Emergence of the topic

In a systematic (holistic) approach towards risk analysis, the possible negative impact of an accident may be organised by personal, asset (material and intangible) and environmental accidents. Of these, the main asset to consider in risk management is, as mentioned before, human lives.Adopting risk treatment at the institutional, business and family level is therefore based on the importance of the risk, in particular to people. Personal injuries caused by an accident are classified by their physical, psychological and moral consequences; the latter two affect the victims themselves, their families and loved ones. Of them all, physical injury that results in death constitutes the main and absolute value to consider in decision-making. That is why this study focuses on analysing death by different accidental causes as the basis for measuring the efficacy of the safety plans deployed by governments and other authorities. However, political and business leaders must also consider the social and economic That is why this study focuses on analysing death by different accidental causes as the basis for measuring the efficacy of the safety plans deployed by governments and other authorities. However, political and business leaders must also consider the social and economic repercussions that derive from accidents, as well as particular contexts and factors for each country and case. A person dying in an accident firstly constitutes a human problem, because of the unexpected and normally violent (fortuitous) extinction of human life, compared with death by natural causes, which may be predicted by the deterioration of the human organism over a long period of time.The latter has an anticipated and inevitable dénouement, compared with the unexpected, sudden and avoidable ending that characterises accidents and which therefore require significant protection measures. Accidental personal injury is also a public health problem because of the structural, social and economic resources of the emergency services and financial reimbursement, which makes prevention important in order to avoid accidents or at least reduce their impact.

STATISTICS. a classification originally established by Dr. expressed in number of victims per million inhabitants exposed to the risk.was reflected in both cases. police.Premature accidental death also involves the loss of anticipated social and work lives. homes and leisure settings.We preferred this criterion over the . As has been and social spheres which are inter-related for all manner of purposes is fully accepted. the approach taken to analyse accidental death was drawn firstly from data on death by external causes set out under the International Classification of Diseases established by the WHO. which affects society as a whole and are assessed using methodologies such as DALY (disabilityadjusted life years).The criteria most commonly used are set by the World Health Organization (WHO) in line with the 9th International Classification of Diseases. home. which do not always receive enough attention. i.. after which it was collected annually in order to observe the year-onyear evolution. Differences are greater when statistics are processed by various official organisations with responsibility for distinct spheres of action involving people.e.Alphonse Bertillon.An analysis of causes grouped by spheres of the administrative authorities where the deaths occurred.. The study of accidental deaths in Spain has focused on the inclusion of certain comparative figures with the rest of the world. the death of a person in an accident is the main indicator of the seriousness of an affected asset and it is very important to have statistical systems that guarantee the reliability of mortality figures and to be able to act preventively in line with them and monitor the evolution of the accident rate.was then including obviously their death. social and economic environment. the ways that organisations in different countries operate often differ from the criteria set by the WHO. ACCIDENTAL DEATH.This raises a number of problems. particularly the fact that very disparate criteria are used in the preparation and publication of accidental death statistics. In this study.The history of data collection goes back to 1980. The total number of deaths and the death rate. etc. For this reason. For each section of data compiled it is essential to know the initial cause and the trigger for the accidental death and the sphere of public and/or private responsibility in which it occurred. transport. Data was collected in five-year spans up until the year 2000. However. workplaces. The fact that human beings interact as they carry out activities in the family. Europe and other countries in our geographical. it is necessary to have preventive intervention in place in the different fields that people occupy: roads. Sources of national and international information are very diverse.

. to establish ongoing monitoring over recent years. Below are the main external causes of death in Spain and internationally in historical series that make it possible to observe their evolution over time.6 deaths per million inhabitants. Chart 1 shows the figures on deaths by accident. which would be essential if the aim was to draw conclusions and prepare particular guidelines for future prevention.e. . Chart 2 comprises the breakdown of the main external causes and the mortality rates recorded in 2007. 1980. 5. which for the purpose of this study may produce the extreme dénouement of a person¶s death. organic deterioration or causes external to human beings.35% of the total and a mortality rate of 358. Deaths and mortality by accident.139 involving an accident. 8. suicide or assault in Spain. Spain that year recorded a total of 371. unexpected events that generate a series of harmful effects. suicide or assault..478 deaths.5% of the total figure.7 million deaths around the world in 2006. day of the week. and of a voluntary or intentional nature. the main causes and consideration of basic figures on deaths and mortality rates are hereby selected without going into detail regarding the coordinates and circumstances of the event. sex. assault and suicide. Total deaths and death by accident. Given the limited scope of the article.000-inhabitants used in official reports because we considered it would be easier to interpret.e. age.The mortality figures for the same years are also shown. suicide and assault Of the total of 62. i. the last year for which figures were available. etc. or a mortality rate of 806 deaths per million inhabitants. i. EXTERNAL CAUSES OF DEATH According to the criterion followed by the health organisations. Chart 1. In other words.2007. Accidents are considered as sudden.. in a historical series with fiveyearly figures between 1980 and 2000 and annual figures for the years 2000 to 2007. with a number of nuances.more common incidents-per-100. suicide or assault. self-inflicted or as the result of an assault. time. nationality. including 16. Spain.3 million were recorded as a result of an accident.This represented 4. deaths are classified by causes into: disease. place.The latter covers accidents.

updated with critical reviews of published literature and information provided by the governments of the three affected countries. established to treat people in the three countries which were most affected by the accident.WHO health effects review Within the UN Chernobyl Forum initiative the World Health Organization (WHO) conducted a series of expert meetings from 2003 to 2005 to review all scientific evidence on health effects associated with the accident. The Expert Group was composed of many scientists who had conducted studies in the three affected countries as well as experts world wide.Today. This resulted in a WHO report on "Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident and Special Health Care Programmes The WHO Expert Group placed particular emphasis on scientific quality. The WHO Expert Group used as a basis the 2000 Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). comparisons were made with the results from studies of people involved in previous high radiation-exposure situations. so that valid conclusions could be drawn. In addition. such as the atomic bomb survivors in Japan. . WHO celebrates 30 years since smallpox was eradicated. The statue is also a symbol of what the world can achieve when countries unite behind a common humanitarian cause. using information mainly in peer-reviewed journals. Special health care programmes. WHO marks 30th anniversary of smallpox eradication 17 May 2010 -. To mark this achievement a statue is being unveiled at WHO Headquarters in Geneva as a permanent reminder of the significance of this feat. were also considered.

disease. well balanced diet combined with regular physical activity ± is a cornerstone of good health.Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) The United Nations Millennium Development Goals are eight goals that all 191 UN member states have agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015. following loss or theft of radioactive material. Workers in health systems around the world are experiencing increasing stress and insecurity as they react to a complex array of forces. Exposure to ionizing radiation can pose a substantial health risk. environmental degradation. impaired physical and mental development. A strong human infrastructure is fundamental to closing today¶s gap between health promise and health reality. and all have specific targets and indicators. This could occur. Accidents. Radiation A radiation accident involves a non-routine overexposure to ionizing radiation. signed in September 2000 commits world leaders to combat poverty. The United Nations Millennium Declaration. considered in relation to the body¶s dietary needs. Nutrition Nutrition is the intake of food. and reduced productivity. Ageing population. increased susceptibility to disease. The MDGs are derived from this Declaration. The unmistakable imperative is to strengthen the workforce so that health systems can tackle crippling diseases and achieve national and global health goals. for example. and discrimination against women. . in industrial or medical settings because of lack of appropriate occupational or patient safety. illiteracy. are all challenges to which the workforce must be prepared to respond. or as a result of a deliberate malicious act. Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity. Good nutrition ± an adequate. hunger. Health workforce Health workers are "all people engaged in actions whose primary intent is to enhance health" (World Health Report 2006). escalating conflicts and violence. following a major accident at a nuclear facility. as a result either of dispersal of radioactive material or of being too close to a radioactive source. and anticipating the health challenges of the 21st century. with the type and level of risk depending on the duration and amount of exposure. new diseases as well as increasing burden of current diseases.

Results of the IPHECA pilot projects and related national programmes. International Project on Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident The largest-ever radiation accident involving a nuclear reactor occurred on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine.WHO's role The Expert Group report is a milestone in WHO´s efforts to assess and mitigate the health impact of the Chernobyl accident. The WHO's International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA) was established to support national programmes. Summary Report (WHO. Building on the results of IPHECA. the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Geneva. To order 'Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The priority areas are currently as follows: y y y Maintenance of the thyroid tissue and DNA data banks for early diagnosis and verification of thyroid diseases. monitor health consequences and indicate future work needed to ensure that maximum information is gained from this disaster. and for the study of radiation cancer. WHO continues and further develops its activities in the follow-up of the Chernobyl accident. caused the hopitalization of two hundreds of others and exposed 6. WHO will actively promote the research and practical recommendations given in this report. Priority areas have been identified in collaboration with the three affected States. Risk assessment of exposure to low dose and low dose rate radiation Medical relief to children affected by the Chernobyl accident thorough their development and implementation of health telematics. the International Thyroid Project (ITP) and a series of the International Agency on Research on Cancer (IARC) pilot projects aimed at evaluating the feasibility of different approaches for the epidemiological monitoring of exposed population. integrating the activities and expertise of its various offices and specialized agencies. 1995). contact:Mme Bravard . In addition WHO will ensure that the people most affected by the Chernobyl accident will be provided with scientifically factual information that will allow them to make better-informed decisions about their health and future .7 million people to ionizing radiation caused by fallout of radioactive aerosols. This has led to a ten-fold increase in thyroid cancer among children in affected areas. The Chernobyl accident led to fatality of 30 workers at the reactor site. Radioactive contamination spread over large areas of Belarus.

Radiation accidents and emergencies Although the likelihood of a major accident at a nuclear facility is low. principally to provide. and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Other radiation emergencies (for example. with the aim of minimizing the health consequences. More recently the threat of possible terrorist attacks using radioactive materials or nuclear warheads has become prominent. These Conventions provide the prime legal instruments that establish an international framework to facilitate exchange of information and the prompt provision of assistance in the event of radiation accidents. but they occur much more frequently (several times each year). protective actions near the facility and monitoring of radiation at longer distances would need to be taken to protect the public. patients undergoing radiotherapy treatment are accidentally overexposed) normally affect only a few individuals. for which the IAEA is the focal point. WHO is a full party to the Conventions on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (Early Notification Convention) and Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention). The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the prime coordinating agency for an international response to radiation accidents. the key international partners cooperating in this response are: the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization on Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). should such an accident occur. the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA). a radiation source appears in the human environment. UN AGENCY CONTACT AND RESPONSE For major nuclear and radiation emergencies the international organizations with relevant responsibilities have a Joint Plan for a co-ordinated response. WHO works closely with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to prepare for and respond to nuclear accidents and radiological emergencies. Functional links have been established between agencies to ensure continuous communication and activation of the plan of action. coordinate and consult medical assistance to victims of such events where severe radiation exposure has . WHO'S ROLE In addition to the IAEA and WHO.

the number of such deaths can only be estimated statistically using information and projections from the studies of atomic bomb survivors and other highly exposed populations. there are uncertainties concerning the magnitude of the effect. generally based on the LNT model. Projections concerning cancer deaths among the five million residents of areas with radioactive caesium deposition of 37 kBq/m2 in Belarus. have significantly increased the difficulties in detecting any effect of radiation on cancer mortality. the additional cancer deaths from radiation exposure correspond to 34% above the normal incidence of cancers from all causes. This is activated following notification about a radiaion accident with causalties (but even in case of a single victim with severe overexposure) from the IAEA or directly to WHO. Since more than 120 000 people in these three groups may eventually die of cancer. Among them. a significant non-radiation related reduction in the average lifespan in the three countries over the past 15 years caused by overuse of alcohol and tobacco. a comprehensive review of the scientific evidence. Emergency medical support for radiation exposed individuals is provided through WHO's Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network (REMPAN). published in 2006. or what kind of public health actions may be needed. 134 liquidators received radiation doses high enough to be diagnosed with acute radiation sickness (ARS). cause very large uncertainties when making projections about future cancer deaths. Other liquidators have since died but their deaths could not necessarily be attributed to radiation exposure. However. and reduced health care. In addition. while Chernobyl caused low doses over a long time. An increased number of cancer deaths can be expected during the lifetime of persons exposed to radiation from the accident. It should be noted that the atomic bomb survivors received high radiation doses in a short time period. and concluded that the risk seems to continue in a linear fashion at lower doses without a threshold (this is called the ³linear no-threshold or LNT model).6% of the cancer deaths . Mortality According to UNSCEAR (2000). 116 000 evacuees and the 270 000 residents of the SCZs). or about 0. Predictions. suggest that up to 5 000 additional cancer deaths may occur in this population from radiation exposure. The Expert Group concluded that there may be up to 4 000 additional cancer deaths among the three highest exposed groups over their lifetime (240 000 liquidators. Although there is controversy about the magnitude of the cancer risk from exposure to low doses of radiation.occurred. such as trying to estimate doses people received some time after the accident. Advice can also be provided to national authorities on how to prepare and respond to such radiation accidents. the Russian Federation and Ukraine are much less certain because they are exposed to doses slightly above natural background radiation levels. as well as differences in lifestyle and nutrition. This and other factors. particularly at doses much lower than about 100 mSv. 28 persons died in 1986 due to ARS. the US National Academy of Sciences BEIR VII Committee. Since it is currently impossible to determine which individual cancers were caused by radiation.

loss of economic stability. Chernobyl may also cause cancers in Europe outside Belarus.g. anxiety and medically unexplained physical symptoms continue to be reported among those affected by the accident. Predicted estimates are very uncertain and it is very unlikely that any increase in these countries will be detectable using national cancer statistics . However. as well as a lack of physical and emotional well-being were commonplace. the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Chernobyl cataract studies suggest that radiation opacities may occur from doses as low as 250 mSv.expected in this population due to other causes. Designation of the affected population as ³victims rather than ³survivors has led to feelings of helplessness and lack of control over their future. The accident has had a serious impact on mental health and well-being in the general population. or the consumption of mushrooms. these numbers only provide an indication of the likely impact of the accident because of the important uncertainties listed above. who received considerably higher doses to the heart. Recent studies among other populations exposed to ionizing radiation (e. This has resulted in excessive health concerns or reckless behaviour. mainly at a sub-clinical level that has not generally resulted in medically diagnosed disorders. for example. the average dose to these populations is much lower and so the relative increase in cancer deaths is expected to be much smaller. it is consistent with other studies. astronauts. . such as the overuse of alcohol and tobacco. The higher the dose the faster the cataract appears. Mental health and psychological effects The Chernobyl accident led to extensive relocation of people. Again. The production of cataracts is directly related to the dose. and the resultant instability in health care. High levels of stress. Widespread feelings of worry and confusion. atomic bomb survivors. added further to these reactions. The dissolution of the Soviet Union soon after the Chernobyl accident. patients who received CT-scans to the head) support this finding. on radiotherapy patients. Cardiovascular disease A large Russian study among emergency workers has suggested an increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease in highly exposed individuals.3 Cataracts The lens of the eye is very sensitive to ionizing radiation and cataracts are known to result from effective doses of about 2 Sv. While this finding needs further study with longer follow-up times. berries and game from areas still designated as having high levels of radioactive caesium. and long-term threats to health in current and possibly future generations. according to UNSCEAR.

A modest but steady increase in reported congenital malformations in both contaminated and uncontaminated areas of Belarus appears related to improved reporting and not to radiation exposure. .Reproductive and hereditary effects and children's health Given the low radiation doses received by most people exposed to the Chernobyl accident. no effects on fertility. numbers of stillbirths. adverse pregnancy outcomes or delivery complications have been demonstrated nor are there expected to be any.

We surveyed. and simple forms benefit from complex information. Results indicated men have significantly more following and skidding accidents. passing. 40-59. old old age. 75+.Review of literature Learning from Complexity: Effects of Accident/Incident Heterogenity on Airline Learning| In this study. Our results show whether heterogeneous or homogeneous experience facilitates learning varies according to whether the airline in a specialist or generalist. Rearden Eastern Illinois University Purposes of this study were to classify types of accidents among rural drivers and determine if these accidents differed by age and gender. controlling for many factors related to accidents and incidents. (3) following and skidding accidents generally demonstrated a decreasing linear trend with age. gap acceptance. we investigate the role of experience diversity on learning by U. Other theories suggest that homogeneity is best for learning. adult. young old age. Individuals determined "atfault " were grouped by age: teenage.\ Age and Gender Effects on Accident Types for Rural Drivers Paul E. 16-19. laterally moving object. middle age. police reports from a daily newspaper serving a rural midwestern area. attention deficit.S. Only specialists learn from their own heterogeneous accident experience.S. following. intruding approach. because homogeneous experience increase problem salience and thus attention and attempts to solve the problem. Using data on all accidents and incidents experienced by U. we measure learning by a reduction in airline accident/incident rates. . 60-74. Accidents were categorized by types: laterally moving vehicle. Do firms learn more from diverse of homogeneous accident experiences? Existing literature provides conflicting answers to this question. with some theories suggesting that heterogeneous experiences are best because variance in outcomes is necessary to learn. Panek Eastern Illinois University John J. tracking. for 12 months. airlines. 20-39. commercial airline from 1983-1997. and prior error heterogeneity decreases their subsequent accident rate. skidding. These results suggest a theory of learning across organizations forms: complex forms benefit from simple information. Women had significantly more intruding-approach accidents. We found the following relationships between accident types and age: (1) generally an increasing linear trend between age and laterally moving vehicle and attention-deficit accidents. The implications of our study for learning theories and work on organization errors are discussed. (2) the incidence of intruding-approach accidents was high in all age groups. Generalists learn from outside factors such as the experience of others and general improvements in technology.

greater potential for risky behaviour and more drivers of unconscious undesired behaviour). based on a review of epidemiological and radiobiological The impact of the world's worst nuclear disaster at Chernobyl in 1986 is reviewed within a framework of a triad of fear. Institute of Experimental and Clinical Medicine. the effects of radiation created a fertile ground for persistent fears and rumours attributing any health problem to Chernobyl. Scientifically correct answers to health issues have been the means to combat disinformation.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics. The scope of the accident. misconceptions and rumours. and the lack of general awareness of. Hiiu 42. Soviet secrecy about it. since the changes affect a number of different features and factors of workplace and its risks. resettled populations and clean-up workers. In addition. THE EFFECT OF NEW TRENDS OF THE WORKING ENVIRONMENT ON WORKPLACE RISK AND ITS MODELLING The acceleration of global competition has brought very important changes in the working environment. risk assessment . safety. such as increasing part-time. etc. rumour and truth. the accident has had serious non-radiation-related psychological consequences on the residents of the contaminated territories. changes in size of workplace and changes in employment patterns) and to explore their impact in workplace through their impact in riskaffecting factors (greater complexity in the workplace. intensification of labour productivity. rahum@ekmi. 11619 Tallinn. or disregard for. Key Words: New work environment. the main radiationrelated effect of the Chernobyl accident is an increased risk of childhood thyroid cancer. have a significant impact on workplace risk. and to replace interconnected fears. Some of these changes. according to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) 2000 Report. temporary or selfemployment (either virtual or true). Researchers in search of the truth through epidemiological reasoning are facing serious challenges which are reviewed within this article. This impact is multilateral and complex. To date. This paper aims to identify and sort these changes in three categories (changes in production patterns and tools. Estonia. The main conclusion is that the approach to risk modelling has to change taking individual-level factors and individual economic motives more explicitly into account.

Your head may be jutting more forward or one shoulder may be higher or one hip lower. What we do is physically decompress the disc. 2. Tears--even micro tears--can lead to scar tissue (like ligament tears). If not rehabilitated. Disc Damage: The most common disc damage is a disc that is compressed or "pancaked. 5. This is one of the leading causes of you getting "shorter" as you get older. Pinched Nerves: You have over 17 trillion nerves in your body. wirey strands that hold your spine and other bones together. Large tears may require surgery. however. the most common are small or "micro" tears. this is no longer true. It is well proven that chiropractic care causes ligaments to heal properly. thus healing them. Harry Wong used it on himself. . We now have the ability to rehabilitate the discs to their normal heights. Our chiropractic adjustments provide the correct motions for these muscle injuries.Accidents and Injuries Effects of an Accident or Injury 1. 3. What is needed is gentle motion to cause the fibers of the muscle to heal properly. (This procedure is so safe that even Dr." This was once thought of permanent damage. Postural Changes: This is where you can visibly see changes in your posture from an accident. Ligament Damage: Ligaments are those long. ligaments will turn into scar tissue and cause pain for the rest of your life. At PhysiciansPlus. Bones can be realigned to take pressure off the nerves. Muscle Damage: Tears in muscles require the proper movement to heal properly. getting vital body fluids into the discs.) 4. Accidents can cause the bones in your spine to twist and stay out of alignments and "pinch" or irritate those nerves. we work to re-align these body parts that cause unnecessary stress to your skeletal system. however. It can take up to one year for the complete healing of thsi tissue.

1946. which is the fifth item on the agenda of the session. 1932. and Noting that. and Noting the terms of the Safety of Life at Sea Convention. for the success of action in the field of accident prevention on board ship.How companies are handling these issues C134 Prevention of Accidents (Seafarers) Convention. and Having determined that these proposals shall take the form of an international Convention. 1929. 1960. the Protection against Accidents (Dockers) Convention (Revised). as revised in 1966. 1970 Convention concerning the Prevention of Occupational Accidents to Seafarers Convention:C134 Place:Geneva Session of the Conference:55 Date of adoption:30:10:1970 Subject classification: Safety. and Having decided upon the adoption of certain proposals with regard to accident prevention on board ship at sea and in port. the Prevention of Industrial Accidents Recommendation. Health and Welfare Subject: Seafarers The General Conference of the International Labour Organisation Having been convened at Geneva by the Governing Body of the International Labour Office. and Noting that the following standards have accordingly been framed with the co-operation of the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization. and having met in its Fifty-fifth Session on 14 October 1970. . and the Regulations annexed to the International Load Line Convention. 1963. and that it is proposed to seek its continuing co-operation in the application of these standards. and in particular of the Labour Inspection (Seamen) Recommendation. which provide for a number of safety measures on board ship which provide protection for persons employed thereon. it is important that close co-operation be maintained in their respective fields between the International Labour Organisation and the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization. and Noting the terms of existing international labour Conventions and Recommendations applicable to work on board ship and in port and relevant to the prevention of occupational accidents to seafarers. the Medical Examination (Seafarers) Convention. and the Guarding of Machinery Convention and Recommendation. 1926.

For the purpose of this Convention. Article 4 1. with a clear indication of the department on board ship--for instance. other than a ship of war. . nature. causes and effects of occupational accidents. Article 2 1. 3. In the event of any doubt whether any categories of persons are to be regarded as seafarers for the purpose of this Convention. the question shall be determined by the competent authority in each country after consultation with the shipowners' and seafarers' organisations concerned. deck. at sea or in port--where the accident occurred. the term occupational accidents covers accidents to seafarers arising out of or in the course of their employment. Article 3 In order to provide a sound basis for the prevention of accidents which are due to particular hazards of maritime employment.adopts this thirtieth day of October of the year one thousand nine hundred and seventy the following Convention. research shall be undertaken into general trends and into such hazards as are brought out by statistics. and comprehensive statistics of such accidents kept and analysed. All occupational accidents shall be reported and statistics shall not be limited to fatalities or to accidents involving the ship. 2. Provisions concerning the prevention of occupational accidents shall be laid down by laws or regulations. For the purpose of this Convention. The statistics shall record the numbers. the term seafarer covers all persons who are employed in any capacity on board a ship. The competent authority shall undertake an investigation into the causes and circumstances of occupational accidents resulting in loss of life or serious personal injury. 3. 4. 1970: Article 1 1. and such other accidents as may be specified in national laws or regulations. registered in a territory for which the Convention is in force and ordinarily engaged in maritime navigation. The competent authority in each maritime country shall take the necessary measures to ensure that occupational accidents are adequately reported and investigated. which may be cited as the Prevention of Accidents (Seafarers) Convention. codes of practice or other appropriate means. engine or catering-and of the area--for instance. 2.

(c) machinery. (h) dangerous cargo and ballast. In particular. 2. Article 5 1. any obligation on the shipowner to provide protective equipment or other accident prevention safeguards shall be accompanied by provision for the use of such equipment and safeguards by seafarers and a requirement that they comply with the relevant accident prevention measures. (d) special safety measures on and below deck. 3. Generally. 4. 3. . by means of adequate inspection or otherwise. In order to facilitate application. copies or summaries of the provisions shall be brought to the attention of seafarers. (g) anchors. and shall specify measures for the prevention of accidents which are peculiar to maritime employment. Article 6 1. (f) fire prevention and fire-fighting. these provisions shall cover the following matters: (a) general and basic provisions.2. seafarers and others concerned to comply with them. chains and lines. 2. Appropriate measures shall be taken to ensure the proper application of the provisions referred to in Article 4. These provisions shall refer to any general provisions on the prevention of accidents and the protection of health in employment which may be applicable to the work of seafarers. for instance by display in a prominent position on board ship. (i) personal protective equipment for seafarers. The accident prevention provisions referred to in Article 4 shall clearly specify the obligation of shipowners. (b) structural features of the ship. All necessary steps shall be taken to ensure that inspection and enforcement authorities are familiar with maritime employment and its practices. (e) loading and unloading equipment. Appropriate measures shall be taken to ensure compliance with these provisions.

shall be established. shall endeavour. for accident prevention. of vocational training institutions. 2. in so far as appropriate under national conditions. 2. 3. All appropriate and practicable measures shall also be taken to bring to the attention of seafarers information concerning particular hazards. The competent authority shall promote and. Programmes for the prevention of occupational accidents shall be established by the competent authority with the co-operation of shipowners' and seafarers' organisations. Article 8 1. of a suitable person or suitable persons or of a suitable committee responsible. . with the assistance as appropriate of intergovernmental and other international organisations. on which both shipowners' and seafarers' organisations are represented. ensure the inclusion. from amongst the crew of the ship. for all categories and grades of seafarers. Implementation of such programmes shall be so organised that the competent authority. as part of the instruction in professional duties. national or local joint accident prevention committees or ad hoc working parties. Article 9 1. for instance by means of official notices containing relevant instructions.Article 7 Provision shall be made for the appointment. of instruction in the prevention of accidents and in measures for the protection of health in employment in the curricula. Article 10 Members. to achieve the greatest possible measure of uniformity of other action for the prevention of occupational accidents. shipowners and seafarers or their representatives and other appropriate bodies may play an active part. under the Master. in co-operation with each other. In particular.

employers have responsibilities for the safety and health of their workers. Directive 89/391 provides the general framework for health and safety management. Work related accidents occur in all industries and include slips and trips. falling objects. The incidence rate for fatal accidents to workers in enterprises of fewer than 50 employees is around double that of larger units . keep accident records. A hierarchy of prevention . equipment. Yet many of the problems can be prevented with good management. Strong management commitment. consult employees and cooperate and co-ordinate measures with contractors. overtime payments. including: * Sick pay. recruiting new labour retraining * Lost production time and business * Damage to plant. products * Management time to deal with accidents * Increased insurance premiums. temporary replacement labour early retirement. The Directive has been implemented in national legislation that may include additional requirements Employers are required to assess risks and take practical measures to protect the safety and health of their workers. provide information and training. risk identification and prevention2. falls. good employee involvement and a well structured management system can prevent many workplace accidents. Under European Union directives.GOOD MANAGEMENT CAN PREVENT ACCIDENTS. and accidents involving vehicles and machinery. lawyers' costs * Lower worker morale Accident risks are higher for those employed in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). trips and falls and other workplace accidents. materials. sharp and hot objects. Here are some guidelines from the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work for reducing those slips. The cost of occupational accidents is high. affecting people's ability to work and life outside work. Every year nearly five million people in the European Union suffer workplace accidents resulting in more than three days' absence. amounting to around 146 million working days lost Some effects are permanent.

Workers have a right to receive information about the risks to health and safety. Using their knowledge helps to ensure hazards are correctly spotted and workable solutions implemented. Consultation helps to ensure that workers are committed to safety and health procedures and improvements. give collective measures priority over individual measures. Consulting the workforce is a requirement. following instructions in accordance with training given and taking care of their own and workmates' safety and set including: avoid risks. preventive measures. . good employee involvement and a well structured management system. Worker representatives have an important role. Employees have duties to co-operate actively with employers' preventive measures. discussing safety at management meetings. first aid and emergency procedures. replace the dangerous with the non-dangerous and. combat risks at source. Management should drive health and safety by: * Setting policy and health and safety objectives * Providing adequate resources to implement the policy * Including health and safety at all levels of management functions and decisions * Consulting with employees * Monitoring and reviewing to check effectiveness of policy and the whole system. Commitment implies. and involvement in safety investigations. adapt work to the worker. for example. Employees must be consulted on health and safety measures and also before the introduction of new technology or products. Health and safety requires strong management commitment. putting decisions into practice. regular workplace tours.

responsibilities and procedures for the organisation. This can be reactive. Periodic review checks that these measures remain appropriate. Accident investigations should identify the immediate and underlying causes. skills and expertise are available IMPLEMENTATION AND OPERATION Involves putting plans into practice. including management failings. equipment and products used. using accident records or proactive. such as. A typical management model is illustrated and includes the following: POLICY Sets clear commitment. objectives. training management and staff and improving communications. eg by feedback from inspections and audits and from staff surveys. This may mean: making changes to the organisation and working procedures. working environment. The aim is to ensure that systems and procedures are working and to immediately take any corrective action needed. Activities in the planning process include: * Risk assessment and identification of prevention measures * Identifying the management arrangements and organisation needed to exercise control * Identifying training needs * Ensuring that occupational health and safety knowledge. CHECKING AND CORRECTIVE ACTION Performance should be monitored.A structured approach to management ensures that risks are fully assessed and that safe methods of work are introduced and followed. PLANNING Identifies and assesses the risks arising from work activities and how they can be controlled. .

greater potential for risky behaviour and more drivers of unconscious undesired behaviour (stress. The main implications for occupational risk involve greater complexity in the workplace. Of course. Review of accidents should include learning lessons at management level. This approach involves a procedure for the selection of the proper set of models of each aspect and the application of these models in the certain workplace. Auditing examines whether the policy. There is also an opportunity to look forward. the significance of the role of the human factors in modern work environment has increased so that they have to be explicitly taken into account. CONCLUSIONS Modern work environment has changed under the impact of globalisation of competition. External circumstances may have changed.g. development of new products or the introduction of new technology. This paper proposes a general framework for the development of a multilateral approach that will combine accident models. ignoring them would lead to inefficient assessment of risks. Its main features affecting OHS are new technologies in methods and equipment. etc. A new multilateral approach for modelling workplace and assessing its risks is required. to changes in business structure. however without overloading the task of risk assessment.MANAGEMENT REVIEW AND AUDIT Allows checking of the management system's overall performance. which will take human factors into account. given the limitations of resources for risk assessment. organisation and systems are actually achieving the right results. since the amount of resources assigned to this task and the usual existing knowledge are rather limited. e. this approach has to be further simplified at the cost of its theoretical accuracy. new legislation has been introduced. complexity. changes in the size of operational units and precarious orinsecure employment. It is proposed to group and simplify models into certain sets of practical guidelines and impose a simple context for the selection of the proper set depending on the characteristics of the workplace . eg. even in SE¶s. risk perception models and human error models in order to better identify and assess workplace risk.) Therefore.

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