernet Frame Relay POS Multi-Function

Port Interfaces
The AX/4000 uses inexpensive, plug-in port interfaces to provide the physical interface for AX/4000 test
modules. These cards are interchangeable allowing a single test module to perform tests with a variety of
physical connections and speeds. Over 30 port interfaces are available supporting a wide range of interface
standards for ATM, Frame Relay, Ethernet, and IP. Adtech also provides multi-function port interfaces that
support multiple speeds and transmission technologies. 15
The AX/4000 Broadband Test System
Test Modules
The actual broadband testing occurs inside the
AX/4000 test modules. Adtech currently pro-
duces ten different test modules to support Analyzer Faceplate
different test requirements and speeds. All test
modules, except for the ATM Network Impair- FPGA
ment Emulator modules, can support multiple
transmission technologies.
Most modules can be converted to a dif-
ferent configuration. For example a Generator RAM
only module can be converted to a Genera-
tor/Analyzer or Generator/Dual Analyzer.
Contact your Adtech sales representative
to receive complete specifications for any of Chassis Connector
the test modules listed here.
Interface Connector
The mAX (short for multi-AX/4000) modules are the
most versatile AX/4000 modules currently available.
Supporting multiple technologies and speeds, mAX
modules can be set up to test ATM, Frame Relay,
Ethernet, or IP at speeds up to 1 Gbps.
Available in:
n Generator only
n Generator/Analyzer
n Generator/Dual Analyzer
OC-48c Generator/Analyzer
n Network Emulator
This is Adtech’s fastest and most
powerful test module. Available with a
Layer 2 OC-48c ATM or Layer 3 OC-48c IP
interface, this module provides the same
basic test functions as a mAX Genera-
tor/Analyzer but at a much higher 2.488
Gbps speed. Both OC-48c ATM and IP
interfaces are available separately.
n OC-48c Generator/Analyzer

Version II ATM Network Impairment

Version II modules are the most Emulator
economical AX/4000 test modules. These modules provide stress testing for
They include nearly all of the test- network sensitive applications such as
ing features found in the mAX live video, multimedia, and protocols.
modules and can be set up to test They provide the same QoS impairments
ATM, Frame Relay, or Ethernet at an ATM cell stream would typically
speeds up to 155.52 Mbps. Avail- encounter when passing through multiple
able in: networks, switches, and other equipment.
n Generator only Available in:
n Generator/Analyzer n Uni-directional configuration
n Generator/Dual Analyzer n Bi-directional configuration

Adtech, Inc.
3465 Waialae Avenue, Suite 200
Honolulu, Hawaii 96816

Tel: 800-348-0080, 808-734-3300

Fax: 808-734-7100
Web site:

Cover Photo:
A surfer charges down the face of one of Maui’s monster waves,
known as Pe‘ahi. Reaching heights of nearly 60 feet, the waves
of Pe‘ahi have been too large and fast moving for most surfers to
catch. However, with modern technology, surfers can now
answer Pe‘ahi’s call.
Secured to their boards with footstraps, surfers are towed into
the breaking wave behind jet-propelled watercraft. Once on the
wave, they release the towrope for an adrenaline-pumping ride.
Only a handful of surfers in the world are skilled enough to push
the limits of this uniquely Hawaiian extreme sport.

© 2000 Adtech, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Adtech logo is a trademark of Adtech, Inc.
All other brands and product names are trademarks
of their respective holders.

Product specifications subject to change without notice.

Contact your Adtech sales representative for current
product descriptions.

B4101-A01 0300