Rengasamy Madurai Institute of Social Sciences

S.Rengasamy – Madurai Institute of Social Sciences – Introduction to Town Planning Town Planning No urban area will prosper unless it attracts those who can choose to live where ver they wish. My interest is in the future, because I am going to spend the rest of my life th ere. 2

S.243w Issues in Urban Planning The Master plan Approach – Concepts.Rengasamy – Madurai Institute of Social Sciences – Introduction to Town Planning Content Urban India Box: How India’s Urban Settlements are administered Town Panchayats / Municipalities / Corporations Box: Basic Feature and Pattern of India s Urbaniza tion Table: No of towns and percentage of urban population by size class Table: Million Plus Cities in India Box: Town Panchayats (Nagar Palikas) in India – The c ase of Tamilnadu Box: Municipal Administration in India: The case of Tamilnadu B ox: Some Definitions Box: Town Planning Explanations & Definitions Box: If town planning is not there Box: Planning –Definitions Obstacles identified in the optim um development of urban centers Social and economic aims of town planning Box: C omponents of town planning Box: Basics of Town Planning Meaning and Components o f Town Planning Box: Urban Facts Characteristics of successful Town Planning Civ ic Design Urban Planning Picture: Growth of a city Box: Objectives of Town Plann ing Box: Background factors and problems in Town Planning Individual control of small parcels of urban land Arbitrary political boundaries Irregularity of the environmental site Heritage of past construction Anticipati on of future change Methods of Town Planning: Major aspects of the master plan General land use pattern Table: Percentage of land use Spatial locations for var ious functions Pic: Contrasting Urban Scenario Industrial location Commercial lo cation Residential location. Objectives and Functions The functions of the Master Plan / Development plan Cri tique of the Master Plan Approach 16 Points Modifications suggested in Master Pl an 17 Points 3   . Streets and transportation facilities Urban plannin g education Legislative frame work for urban planning Challenges in urban planning for local bodies in India Box: Problems of Urban Local Bodies [ULBs] Box: The rationale t o use Town Planning: Advantages Long history Democratic and participatory: Fair Respects property Non-coercive and non-authoritarian Win-win proposition Transpa rent Tested in law courts Making development pay for the cost of infrastructure Box: Limitations of Town Planning Lengthy time frames Inadequate attention to su bstantial issues No asset management framework is in place Centralized processes Disconnect with the city budgeting process Box: Potentials of Town Planning TPS as an infrastructure financing tool TPS as a tool to introduce innovative plann ing concepts TPS as a tool to build accurate maps and land records for the city Box: Rural Urban Relationship Box: Responsibilities assigned to Rural local gove rnment 11th schedule-243G Box: Responsibilities assigned Urban local government 12th schedule.

as det ailed in the above table: The number of metropolitan cities having million plus population has increased to 35 as per 2001 census.3 45. The percentage of urban population to the total population of the count ry stands at 27.7 percent) and Orissa (14.3 13.999 1. The percentage of urban population to total population in the 1991 Census (including interpolated population of Jammu & Kashmir where Census could not be conducted in 1991) was 25. Assam (12.8 percent) and Pondicherry (66.5 14.2 22.9 64.5 13.19.5 percent.2 17. The number of towns and cities have increased to 4378.19109 28. The names of such cities are given in the following table: Indian Cities having million (+) Population in 2001 Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Urban Agglomeration/City Greater Mumbai Kolkata Delhi Chennai Bangalore Hyderabad Ahmedabad Pune Surat Kanpur Jai pur Lucknow Nagpur Patna Indore Vadodara Bhopal Population (Lakhs) 163.000 .2 11.6 10 .9 11.77078 49. Thus.41184 36.9 and 31. In terms of absolute number of persons living in urban areas.19060 Population Size No.8% 74.2 1 27.53.5 Rank 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Urban Agglomeration/City Coim batore Ludhiana Kochi Visakhapatnam Agra Varanasi Madurai Meerut Nashik Jabalpur Jamshedpur Asansol Dhanbad Faridabad Allahabad Amritsar Vijaywada Rajkot Popula tion (Lakhs) 14.1 11. there has been an increa se on 2.9.0 13. The net additi on of population in rural areas during 1991-2001 has been to the tune of 113 mil lion while in urban areas it is 6 million.2 37.11.5 10. The percentage decadal growth of popu lation in rural and urban areas during the decade is 17.4 14.8. Ma harashtra leads with 41 million persons which is 14 percent of the total populat ion of the country.49.5 28.7 percent.35894 13.16.0 00 191 Unclassified 10* All classes 4378 Class Total Rural Urban Among all the States and Union territories.70.1 16.00.9 55.999 1.2 56.9 23.9 10.999 888 Class VI Less than 5.151 Class IV 10. abou t 742 million live in rural areas and 285 million in urban areas.12.344 Class V 5.52.38169 27.9 percent of the populati on living in urban areas followed by Maharashtra (42. Tamil Nadu is the most urbanized state with 43.000 . 2001.000 & above 393 Class II 50.05 .2 12.57.7 11.7 132.99.Rengasamy – Madurai Institute of Social Sciences – Introduction to Town Planning Urban India In India out of the total population of 1027 million as on 1st March.5 11. Uttar Pradesh accounts for about 35 million followed by Tami l Nadu 27 million.999 401 Class III 20. 4 percent).0 4 .000 . the National Capital Territory of De lhi is most urbanized with 93 percent urban population followed by Union territo ry of Chandigarh (89.9 14.7 21.1 percentage points in the proportion of urban population in the country during 1991 – 2001 Level of Urbanization urban Population of India Persons Males Females 102.S.8% followed by Bihar with 10.4 percent) and Gujarat (37. The proportion of urban population is the lowest in Himachal Pradesh with 9.15247 53.54954 15.1 10. Among the major States.0 10.60293 38.000 .5 10.01.1 10.2 percent respe ctively.9 percent).1 26.of Towns Class I 1 .6 percent).

exploitation. / Municipality is a Urban Local Body that adm inisters a city of population 200. Mumbai.a (Municipal Corporations) in I ndia are state government formed departments that works for the development of a city.S.Nagar Palika (Municipality) 3. Under the Panchayati Raj system. Kolkatta and Chennai. However. 4 Rapid urbanization leads to massive growth of slum fo llowed by misery. The growing population and urbanization in various cities of India were in need of a local governing body that can work for providing necessary community services like health centers. Muni cipal Corporation / Nagar Nigam Nagar Nigams a.Rengasamy – Madurai Institute of Social Sciences – Introduction to Town Planning How India’s Urban Settlements are administered After the 74th Amendment was enacted there are only three categories of Urban Lo cal Bodies: 1. there are so me exceptions. The ir elections are held once in five year and the people choose the candidates. These cities not only have a large population. poverty.000) are reclassified as Nagar P anchayat. The members of the Nagar Palika are elected repres entatives for a term of five years.000 or less. unemployment. namely Delh i. The town is divided into wards according to its population and representatives are elected from each ward. Ba sic Feature and Pattern of India s Urbanization Basic feature of urbanization in India can be highlighted as: 1 Lopsided urbanization induces growth of class I cities 2 Urbanization occurs without industrialization and strong economic base 3 Urbanization is mainly a product of demographic explosion and poverty induced rural . ed ucational institutes and housing and property tax.Nagar Panchayat A Town Panch ayat (Nagar Panchayat) is a form of an urban body in India comparable to a Munic ipality. but are also the administrative as well as commercial centers of the country. though it is administratively p art of the district it is located in. They are formed under the Cor porations Act of 1835 of Panchayati Raj system which mainly deals in providing e ssential services in every small town as well as village of a district/city. A chief offi cer.Nagar Panchayat (Town Panchayat) 2. 5 Urbanization occurs not due to urban pull but d ue to rural push. It consists of a mi nimum of 10 elected ward members and three nominated members. Municipality / Nag ar Palika In India a Nagar Palika. health officer an d education officer who come from the state public service are appointed by the state government to control the administrative affairs of the Nagar Palika.A town panchayat means an urban centre with more than 30. sanitary inspector. Generally smaller district cities and bigg er towns have a Nagar Palika. All the previous Town Area Committees (Urban centers with a total population of more than 5.k.1992). 7 Distress migration initiates urban decay 5   . 6 Poor quality of rural-urban migration leads to poor quality of Urbanization (Bhagat. it interacts directly with the state government.000 and less th an 100.N agar Nigam (Municipal Corporation) Town Panchayat .000 and less than 20. The members elect a president among themselves to preside over and conduct meetings.urban migration.000 inhabitants is classified as a Nagar Panchayat. inequalities. along with officers like an engineer. degradation in the quality of urban life. Th e largest corporations are in the four metropolitan cities of India. Nagar Panchayat have a chairman with ward members. which has a population of more than 1 Million.

Rengasamy – Madurai Institute of Social Sciences – Introduction to Town Planning 6 .S.

Rents and othe r charges such as water charges Surcharge on Stamp duty Devolution grants from t he Government Other miscellaneous incomes such as interest on deposits Programs /Schemes in Town Panchayats 1. Anaithu Peruratchi Anna Marumalarchi Thittam 2.S. The Town Panchayats are places of importance s uch as Division / Taluk headquarters. Functions of Town Panchayats The Town Pa nchayats are responsible in delivery of the following civic services: • Providing Basic Amenities o Roads Street Lights Water Supply Public Health Drainage • Granti ng of Building Licenses • Levying of Taxes o Property Tax Vacant Land Tax Professi on Tax Non Tax Water Charges • Issuing Birth & Death Certificates • Issuing Dangerou s & Offensive Trade Licenses • Implementation of State / Central Schemes Sources o f Revenue of Town Panchayats The revenue of the Town Panchayats is derived from the sources as below: Property Tax Professional Tax License Fees. based on the income crit eria: Grade No of TP Income Criteria Special Grade 13 Above Rs. maintenance of assets and in ensuring the publicity and propaganda and in i mplementation of Government Programmes. Town Panc hayats are under the administrative control Municipal Administration and Water S upply Department. 12th Finance Commission Grants 9.tn. Swarna Jayanthi Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY) 10. J awaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission 4. There are 561 Town Panchay ats in the state which are classified into four grades. Part II Schemes 6. 20 Lakhs Selecti on Grade 245 Above Rs. at Govt. U rban Infrastructure Development Scheme for Small and Medium Towns (UIDSSMT) 3. 8 Lakhs Grade II 32 Above Rs. The Town Panchayats were conferred with individu al administrative powers and unique functional characters have been in existence for over a century.Rengasamy – Madurai Institute of Social Sciences – Introduction to Town Planning To get more details visit: http://www. Junior As sistant. Human Resources Development 7 . The Town Panchayats adopt well devised accounting and audit ing procedures and the service delivery to the public has been better. Tourist Spots. Bill Collector. 4 Lakhs Total 561 Town Panchayats Administration Executive Officer is the Ex ecutive authority of the Town Panchayat. District Municipalities Act The Town Panchayats are gov erned by Tamil Nadu District Municipalities Act 1920. Supply of Computers and Soft wares 11. which was planned as a transitional body betwee n Rural and Urban Local Bodies. 16 Lakhs Grade I 221 Above Rs. Typist for the maintenance of records. This has necessitated special attention to the civic needs of the Town Panchayats. He is assisted by Head Clerk. Infrastructure gap filling fund 7.in/dtp/ Tamil Nadu is the first State to have introduced a classification in the status of local bodies as ‘Town Panchayat’. Collection of ta xes.gov. level. Solid Waste Management 8. Integrated Housing and Slum De velopment Programme (IHSDP) & Basic Service 5. Pilgrim Centers and Commerc ial/Industrial towns.

Trichy Corporation 6. Urbanization.00 . under the Tamil Nadu Municipalities (Norms for Classific ation of Municipalities) Rules2008.. Tirunelveli Corporation 7.00 29 Grade I I Below 4. primarily through net r ural to urban migration. The passage from a predominantly rural to a predominantly urban society. Statistically.00 20 Selection Grade 6.00 29 Grade I 4. The level of urbanization is the percentage of the tota l population living in towns and cities while the rate of urbanization is the ra te at which it grows.Rengasamy – Madurai Institute of Social Sciences – Introduction to Town Planning Municipal / Urban Administration in Tamilnadu The Municipalities in Tamilnadu are classified into five grades based on the ann ual income /population.Thoothukudi Corporation SOME DEFINITIONS Urban.10. The current status of the ULBs is given in the table Grade Annual Income (Rs. 8 .S. In No. Coimbatore Corpo ration 4. Tiruppur Corporation 9. The urban transition. Urban growth. measured either in relative or absolute terms.6.00 21 Grade III Population exceeding 30000 49 Total 148 Municipal Corp orations in TN 1.00 . Erode Corporation 8. Madurai Corporation 3. Settlements or localities defined as “urban” by national sta tistical agencies. Natural in crease. urbanization reflects an increasing proportion o f the population living in settlements defined as urban. Salem Corporation 5. The increase in the number of people who liv e in towns and cities. The process of transition from a rural to a mor e urban society. Chennai Corporation 2. The difference between the number of births and number of deaths in a gi ven population. Vellore Corporation 10.. of crores) Municipalities Special Gra de Above 10.

city / town planning is the integration of the discipl ines of land use planning and transport planning. The basic framework outlining the met hodology for preparation of CDPs is given in The CDP is therefore the crucial li nk that weaves together the three basic elements of the mission .Col umbia Encyclopedia Urban.namely integra ted development of infrastructure. Town pl anning includes village planning.Rengasamy – Madurai Institute of Social Sciences – Introduction to Town Planning TOWN PLANNING EXPLANATIONS: Town Planning . Schools may be located in tot al disregard of the population which uses that school 4. The new emerging concept of City Development Pla n (CDP) is an action plan for equitable growth in a city. into an integrated whole. 9 . It may also be used by the city to promote itself to potential investors. The quality of the CDP. In its actual practice town planning may seem to take away the land of somebody. developed and sustaine d through public participation to improve the quality of life for all citizens. to explore a very wide range o f aspects of the built and social environments of urbanized municipalities and c ommunities. ‘A City Development Plan (CDP) is both a perspective and a vision for the future d evelopment of a city. If town planning is not there 1. urban planning suddenly seems complicated .Wikipedia Town planning means determining and drawing up plans fo r the future physical arrangement and condition of a community Town planning mea ns the physical.Definitions City planning is a process of planning for the improvement of urban centers in o rder to provide healthy and safe living conditions. This wider aspect is ig nored and town planning became synonymous with plan for streets. Houses may be constructed and occupied even before wa ter supply and drainage facilities are provided 3. when one thinks about all the elements tha t make up a town. adequate public facilities. It presents the current stage of the city’s development – wher e is the city now? It sets out the directions of change – where does the city want to go? It identifies the thrust areas — what does the city need to address on a p riority basis? It also suggests alternative routes. town planning. However. It encompasses many diffe rent disciplines and brings them all under a single umbrella. houses and civi c amenities. and intervention s for bringing about the change – what interventions should be made in order to at tain the vision? It provides a framework and vision within which projects need t o be identified and implemented. city planning. The simplest defin ition of urban planning is that it is the organization of all elements of a town or other urban environment. It lays the foundation from which would follow DPRs not only for the mission period but also for the near future (say next decade or so). It establishes a logical and consistent framewo rk for evaluation of investment decisions. deprive somebody of building a house.S. strategies. at a less d etailed level. Planning that also includes outlying communities and highways is termed regional planning.and it is. Regional planning deals with a still larger environment. or place restrictions on the number of storey to built etc. basic services for the poor and adoption of u rban sector reforms. efficient transport and comm unication. Roads may be widened wi thout long lasting effect. regional planning and national physical planning. social and economic planning of an urban environment (such as a town) Urban planning is a mixture of science and art. metropolitan pla nning. is one of the most i mperative links on which the success of the mission would depend. Industries may spring up with less regard to social convenience and before roads are built 2. and aesthetic surroundings. therefore.

Socially successful planning tends to make people’s life happier. 2. aesthetic. facilities and services with a view to securing the physical. the pla nning profession must increasingly deal with urbanization issues. Lack of common facilities like transport ation system. the social characteristics of migrant popula tion tend to be incompatible with urban ways of life. but also: 1. 2.Addressing transportation and infrastructure. Development of transportation related infrastructure.. 5. Because of the low economic level of the migran t labour. Because of t he low literacy and economic level. 3. housing. Maintenance and use of natural resources and habitats. Lack of strong and wide economic space. because it results in physical environment which is conducive to health. Managing c ultural and heritage resources. Planning social and community services. It increases wealth. water supply. healthy. such as: 1. most of them being overgrown villages at present with a sizeable percentage of working force engaged in agriculture. 1. 3. creation of slums in urban areas. facili tates social intercourse and gives visual attractiveness 2. Agglomeration in large size towns of both industr y and other work opportunities thus attracting larger population movements towar ds them. Not only do planners deal w ith land use. 4. Obstacles identified in the optimum development of urban centers: 1. 10   . generally unskilled. High percen tage of undeveloped or vacant land within the corporate limit. Uncontrolled peripheral development. 3. 6. 3. 2.S. sanitation and adequate open spaces etc. 4. Canada s populati on is growing and. 4. and orderly disposition of land.. High cost of land and development further aggravated by the speculative elem ent.Ensuring environmental protection. by efficiently arranging communication routes to carry out human activities in a more efficient and less wasteful manner through proper spatial arrangement. resources. co mpeting and deleterious use of land. Other obstacles noted: 1. 2. 4. with more people migrating from rural to urban areas. Creating economic capacity in local communiti es.Rengasamy – Madurai Institute of Social Sciences – Introduction to Town Planning Planning Is. Social and economic aims t own planning. Lack of incentives and resources for small towns to develop. economic and social efficiency. Unbalanced. Responsible planning has always been vital to the s ustainability of safe. and secure urban environments. Co nversion of land from natural habitats to urban built areas. Planning defined: "Planning" means the scientific. health and well-being of urban and rural communities.

provide developme nt opportunities and resources to small businesses. retail businesses. efficient and attractive environments . cultural institutions. local government. Because drinking water is so crucial. preserve and pr omote local arts and creative industries in order to sustain a city s cultural v itality. and nurture. Either way. the point where rivers descend from the regions of old er. The economic environment: All cities work hard to support the retention and expansion of existing local businesses. new cities or planned communities -. The rapids th at often form at the fall line mark ideal locations for towns and villages to ev olve. universi ties. the social environment can be a risk factor for disease and mortality as much as individual risk facto rs. private companies and n onprofit organizations. federal labs. and departments of tourism all play strong roles in a city s economy. Before they ever put pen to paper. the neighborhoods in which they live. but some help develop commun ities -. incl uding exposure to hurricanes. As a result. urban planners must do a great deal of research and analysis to fully understand how the physical. equitable. more than 60 percent of households aren t connected to water [source : United Nations Human Settlements Program]. For example. many cities are founded at the head of a r iver or at the fall line. such as manufact uring as well as research and development companies. more than 50 percent of the population of Mumbai an d New Delhi (cities in India) live in slums. water and sewer 11           . foster innovation and competitiveness. they study: * The current use of land for residential. harder rocks toward the softer sediments of the coastal plain. The social environment: The social environment inc ludes the groups to which a city s residents belong. and the policies created to impos e order. They also face certain challenges. urban planners must consider three key aspects of a city as they map out their programs: The physical environment: A city s physical environment inc ludes its location. social and economic aspects of a city interact. social or economic b arriers. One of the biggest issues in most cities is the inequitable distributio n of resources.Rengasamy – Madurai Institute of Social Sciences – Introduction to Town Planning Basics of Urban Planning Urban Planning Basics The goal of planning is to guide the development of a city or town so that it furthers the welfare of its current and future residents by creating convenient.known as new towns. Coastal cities. Planners work with local authorities to make sure residents are not excluded from the benefits of urbanization as a result of physical. healthful.S. Coastal cities also have a great advantage in that their accessibility pos itions them to become important trading centers. highways. airports.from scratch. The programs of an urban plan ner should encourage partnerships among public agencies. Primary employers. while in Lagos and Nairobi (cities in Africa). the organization of its workplaces. business and community purposes * The locations and ca pacity of streets. its climate and its proximity to sources of food and water. Most urban planners work in existing communities. enjoy certain a dvantages by having access to the ocean. As you can imagine.

a stark contrast to Mexico City s 383. wa ste disposal and sewerage and sanitation problems.4 million). Keeping the se projections in mind. Characteristics of successful Town Planning. Promotion of accessibility Employme nt of resources as economically as possible The separation of incompatible land uses from each other and association of compatible or mutually helpful uses. Surprisingly. frequent floods. similar to London and Shanghai. Bangalore s 19. and Shanghai (18.7 million.S. and h igh traffic congestion. In its peak density area.9 million. Looking at the brighter side of life. or bemoan. pollution. agricultural land and even beaches.340.8 million to 18. 2007 and 2020 (projected). loss of wetlands. With 1. The gr eater half includes a national park and open areas.6 per cent takes their car.5 million to 14. inadequate infrastructure and pollution. Indian cities have relatively low murder rates.454.5 million by 2020. Mumbai can boast. Mumbai has bal looned from 2. so as to secure the maximum practic able degree of economy. flooding a nd critical housing issues.7 million).421 cars per kilometer.more than any other of the nine cities globally included in this study.7 million and Kolkata from 4. convenience and beauty. Kolkata s car density beats even than of Berlin. traffic congestion and "sig nificant ecological degradation". Kolkata (18.9 million at present and is estimated to touch 9. Some believ e it could cross Tokyo as the most populated city globally. as against Kol kata s 24. Delhi s problems are said to arise from a rapid popu lation growth and large unplanned urbanization. less th an half of Greater Mumbai is covered by built-up land and infrastructure. Bangalore s growth moved from . loss of its tree cover. followed by Mexico City (22. as she houses 12 million inhabitants in an area half the size of Berlin.Rengasamy – Madurai Institute of Social Sciences – Introduction to Town Planning Meaning and Components of Town Planning.3 million).9 million and will touch 23. Yet. 14.000 residents. 21. around 55. add stretched-out infrastructure. Compounding Greater Mumbai s extremely high population is traffic congestion. Coming to city commutation.5 percent Mumbaite s walk. and only 1. traffic congestion. The Garden City Bangalore ails from rapid urbanization. two-wheelers and cycles are used by onl y a small number of people.1 million). Urban Facts The year 2007 marks the first time in the history of mankind when the number of people residing in cities has overtaken those staying in villages. Someone living in Mumbai has a life expectancy of 68. Town and country planning might be desc ribed as the art and science of ordering the use of land and the character and s iting of buildings and communication routes.9 percent go by train. growing slums. coastal wetlands. Between 1950. mangroves. India s 300 m illion city dwellers contribute a significant one-tenth of the world s urban pop ulation.4 million to 16. either to the mselves or to the neighborhood— This neighborliness recognizes the need for planni ng legislation. Rickshaw and taxi.348 people packed in each square kilometer.066 people packed in a single square kilometer . New York (20.2 years in London or 75. Besides this.6 million to reach 23. Kolkata s bowl of woes includes the loss of ci ty wetlands. Mumbai has the lowest level of car own ership with 29 cars per 1. unaffordable housing.9 years in Mexico City.7 million to 6 . Car rying out of all developments in a visually pleasant and practical manner The pr incipal of good neighborliness—the right to do what they like with their property subject to the limitation that their action should not be harmful.4 percent opt for the bus. 12                             .1 years as against 79.8 million and 18.040 and Delhi s 9. Mumbai and Delhi would be among the most populous in the world by 2020. Delhi has zoomed fro m 1. Kolkata and Bangalore have the highest number of cars per kilometer among Indian cities. 101. Some facts garnered from the study by Urban Age were that Greater Mumba i has a density of 27. Population growth in India s urban areas ha s been no less dramatic.

Urban Plan ning Control within the city Urban planning refers to those activities by which a metropolis systematically undertakes to control its spatial functional pattern Growth of a City 300 years before 150 years before Today 13 .S.Rengasamy – Madurai Institute of Social Sciences – Introduction to Town Planning In the beginning civic designs through planning provided colour and texture of t he fabric of environment. such planning has given place to building codes and legislative measures to assemble diffused ownership as a unified whole amenable for development/redevelopment At macro level—a tool for appropriate assembly of land as optimal planning units Civi c design At micro level—detailed design of the buildings as well as their spatial relationship Good neighborliness and civic design form the warp and resource all ocation the weft of the fabric of planning. Planning legislation will then the l oom on which the fabric is woven and the administration the salesman. With the gradual diffusion of ownership of land.

T raditional political boundaries make difficult. Anticipation of future cha nge: Emergence of real estate mafias and increasing the land value not affordabl e for the poor and middle class 14 . Heritage of past construction. In a deteriorated urban neighborhood.g. Such sub dividing activity distorts local land values and interferes with ordin ary urban growth.Rengasamy – Madurai Institute of Social Sciences – Introduction to Town Planning Background factors and problems in Town Planning Some important factors that com plicate the tasks of planning for a metropolis are discussed under 5 headings In dividual control of small parcels of urban land. stores. Some parts of the city provide bet ter amenities than other eg. Arbitrary political boundaries. Narrow streets were enough for horse and buggy days.S. and private citizens own parts of land area. Irregularity of environmental sites. Ready to do the same 3. (So municipal regulation is necessary to control this) 2. the control of haphazard urban g rowth in the unincorporated fringe area of the metropolis. Irregularity of th e environmental site: Every urban site has its own unique features Underlying so il and terrain conditions has different advantages and disadvantages for various kinds of buildings. A owner may build a store or factory in an residential area thereby decreasi ng the value of nearby houses.e. Land to water vice versa. buildings). Anticipatio n of future change 1. remodeli ng of old houses or to build a new one depends upon the neighbors willingness ie . 5. Arbitrary political boundaries. 2. Unfortunately. widening of the narrow streets So the urban planners leave this condition as it is and effect changes slowly. Private ownership (i. An adequate urban plan covers not only the built up area of the city but also such parts of the unoccupied hinterland as need to be controlled in order to secure both orderly future growth of the me tropolis and reasonable protection of its residences. Breaks transportation eg. stores and residences. Lack of control over the p eripheral land may result in During a real estate boom. Private Citizen s own 55% & govt. A owner who owns single strategic plot may either bloc k a development effort or may delay it by demanding a price considerably higher than the ordinary market value. private owners in variou s sub divisions may break up tracts of farm land into town sized building plots. owns about 45% of the urban land (i. Transporta tion in turn influences the location of factories. Topography affects the routes of transportation. may later surrounded by cheaply constructed homes or hedged in by objectionable factories and other buildings. Cost factor inhibits remodeling of th e built up area e. Eg. Residences. 3. Factories once properly located finds themselves surrounded by residences. recreation) Why municipal legislation is necessary to control the undesirable consequences of private ownership of small parcels of urban land 1. parks. pl ay grounds & govt. public—streets. the heritage of the past does not always satisfy con temporary needs. Cannot handle the huge volume of today’s motor traffic. 4. facto ries. Heritage of past construct ion: Town planning activity may be limited or modified by the heritage of past c onstruction. Houses built in unzoned area. Beach—exceptional view. Individual control of small parcels of urban land: Within the city both govt. commercial.e.

Land use patter n as emphasized by economists. Transportation and safety as stressed by the engineers 3. City beautification as emphasized by the architec ts. geographers and human ecologists.S. The proper location for each type of functional area. 2.Public facilities 39 % 2% 6% 5% 34 % 6% 8% 27-59 % 01-04 % 03-11 % 03. The p ercentage of total occupied space that should be apportioned to each types and g rade of utilization. ultiple:1%) Average Stores & other commercial Utilization Industry Rail roads Streets Parks & play g rounds Other public and semi. It offers a broad picture of the projected spatial pattern.08 % 21-59 % 01-19 % 01-15% **The percentage may vary according to the function performed by the city 15 . General land us e pattern. The various types of utilization that requires distinctive sub areas. Three asp ects of the master plan are:1. Planning for effective land use within the city involves decisions ab out. (Bartholeama study) Occupied urban space was split among various functions as follows Residences (Single family: 36%. Wholesale Stores Retail Storage and switching facility Light Factorie s Private land use Heavy Nuisance Low Residences Medium High Public Land Use Parks Playgrounds Civic centers Roads Percentage of land use.. Two family: 2%.Rengasamy – Madurai Institute of Social Sciences – Introduction to Town Planning Methods of Town Planning: Major aspects of the master plan: The master plan deals with the natural city as a whole.

How much additional vacant space will be needed for residences and where? 5. To provide heavy transportation services to industries 4. To prepare for the expansion and migration of industries withi n the city it self Commercial location What? –Major shopping and luxury goods. Sho pping goods and convenience goods. 16 . thereby The total cost of moving men and material from place to pl ace is minimized. parks.S.Rengasamy – Madurai Institute of Social Sciences – Introduction to Town Planning Percentage of land utilized by various functions exhibited considerable regulari ty and that suggests that urban planners may employ them as rough guidelines in apportioning percentages urban land to various categories of utilization An ideal master plan places every sub area of a city in a location so related to every other. 1. Clustering of independent industries 3. What changes should be made in the number and size of commercial areas? 3. public and semi public places? Contrasting Urban Scenario Industrial location Where –near the central business district? Along lines of tran sportation? At periphery or near by hinterland? Care has to be taken to 1. 2. Preve nt loss of property values by wrongly intermixing industries and residences. What provisions should be mad e in various areas for playgrounds. What existing res idential areas should be altered in type or grade? 4. Even though a planner must begin with the existing pattern. Parking facility Commercial areas for each re sidential area. Safety and beauty are maximized. Constructive social contracts are streamlined. What additional ind ustrial sites will be required and where should they be located? 2. he has numerous divisions to make regarding future changes.

Urban planning then was syno nymous with the physical development of the urban centers. The other functions performed by these locations should be taken care of. Worship and Recreation. ie. It also includes giving pre sent and future generation a chance of satisfying living. **The initial period o f planning was cast within the concept of “city beautiful” syndrome largely arising out of the concerns of the professional architects.Rengasamy – Madurai Institute of Social Sciences – Introduction to Town Planning Residential location. Federal Buildings Architecture State Buildings Parks Slum Elimination Preplanned peripheral areas Modification of built up area Urban planning education. **As the urban societies grew more complex. Radio & TV Local streets Water pipes Facilities which link various parts Sewers of the city Telephone & power lines Rail lines Types: Multi purpose main highways High speed expressways By-pass routes Streets Neighborhood streets Scenic parkways Th ree aspects of effective street use. so that men and materials can move with greater safet y and at less cost Railroads . Education. Bus line Facilities which link city with Truck li ne hinterland and foreign areas Private vehicles Air lines Wire. Special high & speed express ways and by-pass routes. Traffic counts and calculation of street re quirement Elimination of bottle necks and dangerous intersections. Streets and transportatio n facilities. Cables. the respon sibilities of urban planners whose task is to guide the changing urban area.S. The major function of urban transportation is that of connecting o ne area with another area. 17 . bec omes ominous. **The urban planner’s task is not confined to only “preparing and carr ying out a plan for the use and development of land. City Beautification.

3. the height and bulk of the buildings. purpose Water Supply & Sewerage Boards Acts. proportion of a lot which buildings may co ver. Traditional role of physical development.--------------------. **Three major orientations in urban planning – 1 . Improve Trusts Act.for some Housing Board Acts. Urban (Master) Plans. Development Authority Act. They graft plans after wide public discussion. District Collector –Chairmen Re gional Deputy Director of Town and Country Planning. particularly the poor. **There is a growing school of thought in the west that vi ews the structure of the city including its land use and activity patterns. Analyst role of understanding the complex socio-economic urban system. provisions to prepare hierarchy of development plans at three different levels. activity. Town Planning i n Tamilnadu. 2. Municipal Acts.Rengasamy – Madurai Institute of Social Sciences – Introduction to Town Planning **Urban planning profession gained legitimacy through various statutory provisio ns concerning the preparation of master plans and the institutionalization plann ing as a govt. Tamilnadu Town and Country Planning Act. The answer is “Yes”. Local (Detailed Development ) Plans Tamilnadu is divided in to eight panning regions-ie. and the diversity of the population of the given area.--------------. Planning in this framework is conside red “as a historically specific and socially necessary response to the self disorg anizing tendencies of privatized capitalist. Poll ution Acts.—Member Secretary.special Peripheral / R ibbon Development Control Act. Regional planning areas.-------------------------------. deals primarily with use and development of priva tely owned land and buildings rather than with public land buildings and facilit ies. Zoning. Zoning is the division of community in to different zones or districts according to present and potential use of pro perties for the purpose of controlling and directing the use and development of these properties. Legislative frame work for urban planning: Whe ther state legislations are competent to make a town planning law? (Maneklal & M akwana ). It is concerned primarily with the use of land and buildings. 18 . Regional plans. social and the property relations a s they appear in the urban space. The famous triad of beauty. Zoning is an instrum ent of of plan implementation.1971. Advocate role of working with and for t he people. health and convenience defi ned the planner’s task. Array of legislations relating to town planning & dev elopment.acts created Slum Clearance and Authority Act. Urban Arts Commission Acts. as t he result of capital in pursuit of profit.S. Urban Land Ceiling Acts.

There has bee n little or no increase in their revenue base. The percentage decadal growth of popu lation in rural and urban areas during the decade is 17. The experience indicates that the first and foremost priority should be to strengthen the local bodies and improv e their performances that have the primary responsibility to provide urban servi ces. pollution.9 and 31. economic liberalization and devolution of power to local bodie s. As a result. thus ensuring continuity of local represe ntatives. The net additi on of population in rural areas during 1991-2001 has been to the tune of 113 mil lion while in urban areas it is 6 million. let alone augment them. ec onomic and social development. lack of periodical re vision of municipal tax rates / user charges.Rengasamy – Madurai Institute of Social Sciences – Introduction to Town Planning CHALLENGES IN URBAN PLANNING FOR LOCAL BODIES IN INDIA In India out of the total population of 1027 million as on 1st March. user charges continue to be low o r non-existent.2 percent respe ctively. ULBs are becoming increasingly dependent on the higher levels of government for their operation and maintenance requirements. there is a clear n eed to strengthen the Urban Local Bodies and endowing them with the finances. the planners have to perform the role of the catalysts of change. Many ULBs have acc umulated ‘large’ debts and face serious problems in servicing them. From a "top down” approach. In the context of decentralizati on of power from Central / State Governments to local levels. co mmensurate with their assigned responsibility. Metropolitan Planning Committees and Distri ct Planning Committees for consolidation and preparation of plans of spatial. The Constituti onal Amendment Act 74 The CAA74 mandates compulsory reconstitution of municipal bodies within a stipulated time frame. and poor information system and re cords management are some of the basic weaknesses in the present municipal admin istration. po verty and social unrest making urban governance a difficult task. gone are the days of armchair professionals. most urban settlements are characterized by shortfalls in housing and water supply. As a bridge between the civil society and the politico-economic structure. Importantly the CAA74 expressly recognizes a role for the ULBs within the constitutional framework and provides for devolution of fina ncial powers from the state government for strengthening of municipal finances. Problems of Urban Local Bodies [ULBs] Urban Local Bodies [ULBs] which are s tatutorily responsible for provision and maintenance of basic infrastructure and services in cities and towns are under fiscal stress. Other problems R estriction to a small resource base poor planning process. The twelfth schedule of the CAA74 has listed 18 functions and responsi bilities to local bodies. 19 . traffic congestion. 2001. abou t 742 million live in rural areas and 285 million in urban areas. inadequate sewerage. the emphasis has thus s hifted to the" bottom up" approach.S. In view of the challenges facing by ULBs the planners have to prepare themselves for a new role and much wider responsibilit ies. To even operate and maint ain existing services. With the ongoi ng globalization. would be difficult. The CAA74 also provides for constitution of Ward Committees in municipalities wi th a population of more than 3 lakh.

planners have mastered it. • Te sted in law courts: It is tested in law courts. • Win-win proposition: The process has been a “win-win” proposition for both th e landowners and the planning agencies—both gain from the appreciation in the land values • Transparent: The process is transparent: it is very clearly described in legislation. These need to be supported by preparing manuals and guidelines. In view of changes in technology. becomes difficult and development occurs before the provis ion of infrastructure in some instances. Limitations of Town Planning Despite t he TPS mechanism being well articulated and widely accepted. • Disconnect with the city bud geting process: At the moment. the proposals are reviewed at several stages that are formally prescribed in th e act. there is no clear linkage of the DPs and TPS with the city budgeting process. as all owners loose the same proportion of land. renewal of area s. usually very close to the original land parcel. • Respects p roperty rights and is non-disruptive: The process respects property rights and i s nondisruptive. The State Government is respo nsible for undertaking both substantial reviews and procedural reviews of each a nd every DP (there are about 150 urban areas) and for innumerable TPSs. and since then the legislati on has been continuously improved to make the process more responsive to the cha nging context of development. which result in the growth not being managed in time. the landowners are not thrown off their lands and are given a b etter-shaped land parcel. with a built-in mechanism for dispute resolution—the land owners are involved in the process of planning and have ample opportunity to pre sent their views on the proposals and place on record their objections. There ar e no limits on the time it takes for this and there is a tremendous amount of co rruption that takes place at this stage. • Democratic and participatory: The process is democ ratic and participatory. These time frames were determined when computerization was nonexistent. Most local authorities or development authorities do not ev en have a comprehensive list of all such land assets created. and the planning agency and development authority is not re quired to make huge investments up-front. • Inadequate attention to substantial issues: Substant ial issues are dealt with in an inadequate manner. and there was virtually no private sector i n place to assist the public sector. the timel ines can be easily reduced. The TPSs thus take far too long to prepare and implement. a portion of land is appropriated for accommodating urban poor. and people understand and accept it. although possible. • Making development pay for t he cost of infrastructure: The cost of infrastructure is in a sense paid for by the owners directly. • Equitable an d inclusive development: The process facilitates equitable and inclusive develop ment. there are a few sho rtcomings. it has been challenged in law co urts and has withstood the challenges successfully. communi cation technologies were cumbersome. Inadequate capacities in terms of lack of staff and qualified planners add to the problem.Rengasamy – Madurai Institute of Social Sciences – Introduction to Town Planning The rationale to use Town Planning: Advantages • Long history: The process has a l ong history—it was introduced in 1915 by legislation. The State Government actually takes much longer to appro ve the various stages. • Fair: Th e process is fair. The following are a few of the limitati ons: • Lengthy time frames: The timelines proposed in the regulatory framework-fou r years—are far too long. • Centralized proces ses: The processes are far too centralized—too much power is vested in the State G overnment to approve and sanction the DPs and TPS. • No asset management framework is in place: Th e significant land assets generated by the local authority are not managed in an appropriate manner. 20 . • Non-co ercive and non-authoritarian: The process is non-coercive and non-authoritarian.S.

The present manner in which land va luation is done needs to be overhauled and made more systematic and rational so that it is realistic and in sync with the market prices. be it in terms of the road network o r responding to special site features. land valuat ion is dictated by the concern to match the revenue in the form of betterment ch arges to the expenditure incurred by the Development Authority to develop the in frastructure and compensation. 21 . very accurate cadastral maps and landownership d etails are developed. the first task is to prepare a base m ap. the task of preparation of DPs has been restricted to land us e zoning and the arterial road network structure. As a consequence. • TPS as a tool to introduce innovative planning co ncepts: Until now. Further. At present. and not enough at tention has been paid to planning concerns. the manner in which the land for public uses is appropriated is hig hly fragmented. there is no systematic asset management framework in place. the technical capacities of the town planning staff are severel y constrained. This wil l considerably reinvigorate the urban planning system that is so critically requ ired at this stage to transform Indian cities. This has happened partly because this potential has never been demonstrated and partly because. • TPS as an infrastructure financin g tool: Although several TPSs have been done and a land bank is being built up w ith the planning authorities. The TPS tool offers and opportunity to consolidate public lands. While a DP is prepared. Three dimensional aspects are not address ed. When the TPSs are prepared. The TPSs have until now been t reated as mechanical exercises in reconstituting land parcels. valuable land parcels created are not efficiently le veraged to finance infrastructure in cities.S. • TPS as a tool to build accurate maps and land records for the cit y: No city in India does have an accurate surveyed map of the city after 60 year s of independence.Rengasamy – Madurai Institute of Social Sciences – Introduction to Town Planning Potentials of Town Planning The TPS has tremendous potential that needs to be de monstrated effectively to the planners practicing in the public sector.

cremation grounds a nd electric crematoriums. Promotion of cultural. Urban forestry. Health and sanitation. Markets and fairs. Technical training a nd vocational education. 14. Land improvement. 9. 21. 19. 10. 6. 1 1. 15. culverts. Khadi. protection of the environment and promotion of ecologica l aspects. 16. 13. Water supply for domestic. 29. Small scale industries. 17. bus stops and public conveniences . Minor irri gation. 9. 3. 4. including primary and secondary schools. 10. Adult and non-formal education. 17.S. including food processing industries. impl ementation land reforms. Agriculture. Public health. 5. Family welfare. 6. Wom en and child development. primary health centers and dispensaries. 25. Fisheries. and in particular. Public amen ities including street lighting. 24. Non-conventional energy sources. playgrounds. land consolidation and soil conservation. Cattle pounds. 14. sanitation conservancy and solid waste management. Provision of urban amenities and facilities su ch as parks. Planning for economic and social development. Regulation of land-use and constr uction of buildings. gardens. 13. bridges. 26. Fire servi ces. 7. Urban poverty alleviation. Public distribution syste m. including agricultural extension. Animal husbandry. Urban planning including town planning. ferries. Cultural activities. 15. Education. waterways and other me ans of communication. 4. including welfare of the handicapp ed and mentally retarded. of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Minor fore st produce. 8. 20.Rengasamy – Madurai Institute of Social Sciences – Introduction to Town Planning RESPONSIBILITIES ASSIGNED TO RURAL LOCAL GOVERNMENT ELEVENTH SCHEDULE (Article 2 43G) 1. cremations. 8. 5. Burials and burial grounds. 22. 12 . Drinking water. Rural housing. 27. includin g the handicapped and mentally retarded. Social forestry and farm forestry. 28. 12. industrial and commercial purposes. Roads. 18. Slum improvement and upgradation. Maintenance of community assets. Poverty alleviation programme. Regulation of slaughter houses and tanneries. prevention of cruelty to animals. Rural electrification. 3. 2. RESPONSIBILITIES ASSIGNED URBAN LOCAL GOVERNMENT TWELFTH SCHEDULE (Article 243W) 1. 23. 2. 7. Safeguarding the interests of weaker sections of society. Fuel and fodder. Welfare of the weaker sections. 1 6. including hospitals. 11. including distribution of elect ricity. 18. educational and ae sthetic aspects. dairyin g and poultry. water management and watershed development. Vital statistics including registration of births and deaths. Roads a nd bridges. parking lots. Social welfare. village and cottage industries. 22 . Libraries.

The major criticisms of the Master Plan approach adopted in the country are as follows: 1. The functions of the Master Plan / Development plan : 1. has not been given much recognition. provides guidelines fo r the physical development of the city and guides people in locating their inves tments in the city.S. Objectives and Functions The master plan. To guide development of a city is an orderly manner so as to improve the qu ality of life of the people 2. which was perc eived to be a process rather than a conclusive statement.Rengasamy – Madurai Institute of Social Sciences – Introduction to Town Planning Issues in Urban Planning It is now being recognized that cities are the engines of growth at both regional and national level. T he urban development planning process in the past has been unduly long and has b een largely confined to the dealing of land use aspects. The efficiency of urba n settlements largely depends upon how well they are planned. and be subject to conti nual review 4. economic and political frame work for the city. The urban development planning process i n the past has been unduly long and has been largely confined to the detailing o f land use aspects. social. resource development and resource management exercise. be responsive to change and maintain its validity over time and space. and 5. Plan Prepara tion Techniques: The Master plan details out the urbanized and urbanisable areas under its jurisdiction and suggests land use up to the neighborhood level. They hav e been unrealistic and have not been accompanied by investment programs and capi tal budgets. which greatly improves the quali ty of Urban Governance also. Critique of the Master Plan Approach There is a widely held view that the Master Planning methods adopted ov er the last few decades have not produced a satisfactory physical environment. The plans have paid inadequate attention to the provision of trunk infrastructure. Planning inputs largely govern the efficiency level of human settlements. Plan per spective: The plan projects and ’end state’ scenario for 20-25 years and is not deta iled enough for short and medium-terms actions. functional and other link ages between human settlements. In short. 23 . with minute detailing. Urban planning is basically resource generatio n. how economically t hey are developed and how efficiently they are managed. cities have to provide both a high quality of life and an efficient infras tructure for economic activities. Organize and coordinate the complex relationships between urban land uses 3. The tendency to over-plan the urban environment. environmental conservation and financing issues. There is a widely held view th at the Master planning methods adopted over the last few decades have not produc ed a satisfactory physical environment. taking into account regional. Integrated urban development planning approach. Master Plan is a design for the physical. Direct the physical development of the city in relation to its so cial and economic characteristics based on comprehensive surveys and studies on the present status and the future growth prospects. To facilitate and sustain this gr owth. has resulted in lack of flexibility and has hindered individual self-expression. and spatial. 2. The Master plan Approach – Concepts. Chart a course for growth and change. Provide a resource mo bilization plan for the proposed development works. state and national strategies.

Weak information Base: Master Plan preparation is undertaken with a very weak information base especia lly on socioeconomic parameters. People’s Needs: The Master Plan does not incorporate the exact needs and priorities of the people. problem of resources are not p eriodically highlighted. Static Plan: The plan is mostly static and not amendable to quick mid-course corrections. difficulty in obtaining possession of land sought to be acqu ired for the purpose is one of the main handicaps in the speedy and successful i mplementation of the Master Plan. decision-making and implementation strategies. th is factor is not recognized in the Plan. housing and environment. generally. 16. 9. The strategies for raising resources required for plan implementation are never an integral part of the plan. Lack of Financing Plan: Estimates of financial outlay do not match the development works envisaged in the Master Plan. 13. in addition. 11. 24 . the plan more or less reflects th e values of the administrators and planners. However. ex ist for plan monitoring. in both its preparation and implemen tation. Instead of reflect ing the aspirations of the community at large. 7. 6. 15. Impractical Physica l standards: The plans prescribe impractical densities and layout high standards in an effort to improve the quality of life in a city. can afford. 14. and have been isolated from the mainstream of de velopment planning. 10. Spatial Plannin g vis-à-vis Development Planning: Urban planning in India has been totally over-sh adowed by its spatial content instead of realization of social and economic obje ctives. Private Sector Participation: Through a significa nt portion of the development is due to the initiative of the private sector. Town planning exercises have tended to concentrate on physical order and environmental quality of city. These are generally high er than what the city population. particularly the poor.S. 4. It is more top-down than a bottom-up approach. Ineffective plan Monitoring: An Institutional and information system does not. Plan Implementation: The root-cause of the urban maladies has been the divorcing of the plan preparation from plan implementation. 8. Delays: Inordinate delays in Master Plan preparation and approva l and. Growth of the City: The efficacy of the mas ter Plan is adversely effected by the divergence between the precept and practic es concerning the preparation of the Master Plan and its implementation. Regulatory mechanism: The regul atory mechanisms in the Master Plan are to enable better management of the city. development control mechanisms are observed more in breach than in com pliance. 12. Since the budgetary system does not explicitly take int o account the requirement of plan implementation. Land Poli cy and Management: The absence of machinery for systematic and continuous collec tion of data on the movement of land and tenement prices undermines the implemen tation of the master Plan. 5.Rengasamy – Madurai Institute of Social Sciences – Introduction to Town Planning 3. Inef fective Public Participation: The mechanism for public participation is ineffect ive in the process of development planning.

vi.R ole of Actors: People’s participation in preparation of policies. iii.Flexibility: Plans must have flexibility to provide for ever-growing and ever-expanding city boundaries and provide quality of life to all inhabitants. ix. development plan and annual plans should be ensured through elected representa tives in the municipal council / corporation and ward committees. can help in identifying priority areas. and the related issue of low compensation rate s. would have a higher probability of success. vii. future. also. The legal framework has to be suppo rted by an effective and efficient machinery which would see that no distortion of master plan proposals take place at the ground level. The land use package should not be allowed to be changed by any authority. the changing conditions in foreseeable. perspective plan . 25 . the location of infrastructural and environmental services could form the ‘core’ of the Development Plan.Growth Centers: Given the paucity of resources.Mixed Land Use: With a view to provide for development. the ULBs should adopt collaborative approaches within the existing legal fram ework. x.Land Policy and Management: As opposed to the proces s of compulsory land acquisition. v. subsequent modifications in the plans and administration.Policy Guidelines: Policy guidelines notified under la w. the zoning regulations need to be simplified.Informatio n system: A well maintained information system can make possible the fine-tuning of the plan proposals at the various stages of implementation of the plan accor ding to the changing urban scenario. There is the need to l ink spatial development plan with resource mobilization plan focusing on credit enhancement mechanisms. except as a part of the re view of the Development Plan at the city / town level. sewerage and sanitation throughout the city. viii.Financial Planning: Land development and infrastructure investment need to be coordinated through in tegration of physical.S. A profile of the development potential and the possibility of optimizing the existing infrastructure should determine the prioritization of development of t hese areas. it would be more f easible and desirable to promote strategic development initiatives in the select ed secondary cities. xi. In the growth centers.Needs of the informal sector: The plan must provide for and cater to the needs of the informal sector so as to make them as an integral part of the c ity development process. ii.Rengasamy – Madurai Institute of Social Sciences – Introduction to Town Planning For a more dynamic urban planning exercise. iv. in general.Services and Environment: City plans which provide fo r up-gradation of the services for greater equity in the availability of water. xii. growth center and their hinterlands. the following modifications in the p lanning approach are recommended: i.Urbanisable Areas: The development poten tial may be assessed for the areas located in the periphery of the developed are as. financial and investment planning.Legal Framework: Plan implementation would call for a legal framework so as to make it enforceable and mandatory. The plan should be flexible to respond not only to t he present needs but.

Adequate p rovision for parking facilities should be made. The ULBs and the town planning departments should work under th e same state department for better coordination. scope and contents of various plans. However. managerial and financial capacities of the ULBs need to be strengthened. The perspective pl an could also be approved by the state Government through Directorate of Town Pl anning.Rengasamy – Madurai Institute of Social Sciences – Introduction to Town Planning xiii. in consultation with the Director of Town planning departments. A computer-generated data base and information system in GIS environment should be developed at various levels whic h would provide support to planners in development planning. technical. xiv.Database at Metropolitan.Standards: Plot sizes. layout and social overheads need to be designed to r educe costs aligned to the affordability of different income groups and also the sale price for lower income groups can be reduced by differential pricing. dis trict and state levels: The planning exercise need continuous data collection. a nalysis interpretation and updating of data.Strengthening Planning Mechanism and Institution: The Town and Coun try planning acts need to be modified to enable the formulation of inter-elated plans by specifying the definition. The adm inistrative. The approval authority of Development plans should be the ULB. the existing bye-laws need to be simplifi ed and transparent.S. The cost recovery procedures an d revenue collection methods of ULBs need to be strengthened 26 . and there should not be an aliment of discretion. Building Bye-laws: Building bye laws and zoning regulations for the city / town should match the local needs. xv. xvii.Simplification of measure and Procedures: The preparation of Development plans should be comple ted within a period of 12 months and should be approved within 3 months after th e plan approval and the total period for preparation and approval should not exc eed 18 months. xvi.

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