© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.

01
Page 1
Introduction to the
AIcateI GSM Network
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 2
Introduction to the AIcateI GSM Network
1 Introduction
2 GeneraI Specification
3 Services Provided
4 Radio Interface
5 Interchanges over the Network
6 AIcateI's SoIution
Appendix
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
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Introduction to the AIcateI GSM Network
1 Introduction
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
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Introduction
Contents
1.1 GSM 900, 1800, 1900
1.2 History of CeIIuIar Networks
1.3 Limits of GSM Systems
1.4 Overview of Current Standards
1.5 GSM Key-Dates
1.6 InternationaI Agreements: "Memorandum Of Understanding"
1.7 Contribution of GSM Standard
1.8 From 2G to 3G
1.9 Contents of 3GPP "Recommendations"
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
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Introduction
1.1 GSM 900, 1800, 1900
GSM: Global System for Mobile communication
Pan-European standard for communication with mobiles, already adopted by
more than 400 operators in 173 countries and now the world-wide reference for
mobile radio networks. Since 1995 (phase 2), this standard harmonizes the
900 MHz GSM system and the 1800 or 1900 MHz Digital Cellular Systems
(DCS).
GSM 900:
2 x 25 MHz frequency bands around 900 MHz. (extended : 2 x 35 MHz)
GSM 1800:
2 x 75 MHz frequency bands around 1800 MHz.
GSM 1900: (North and South American variant of the GSM 1800):
2 x 75 MHz frequency bands around 1900 MHz.
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Introduction
1.2 History of CeIIuIar Networks
MobiIe network "Prehistory":
1946: St Louis (Missouri)
1970 - 80: NATEL (Switzerland)
1
st
Generation: AnaIogue ceIIuIar networks
1979: Chicago: AMPS
1981: Sweden: NMT
1985: UK: TACS
2
nd
Generation: DigitaI networks
1992: Europe: GSM
1995: US: ÌS95 (CDMA)
3
rd
Generation: UniversaI(?) Standards
2001: JapanÌMT-2000: UMTS
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Introduction
1.3 Limits of GSM systems
pubIic
residentiaI
office PABX
PABX
SmaII CeIIs Medium CeIIs Large CeIIs
GSM
PSTN
PSTN
PSTN
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Standard CT2 GSM DCS DECT IS95
System type cordless cellular cellular cordless satellite
Frequency
band (MHz) 864 - 868 890 - 915 () 1710 -1785 () 1880 -1900 1610 -1626.5 ()
935 - 960 () 1805 -1880 () 2483.5 -2500 ()
CommerciaI Pointel Orange Bouygues Digital Globalstar
names Bi-bop SFR Telecom domestic
cordless
telephones
Company
mobiles
Introduction
1.4 Overview of current standards
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Introduction
1.5 GSM key dates
1979 World Administrative Radiocommunications Conference
(WARC) : 900 MHz band reserved
1982 Stockholm - Creation of the "Groupe Spécial Mobile" within
CEPT (Post & Telecom European Conference)
1986 Creation of a GSM " Standing Committee »
CNET Paris : Comparative trials of 8 prototypes
1987 "Broad Avenue" : Choice of main techniques:
Medium Band - Digital Transmission < 16 kbit/s - 8 x Time-
division multiplexing, subsequent development to 16 x - Slow frequency
hopping
1988-89 GSM taken over by ETSÌ
First publication of the (Draft) "recommendations"
1990 Beginning of studies for adaptation to 1800 MHz (at UK's request)
1990-91 "Phase 1" recommendations fixed (GSM, then DCS)
First GSM prototypes in service (Télécom'91 Geneva)
1992 First commercial GSM networks placed in service
1995 "Phase 2" recommendations issued (upward compatibility)
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
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GSM - MoU: Memorandum of understanding
signed in 1987 between european
operators
1991: acceptation of non-european
signatories (UAE, Hong Kong,
New ZeaIand, AustraIia)
Scope:
. System depIoyment scheduIe
. Routing and numbering pIan
compatibiIity
. Joint introduction of new services
. Harmonization of tariff setting principIes
. Definition of biIIing procedures
Introduction
1.6 InternationaI agreements
European GSM-MoU signatories (operators) in 1999
3
2
3
4
3
4
2
3
3
2
4
3
3
4
5
2
3
3
4
2
3
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Introduction
1.7 Contribution of GSM standard
Pan-European standard + MoU
GLOBAL system (standardized infrastructure)
New concept: SIM card ("SÌM-roaming")
DigitaI transmission, speech encoding
Introduction of state of the art techniques
Integrated security procedures
ConsiderabIe potentiaI market
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Introduction
1.8 From 2G to 3G
2G services
3G services
GPRS
Up to 160Kbps
Ìnternet services
R'97/98/99 (GSM)
E-GPRS
Up to 384Kbps
Ìnternet services
R'99 (GSM)
UMTS
Up to 2Mbps
Multimedia
VoiP
R5 (3GPP)
GSM
GERAN
Multimedia
VoiP
R4/R5
(3GPP)
UMTS
Up to 2Mbps
Ìnternet
services
R'99 (3GPP)
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Introduction
1.9 Contents of 3GPP Recommendations (Series Number)
Subject of Specification Series GSM onIy (before ReI-4) GSM onIy (ReI-4 & Iater) 3G/GSM R99
& Iater
Requirements 01 41 21
Service aspects 02 42 22
Technical realization 03 43 23
Signalling protocols (UE-Network) 04 44 24
Radio aspects 05 45 25
CODECs 06 46 26
Data 07 47 27
Signalling protocols (RSS-CN) 08 48 28
Signalling protocols
(intra-fixed-network) 09 49 29
Programme management 10 50 30
User Ìdentity Module (SÌM/USÌM) 11 51 31
O&M 12 52 32
Access requirements
& test specifications 13 (1) 13 (1)
Security aspects 33
Test specifications 11 34
Security algorithms 35
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Introduction
Exercises
Give a small definition of a cell.
What is the maximum size (radius) of a GSM cell ?
Give 3 bands of frequencies used by the GSM
What is the role of the MoU ?
What is the meaning of "roaming¨ ? of "SÌM roaming¨ ?
What is the possible evolution of GSM (from 2G to 3G) ?
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
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Introduction to the AIcateI GSM Network
2 GeneraI Specifications
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GeneraI Specifications
Contents
2.1 GeneraI Concepts in CeIIuIar Networks
2.1.1 PLMN and Mobile Stations
2.1.2 Cellular Coverage
2.1.3 Data Transmission
2.2 GSM Architecture
2.2.1 Types of Mobile Stations
2.2.2 PLMN Elements
2.2.3 Base Station System
2.2.4 Network and Switching System
2.2.5 GPRS
2.2.6 Operation and Maintenance
2.3 GSM Interfaces and ProtocoIs
2.4 Position of Transcoding Unit (TRAU)
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PLMM
PLMN = PubIic Land MobiIe Network
PSTN = PubIic Switched TeIephone Network
ISDN = Integrated Services DigitaI Network
PDN = Packet Data Network
GeneraI Specifications
2.1.1 GeneraI Concepts: PLMN and MobiIe Stations
ISDM
PSTM
...
.
.
...
PDM
...
.
.
...
...
.
.
...
...
.
.
...
...
.
.
...
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GeneraI Specifications
2.1.2 GeneraI Concepts: CeIIuIar Coverage
Omni-directionaI
UnidirectionaI
Sectored
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GeneraI Specifications
2.1.2 GeneraI Concepts: CeIIuIar Coverage
Example of a 12-Cell Three-sector Pattern
Frequency Reuse Pattern
12
3 10
1 4 7 8
6 9 2
5
11
12
3 10
1 4 7 8
6 9 2
5
11
12
3 10
1 4 7 8
6 9 2
5
11
12
3 10
1 4 7 8
6 9 2
5
11
12
1 4 7 8
6 9 2
5
11
D
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GeneraI Specifications
2.1.2 GeneraI Concepts: CeIIuIar Coverage
0 or 4
1 or 5
2 or 6
3 or 7
NCC
Network CoIour Codes
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GeneraI Specifications
2.1.2 GeneraI Concepts: CeIIuIar Coverage
Radio Resources are Iimited :
To increase Spectrum Efficiency, specific techniques are introduced :
Power Control
Handover
Frequency Hopping
Discontinuous Transmission (DTX)
downlink
uplink
...
.
.
...
...
.
.
...
...
.
.
...
...
.
.
...
?
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GeneraI Specifications
2.2 GSM architecture
Operators
Users
ExternaI
Networks
MS
BSS NSS
OSS
GSM
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GeneraI Specifications
2.2.1 GSM architecture: types of MobiIe Stations
SIM card
(incIuding
TAF)
TA
R
S
MT1
MT0
MT2
TE2
TE2
TE1
Um
"pIug-in" SIM
ISDN
ÌSDN concepts GSM concepts
MT = MobiIe Termination
TE = TerminaI Equipment
TE1 = ISDN
TE2 = V or X type
TA(F) = TerminaI Adaptor (Function)
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GeneraI Specifications
2.2.4 GSM architecture: Base Station System
PSTM/
ISDM
ßTS
NSS
ßSC
ßTS
CßC
Other
ßSC's
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NSS
?
AuC
HLR
VLR
GeneraI Specifications
2.2.4 GSM architecture: Network and Switching System
PSTM/
ISDM
MSC
ßSS
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VLR
GeneraI Specifications
2.2.4 GSM architecture: Network and Switching System
PSTM/
ISDM
MSC
ßSS
AuC
HLR
SMS-C
EIR
SCR
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GeneraI Specifications
2.2.5 GSM architecture: GPRS
Pockef Swifchinq
MSC/VLR
SSM+SPRS
ßSS with
PCU
PSTM/
ISDM
0PPS
8ockbone
SSSN
Infernef
SSSN
SPRS SPRS
MobiIe MobiIe
Circuif Swifchinq
ßSS
HLR
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Mediation
Device
(MD)
Configuration
FauIt
Performance
Security
Accounting
GeneraI Specifications
2.2.6 GSM architecture: Operation and Maintenance
(MD)
Operation
System
(OS)
Data Communications Network
(DCN)
MSC/VLR
SSSN
SSSN
ßSS
HLR
Network
EIement
s (NE) :
TMN
Data Communications Network
(DCN)
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HLR GCR
GeneraI Specifications
2.3 GSM interfaces and protocoIs
AuC
E
B C
D
F
G
H
I
Abis
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
PSTN
ISDN
BTS - BSC
MSC-VLR
(SM-G)MSC-HLR
HLR-VLR
(SM-G)MSC-MSC
(SS7 basic) + MAP
MSC-EIR
VLR-VLR
HLR-AuC
MSC-GCR
MSC-PSTN
(SS7 basic) + TUP or ISUP
MSC-ISDN
LAPD
(ÌSDN type)
GSM Circuit-switching:
(BSSAP = BSSMAP + DTAP)
A BSC - MSC (SS7 basic) + BSSAP
BTS
LAPDm
(GSM specific)
Um (Radio) MS - BTS
BS
C
BS
C
MSC MSC
BTS
PSTN /
ISDN
MS
VLR VL
R
EIR
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Gc GGSN-HLR IP/SS7
LAPDm
(GSM specific)
GeneraI Specifications
2.3 GSM interfaces and protocoIs
Gs
Gb
Um (Radio)
Gi GGSN-Data Network IP
MS
BSS - SGSN
Gr SS7 SGSN-HLR
Gf SS7 SGSN-EIR
SGSN-MSC/VLR
Gn
SGSN-GGSN IP
IP SGSN-SGSN
MS - BTS
Gs
Gf Gr
Gn
Gn
Gc
SS7
GSM Packet-switching (GPRS):
BSSGP
BSS
with
PCU
BSS
with
PCU
HLR EIR
Data
Network
SGSN
GGSN
SGSN
MSC
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GeneraI Specifications
2.4 Position of Transcoding Unit (TRAU)
Abis interface A interface
2Mb Iink, each channeI = 16 Kbps
2Mb Iink, each channeI = 64 Kbps
MSC Site
MSC/VLP 8SC
MSC/VLP
MSC/VLP
TPAU 8TS
TPAU
8TS
8TS TPAU
8SC
8SC
BSC Site BTS Site
BTS Site
BTS Site
BSC Site
BSC Site
MSC Site
MSC Site
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GeneraI Specifications
Exercises
2 cells in the same (cell re-use) pattern may use
the same frequency but never the same color: true or false ?
Give a small definition of a handover procedure ?
What are the possible causes ?
What is the aim of the DTX function ?
Give 3 types of information stored in a SÌM card, in a VLR, in an HLR.
Give the 3 types of functions that have to be added to a GSM network in
order to build a GPRS network.
What is the name of the 2 main "application parts¨ used in a GSM network:
1) in the NSS; 2) between NSS and BSS.
What is the role of the transcoder ? Give 2 possible values of speech rate
used in GSM
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Introduction to the AIcateI GSM Network
3 Services Provided
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
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Services Provided
Contents
3.1 TeIeservices
3.1.1 Teleservices and Bearer Services
3.1.2 Categories of Teleservices
3.1.3 Principle
3.1.4 Data transmission in circuit mode
3.1.5 Data transmission in packet mode
3.2 SuppIementary services
3.2.1 Number Ìdentification Services
3.2.2 Call Forwarding Services
3.2.3 Call Completion Services
3.2.4 Multi-Party Services
3.2.5 Billing Services
3.2.6 Call Barring Services
3.2.7 Phase 2+ Services
3.2.8 Sundry Services
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Services Provided
3.1.1 TeIeservices and Bearer Services
TeIeservice: Transmission capability including terminals and applications
Bearer Service: Transmission capability between defined user Interfaces
Transparent and Non-Transparent Services and Bearer Services
Transparent : Fixed rate, no flow control: fast but high error ratio
Non-Transparent : RLP added: low error ratio, slower transmission
GSM
PLMN
IWF
IWF
Transit
network,
if any
Terminating
network
TE = TerminaI Equipment IWF = InterWorking Function
TeIeservices
Bearer services
TE
TE
...
.
.
...
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Services Provided
3.1.2: Categories of TeIeservices
Voice Services:
Telephony
Emergency Calls
Voice Call Groups (Groups of mobiles sharing limited radio resources)
(Voice Messaging: not identified by the GSM as a specific service)
Short Message Services (SMS):
POÌNT-TO-POÌNT, Network to Mobile (SMS - MT/PP)
POÌNT-TO-POÌNT, Mobile to Network (SMS - MO/PP)
BROADCAST, Network to Mobile (SMS - CB)
Other Non-Voice Services
Unstructured SuppIementary Services Data (USSD)
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Services Provided
3.1.3 TeIeservices: principIes
PSTN user PSTN user
Audio modem
Audio modem
3.1 kHz audio Iine
PSTN
Data Transmission between 2 PSTN users
GSM user
Audio
modem
3.1 kHz audio Iine
PSTN
Audio modem
PSTN user
Data Transmission between one GSM user and one PSTN user
Standard interface Standard interface
Standardized transmission
Standard interface
GSM transmission Standardized transmission
(DCE) (DCE) (DTE) (DTE)
Standard interface
GSM
Network
IWF
(DCE) (DCE) (DTE) (DTE)
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Services Provided
3.1.4 TeIeservices: Data transmission in circuit mode
DIGITAL radio transmission ==> FAX adapter function (incIuding audio modem + T30 functions)
Standard TAF: synchronous information bearer (as for data transmission services)
Audio MODEM: incIudes V21 - V27 ter and V29 protocoIs essentiaI for diaIogue between FAX machines
3.1 kHz audio Iine
PSTN
ConventionaI connection PSTN user < -- > PSTN user
3.1 kHz audio Iine
PSTN
Connection GSM user < -- > PSTN user
Standard FAX machine
Audio modem
Standard FAX machine
Audio modem
Standard FAX machine
Audio modem
Standard FAX machine
Audio modem
Audio
modem
TAF
FAX
Adapter
GSM user
GSM Network
Audio
modem
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Services Provided
3.1.5 TeIeservices: Data transmission in packet mode
Services provided:
All Personal mobility
application
Ìnternet Access
Car Traffic management .
GSM/GPRS Network
User 1
User 2
User 3
With QuaIity Of Service profiIes:
Service Precedence (Priority)
Reliability
(Transfer) Delay
User Data Throughput
Connection
Oriented
(Virtual Circuit)
Connectionless
Oriented
(Datagram)
GGSN
GGSN
SGSN
X25
ÌP
Packet Data Protocol Network
...
.
.
...
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Services Provided
3.2.1 SuppIementary Services
Number Identification SuppIementary Services
CLIP CaIIing Line Identification Presentation (terminating call)
Lets the called party receive the caller's identity (applicable to all
services except SMS)
CLIR CaIIing Line Identification Restriction (originating call)
Lets the caller withhold his number from the called party
(either permanently or on a per-call basis)
CoLP Connected Line Identification Presentation (originating call)
Ìndicates the party's number when the call has been set up
CoLR Connected Line Identification Restriction (terminating call)
Lets the called party withhold his number from the caller
(either permanently or on a per-call basis)
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Services Provided
3.2.2 SuppIementary Services
CaII Forwarding SuppIementary Services
4 services used to forward calls to the HPLMN or to another PLMN:
CFU CaII Forwarding UnconditionaI
CFB CaII Forwarding on mobiIe subscriber Busy
CFNRy CaII Forwarding on No RepIy
CFNRc CaII Forwarding on mobiIe subscriber Not ReachabIe
number of successive forwarding connections limited to a value
between 1 and 5
CaII DefIection SuppIementary Services
CD CaII DefIection
Lets the mobile called party forward the call to a third party before the
connection is established.
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Services Provided
3.2.3 SuppIementary Services
CaII CompIetion SuppIementary Services
CW CaII Waiting
Answering delay from 30 seconds to three minutes
Channel indication if the two calls are telephone calls
First call can be placed on hold when waiting call accepted
HOLD CaII HoIding
Call retrieval possible
CCBS CompIetion of CaIIs to Busy Subscriber
Call is completed when the busy destination becomes idle
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Services Provided
3.2.4 SuppIementary Services
CaII Transfer SuppIementary Service
ECT ExpIicit CaII Transfer
Mobile A connected to 2 parties: B and C
These 2 parties can be connected and A can withdraw
MuIti-Party SuppIementary Services
MPTY MuIti Party service
Conventional options: Hold - Retrieval of first call or transition to
conference
Community of Interest SuppIementary Services
CUG CIosed User Group
Optional allowing or barring of incoming or outgoing calls
(OA/ÌA - OCB/ÌCB) - Preferential CUG allowed
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Services Provided
3.2.5 SuppIementary Services
Charging SuppIementary Services
AoCI Advice of Charge (Information)
permits MS to display an accurate estimate of the size of the bill which will
eventually be levied in the Home PLMN.
(Used only to provide an indication to the user)
AoCC Advice of Charge (Charging)
provides the means by which the MS may indicate the charge that will be made for
the use of telecommunication services.
(Calls barred when the mobile is located in a PLMN not providing this service.)
Only one of these services may be subscribed to at any one time.
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Services Provided
3.2.6 SuppIementary Services
CaII Barring SuppIementary Services
BAOC Barring of AII Outgoing CaIIs
BOIC Barring of Outgoing InternationaI CaIIs
BOIC-ex HC Barring of Outgoing InternationaI CaIIs, except those
directed to the Home PLMN Country
BAIC Barring of AII Incoming CaIIs
BIC-Roam Barring of AII Incoming CaIIs when Roaming
outside the Home PLMN country
Subscription possible for any combination
Activation protected by password
Emergency calls possible
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Services Provided
3.2.7 SuppIementary Services
Phase 2+ services
UUS User to User SignaIIing
Allows sending or receiving of user-to-user short messages during a
completed call or during call set-up
eMLPP Enhanced MuIti-LeveI Precedence & Preemption
Allows one of seven precedence levels to be assigned to some mobiles
so that they can set up calls rapidly (no authentication), in some cases
cutting off calls of lower precedence
SPNP Support of Private Numbering PIan
Access to a virtual private network (VPN) with private number
translation handled by an external PN manager
SoLSA Support of LocaIised Service Area
Specific charging and services for some subscribers in a group of cells
(not necessarily adjacent)
LCS Location Services
Service equivalent to GPS used to locate precisely the MS
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Services Provided
3.2.8 SuppIementary Services
Sundry services
MSP MuItipIe Subscriber ProfiIe
Allows up to 4 subscriber profiles for the same SÌM card
NITZ Network Identity and Time Zone
Transfers the network identity and local time to the terminating mobile
PDS Packet Data on SignaIIing ChanneI
PTP transfer (circuit-oriented) of very short data packets between a
mobile and a host
ODB Operator Determined Barrings
Allows the service provider to apply 24 different types of call barring
CAMEL Customized AppIications for MobiIe network Enhanced
Logic
Allows for supplementary services specific to a given operator (for
example, ÌNSS) outside the origin PLMN
SOR Support of OptimaI Routing
Optimized call forwarding to avoid "tromboning"
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Introduction to the AIcateI GSM Network
4 Radio Interface
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
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Radio Interface
Contents (1)
4.1 Introduction
4.1.1 Ìmportance of the Radio Ìnterface
4.1.2 Traffic and Signalling
4.1.3 Mobile Station Status (Circuit and Packet Switched Mode)
4.1.4 Radio Resources
4.2 PhysicaI ChanneIs : MuItipIe Access Diagram
4.2.1 Frequencies
4.2.2 TDMA Frame
4.2.3 Normal Burst
4.3 LogicaI ChanneIs
4.3.1 Principle of mapping with the Physical Channels
4.3.2 Time-Division Multiplexing on a Physical Channel
4.3.3 Channel Mapping
4.3.4 Timing Advance
4.3.5 Paging
4.3.6 Access to the Network
4.3.7 Logical Channel Summary
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Radio Interface
Contents (2)
4.4 Speech Processing
4.4.1 Radio Channel Generation
4.4.2 Discontinuous Transmission
4.4.3 GMSK Modulation
4.5 Radio Techniques
4.5.1 Raleigh Fading
4.5.2 Frequency Hopping
4.5.3 Power Control
4.5.4 Space Diversity
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Radio Interface
4.1.1 Importance of the radio interface
RADIO INTERFACE : essentiaI part of GSM specifications because of:
Ìnter-PLMN COMPATIBILITY ==> Complete Specification
(to the nearest bit)
Very elaborate SPECTRUM EFFICIENCY optimization techniques:
Reduction of ÌNTERFERENCE to Manage a large number of Mobiles per km²
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 52
Radio Interface
4.1.2 Traffic and SignaIIing
TRAFFIC :
ÌNFORMATÌON interchanged from USER-TO-USER, after setting up the
call, requiring dedicated radio resource allocation.
Ìn GSM, TRAFFÌC can be an interchange of SPEECH or DATA
SIGNALLING :
ÌNFORMATÌON interchanges (in some cases, without the user's
knowledge) between the MOBÌLE EQUÌPMENT and NETWORK
MACHÌNES
Out of CaII : required for managing mobiIes, eg. : Iocation update
During a CaII : required for various reasons, eg. : handover,
access to a suppIementary service, caII reIease
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 53
S
w
i
t
c
h
-
o
f
f
S
w
i
t
c
h
-
o
n
"Connected"
"Power Off"
"Ìdle"
Radio Interface
4.1.3 MS status
E
n
d

o
f
t
r
a
n
s
a
c
t
i
o
n
N
e
t
w
o
r
k

A
c
c
e
s
s
Circuit Switching Mode (GSM)
MS not
reachabIe
MS
reachabIe
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 54
"Ìdle"
A
t
t
a
c
h
m
e
n
t

t
o

n
e
t
w
o
r
k
D
e
t
a
c
h
m
e
n
t
Out of Time
Packet Tx or Rx
D
e
t
a
c
h
m
e
n
t
o
r

O
u
t

o
f

T
i
m
e
"Ready" "Stand-by"
Radio Interface
4.1.3 MS status
Packet Switching Mode (GPRS)
MS not
reachabIe
MS
reachabIe
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 55
Dedicated
SignaIIing
ChanneIs
Common
Access
ChanneIs
Common
Broadcast
ChanneIs
Radio Interface
4.1.4 Radio Resources
TypicaI MobiIe - Network Transaction (GSM) :
MobiIe
pre-synchronization
"IdIe" Status "Connected" Status
Network Access
Out of caII
signaIIing phase
TRAFFIC phase
Access
procedure
(OptionaI)
Channels
to be used
Dedicated
Traffic
ChanneIs
Main
Tasks
&
Types of
Inter-
change
Frequency
search
Timing
Synchro
System
Parameter
AnaIysis
(Paging)
Access
Request
Dedicated
ChanneI
Assignment
Same dedicated
channeI used for:
- Authentication
- SignaIIing:
. Location Updating
. Short Messages
. (Traffic ChanneI
Assignment)
Traffic
SignaIIing
Frequency
Monitoring
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 56
Frequency
axis
Radio Interface
4.2.1 PhysicaI ChanneIs : the frequencies
UPLÌNK
Band
MS -> BTS
DOWNLÌNK
Band
(BTS ->MS)
900 bands
possible extension of GSM bands
(2 x 25 MHz : 124 carriers)
(2 x 35 MHz : 174 carriers)
1800 bands
(2 x 75 MHz : 374 carriers)
MHz
MHz
200 kHz
890
935
960
915
880 1710
1785
1805
1880
915
960
925
ARFCN
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 57
UPLÌNK
Band
MS -> BTS
DOWNLÌNK
Band
(BTS ->MS)
Radio Interface
4.2.2 PhysicaI ChanneIs : the TDMA Frame
1 BTS (eg. 3 carriers)
Frequency spacing
45 MHz in 900,
95 MHz in 1800,
22
17
7
Cell
"beacon¨
frequency
22
17
7
ARFCN
Frequency
axis
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 58
Radio Interface
4.2.2 PhysicaI ChanneIs : the TDMA frame
1 BTS (eg. 3 carriers)
TDMA frame = 4.615 ms
1 "CHANNEL" (in 1 direction)
Same "CHANNEL" (if bidirectional)
time axis
Time sIot (or burst window)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
22
17
7
22
17
7
Time shift between
transmit and receive : 3 TS
Frequency
axis
UPLÌNK
Band
MS -> BTS
DOWNLÌNK
Band
(BTS ->MS)
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 59
Radio Interface
4.2.3 PhysicaI ChanneIs : the NormaI Burst
TDMA frame = 4.615 ms
CHANNEL
time axis
guard time
Training sequence
577 µs
Time SIot (TS) or Burst Period (BP)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
22
17
7
Burs
t
¨Data¨ (114 bits)
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 60
Radio Interface
4.2.3 PhysicaI ChanneIs : the NormaI Burst
Training Sequences :
8 different bit patterns, chosen so that:
They are easiIy recognizabIe (very accurate auto-correIation function)
They are easiIy distinguishabIe from one another (IittIe correIation
between each pattern)
SteaIing FIags :
26 bits
"Stealing Flags"
S = 0
S = 1
57 bits 57 bits
+
+
Traffic (or SignaIIing out of caII)
SignaIIing during caII
Training sequence
57 bits 57 bits
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 61
Radio Interface
4.3.1 LogicaI ChanneIs: PrincipIe of Mapping with PhysicaI
ChanneIs
1 2 3 5 6 7 TS
Frequency Correction
Timing synchronization
System information
Subscriber paging
Response to access request
Out of call signalling -> MSi
Power Control -> MSi
Traffic samples -> MSj
Ìn call signalling -> MSj
BTS
MS
example : "Beacon" frequency, downlink:
FCCH
SCH
BCCH
PCH
AGCH
SDCCH
SACCH
TCH
FACCH
0 4
FCCH
BCCH
PCH
AGCH
SDCCH
SACCH
TCH
FACCH
SCH 1
2
3
4
Traffic sample decoding
Ìn call signalling receipt
Power Control
Out of call signalling receipt
Mobile presynchronization
Subscriber paging
Response to access request
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 62
Radio Interface
4.3.1 LogicaI ChanneIs
Use of LogicaI ChanneIs
during transactions between Network and MS
1 Ìf Terminating Call (TC), MS must be paged P= Paging
2 MS accesses the PLMN network RA = Random Access
3 Network allocates (or grants)
a dedicated channel to MS for signalling AG = Access Grant
4 Signalling interchange (SDCCH and SACCH).
Ìf necessary, Network allocates a Traffic channel to MS
5 Traffic interchange (speech or data) on TCH,
with associated signalling in SACCH (background tasks) and FACCH if required
SACCH FACCH
PCH RACH SDCCH + SACCH AGCH TCH / FACCH + SACCH
1 2 3 4 5
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
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Radio Interface
4.3.2 Time Division MuItipIexing
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TS
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 0 1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 232425
Multiframe : 51 frames (= 235 ms approx.)
"TRAFFIC" type MuItiframe :
"SIGNALLING" type MuItiframe :
1 TDMA frame = 120/26 # 4.615 ms
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 232425 0
Multiframe : 26 frames = 120 ms
GSM (Circuit Switching)
0
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 64
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 5051 0
Multiframe : 52 frames (= 240 ms.)
52 Frame - MuItiframe on pdch:
Radio Interface
4.3.2 Time Division MuItipIexing
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TS
1 TDMA frame = 120/26 # 4.615 ms
GPRS (Packet Switching) (1)
BIock 0 BIock 1 BIock 2 BIock 3 BIock 4 BIock 5 BIock 6 BIock 7 BIock 8 BIock 9 BIock 10 BIock 11
0
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 65
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 5051 0
Multiframe : 52 frames (= 240 ms.)
Radio Interface
4.3.2 Time Division MuItipIexing
GPRS (Packet Switching) (2)
BIock 0 BIock 1 BIock 2 BIock 3 BIock 4 BIock 5 BIock 6 BIock 7 BIock 8 BIock 9 BIock 10 BIock 11
TFI: Temporary FIow Identifier:
created when data has to be transmitted and untiI aII data have been transmitted
BSN: BIock Sequence Number
Data FIow to User B Data FIow to User A Data FIow to User C
TFI 28 TFI 2 TFI 19
TFI =28
Data
BSN =21
TFI =28
Data
TFI =28
Data
BSN =22BSN =23
TFI =28
Data
BSN =24
TFI =28
Data
TFI = 2
Data
BSN =25BSN =12
TFI = 2
Data
BSN =13
TFI = 2
Data
TFI = 2
Data
BSN =14BSN =15
TFI = 19
Data
BSN =75
TFI = 19
Data
TFI = 19
Data
BSN =76BSN =77
0
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 66
Radio Interface
4.3.3 ChanneI Mapping
Structure of the MuItiframe in "Time SIot" 0 (DownIink channeI)
F S B B B B c c c c
31
-
51 1
Multiframe : 51 frames (= 235 ms approx.)
F S F S F S F S F S c c c c
21
c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 41
F = FCCH S = SCH B = BCCH C = Common Control
LOGICAL
CHANNEL
FCCH
Frequency
Correction
1 every 10 frames
(46 ms)
OCCURRENCE
and/or USABLE BIT
RATE
as FCCH (46 ms), 8 TS
after
SCH
Synchro
BCCH
Broadcast
Control
1 TS every 4 consec. frames
every 51 frames,
giving 456 usable bits
every 235 ms
- General information (system) concerning the station:
- Ìdentity of operator, access authorized or not,
- Organization of logical channels in the cell (paging...),
- Frequencies used, Frequency hopping...,
- Time-Outs applicable...
- Locking the mobile local oscillator on the exact frequency
- Roughly estimating the position of the receive window
- Exact synchronization of receive window
- Decoding the Frame Number (from 0 to 2,715,647)
ROLES and USES of INFORMATION CARRIED
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 67
Radio Interface
4.3.3 ChanneI Mapping
Structure of the MuItiframe in "Time SIot" 0 (Non-combined BCCH)
LOGICAL
CHANNEL
RACH
Random
Access
OnIy upIink
OCCURRENCE
and/or USABLE BIT
RATE
These 2 sub-channels
share the "CCCH"
channel based
on variable rules
according to cell and
operator
AGCH
Access
Grant
PCH
Paging
- used by the network to signal a call to a mobile:
Short format identity, unambiguous in the cell
- used by the mobiIe to request access to the network
("Channel Request" message with mobile short format identity)
- used by the network to acknowledge the access request and
assign a dedicated channel to the mobile ("immediate
assignment" message with identity echo)
ROLES and USES of INFORMATION CARRIED
-
R = RACH
DOWNLINK
f s b b b b C C C C
31 51 1 21 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 41
f s f s f s f s C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C -
(Multiframes : 51 frames)
f = FCCH s = SCH b = BCCH
f s
C C C C = CCCH (PCH or AGCH)
UPLINK
R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 68
- Out of call signalling, such as location update, authentication,
transition to encrypted mode, assignment of a traffic
channel...
SACCH
Slow
Associated
Control
SDCCH
Standalone
Dedicated
Control
Radio Interface
4.3.3 ChanneI Mapping
Structure of the MuItiframe in "Time SIot" 1
LOGICAL
CHANNEL
8 TSs every 2x51 frames,
giving 456 bits / 235 ms
---> 1.94 kbit/s
OCCURRENCE
and/or USABLE BIT
RATE
4 TSs every 2x51 frames,
giving 456 bits / 470 ms
---> 950 bit/s
- Non-urgent procedures (background), occurrence ~0.5
sec:measurement reports, power monitoring, timing advance,
+ Short Message Service (SMS)
ROLES and USES of INFORMATION CARRIED
DOWNLINK
(Multiframes : 51 frames)
D = SDCCH A = SACCH
UPLINK
-
- - -
- -
D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
A0
A4
A1 A2 A3
A5 A6 A7
D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 A0
A4
A1 A2 A3
A5 A6 A7
-
- - -
- -
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 69
SACCH
Slow
Associated
Control
TCH/F
TCH/H
Traffic
Full & Half Rate
- Non-urgent procedures (background), occurrence ~ 0.5 sec:
(as SACCH associated with a SDCCH)
- Signalling after TCH set-up: end of call processing, "high
speed" signalling
- Traffic at max rate 13 kbit/s
(Speech encoded at 13 kbit/s or Data at up to 9600 bit/s)
- Traffic at max rate 5.6 kbit/s
(Speech encoded at 5.6 kbit/s or Data at up to 4800 bit/s)
4 TS every 480 ms --->
~ 1 kbit/s
TCH cycle stealing :--->
max 11.4 or 22.8 kbit/s
24 TSs every 120 ms
---> 22.8 kbit/s
12 TSs every 120 ms
---> 11.4 kbit/s
Radio Interface
4.3.3 ChanneI Mapping
Traffic ChanneIs + Associated SignaIIing ChanneIs
LOGICAL
CHANNEL
OCCURRENCE
and/or USABLE BIT
RATE
ROLES and USES of INFORMATION CARRIED
1 2 3 4 5 0
T T T T T T
1 2 3 4 5 0
T T T T T T
Multiframe : 26 frames (= 120 ms)
A
-
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 0 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 12
A -
T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T
T i = Sample i, TCH/F channel A = Associated SACCH
11 7 8 9 10 11 6
T T T T T T
7 8 9 10 6
T T T T T T
1
A
1
A
2
A
2
A
= Sample i, channel TCH/H n°2
= SACCH associated with TCH 2
Ti = Sample i, channel TCH/H n°1
A1 = SACCH associated with TCH 1 A2
Ti
2 "HALF-RATE" + 2 SACCHs :
T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T
1 "FULL-RATE" + 1 SACCH :
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 70
Radio Interface
4.3.3 ChanneI Mapping
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
TS
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
"Beacon" frequency
Other
frequencies
FCCH + SCH + BCCH + PCH + AGCH
uplink direction
downlink direction
RACH
TS 0 :
TS 1 : 8 SDCCH/8 + 8 SACCH/8 in each direction
other TSs: TCH (+ SACCH / FACCH)
in each direction
BTS
ExampIes : Number of Frequencies Number of TCH ChanneIs ERLANGS (formuIa B, bIocking 2%)
3 22 15
4 30 22
5 38 29
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 71
Radio Interface
4.3.3 ChanneI Mapping
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
TS
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
¨Beacon¨
frequency
Other
frequency
(FCCH + SCH + BCCH) + (PCH + AGCH + RACH) + (4 SDCCH/4 + 4 SACCH/4)
TS 0 of beacon
frequency:
other TSs: TCH + SACCH (+ FACCH))
BTS
Structure of the MuItiframe in "Time SIot" 0 (Config. n° 1: combined BCCH) :
DOWNLINK (Multiframes of 51 frames)
F = FCCH S = SCH B = BCCH C = CCCH (PCH or AGCH) R = RACH Dn/An = SDCCH / SACCH/4
UPLINK
F S B C F S F S
F S - F S C C D0 D1 D2 D3 A0 A1
F S B C F S F S
F S -
F S C C D0 D1 D2 D3 A2 A3
R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R
D3 A2 A3 D0 D1 D2
R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R
D3 A0 A1 D0 D1 D2
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 72
Radio Interface
4.3.4 Timing Advance
BTS
MS
Presynchronized
BTS
Tx
Rx
Tx
Rx
MS1
TS i
TS i
T.A. measured by BTS
Access Burst
forward propagation time
BTS
Tx
Rx
Tx
Rx
MS1
TS i
TS i
(after TA)
- TA
forward propagation time
return propagation time
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 73
Radio Interface
4.3.5 Subscriber Paging
The Network knows the LOCATION AREA (LA) in which the mobiIe is
traveIIing.
An LA can cover more than one ceII.
The PCH channeI is used to signaI a CaII to a mobiIe.
The same "Paging" message is transmitted to aII ceIIs in the area (shaded
areas above).
OnIy a mobiIe in "IDLE" state (pre-synchronized) can respond to paging.
BSC
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 74
Radio Interface
4.3.6 Access to the Network
An access request is aIways initiated by the MS
(when an MS is caIIed, the "paging" procedure is used).
The RACH channeI is used to transmit the "CHANNEL REQUEST" message.
The channeI is caIIed "random" since the mobiIe chooses the caII TS
randomIy.
This means that there is a risk of coIIision.
Collisions are resolved by retransmission after pseudo-random delays.
MS1
MS5
MS2 MS3 MS4 MS4
MS5
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 75
Radio Interface
4.3.7 LogicaI ChanneI Summary
Abbreviation Name Type RoIe/Info carried Burst format
Frequency Correction CHannel MP --> MS Frequency for synthesizer alignment Frequency
Synchronization CHannel MP --> MS Timing sync - Frame N° Sync
Broadcast Common CHannel MP --> MS Broadcast system information Normal
Random Access CHannel PP <-- MS Network access (Channel request) Access
Paging CHannel PP --> MS Subscriber paging (paging) Normal
Access Grant CHannel PP --> MS SDCCH channel assignment (Ìmm.Ass) Normal
Cell Broadcast Control CHannel MP --> MS Broadcast short messages (SMS/CB) Normal
Notification CHannel MP --> MS Accessibility notification (VGCS/VBS) Normal
Dedicated
SignaIIing
(out of call)
Standalone Dedicated Ctrl CH. PP <----> Out of call signalling Normal
Slow Associated Control CH. PP <----> Measurements - P Contr. - Timing adv. Normal
Traffic / Full Rate CHannel PP <----> 13 kbit/s traffic Normal
Traffic / Half Rate CHannel PP <----> 5.6 kbit/s traffic (phase 2) Normal
Slow Associated Control CH. PP <----> Measurements - P Contr. - Timing adv. Normal
Fast Associated Control CH. PP <----> Ìn call signalling (cycle stealing) Normal
FamiIy
FCCH
SCH
BCCH
Broadcast
Common
ControI
Dedicated
Traffic +
SignaIIing
(during call)
RACH
PCH
AGCH
CBCH
NCH
SDCCH
SACC
H
TCH/F
TCH/H
SACCH
FACCH
GSM (circuit switching)
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 76
Radio Interface
4.3.7 LogicaI ChanneI Summary
NCH
Abbreviation Name Type RoIe/Info carried Burst format
Packet Broadcast Common CH. MP --> MS Broadcast system information Normal
Random Access CHannel PP <-- MS Network access (Channel request) Access
Packet Paging CHannel PP --> MS Subscriber paging (paging) Normal
Access Grant CHannel PP --> MS SDCCH channel assignment (Ìmm.Ass) Normal
Notification CHannel MP --> MS Accessibility notification (VGCS/VBS) Normal
Packet Data Transfer Channel PP <----> Normal
Packet Associated Control Ch. PP <----> Normal
Packet Timing Control Ch. PP <----> Timing advance Normal
FamiIy
PBCC
H
Broadcast
PCCCH
pdch
PRACH
PPCH
PAGC
H
PDTCH
PACC
H
PTCCH
Acknowledge - Power Control
User Data
GPRS
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 77
ChanneI
Encoding
Radio Interface
4.4.1 Radio ChanneI generation
Speech
Digitization
and
Encoding
InterIeaving
Burst
Formatting
Encryption ModuIation Transmission
Reception
DemoduIation
Decryption
Burst
Deformatting
De-
interIeaving
ChanneI
Decoding
Speech
Decoding
POWER CONTROL
260 bits / 20 ms :13 kbit/s
22.8 kbit/s
(per channel)
270.8 kbit/s
FR Speech frames :
(modulated)
...
.
.
...
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 78
Radio Interface
4.4.1 Radio ChanneI generation
Bit Rate on Um interface
GSM circuit-switched
Full Rate (FR) / Enhanced Full rate (EFR) speech: 13 Kbps / 12.2 Kbps
Half rate (HR) speech: 5.6 Kbps
Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR): variable speech coding rate from 4.75 to 12.2
Data transmission: maximum 14.4 Kbps
GSM packet-switched (GPRS) : 4 Coding Schemes (CS)
CS-1 : 8.8 Kbps (per TS)
CS-2 : 11.2 Kbps (per TS)
CS-3 : 14.8 Kbps (per TS)
CS-4 : 17.6 Kbps (per TS)
EDGE: 9 ModuIation and Coding Schemes (MCS)
MCS-1 to MCS-4 with same rate and same modulation
MCS-5 to MCS-9 from 22.4 to 59.2 Kbps with new EDGE modulation
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 79
Radio Interface
4.4.1 Radio ChanneI generation
Speech coding: Adaptive MuIti-Rate (AMR)
Voice quality benefits:
provides the best voice quality according to radio conditions
increases in the same time the offered capacity due to the provision of half-
rate channels
2 extensive sets of "codec modes¨:
÷ 6 possible rates in HR channels: 4.75, 5.15, 5.9, 6.7, 7.4, 7.95 Kbps
÷ 8 possible rates in FR channels: 4.75, 5.15, 5.9, 6.7, 7.4, 7.95, 10.2,12.2 Kbps
Channel coding = speech protection Speech coding = speech information
Medium radio
conditions
Bad radio
conditions
Good radio
conditions
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 80
Radio Interface
4.4.2 Discontinuous Transmission
PrincipIes (Mandatory in the mobiIe and on the BTS upIink path) :
DTX (Discontinuous Transmission) : reduced rate transmission (~ 500 bit/s)
during silences
VAD (Voice Activity Detection): Measurement of signal strength for detecting
moments of "silence¨ (neither speech nor tone) - adaptive-threshold FÌLTER
Comfort Noise Generation:
Ìn receive mode, reconstitution of background noise based on the
characteristics received in Silence Descriptor (SÌD) frames, to avoid giving the
receiving user the impression that the line has been cut off
S
S S S S S S S S S
480 ms
BTS
TRAU --> BTS
MS <--> BTS
Speech
SiIence
SID Frame
TRAU
MS
...
.
.
...
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 81
GMSK = Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying:
convoIution of an MSK ramp ( /2 - width: 1 bit),
by a Gaussian function:
0-1 or 1-0 bit transitions => "smooth" transitions of ± /2 :
PROPERTIES :
GraduaI transitions avoid the need
to fiIter signaI harmonics which are very weak
Spectrum efficiency ~ 1 bit/Hertz
(270.8 kbaud/200 kHz)
ModuIation spectrum:
==> To prevent catastophic interference,
it is essentiaI to avoid using
adjacent frequencies in adjacent ceIIs.
Radio Interface
4.4.3 GMSK ModuIation
/2
t
0 -T
b
(t)
T
b
MSK
T
b
/2 -T
b
/2
GMSK
dB
0
-10
-20
-30
-70
0 100 200 300 400 -100 -200
kHz
200
KHz
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 82
Radio Interface
4.5.1 RaIeigh Fading
" f "
"GAP" in frequency " f " reception
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 83
Radio Interface
4.5.2 Frequency Hopping
N-frequency hopping groups can be defined for each TS (N>=4)
The overaII system capacity remains unchanged (eg. : 32 mobiIes on 4
frequencies)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
TS
"Beacon" frequency
Other
frequencies
FCCH/ SCH/ BCCH/ CCCH
SDCCH No Hopping
TS0 : Hopping over 4 frequencies TS3 : Hopping over 5 frequencies
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 84
Radio Interface
4.5.3 Power ControI
Power ControI (PC) is used to minimize interferences
PC aIgorithm in BSC (processing and decision)
PC Mandatory for MS: steps of 2dB every 60 msec , option for BTS: 15 steps of 2 dB
8 W
~ 3 mW
2 15
28 dB
5
13
39
PC
steps
19 17
31 31
29 dBm
time
= 60 ms
(commands)
PossibIe vaIues of Output Power
(GSM 900 MS)
2 W
33 33
P max MS 2W
19
Output
Power
(dBm)
PC LeveI
ExampIe of PC Commands
(GSM 900 MS)
Output
Power
(dBm)
19
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 85
...
.
.
...
Rx
Chain 1
Rx
Chain 2
RESULT
Radio Interface
4.5.4 Space Diversity
Space Diversity is used against fading in the uplink direction
The same signal with different multi-paths is received in the Base Station
where it is processed within 2 independent chains :
a Discriminator then identifies the best signal.
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 86
Radio Interface
Exercise
At a precise time, a "snapshot" of one ceII is the foIIowing:
14 MS are in communication with subscribers in the fixed network
7 MS have started a Iocation updating procedure and are waiting for the
answer of the VLR
2 MS are receiving an SMS
(but they have not estabIished a "speech" caII)
4 MS have started a caII estabIishment procedure
(caIIed party number aIready sent)
but the caII is not estabIished
(traffic resource not yet aIIocated).
CouId you give :
the minimum number of carriers used in the ceII
the minimum number of dedicated signaIIing resources in the ceII
(signaIIing out of the caII)
the minimum number of traffic channeIs in the ceII
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 87
Introduction to the AIcateI GSM Network
5 Interchanges over the Network
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 88
Interchanges over the Network
Contents
5.1 GSM Numbers and Identities
5.1.1 GSM Subscribers: main types of identification
5.1.2 Mobile Equipment identification
5.1.3 Geographic identification
5.2 BSS / NSS ProtocoIs and Software ModuIes
5.2.1 General
5.2.2 Radio Ìnterface (Um) : Layer 3 : "RÌL 3" protocol
5.2.3 GPRS protocols
5.3 TypicaI Sequence for an Originating CaII
5.4 LeveI 3 GSM Procedures
5.4.1 Setting up the radio connection
5.4.2 Security Functions
5.4.3 Mobile Originating Call (MO)
5.4.4 Mobile Terminating Call (MT)
5.4.5 Example of an Ìnternational Call
5.4.6 Location Updating
5.4.7 Change of Cell during the Call ("Handover")
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 89
Interchanges over the Network
5.1.1 GSM number and identities: Subscriber identifications
IMSI MS - ISDN
( International Mobile Subscriber Identity )
InternationaI Identity E212 compIiant
Nature
( Mobile Station - Integrated Service Digital Network n° )
Directory Number ISDN type, E.164/E.213 compIiant
MCC MNC
MSIN
H1 H2 x x x ........ x x x
MobiIe
Country
Code
MobiIe
NationaI
Code
MobiIe Subscriber Identity Number
incIuding H1 H2 identifying the HLR
Format
Meaning
N° of digits
ExampIes
Characteristics
3 2 max 10
234
208 01
10
Stored in SIM moduIe and AuC
CC NDC
SN
M1 M2 x x x x x x x x
Country
Code
NationaI
Code*
Destination
Subscriber Number
( national identity )
incIuding M1 M2 identifying the HLR
1 to 3 2 to 4
44 802 Cellnet GSM
44 385 Vodafone GSM
44 956 Mercury DCS
44 973 Hutchinson DCS
33
33
607/8
609
61 MC DU to 69 MC DU LYON
01 MC DU to 09 MC DU MASSENA
11 xxxx to 3x xxxx LA FOURCHE
AIIocated to an IMSI (by MMC) in the HLR
69 xx xx xx xx LYON
94 xx xx xx xx MASSENA
?
France
U.K.
Orange
Cegetel
totaI up to 15
* instead of identifying a geographic area, the NDC identifies an OPERATOR:
( national identity ) NMSI
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 90
Interchanges over the Network
5.1.2 GSM number and identities: MobiIe Equipment identification
IMEI / IMEISV
( International Mobile Equipment Identity )
TAC FAC SNR SP
Type ApprovaI Code
FinaI AssembIy Code
SeriaI NumbeR
(SPare)
Stored in the Equipment (Terminal)
Used to replace the ÌMSÌ or TMSÌ if they cannot be used
(example : emergency calls with no SÌM card) or at the network's request (maintenance)
Can be used to update the EÌR database (if there is one)
( International Mobile Equipment Identity and Software Version number) (Phase 2+)
TAC FAC SNR SVN
Software Version Number
IMEI
:
IMEISV:
...
.
.
...
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 91
LAI: Location Area Identification
MCC = MobiIe Country Code
MNC = MobiIe Network Code
LAC = Location Area Code
Use of LAI:
Paging
Location Area Updating
Security
CGI Cell Global Identification
CI = CeII Identifier
Interchanges over the Network
5.1.3 GSM number and identities: Geographic identification
MCC MNC LAC CI
LAI
CGI
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 92
RAI: Routing Area Identification
MCC = MobiIe Country Code
MNC = MobiIe Network Code
LAC = Location Area Code
RAC = Routing Area Code
Use of RAI:
Paging
Routing Area Updating
Interchanges over the Network
5.1.3 GSM number and identities: Geographic identification
MCC MNC LAC RAC
RAI
For GPRS:
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 93
Interchanges over the Network
5.2.1 BSS / NSS ProtocoIs and Software ModuIes: generaI
S.C.1 S.C.1 S.C.1 S.C.1
SCCP
MTP 3
MTP 2
S.C.1
SCCP
MTP 3
MTP 2
S.C.1
TCAP
MAP
TCAP
MAP
SCCP
MTP 3
MTP 2
S.C.1
DTAP
SCCP
MTP 3
MTP 2
S.C.1
DTAP
LAPD LAPDm LAPD
SS (SMS) SS (SMS)
BSS
MAP
MM
CC
BSS
MAP
RR
RR
RR' BTSM BTSM
LAPDm
(SMS)
SS
CC
MM
(ReIays)
MS BTS BSC MSC / VLR
NSS
(eg. : HLR)
Um A bis A (D)
1
2
3
(ReIays)
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 94
- Call handling and routing
- DTMF facilities
- Access to Supplementary Services
- Short Message Service
- Paging management
- Ciphering mode management
- Frequency redefinition
- Dedicated channel assignment
- Handover management
- Measurements and power control
Interchanges over the Network
5.2.2 BSS / NSS ProtocoIs and Software ModuIes: Radio Interface
Radio Ìnterface Layer 3 protocol
ProtocoI
Discriminator
RR Radio Resource
Management
Meaning
MM MobiIity Management
- Location Updating
- Ciphering mode management
- Frequency redefinition
- Dedicated channel assignment
Function
CaII ControI
SuppIementary Services
Short Message Service
CC
SS
SMS
Entities
MS - BSC
(and BTS)
MS -
MSC / VLR
MS - MSC
(+ HLR)
(+ SMS-C)
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 95
ÌP Network
BSS
SGSN
MS
1
GGSN1
GGSN2
PDN1
PDN2
LLC
TLLÌ
1
Attachment
TÌD
2
= ÌMSÌ + session
2
GTP
TÌD
1
= ÌMSÌ + session
1
Opening
Session(s)
Interchanges over the Network
5.2.3 BSS / NSS ProtocoIs and Software ModuIes: GPRS protocoIs
GPRS operation: basic procedures
TLLÌ = Temporary Logical Link Ìdentity
TÌD = Tunnel Ìdentity
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 96
ip ip ip ip ip
http http ftp ftp smtp smtp gtp gtp
GGSN
SGSN
1
tcp
1 tcp
wap wap
Interchanges over the Network
5.2.3 BSS / NSS ProtocoIs and Software ModuIes: GPRS protocoIs
ÌP overview
Routers
IP network
CIient Server
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 97
GTP SNDCP
SNDCP
BSSGP
LLC
MS BSS SGSN GGSN
Um
Gn
Layer Model for Transmission plan (GPRS)
Interchanges over the Network
5.2.3 BSS / NSS ProtocoIs and Software ModuIes: GPRS ProtocoIs
relay
L1 bis
Frame
ReIay
L1
L2
L1
L2
PhysicaI
Layer
MAC
L1 bis
Frame
ReIay
PhysicaI
Layer
MAC
RLC
LLC
Gb
GTP
IP
UDP &
TCP
IP / X25
AppIi
BSSG
P
RLC
IP
UDP &
TCP
IP / X25
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 98
Layer Model for Transmission plan (GPRS) (2)
Interchanges over the Network
5.2.3 BSS / NSS ProtocoIs and Software ModuIes: GPRS protocoIs
Header Data
Header
Data
LLC
PHYSICAL
CRC CRC CRC
RLC MAC
IP/X25
SNDCP
Division of the SDU in 2 bIocks
Compression of each part
LabeI added for each bIock
LLC EncapsuIation
CRC
RLC EncapsuIation
LLC frame spIitted
into bIocks
Header
= < 1520 Bytes Header
ChanneI Coding CS1 to CS4
BIock 1BIock 2BIock 3BIock 4BIock 5BIock 6BIock 7BIock 8
BIock 1 BIock 2 BIock 3 BIock 8
CRC Header
Header
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 99
GTP GMM
BSSGP
LLC
MS BSS SGSN GSN
Um
Gn
Layer Model for Signalling plan (GPRS)
Interchanges over the Network
5.2.3 BSS / NSS ProtocoIs and Software ModuIes: GPRS protocoIs
relay
L1 bis
Frame
ReIay
L1
L2
L1
L2
L1 RF
MAC
L1 bis
Frame
ReIay
L1 RF
MAC
RLC
LLC
Gb
IP
UDP
SM
BSSG
P
RLC
IP
G
SMS
UDP
GMM
SM
G
SMS
GTP
GSN
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 100
Interchanges over the Network
5.3 TypicaI Sequence for an Originating CaII
MOBILE
CHANNEL REQUEST
IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT
CM SERVICE REQUEST
AUTHENTICATION REQUEST
AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE
CIPHERING MODE CMD
CIPHERING MODE COMPLETE
SET UP
CALL PROCEEDING
ASSIGNMENT CMD
ASSIGNMENT COM
ALERTING
CONNECT
CONNECT ACK
SET-UP of an
RR CONNECTION (MO)
SERVICE INDICATION
AUTHENTICATION
TRANSITION to CIPHERING MODE
START of CALL
TRAFFIC CHANNEL
CALL CONFIRMATION
CALL ACCEPTED
ASSIGNMENT
...
.
.
...
GSM
Network
PSTN or ISDN
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 101
SDCCH N°
MM CM_SERVICE REQUEST
SDCCH N°
RACH
Interchanges over the Network
5.4.1 LeveI 3 GSM procedures: Setting up the radio connection
MS
CHANNEL REQUEST
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN.
BTS
BSC MSC
Um
A bis A
CHANNEL REQUIRED
ASSIGNMENT of an
SDCCH Channel
CHANNEL ACTIV.
ACTIVATION of
Channel indicated
CHANNEL ACTIV. ACK
AGCH
CONNECTION to the
SDCCH Channel
SDCCH
SABM
ESTABLISH INDIC.
SCCP CONNECT REQUEST
SCCP CONNECT CONFIRM
T3101
T9105
IMM. ASSIGN. CMD
RR
RR
MM CM_SERVICE REQUEST
RR
BTSM
BTSM
BTSM
SDCCH
UA
MM CM_SERVICE REQUEST
MM CM_SERVICE REQUEST
...
.
.
...
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 102
Interchanges over the Network
5.4.2 LeveI 3 GSM procedures: Security Functions
Authentication
Checks that the Mobile Station is the required station and not an intruder
Ciphering
All Ìnformation (Signalling, Speech and Data) is sent in ciphered mode, to avoid
monitoring and intruders (who could analyze signalling data)
Temporary Identification (TMSI)
used instead of ÌMSÌ for safety reason: "tracing¨ of MS not so easy on air
interface
Allocated at least when MS is registered in a new VLR
(but may be allocated at each transaction)
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 103
Interchanges over the Network
5.4.2 LeveI 3 GSM procedures: Security Functions
SIM card
A3
AuC
Radio ChanneI
A8
Ki Ki
Random number seIection
A3
A8
A3 A3
A8 A8
A5 A5
= ?
Identification key (128 bits)
RAND (128 bits)
RAND
Signed ref. (32 bits)
SRES SRES
Cipher command
OK
Kc : Cipher key
for the call (64 bits)
Kc
Speech - Data - Signalling Speech - Data - Signalling
Ciphered data
Ciphering/Deciphering
Ciphering/Deciphering
BTS
A5 A5
...
.
.
...
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 104
Interchanges over the Network
5.4.2 LeveI 3 GSM procedures: Security Functions
MS BTS HLR MSC / VLR AuC
SIM card
IMSI
Ki
A3
A8
RAND
SRES
Kc
Ciphering
Function
A5
Ciphering
Function
RAND
SRES
Kc
RAND
SRES
Kc
Kc
= ?
Triplets
TripIet
Generation
RAND
Ki
Ki
IMSI
A4
Ki
IMSI
(ciphered)
A4
A2
Speech
Data
Sign°
Speech
Data
Sign°
(ciphered)
RAND
SRES
A8
A3
Ki
IMSI
IMSI
A8
A3
Ki
IMSI
IMSI
TMSI
A5
Kc
TMSI
A5
Kc
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 105
Interchanges over the Network
5.4.3 LeveI 3 GSM procedures: MobiIe Originating CaII
MOBILE
CHANNEL REQUEST
IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT
CM SERVICE REQUEST
AUTHENTICATION
CIPHERING
SET UP
ASSIGNMENT CMD
ASSIGNMENT COM
ALERTING
CONNECT
CONNECT ACK
VEA : Very EarIy Assignment :
CALL CONFIRMATION
CALL ACCEPTED
or SET UP if VEA
ASSIGNMENT CMD
ASSIGNMENT COM
1/2 OACSU :
ASSIGNMENT CMD
ASSIGNMENT COM
OACSU compIete
Immediate assignment of a TCH :
No authentication or ciphering
(Signalling carried on FACCH)
EA : EarIy Assignment :
TCH allocated BEFORE call confirmation
omitted if VEA
TCH allocated after called party ringing
TCH allocated after called party answer
...
.
.
...
GSM
Network
PSTN or ISDN
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 106
TCH allocation
Interchanges over the Network
5.4.3 LeveI 3 GSM procedures: MobiIe Originating CaII
CHANNEL ACTIV.
DATA REQUEST
MS BTS
BSC MSC/VLR
A bis A
CALL PROCEEDING
DATA INDICATION
SCCP DATA
SCCP DATA
SET - UP
ASSIGNMENT CMD
PHYS. CTX REQ.
SCCP DATA
CIC selection
AUTHENTICATION
CIPHERING
CHANNEL REQUEST
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN.
RACH
AGCH
SDCCH N°
SDCCH
Ciphered
SABM
UA
ESTABLISH INDIC.
SCCP CONNECT REQUEST
SCCP CONNECT CONFIRM
SDCCH
PHYS. CTX CONF.
TCH
CHANNEL ACTIV. ACK
DATA REQUEST
Assignment Cmd
TCH
T3107
RELEASE REQ *
Local End
Um
RR
RR
CM Serv. Req. MM
CM Serv. Req. MM
CM Serv. Req. MM
CC
CC
Set - Up CC
Call Proceeding. CC Call Proceeding. CC
Set - Up CC
Assignment Request BSSMAP
BTSM
BTSM
BTSM
BTSM
RR
RR
* : if no answer from MS
IAM ISUP
...
.
.
...
PSTN or ISDN
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 107
Off-hooking
Called P. ringing
Connect
Connect
Alerting
Assign. compl.
Assign. compl.
Interchanges over the Network
5.4.3 LeveI 3 GSM procedures: MobiIe Originating CaII
DATA REQUEST
MS
BTS BSC MSC/VLR
Um
A bis A
ALERTING
DATA INDICATION
SCCP DATA
SCCP DATA
ASSIGNMENT COMPL.
RF CHANNEL REL.
SCCP DATA
FACCH
SABM
UA
ESTABLISH INDIC.
RF CHANNEL REL. ACK
DATA REQUEST
CONNECT
SCCP DATA
ACM
ANM
DATA IND.
CONNECT ACK Connect
Ack
CONVERSATION PHASE
Alerting
Connect
Ack
...
.
.
...
PSTN or ISDN
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 108
Interchanges over the Network
5.4.4 LeveI 3 GSM procedures: MobiIe Terminating CaII
GMSC
VMSC
VLR
HLR
1
3
4
5
6
7
8
2
...
.
.
...
PSTM
PLMM
9
SignaIIing
Traffic
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 109
Interchanges over the Network
5.4.4 LeveI 3 GSM procedures: MobiIe Terminating CaII
MOBILE
CHANNEL REQUEST
IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT
PAGING RESULT
AUTHENTICATION REQUEST
AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE
CIPHERING MODE CMD
CIPHERING MODE COMPLETE
SET UP
CALL CONFIRMED
ASSIGNMENT CMD
ASSIGNMENT COM
ALERTING
CONNECT
CONNECT ACK
SET-UP of an
RR CONNECTION (MT)
SERVICE INDICATION
AUTHENTICATION
TRANSITION to CIPHERING mode
START OF CALL
TRAFFIC CHANNEL
CALL CONFIRMATION
CALL ACCEPTED
ASSIGNMENT
PSTN or ISDN
PAGING REQUEST
...
.
.
...
GSM
Network
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 110
Interchanges over the Network
5.4.5 LeveI 3 GSM procedures: InternationaI CaII
GMSC
PSTN
VMSC
VLR
HLR
Visited PLMN
interrogation
Home PLMN
COUNTRY 1
COUNTRY 2
COUNTRY 3
Incoming
Incoming
Outgoing
Outgoing
InternationaI SCCP
Gateways ...
.
.
...
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 111
Interchanges over the Network
5.4.6 LeveI 3 GSM procedures: Location Updating
GeneraI
This procedure is always initiated by the Mobile Station and involves providing the VLR
(and HLR if required) with its current position,
The visited VLR stores the Location Area (LA),
The LA n° (LAÌ) received is updated dynamically in SÌM non-volatile memory.
NormaI Location Update
When the mobile is switched on without having stored the LAÌ (eg.: initial use of SÌM),
When the mobile is switched on in a different LA from the LA stored in the SÌM,
When the pre-synchronized mobile moves from one LA to another (same or different
VLR).
Periodic Location Update
When the SÌM internal counter overflows
(This counter is automatically incremented by the mobile when it is switched on)
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 112
Interchanges over the Network
5.4.6 LeveI 3 GSM procedures: Location Updating
MOBILE
CHANNEL REQUEST
IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT
LOCATION UPDATING REQUEST oId TMSI or IMSI
AUTHENTICATION REQUEST
AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE
CIPHERING MODE CMD
CIPHERING MODE COMPLETE
LOCATION UPDATING ACCEPT new
TMSI REALLOCATION COMPLETE
CHANNEL RELEASE
Set-up of an
RR Connection (MO)
Service Indication
Authentication (*)
Transition to
Ciphering Mode (*)
AIIocation of a new
Temporary Identification
RR Connection reIease
TMSI
...
.
.
...
GSM
Network
(*) option
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 113
RACH
AGCH
SDCCH
Interchanges over the Network
5.4.6 LeveI 3 GSM procedures: Location Updating
CHANNEL REQUEST
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN.
CHANNEL REQUIRED
CHANNEL ACTIV.
CHANNEL ACTIV. ACK
SABM
UA
ESTABLISH INDIC.
SCCP CONNECT REQUEST
SCCP CONNECT CONFIRM
IMM. ASSIGN. CMD
MS BTS
BSC MSC
Um A bis A
VLR
SCCP DATA
DATA REQUEST
LOCATION UPDATING
ACCEPT
TMSI
TMSI REALLOC COMPLETE
DATA INDICATION
SCCP DATA
HLR
UPDATE LOCATION
AREA UPDATE LOCATION
UPDATE LOCATION ACC
INSERT SUBSCR. DATA
LOC. AREA UPD. ACC.
INSERT SUB. DATA ACK
TMSI Alloc.
RR
RR
MM
Loc. Upd. Req. MM
RR
BTSM
BTSM
BTSM
MAP
MAP
MAP
MAP
MAP
MAP
MM
TMSI Realloc. compl. MM
TMSI Realloc. compl. MM
Loc. Upd. Req. MM Loc. Upd. Req. MM
Loc. Upd. Req. MM
Loc. Upd. Acc. MM
Loc. Upd. Acc. MM
...
.
.
...
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 114
Interchanges over the Network
5.4.7 LeveI 3 GSM procedures: Handover
3 Phases :
Ìdentification of requirement, Selection of a new cell, Execution
MobiIe Station:
Continuous Quality and Received Power Control
Continuous adjacent cell Power monitoring
Transmission of measurement reports to the BTS (every 0.5s)
Network:
The BTS measures the Quality and the received Power from the mobile
The BSC runs the Power Control and Handover central algorithm
The BSC controls the handover operation
Handover Types:
Ìntra-BSC / Ìnter - BSC, Ìntra - MSC / Ìnter - MSC (first and subsequent)
Ìnternal (within the same BTS) if there is uplink or downlink interference
Synchronized / non-synchronized
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 115
Interchanges over the Network
5.4.7 LeveI 3 GSM procedures: Handover
BSC
BSC
BSC
BSC
BTS 1
BTS 2
MSC /
VLR
MSC /
VLR
MSC /
VLR
PSTM
(Ìntra BSC)
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 116
PSTN or ISDN
FACCH
Release of old channel
Changeover to new channel
Internal Handover decision
Interchanges over the Network
5.4.7 LeveI 3 GSM procedures: Handover
MEASUREMENT REPORT
HANDOVER COMMAND
CHANNEL ACTIV.
CHANNEL ACTIV. ACK
SABM
UA
ESTABLISH INDIC.
MS BTS 1 BSC MSC
Um
A bis
A
SCCP DATA
DATA REQUEST
DATA INDICATION
Handover Cmd
H.O. Performed
Handover. compl.
BTS 2
(RELEASE REQUEST)
Local End
HANDOVER ACCESS
(access burst)
HANDOVER DETECTION
PHYSICAL INFO
HANDOVER COMPLETE
T8
RF CHANNEL RELEASE
RF CHANNEL RELEASE ACK
RR
MEASUREMENT REPORT
MEASUREMENT REPORT
MEASUREMENT REPORT RR
BTSM
BTSM
RR
RR
RR
RR
RR
BTSM
BTSM
BSSMAP
RR
FACCH
SACCH
SACCH
FACCH
(oId)
(new)
...
.
.
...
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
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Interchanges over the Network
5.4.7 LeveI 3 GSM procedures: Handover
BTS 2
BTS 1
MSC /
VLR
MSC /
VLR
MSC /
VLR
PSTM BSC 1
BSC 2
BSC
BSC
(Ìnter BSC)
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Interchanges over the Network
5.4.7 LeveI 3 GSM procedures: Handover
BTS 2
BTS 1
MSC / VLR1
MSC / VLR2
MSC /
VLR
PSTM BSC
BSC 1
BSC 2
BSC
(Ìnter MSC)
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Interchanges over the Network
5.4.7 LeveI 3 GSM procedures: Handover
BTS 1
BTS 2
MSC / VLR1
MSC / VLR2
MSC / VLR3
PSTM BSC
BSC
BSC 1
BSC 2
(Ìnter MSC
subsequent)
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Interchanges over the Network
5.4.8 LeveI 3 GSM procedures: Attach procedure in GPRS
(simple case:
- GPRS attach only
- one SGSN involved)
Attach Request
Update Location
Security functions
Attach Accept
MS attached to the GPRS Network
(abIe to be paged)
MS BS
S
SGSN HLR GGSN
Security
functions
Update Location Ack
Insert Subscriber Data
(IMSI, Subscriber data)
Insert Subscriber Data Ack
1
2
3
5
6
Attach CompIete
4
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Interchanges over the Network
5.4.9 LeveI 3 GSM procedures: PDP Context Activation in GPRS
Send Routing Info
for GPRS
Activate PDP Context
Request
PDU Notification Request
Security Functions
Activate PDP context Accept
MS BS
S
SGSN HLR GGSN
Create PDP Context Request
Create PDP Context
Response
PDP PDU
Send Routing Info
for GPRS Ack
PDU Notification Response
Request PDP Context Activation
PDP Context Activation Procedure
MS
reques
t
GGSN
request
PDP
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Interchanges over the Network
5.4.10 LeveI 3 GSM procedures: RA update in GPRS
Update PDP Context Request
( Identity oId RA)
Routing Area Update Request
(OId) (New)
CanceI Location
CanceI Location Ack
Update Location
Ack Routing Area update Accept
Routing Area update CompIete
GGSN MS BS
S
SGSN SGSN HLR
SGSN Context Request
SGSN Context Response
Security functions
SGSN Context Ack
Update PDP Context Response
Update Location
Insert Subscriber Data
Insert Subscriber Data
Ack
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
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Interchanges over the Network
Exercise 1 : InternationaI CaII
CaIIing Party = fixed subscriber / CaIIed Party = MS roaming in a VPLMN
In which country is the GMSC Iocated ?
caIIing party country caIIed party country visited
country
In which country are the security tripIets used during the
authentication of an internationaI caII generated ?
caIIing party country caIIed party country visited
country
If the ciphering mode is possibIe, the MS wiII use the ciphering
aIgorithm of the :
caIIing party country caIIed party country visited
country
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Interchanges over the Network
Exercise 2 : Handover Procedure
Handover Procedure
For each phase of the handover procedure,
seIect the concerned unit(s):
MS BTS BSC MSC VLR HLR
CoIIecting the measurements :
Processing the measurements :
Candidate CeII EvaIuation :
Decision to hand the MS
over the new ceII:
Handover Execution :
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Interchanges over the Network
Exercise 3 : Location Updating Procedure
Location Updating Procedure
Which entity decides to start a Location Updating Procedure ?
MS BTS BSC MSC VLR HLR
Which event triggers a Location Updating procedure ?
(1 or severaI answers)
Each time when the ceII changes during a communication.
When the MS is in idIe state, each time it synchronizes on a new ceII.
When the MS synchronizes on a new ceII and the Location Area Code
broadcast by this new ceII is different from the previous one.
A handover procedure has succeeded, the new ceII beIongs to a new
Location Area and the caII has just been reIeased.
During a Location Updating procedure the MS is identified with :
TMSI (aIways) IMSI (aIways) TMSI or IMSI
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
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Introduction to the AIcateI GSM Network
6 AIcateI's SoIution
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
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AIcateI's SoIution
Contents
6.1 Base Station Sub-System
6.2 Network and Switching Sub-System
6.3 GeneraI Packet Radio Service
6.4 Operation and Maintenance
6.5 VaIue-added Services
6.6 InteIIigent Network / CAMEL Services
6.7 OveraII infrastructure
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AIcateI's SoIution
6.1 Base Station Sub-System
BTS
BSC
OMC
MFS
the GPRS box
GPRS into BSS sites via
software download only
New standard TRX
GSM / EDGE plug-in
UMTS TRX
plug-in
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AIcateI's SoIution
6.1 Base Station Sub-System
And a great variety of multiband configurations such as
3x2 TRX 900 + 3x2 TRX 1800 in one cabinet
Cabinet
type
Configuration
TRX max
/sector
ÌND mini
Omni
2 sectors
4
2
ÌND medi
Omni
2 sectors
3 sectors
12
6
4
OUT mini
Omni
2 sectors
3 sectors
4
2
2
OUT medi
Omni
2 sectors
3 sectors
12
6
4
EvoIium Base Transceiver Station: AIcateI 9100
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AIcateI's SoIution
6.1 Base Station Sub-System
EvoIium Base Transceiver Station: AIcateI 9100
12 TRX BTS with dualband, EFR and GPRS inside
Continuous improvement in design with backward compatibility:
Standard version (1998)
÷ EFR, dualband, 12 TRX
Evolution Step 1 (2000)
÷ AC power supply, integrated Microwave,
3x2 indoor MÌNÌ cabinet
Evolution Step 2 (2000)
÷ EDGE/GPRS/GSM new standard TRX
Stand-alone UMTS Node B: (2001)
Multistandard BTS (2002)
÷ UMTS TRX plug-in
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AIcateI's SoIution
6.1 Base Station Sub-System
EvoIium Micro Base Transceiver Station: AIcateI 9110
Main radio features:
GSM 900 and/or GSM 1800
Single-antenna or low-loss version
Omni, sectored
Dualband configurations
( including Dualband cell in B6 )
Options
Complete cover (for aesthetics or protection)
Ìntegrated fan for hot environmental conditions
Ìntegrated antenna
VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio) detector
Site Support Cabinet for Battery Backup Unit (up to 270 minutes
for 2 TRX) and transmission equipment (HDSL, Microwave, NTL).
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AIcateI's SoIution
6.1 Base Station Sub-System
EvoIium Base Station ControIIer: AIcateI 9120 BSC
Configurations
Small configurations in 1 BSC cabinet (32 or 128 TRXs)
Medium configurations in 2 BSC cabinets (192 or 288 TRXs)
Large configurations in 3 BSC cabinets (up to 448 TRXs)
Scalability
6 BSC configurations from 32 TRXs up to 448 TRXs
÷ On-line extension possible to minimise
network impact
Up to 264 cells or 255 BTSs in the largest configuration
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AIcateI's SoIution
6.1 Base Station Sub-System
EvoIium MuIti-BSS Fast packet Server: AIcateI 9135 MFS
Typically one MFS per MSC site
Up to 22 Evolium¯ BSC's per Evolium¯ MFS
Up to 8 PCM lines towards each BSC
Up to 240 simultaneously active radio
channels (PDCH) per BSC
GPU hardware prepared for
960 active PDCH per BSS (future release)
Up to 13.4 kbit/s per radio channel
CS-2 raw data rate
GPU board prepared for higher data rates
(future release)
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
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AIcateI's SoIution
6.2 Network and Switching Sub-System
A
Alcatel
1000 E10
SSP
ÌN
MSC
VLR
RCF
Alcatel 1421
RCP
VLR
GSM function
AIcateI
equipment
ßTS
ßSC
PSTM/
SS7
AIcuteI 14ZZ
HLR/AuC
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AIcateI's SoIution
6.2 Network and Switching Sub-System
Radio ControI Point : AIcateI 1421 RCP
Server handling GSM 900 / 1800 functions
(security, roaming, handover)
Connected to the Alcatel 1000 E10 via the ÌN interface
Capacity : 500 000 subscribers (14 CPUs)
(depending on traffic and subscriber mobility)
Modularity : 16 RCPs with the same Alcatel 1000 E10
Based on the Alcatel 8360 : duplex architecture, real time application, ...
Ìncorporates the VLR function
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
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AIcateI's SoIution
6.2 Network and Switching Sub-System
Home Location Register : AIcateI 1422 HLR
Dialogue with the MSC via the SS7 network and MAP protocol
Capacity : 1 000 000 subscribers (14 CPUs)
Based on the Alcatel 8360 :
duplex architecture, real time application
Ìncorporates the AUC function
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
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AIcateI's SoIution
6.2 Network and Switching Sub-System
Function SSP RCP/VLR HLR/AuC
Authentication X X X
Paging X X
Registration X X X
Handover :
- control X X
- connection X
Call processing :
- switching X
- charging X
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AIcateI's SoIution
6.3 GPRS
BSS
AIcateI
9135 MFS
SSP + RCP
BSC
SGSN
OMC-R
MS
A bis
A ter
TC
Gb
A
GGSN
Gn
OMC-PS
CS CN (NSS)
PS CN
BTS
BTS
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AIcateI's SoIution
6.3 GPRS
SGSN
SGSN server
(Compaq Unix servers)
· SS7 MAP interfaces
· SGSN VLR data base
· Service HandIer : GMM, SM
· High LeveI Packet HandIer : LLC SNDCP, R,
GTP
· Low LeveI Packet HandIer : NS BSSGP
· O&M / Accounting
SGSN server
(Compaq Unix servers)
· SS7 MAP interfaces
· SGSN VLR data base
· Service HandIer : GMM, SM
· High LeveI Packet HandIer : LLC SNDCP, R,
GTP
· Low LeveI Packet HandIer : NS BSSGP
· O&M / Accounting
SGSN router
· Gn Iow Iayers
· IP router
· O&M
SGSN router
· Gn Iow Iayers
· IP router
· O&M
HLR, MSC / VLR
OMC-PS, CG, GIN
OMC- PS
Gb
Gn
Gb Front-End
(GPU boards)
· Gb on FR
· E1 / T1 links
Gb Front-End
(GPU boards)
· Gb on FR
· E1 / T1 links
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AIcateI's SoIution
6.3 GPRS
Nominal Capacity with Alcatel Traffic Model
Up to 300 000 dynamic MM (Mobility Management) contexts (= MS attached)
and PDP contexts activated
Configuration E can be SW-blocked to 5,10, 15, 20, 25, 50 or 75 kilo MM
contexts
SGSN
E E
50 50
100,000 100,000
F F
100 100
200,000 200,000
G G
150 150
300,000 300,000
Maximum number Maximum number
of PDP contexts of PDP contexts
Peak Throughput Peak Throughput
Capacity (Mb/s) Capacity (Mb/s)
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
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AIcateI's SoIution
6.3 GPRS
GGSN
All functions handled by a standard router (Cisco 7200 routers) with a
specific software
Up to 180000 activated PDP contexts per GGSN (72xx VXR platform)
Switching Capacity: 50 Mbps (with 7206 VXR platform)
Physical interfaces
6 physical slots to be shared between Gn and Gi
ATM, Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, ÌSDN, WAN E1 interfaces, ...
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
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AIcateI's SoIution
6.3 GPRS
Charging Gateway
Billing
System
Statistics,
Traffic
Performance
Charging Gateway
AIcateI 1338
CDR CoIIector
SGSN
VLR O&M
Router
GGSN
Hot Billing System
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 143
AIcateI OMC-PS
SSSN SSSN
0b
ßorder Sutewuy DNS/DHCP
OMC-PS
0n
0PPS
8ockbone 0i
0p
AIcateI's SoIution
6.3 GPRS
Management of GPRS Service Nodes
SGSN, GGSN, BG, DNS/DHCP, GPRS backbone, GPRS interfaces
Accesses to the NE's via a common management IP backbone
This backbone can be the GPRS ÌP backbone
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
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AIcateI's SoIution
6.4 Operation and Maintenance
SGSN
GGSN
OMC-G
OMC-S
MSC/VLR
HLR
NMC
Q3
MFS
BSS
OMC-R
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
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AIcateI's SoIution
6.5 VaIue-added Services
Voice Messaging service (VM)
Short Message service (SM-SC + SMS-CBC)
Equipment Ìdentity Register (EÌR)
Sales administration centre
Billing
SÌM card management
Subscriber administration

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 146
MSC
PSTM /
ISDM
AIcateI's SoIution
6.5 VaIue-added Services
ISUP
SM- SC
X.25
MAP MAP
MAP
ISUP
Short Message Service Center and Voice MaiI server
X.25
SS7
8SC 8TS
SMS - C8C
SMS - SC
Voice MoiI
HLP
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AIcateI's SoIution
6.6 InteIIigent Network / CAMEL Services
Architecture for «InteIIigent Network» services
RCF
MSC
INAP
Network
Management
SCP
SMP
Service Provider
Service subscriber
SSP
BSS
VLR
RCP
"ÌN" Server
"ÌN" Service Management
PSTM /
ISDM
HLR
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Page 148
AIcateI's SoIution
6.6 InteIIigent Network / CAMEL Services
RCF
MSC
CAP
Network
Management
SCP
CAMEL
SMP
CAMEL
Service Provider
Service subscriber
SRP
HPLMN
SSP
VPLMN
VLR
RCP
Architecture for «CAMEL» services
PSTM /
ISDM
BSS
HLR
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
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AIcateI's SoIution
6.7 OveraII Infrastructure (GSM)
BTS
BSC
TC
"A" Interface
S/Mux
Alcatel 1000 E10
SSP
Call
processing
Echo
canceller
IWF
PSTN/
ÌSDN
Voice
Mailbox
SMS
EÌR
HLR
AUC
Network
SS7
VLR
RCP
OMC-R OMC-NSS
Terminals
Operator terminaIs
Mobile radio
functions
SaIes
Management
Billing
centre
Subscriber
administration
system
A-bis
Interface
Air
Interface
MS
...
.
.
...
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
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AIcateI's SoIution
6.7 OveraII Infrastructure (GPRS)
Circuit
Packet
GGSN
SGSN
GPRS
Backbone
Gb
Gr, Gc
Charging
Gateway
GPRS
Interception
Node
W@P
MSC/VLR
GSM+GPRS
HLR
A
D
Gi
Ìnternet
BSS with
PCU
DNS/DHCP
ÌSDN
Gn
OMC-G
Border
Gateway
Gs, Gd
MS
...
.
.
...
Ìnter PLMN
backbone
Gp
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
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Introduction to the AIcateI GSM Network
7 Appendix
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 152
Appendix
W@P
W@P
Allows to bring Ìnternet information to any device
Encompasses any Digital Cellular technology (CDMA/GSM/TDMA/UMTS)
W@P server brings security, E-customer care, billing facilities
A De-facto Standard with
250 full members and 350 associated members in W@P Forum
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
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Appendix
W@P
Role of the W@P gateway
Adaptation of the information to the mobile
Compression of the data
Buffering of the information
MobiIe Network
Internet
Ì need to know:
stock exchange info,
sport scores,
flight info, weather
W@P Gateway W@P Service
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
Page 154
Appendix
Abbreviations and Acronyms
AMR Advanced Multi Rate (TC)
AMSS Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Services
AN Antenna Network (BTS)
AS Access Switch (BSC)
AS Alarm Surveillance (O&M)
ASMA A-ter Submultiplexer A
ASMB A-ter Submultiplexer B
AuC Authentication Center
BC Broadcast
BCU Broadcast Unit
BCLA BSC Clock A
BCR Broadcast Register
BCU Broadcast Unit
BCCH Broadcast Common Control Channel
(GSM TS)
BCF Base station Control Function (BTS)
BG Border Gate (GPRS)
BÌE Base Station Ìnterface Equipment
BÌEC Base Station Ìnterface Equipment (BSC)
BÌUA Base Station Ìnterface Unit A
BPA Back Panel Assembly
BSC Base Station Controller
BSS Base Station (sub)System
BSSGP Base Station System GPRS Protocol
(GPRS)
BTS Base Transceiver Station
CAE Customer Application Engineering
CAL Current Alarm List (O&M)
CBC Cell Broadcast Center
CBCH Cell Broadcast Channel (GSM TS)
CBE Cell Broadcast Entity
CCCH Common Control Channel (GSM TS)
CCU Channel Coding Unit
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Appendix
Abbreviations and Acronyms
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
CE Control Element (BSC)
CEK Control Element Kernel
CLK Clock
CLSÌ Custom Large Scale Ìntegrated circuit
CMA Configuration Management Application (O&M)
CMDA Common Memory Disk A
CMFA Common Memory Flash A
CPR Common Processor (Type: CPRA, CPRC)
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check
CS Circuit Switching (Telecom)
CS Coding Scheme (GPRS):
CS-1, CS-2, CS-3, CS-4
CU Carrier Unit (BTS)
DCE Data Circuit Terminating Equipment
DCN Data Communication Network
DL DownLink
DLS Data Load Segment
DMA Direct Memory Access
DRFU Dual Rate Frame Unit
DRX Discontinuous Reception (GSM TS)
DSE Digital Switching Element
DSN Digital Switching Network
DTX Discontinuous Transmission (GSM TS)
DTC Digital Trunk Controller
(Type: DTCA, DTCC)
DTE Data Terminal Equipment
EDGE Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution
EÌ Extension interface
EML Element Management Level
EPROM Erasable Programmable Read Only
Memory
ETSÌ European Telecom Standard Ìnstitute
FPE Functional and Protective Earth
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
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Appendix
Abbreviations and Acronyms
FR Full Rate (GSM TS)
FR Frame Relay (Telecom)
FRDN Frame Relay Data Network (Telecom)
FU Frame Unit (BTS)
FW Firmware
GCR Group Call Register
GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node (GPRS)
GMM GPRS Mobility Management (GPRS)
GMSC Gateway Mobile Switching Center
GPRS General Packet Radio Service
GPU GPRS Packet Unit
GS-1 Group Switch of stage 1 (BSC)
GS-2 Group Switch of stage 2 (BSC)
GSL GPRS Signalling Link
GSM Global System for Mobile Communications
GSM TS GSM Technical Specification
HAL Historical Alarm List (O&M)
HDSL High rate Digital Subscriber Line
HDLC High Level Datalink Control
HLR Home Location Register
HMÌ Human Machine Ìnterface
HO HandOver
HR Half Rate
HW Hardware
ÌDR Ìnternal Directed Retry
ÌLCS ÌSDN Link Controller
ÌMT Ìnstallation and Maintenance Terminal
(MFS)
ÌND Ìndoor (BTS)
ÌP Ìnternet Protocol
ÌSDN Ìntegrated Services Data Network
ÌT Ìntelligent Terminal
LA Location Area (GSM TS)
LAC Location Area Code (GSM TS)
LAN Local Area Network
LED Light Emitting Diode
LEO Low Earth Orbit (Satellite)
LLC Logical Link Control (GPRS)
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90125 0216 VT ZZA Ed.01
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Appendix
Abbreviations and Acronyms
MA Mobile Allocation (GSM TS)
MAC Medium Access Control (GPRS)
MAN Metropolitan Area Network
MAN MicroBTS Antenna Network (BTS)
MCB Multiplex Channel Block
MFS Multi-BSS Fast Packet Server (GPRS)
MLU Massive Logical Update
MMÌ Man Machine Ìnterface
MO Managed Object (O&M)
MS Mobile Station
MSC Mobile Switching Center
MSUM MicroBTS Station Unit Module (BTS)
NMÌ Non Maskable Ìnterrupt
NPA Network Performance Analyser
NSS Network SubSystem
NTL Network Termination Line
NW Network
OBC On Board Controller
OBCÌ On Board Controller Ìnterface
OC Originating Call
ODMC On Demand Measurement Campaign
(O&M)
O&M Operation and Maintenance
OMC Operation and Maintenance Center
OMC-R Operation and Maintenance Center -
Radio
OML Operation and Maintenance Link
OMU Operation and Maintenance Unit (BTS)
OS Operating System
OUT Outdoor (BTS)
PBA Printed Board Assembly
PBCCH Packet Broadcast Common Control
CHannel (GPRS)
PC Personal Computer
PCCCH Packet Common Control Channel
(GPRS)
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Appendix
Abbreviations and Acronyms
PCH Paging CHannel (GSM TS)
PCM Pulse Coded Modulation
PCU Packet Control Unit (GPRS)
PDCH Packet Data CHannel
PDN Packet Data Network (Telecom)
PDU Protocol Data Unit (generic terminology)
PLL Phase Locked Loop
PLMN Public Land Mobile Network
PMA Prompt Maintenance Alarm (O&M)
PMC Permanent Measurement Campaign
(O&M)
PPCH Packet Paging CHannel (GPRS)
PRACH Packet Random Access CHannel (GPRS)
PRC Provisioning Radio Configuration (O&M)
PSDN Packet Switching Data Network
(Telecom)
PSTN Public Switching Telephone Network
(Telecom)
PTP-CNLS Point To Point CoNnectionLeSs data
transfer (GPRS)
QoS Quality of Service
RA Radio Access
RACH Random Access CHannel (GSM TS)
RAM Random Access Memory
RCP Radio Control Point
RLC Radio Link Control (GPRS)
RLP Radio Link Protocol (GSM TS)
RML Radio Management Level
RNO Radio Network Optimisation
RNP Radio Network Planning
RSL Radio Signalling Link
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Appendix
Abbreviations and Acronyms
RTS Radio Time Slot
RxLev Received Level
RxQual Received Quality
SACCH Slow Associated Control Channel
(GSM TS)
SAU Subrack assembly unit (BSC)
SC Supervised Configuration (O&M)
SCC Serial Communication Controller
SCP Service Control Point
SCCP Signalling Connection Control Part
SCSÌ Small Computer Systems Ìnterface
SDCCH Standalone Dedicated Control Channel
(GSM TS)
SDU Service Data Unit (generic terminology)
SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node (GPRS)
SÌEA SCSÌ Ìnterface Extension A
SM Submultiplexer
SMP Service Management Point
SMS Short Message Service
SMS-CB Short Message Service - Cell Broadcast
SM-GMSC Short Message Gateway Mobile Switching
Center
SRAM Static RAM
SRS SubRate Switch
SS7 Signalling System ÌTU-T N°7 (ex CCÌTT)
SSD Solid State Disk
SSP Service Switching Point
SW Software
SWEL Switch Element
TBF Temporary Block Flow (GPRS)
TAF Terminal Adaptor Function
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Appendix
Abbreviations and Acronyms
TC Transcoder
TC Terminating Call
TCC Trunk Controller Chip
TCH Traffic CHannel (GSM TS)
TCÌL TransCoder Ìnternal Link
TCSM TransCoder / SubMultiplexer equipment
TCU TRX Control Unit (Type: TCUA, TCUC)
TDMA Time Division Multiple Access
TFO Tandem Free Operation (TC)
TFTS Terrestrial Flight Telecom Systems
TLD Top Level Design
TMN Telecommunication Management
Network
TRAC Trunk Access Circuit
TRAU Transcoder and Rate Adapter Unit
TRCU Transcoder Unit
TRE Transceiver Equipment
TRS Technical Requirement Specification
TRU Top Rack Unit
TRX Transceiver
TS Time Slot
TS Technical Specification (GSM TS)
TSS Time Space Switch
TSCA Transmission Sub-System Controller A
(BSC)
TSU Terminal Sub Unit (BSC)
TU Terminal Unit (BSC)
UL UpLink
UMTS Universal Mobile Transmission System
USSD Unstructured Supplementary Services Data
VBS Voice Broadcast Service
VGCS Voice Group Code Service
VLR Visitor Location Register
VPLMN Visited PLMN
VSWR Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (BTS)
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