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HOME WORK 1

ON
COMPUTER NETWORKS

Class: M.C.A SECTION: D3002


Course Code: CAP

Submitted To: Submitted by


AVINISH BHAGAT DUSHYANT
SINGH
Roll no B55
11005981
Grp 2
Q1. Public city network work across the different LAN’S network explains
with the help of the diagram?
Answer:
Having a well managed Computer Network Diagram of your networking
infrastructure where you are responsible with, is a must for documentation. It is not just
for documentation purposes, you can use this LAN Network Diagram to make risk
security assessment or create a critical assets register.

Unfortunately not all the network administrators develop their LAN network
diagram particularly for small business or SOHO. But for medium-sized to enterprise
class organizations, having a complete Computer network diagram is a must. Besides as
documentation purposes, Computer network diagram can help you as the network
administrators maintain and troubleshoot the networking problem and network
management.

In the computer network diagram, all the networking devices should be


identified by the IP address. If we are talking about the IP address, we should make a
clear distinction in our LAN network diagram between the public IP address and the
private IP address. The private address must be hidden from the public network (the
Internet) by a NAT mechanism configured in the firewall. Typically a firewall is a barrier
or a border line between the trusted-network (our private – internal network) and the un-
trusted network (the internet). Therefore the firewall must be a secured system. See
also guidelines in firewalls security and the IP address classes.

Generally computer network diagram can be shown in the following figure. The
LAN network diagram can be divided by two different networks: the private network
(which is behind the firewall) and the public network (the internet). The networking
devices that sit in the public network typically consist of the CSU/DSU (which connect
direct to the local loop of the Telco central office), a networking perimeter router (as the
first line of defense against the internet threats), and the firewall. Typically in home
usage, the manufacturers ship the three devices into a single all-in-one product
particularly for broadband internet connection such as SURF board SBG900 by
Motorola. But many products ship with the function of the wireless router and the firewall
separate from the modem such as WRT610N wireless router or Netgear wireless router.
In home usage, the wireless router typically has one WAN port (that connects direct to
the LAN port of the modem with public IP address assignment) and 4 LAN ports with
private address.

Q2. How the repeaters extend the length of the network, explain with the help of an diagram.
Answer:
Definition: Network repeaters regenerate incoming electrical, wireless or optical signals. With
physical media like Ethernet or Wi-Fi, data transmissions can only span a limited distance before the
quality of the signal degrades. Repeaters attempt to preserve signal integrity and extend the distance
over which data can safely travel.
Actual network devices that serve as repeaters usually have some other name. Active hubs, for
example, are repeaters. Active hubs are sometimes also called "multiport repeaters," but more
commonly they are just "hubs." Other types of "passive hubs" are not repeaters. In Wi-Fi, access
points function as repeaters only when operating in so-called "repeater mode."

 Purpose of a Repeater
A Repeater is used to extend the distance covered by a network or to add more
stations to the network. It overcomes limits on the length of a network or the
number of stations imposed by electrical characteristics. A single network can
be expanded, or small networks can be joined by adding Repeaters. When
networks are expanded or joined, each of the smaller networks becomes a
Segment of the larger network. Each segment has the same limits on length and
number of stations as a single network without a Repeater.
Fiber Optic Repeaters work in pairs. One Repeater picks up a signal from a
Carrier–band network segment, processes the signal and sends it out over the
Fiber Optic segment. The other Repeater picks up the fiber optic signal,
processes it and sends it out over the other Carrier–band network segment.

Fiber optic repeaters are useful for several reasons: They can span long distances.
Since fiber optics do not conduct electricity, the fiber optic repeaters eliminate ground
current problems, are immune to lightning strikes, and do not pick up noise.
Two types of Fiber Optic Repeaters are described in this manual:
1. The CBR–2 is intended for applications where the fiber optic segment is less
than 2 km in length or a passive star coupler is used with few ports and very
short spurs.

2. The CBR–3 is intended for applications where the fiber optic segment is
up to 8 km in length or a passive star coupler is used with many ports or
long spurs.
This manual applies to both types of Repeaters. The difference
between the CBR–2 and CBR–3 Repeaters is in the wavelength (color) of
the light transmitted and is described in the Specifications section.

 How the Repeater Works:=>


The Fiber Optic Repeaters are intended to work with the Carrier–band network as
defined in the IEEE 802.4 and the equivalent ISO 8802/4 standards. The Carrier–
band network operation is described in Relcom’s Carrier–band Network Handbook.
Fiber optic operation is described in Relcom’s Guide to Industrial Fiber Optics.
Two Fiber Optic Repeaters are needed to connect Carrier–band network
segments. The connection to the Carrier–band network segment is through the
F–connector labeled A. Each Repeater has an XMIT (Transmit) and a REC
(Receive) fiber optic connector. The fiber optic connector type is called ST. The
XMIT of one Repeater is connected to the REC of the other one and vice versa.
A Repeater listens for signals on both the Carrier–band and the Fiber Optic
network segments. The first signal from one of the segments to reach the
Repeater “captures” the Repeater. After this, all signals on the other segment
are ignored. The Repeater does more than just amplify the received signal. The
Repeater recovers digital data from the received signals, eliminating amplitude
and phase distortions and noise. The Repeater then transmits a full strength,
undistorted signal onto the other network segment. When a reception and
subsequent retransmission ends, the Repeater momentarily blanks both inputs
to ignore residual signal reflections on the cable. Then the Repeater listens again
for a signal on both network segments.

The Repeater is designed to minimize the time required to receive, process and
retransmit signals. Transmit delay time through the Repeater is less than 600
nanoseconds and should be added to the cable delay to determine the slot_time
of the network (see page 7 for calculation of slot_time).
When the Repeater detects an error condition in the incoming signal, it turns
the ERROR light next to the corresponding connector momentarily ON. If the
end delimiter is subsequently detected, the E bit is set in the transmitted end
delimiter to indicate that the data in the frame was in error. If no end delimiter
is detected before the received signal fades (a “runt” frame), the ERROR light is
also turned ON momentarily.

Explain the working of following


3 1. Ring topology
2. Mesh topology.
Answer:
1. Ring topology:

Ring Topology In this topology each device is connected by a separate point to point link
forming a ring type structure .

In a ring network, every device has exactly two neighbors for communication purposes. All
messages travel through a ring in the same direction (either "clockwise" or "counterclockwise"). A
failure in any cable or device breaks the loop and can take down the entire network.
To implement a ring network, one typically uses FDDI, SONET, or Token Ring technology.
Ring topologies are found in some office buildings or school campuses.

Advantages of Ring Topology — Installation is easy in Ring topology Link failure can be
easily identified .Devices are connected with their related nodes only.
2. Mesh topology

In a network each and every node has a unique point-to-point link with all the other nodes. In
mesh topology it will connect or share traffic between two nodes only.

Mesh topologies involve the concept of routes. Unlike each of the previous topologies,
messages sent on a mesh network can take any of several possible paths from source to destination.
(Recall that even in a ring, although two cable paths exist, messages can only travel in one
direction.) Some WANs, most notably the Internet, employ mesh routing.

A mesh network in which every device connects to every other is called a full mesh. As
shown in the illustration below, partial mesh networks also exist in which some devices connect
only indirectly to others.

Advantages of Mesh topology

There is a facility of a unique link between nodes to ensure higher finest data rate and remove
traffic issues. Privacy and security are really high Mesh topology is strong. But the main advantage
is when a link of other nodes fail to connect it will not affect the entire network. Error
identification and error isolation can be found easy with this topology.
Part B
Q1. Explain the different internet layers functions with the help of an
diagram?
Answer:
The Internet Layer has three basic functions: For outgoing packets, select the
"next hop" host (gateway) and transmit the packet to this host by passing it to the
appropriate Link Layer implementation; for incoming packets, capture packets and pass
the packet payload up to the appropriate Transport Layer protocol, if appropriate. In
addition it provides error detection and diagnostic capability.
In Version 4 of the Internet Protocol (IPv4), during both transmit and
receive operations, IP is capable of automatic or intentional fragmentation or
defragmentation of packets, based, for example, on the maximum transmission
unit (MTU) of link elements. However, this feature has been dropped in IPv6, as the
communications end points, the hosts, now have to perform path MTU discovery and
assure that end-to-end transmissions don't exceed the maximum discovered.
In its operation, the Internet Layer is not responsible for reliable
transmission. It provides only an unreliable service, and "best effort" delivery. This
means that the network makes no guarantees about packets' proper arrival (see
also Internet Protocol#Reliability). This was an important design principle and change
from the previous protocols used on the early ARPANET. Since packet delivery across
diverse networks is inherently an unreliable and failure-prone operation, the burden of
providing reliability was placed with the end points of a communication path, i.e., the
hosts, rather than on the network. This is one of the reasons of the resiliency of the
Internet against individual link failures and its provenscalability.
The function of providing reliability of service is the duty of higher level
protocols, such as the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) in theTransport Layer.
Integrity of packets is guaranteed only in IPv4 (not in IPv6) through
checksums computed for IP packets.

The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol used for
relaying datagrams (packets) across an internetwork using theInternet Protocol Suite.
Responsible for routing packets across network boundaries, it is the primary protocol
that establishes the Internet.
IP is the primary protocol in the Internet Layer of the Internet
Protocol Suite and has the task of delivering datagrams from the source host to the
destination host solely based on their addresses. For this purpose, IP defines
addressing methods and structures for datagram encapsulation.

The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is one of the core protocols of
the Internet Protocol Suite. It is chiefly used by the operating systems of networked
computers to send error messages—indicating, for instance, that a requested service is
not available or that a host or router could not be reached. ICMP can also be used to
relay query messages.[1]
ICMP relies on IP to perform its tasks, and it is an integral part of IP. It differs in
purpose from transport protocols such as TCP and UDP in that it is typically not used
to send and receive data between end systems. It is usually not used directly by user
network applications, with some notable exceptions being the ping tool and traceroute.
ICMP for Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is also known as ICMPv4. IPv6 has a
similar protocol, ICMPv6.
The Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is
a communications protocol used by hosts and adjacent routers on IP networks to
establish multicast group memberships.
IGMP is an integral part of the IP multicast specification. It is analogous
to ICMP for unicast connections. IGMP can be used for online streaming
video and gaming, and allows more efficient use of resources when supporting these
types of applications.
IGMP is used on IPv4 networks. Multicast management on IPv6 networks is handled
by Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) which uses ICMPv6 messaging as opposed to
IGMP's bare IP encapsulation.

Q2. Physical layer is responsible for transfer data from one node to
another, how?
Answer:
Physical Layer: As the name suggests, the physical layer is the layer that deals with
the physical components of a network. It is responsible for activation, maintenance
and deactivation of various physical links that act in data transmission. Electrical
signals, voltage levels, data transmission rates, etc., are some of the major elements
defined by the physical layer. It is also responsible for passing and receiving bytes
from the physically connected medium.

The Physical Layer defines the characteristics of the hardware necessary to carry
the data transmission signal. Things such as voltage levels, and the number and
locations of interface pins, are defined in this layer (RS232C, V.35, IEEE 802.3, ...).
TCP/IP does not define physical standards, it makes use of existing standards.
Describes the way data is actually transmitted on the network medium.

The Physical Layer communicates directly with the communication medium, and
has two responsibilities: Sending bits and receiving bits. A binary digit, or bit, is the
basic unit of information in data communication. A bit can have only two values, 0 or
1, represented by different states on the communication medium. Other
communication layers are responsible for collecting these bits into groups that
represent message data.

Bits are represented by changes in signals on the network medium. Some wire
media represent 0’s and 1’s with different voltages, some use distinct audio tones, and
yet others use more sophisticated methods, such as state transitions.

A wide variety of media are used for data communication, including electric cable,
fibre optics, light waves, radio, and microwaves. The medium used can vary, a
different medium simply necessitates a different set of physical layer protocols. Thus,
the upper layers are completely independent from the particular process used to
deliver bits through the network medium.

The physical layer describes the bit patters to be used, but does not define the
medium, it describes how data are encoded into media signals and the characteristics
of the media attachment interface.

Q 3 Routers operate at first three layers of OSI model, explain?


3 Answer:
Routers are an essential part of the network's plumbing. Organizations depend
on routers so that employees can check email or access Web applications. Network
engineers must configure these routers correctly to keep all the network traffic
flowing smoothly. But how does a router actually work? Find out in this tip.
How routing fits into the OSI model

The OSI model is just a theoretical model, but it is a great way to visualize
how all of these protocols, addresses and network devices (like routers) fit together.

Layers 2 and 3 of the OSI model are what apply here. Layer 2, the Data Link
layer, is where the Ethernet protocol, MAC addresses and switches fit in. Layer 3,
the Network layer, is where the IP protocol, IP addresses and routers fit in.
Remember that all traffic is sent from your computer starting with Layer 7 (your
network application) and going down to Layer 1 (physical). With the physical layer,
the traffic is going across your network medium (such as your network cable or
your wireless airwaves).

Traffic goes to a router only if it is not on your local LAN. Routers work
primarily at Layer 3 but must understand Layers 1-3, at a minimum. Many routers
understand traffic all the way up to Layers 4-7 in varying ways, but we like to think
of them as working only at Layer 3 (network) because that is their primary
function.
How routers use Ethernet MAC addresses and IP addresses
As I said, in Layer 2 is your Ethernet protocol and Ethernet addressing -- the
MAC address (a.k.a. physical address or Ethernet address). In Layer 3 is your IP
protocol and IP addressing. Today, almost all networking is done using Ethernet
and IP. Thus, in general, every packet on your network has an Ethernet MAC
address source and destination --and an IP address source and destination. Keep
this in mind.
I believe everyone who is interested in computers should, at some time or
another, use a network protocol analyzer to really see all the packets that are going
to and from the computer. This is true even when you aren't using it! In a protocol
analyzer, you would see this Ethernet source/destination and IP address
source/destination.
What a router does with your network traffic

Routers understand these Ethernet and IP addresses. Routers are primarily


interested in the destination IP address of the packet you are sending to the router.
The router takes this destination (say it is 63.248.129.2) and looks that up in its
routing table. Here is an example of a routing table:

Location-A# show ip route


10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 2 subnets
R 10.2.2.0 [120/1] via 63.248.129.2, 00:00:16, Serial0
C 10.1.1.0 is directly connected, Ethernet0
63.0.0.0/30 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C 63.248.129.0 is directly connected, Serial0
Location-A#

Routes in the routing table are learned from either static routes (entered by
you) or dynamic routes. Using the routing table, the router tries to find the best
route for your traffic. There may be only one route. Often, this is a "default route"
(a.k.a. "gateway of last resort"). The default route just says: "If there are no better
routes to send this traffic, send it here."

Just about every home and small business user has just a single Internet
connection. In that case, they have a default route and all traffic is sent to their
Internet service provider (ISP). In the case of ISPs, however, there may be many
places they can send this traffic. Their routers must compare many hundreds of
thousands of routes and select the best one for your traffic. This happens in
milliseconds. And to get your traffic through the Internet and back, it may pass
through hundreds of routers. To you, it appears almost instantaneously (depending
on many factors).

If it doesn't find a valid route for your traffic, the router discards (yes, throws
away) your traffic and sends an ICMP "destination unreachable" message back to
you. When the router does find the best route and is ready to send your traffic, it
has to do a number of things:

1. Perform Network Address Translation (NAT). NAT isn't a traditional


router function, but many routers today perform NAT. This is especially true for
home and small business routers that function as "all in one" devices. Many
companies have dedicated firewalls that also perform NAT. With NAT, your
private source IP address is translated into a public source IP address. If the router
is performing PAT (NAT overload), then the public source IP address is shared
among many devices.
2. Replace your source MAC address with the router's MAC address. The
ARP protocol is used to connect your computer's source MAC address to your IP
address. The ARP protocol is a broadcast-oriented protocol, and routers discard
broadcasts. This means that ARP doesn't work through routers. Because of this, the
router must replace your source MAC address with the router's MAC address. The
router also adds the destination host or next-hop router's MAC address to the data
link header.
3. Encapsulate the packet for the protocol of the WAN. Routers often
perform protocol conversion. Say, for example, you have a router that has a PPP T1
connection to the Internet and is connected to the LAN using Ethernet. The
Ethernet frames must be de-encapsulated, modified, then re-encapsulated in
Ethernet, then PPP, before they can be sent across the PPP link.

On the other side of the link, the destination router is performing all of these
same tasks, but in reverse. This happens for every packet sent and every response
received.

To see a real production routing table from an ISP, you can telnet to public
Cisco route servers around the world. From here, you can do a show ip routeand
see what a real ISP's routing table looks like.