Hawassa University

Department of Mathematical and Physical science specialzation in Materials science Seminar on Magnetic Materials by Dinsefa Mensur may 18/2011

Out line ● ● Key words History of magnetic materials ● How Magnetic behavieour arise? ● Clasification of magnetic materials ● Properties of magnetic materials Application of magnetic materials summery ● ● .

Serieous efferts to use the power hidden in magnetic materials were made much later.In 18th century smaller pieces of magnetic materials were combined in to a larger magnetic body that was found to have quite a substantial lifting power. Fe3O4 .I. at which many natural magnets as lodestones (also spelled load stone. History of magnetic materials . a natural magnetic material . lode means to lead or to attract) which contain magnetite.The term Magnetism comes from the ancient Greek city of Magnesia. .

..cont.. -Gauss. Maxwell and Faraday(1831) has contribution on magnetism from the theoretical side . -In 1825 sturgeon successfully used this knowledge to produce the first electromagnet...Curie and Weiss succeeded in clarifying the phenomenon of spontaneous magnetization and its temperature dependant ... -In 1820 Oersted discoverd that magnetic field coud be generated with an electric current.

-Weiss postulated the existence of magnetic domains -The properties of the wallss of such magnetic domains were studied in detail by Bloch.. Landua and Neel ● ● II How Magnetic behavieour arise? The motion of electron in an atome causes magnetic field Two kinds of motion carry on the electron 1)moves around the nucleus 2) spins about its axis .....cont...

a division of Thomson Learning. . Inc. ©2003 Brooks/Cole. consequantly whenever an energy level is completely full.● There fore an atom has two magnetic moment ● When we observe the electronic structure and quantume number each discrete energy level could contain two electron. each having opposite spin hence the magnetic moments of each electron pair in an energy level are opposed. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license. there is no net magnetic moment.

● Besed on this reasoning we expect any atom of an electron with an odd atomic number to have net magnetic moment from the unpaired electron but this is not the case. How ever certain elements such as the transition metals have an inner energy level that is not completely filled that are the element scandium through copper ● ● The Atomic structure of Sc-Cu .


Cu has completely filled 3d shell and thus doesn't display a net moment The elements in 3d level of the remaining transition elements do not enter the shells in pairs hence they have net magnetic moments so behaves as a magnetic dipole III Clasification of magnetic materials ● Inorder for a material to exhibit magnetic properties /behaveour there must be some form of ordering amongst the magnetic moments ● .● Excpt for cr and cu the valance electron in the 4s level are paired.the unpaired electrons in cr and cu are caceled by interactions with other atoms.


● Besed on this magnetic moment ordering we can clasifay magnetic materials mainly as follows:● Diamagnetic ● Paramagnetic ● Ferromagnetic ● Antiferromagnetic ● Ferrimagnetic 1) Diamagnetic materials ● A magnetic field acting on any atom induces a magnetic dipole for the entire atom by .

These dipoles oppose the magnetic field. the dipoles line up with the field.Ag. .influencing the magnetic moment caused by the orbiting electrons. causing a +ve magnetization.causing the magnetization to be less than zero ● Gives a relative permebility of about less than one or -ve susceptibility ● Cu. ● When a magnetic field is applied.Au alumina are Diamagnetic at room temp 2) Paramagnetic materials ● When materials have unpaired electrons a net magnetic moment due to electron spin is associated with each atom.

The permanent unpaired dipoles easily line up with the imposed magnetic field due to the exchange interaction .01 ● 3) Ferromagnetic materials Ferromagnetic behavior is casued by the unfilled energy levels in the 3d.● ● ● ● Extremely large magnetic fields are required to align all of the dipoles The effect is lost as soon as the magnetic field is removed Al.Ti and alloys of copper The relative permeability of paramagnetic materials lies b/n 1 and 1.

relative permeabilities as high as 106 Fe.● ● Large magnetization is obtained even for small magnetic field.Co also Gd(at room temperature) .Ni.

Thomson Learning ™is a trademark used herein under license. .even though the strenght of each dipole is very high. a division of Thomson Learning. Inc.NiO ©2003 Brooks/Cole. MnO.4) Antiferromagnetic materials ● ● The magnetic moments produced in neighboring dipoles line up in the opposition to one another in magnetic field.

5) Ferrimagnetic materials Different ions have different magnetic moments.the dipoles of ion A may line up with the feild.In magnetic field.but b/c the strength of the dipoles are not equal. while dipoles of ion B oppose the field. ● A group of ceramics called ferrites display this behavior ● ● Ferrites are ceramic materials containing compounds of iron (used as atransformer cores at radio ferquancy . a net magnetization results ● Ferrimagnetic materials can provide good amplification of the imposed field.

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