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A PROJECT REPORT ON
A VLSI PROGRESSIVE CODING FOR WAVELET-
BASED IMAGE COMPRESSION
---------------------------------------------
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

CERTIFICATE

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A VLSI PROGRESSIVE
CODING FOR WAVELET-
BASED IMAGE
COMPRESSION

ABSTRACT
This paper describes the hardware design flow of lifting based 2-D Forward Discrete
Wavelet Transform (FDWT) processor for JPEG 2000. In order to build high quality image of
JPEG 2000 codec, an effective 2-D FDWT algorithm has been performed on input image file to
get the decomposed image coefficients. The Lifting Scheme reduces the number of operations
execution steps to almost one-half of those needed with a conventional convolution approach.
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Initially, the lifting based 2-D FDWT algorithm has been developed using Mat lab. The FDWT
modules were simulated using XPS(8.1i) design tools. The final design was verified with Matlab
image processing tools. Comparison of simulation results Matlab was done to verify the proper
functionality of the developed module. The motivation in designing the hardware modules of the
FDWT was to reduce its complexity, enhance its performance and to make it suitable
development on a reconfigurable FPGA based platform for VLSI implementation. Results of the
decomposition for test image validate the design. The entire system runs at 215 MHz clock
frequency and reaches a speed performance suitable for several realtime applications. The result
of simulation displays that lifting scheme needs less memory requirement.

KEY WORDS:
EDK Tool (XPS 8.1i), Matlab 7, Visual Basic 6.0, Xilinx Spartan-3E FPGA Kit

Languages Used: System C., JPEG2000 (SPHIT), FDWT

INDEX

CONTENTS PAGE NO
Chapter1: Introduction ----------------------------------------------------------------01
1.1 Background--------------------------------------------------------------01
1.2 Aim of the project -------------------------------------------------------02
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Chapter 2: Description -----------------------------------------------------------------04
2.1 Fourier Analysis ---------------------------------------------------------05
2.2 Short-time Fourier analysis --------------------------------------------05
2.3 Problem present in Fourier Transform ------------------------------06
2.4 Wavelet analysis --------------------------------------------------------09
2.5 What can wavelet analysis do? --------------------------------------11
2.6 Wavelet Transform -----------------------------------------------------13
2.6.1 The continuous wavelet Transform --------------------------13
2.6.2 The discrete wavelet Transform ------------------------------16
2.7 Properties of wavelet transforms -------------------------------------17
2.7.1 Scaling -------------------------------------------------------------17
2.7.2 Shifting ------------------------------------------------------------18
2.8 Decomposition of wavelets --------------------------------------------19
2.8.1 one-stage Decomposition ----------------------------------------19
2.8.2 Multi-step decomposition and reconstruction -----------------21
2.9 Wavelet reconstruction ----------------------------------------------------22
2.10 Dissimilarities between Fourier and wavelet Transforms ----------23
2.11 Wavelet applications ------------------------------------------------------25
Chapter 3: DWT Architecture -----------------------------------------------------------25
3.1 Discrete wavelet Transform ---------------------------------------------25
3.1.1 One dimensional discrete -----------------------------------------27

3.1.2 Two Dimensional discrete wavelet Transform ----------------28


3.2 Reconstruction filters ------------------------------------------------------31

3.2.1 Reconstructing approximations and details --------------------31


3.2.2 Relationship of filters to wavelet shapes -----------------------33
Chapter 4: Introduction to tools ---------------------------------------------------------36
4.1 Introduction to MATLAB ------------------------------------------------36

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4.2 Introduction to visual basic 6.0 -----------------------------------------42
4.4 Introduction to EDK tool -------------------------------------------------47
4.4.1 Defining the hardware design (XPS) ----------------------------47
Chapter 5: Implementation ---------------------------------------------------------------52
5.1 fundamentals of digital image --------------------------------------------52
5.1.1image compression ---------------------------------------------------52
5.1.2 Image compression types -------------------------------------------53
5.1.2.1 Lossy image compression ---------------------------------53
5.1.2.2 Lossless image compression ------------------------------54
5.1.3 Image compression standards -------------------------------------54
5.2 lifting scheme ----------------------------------------------------------------55
5.2.1 Lifting using Harr ----------------------------------------------------56
5.2.2 General adaptive update lifting ------------------------------------57
5.2.3 Threshold technique -------------------------------------------------59
5.3 Sphit algorithm ---------------------------------------------------------------61
5.3.1 Progressive image transmission ------------------------------------61
5.3.2 Set partitioning sorting algorithm -----------------------------------62
5.3.3 Spatial orientation trees ---------------------------------------------64
Future Scope -----------------------------------------------------------67
Conclusion--------------------------------------------------------------68
Bibliography ---------------------------------------------------------------69

Appendix-------------------------------------------------------------------71

LIST OF FIGURES
NAME OF FIGURE PAGE NO
Fig 1.1: Image Compression Model ------------------------------------------------------03

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Fig 1.2: Image Decompression Model ---------------------------------------------------03
Fig 2.1: Block Diagram of Lifting based DWT -----------------------------------------04
Fig 2.2 Fourier analysis -------------------------------------------------------------------05
Fig 2.3 Short-time Fourier analysis ------------------------------------------------------05
Fig 3.1(a) Filter Tree structure for the fast wavelet transforms -----------------------26
Fig 3.1 (b) the position of the samples on the time scale planes ----------------------26
Fig 3.2 Perfect reconstruction filter bank for used for 1-D DWT ---------------------27
Fig 3.3 Level one 2-D DWT applied on an image ---------------------------------------28
Fig 3.4 DWT for Lena image ---------------------------------------------------------------28
(a) Original Image
(b) Output image after the 1-D applied on column input
(c) Output image after the second 1-D applied on row input
Fig 3.5 Computation of 2D DWT an example ------------------------------------------29
Fig 3.6(a) Level-3 dyadic DWT scheme -------------------------------------------------30
Fig 3.6(b) Level-3 dyadic DWT scheme -------------------------------------------------30
Fig 4.1 Introduction to FPGA kit ----------------------------------------------------------45
Fig 5.1 Block Diagram ----------------------------------------------------------------------53
Fig 5.2 The Lifting Scheme ----------------------------------------------------------------55
(a) Forward Transform
(b) Inverse Transform
Fig 5.3 Adaptive update lifting scheme ---------------------------------------------------57
Fig 5.4 Examples of parent-offspring dependencies in
The Spatial-orientation tree ---------------------------------------------------------64

ABREVATIONS

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DWT: Discrete Wavelet Transform.
WT: Wavelet Transform.
DCT: Discrete Cosine Transform
JPEG: Joint photographic experienced Group.
FPGA: Field programmable Gate array.
STFT: Short-Time Fourier Transform.
MRA: Multi resolution analysis.
SPIHT: Set partionating in hierarical trees.
XPS: Xilinx Platform Studio.

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