Ali Kilinc 900235909 11/27/2007

Behavioral Pathology:
Criterion to Define Abnormal Behavior

 Statistical Frequency – anything that varies from general, statistical

Lower IQ ; Higher IQ ; Mild retardation

 Subjective Discomfort – “How do you feel?”
o Being depressed & Loss of interest

 Maladaptive/Dysfunctional Behavior
o Alcohol abuse & Drug abuse

 Danger to oneself or others around you  Society [DSM-IV-TR] – Society determines what is considered as
abnormal behavior

Things considered “abnormal” can change in society, and do; they change constantly.


 Diagnostic tool used address psychological disorders  5 Different part called “Accesses”
1) Access One: List of all clinical syndromes and disorders 2) Access Two: Refers to personality issues and mental disorders/retardation 3) Access Three: General medical condition (ex: diabetes, cancer, etc.) 4) Access Four: Current psychological and/or environmental problems (hobo {homeless person}, or recent divorce) 5) Access Five: Global functioning ability – the ability to function and be productive in daily life (ex: working) 1

Ali Kilinc 900235909 11/27/2007

Access ONE

→ Anxiety Based Disorders
Anxiety: an EXTREMLY NEGATIVE emotional state Phobia: irrational or unrealistic fear (unrealistic) from things generally accepted as harmless o GAD (general anxiety disorder): anxiety as a part of daily life; experienced at all times.  Specific anxiety reaction: anxiety attack that occurs and you are aware of the reason of the attack  Free Floating anxiety: anxiety that occurs without the person experiencing this, being aware of the source of the anxiety o OCD (obsessive compulsive disorder): must interfere with daily functional ability and behavior. Possible inclusion of specific phobias.


Ali Kilinc 900235909 11/27/2007


Stress Disorders: occurs in two common forms (1) Acute stress disorder – comes on very quickly and is very INTENSE and must last at least a month but does not tend to last longer than that. (2) Chronic stress reaction: {generally does not as intense as acute attacks; but lasts much longer} constant anxiety and attacks. Anxiety levels affect daily life, and sometimes this anxiety last for the entire life of the individual.

→ Dissociative Disorder – some aspect of you becomes separated or isolated
from the rest of you o o Amnesia: some aspect of memories are suppressed subconsciously Fugue: to “take flight” or leave. In the presence of EXTREME stress, the individual leaves the problem or stress related area to another location, and goes away Dissociative Identity Disorder [f.k.a Multiple Personality Disorder]: multiple human personalities being exhibited inside one individual.   About 3-5: Number of documented cases Heavy Trauma: speculated cause


→ Somatoform Disorder – the individual experiences physical pain and
physical discomfort when there are no scientific evidence and/or symptoms. Heavy stress ⇒ 100% Psychological pain

→ Psychotic Reactions – when the individual loses contact with reality; inability
to distinguish between what is real and what is not. Exhibiting delusions (false beliefs) and dysfunction. Common Delusions |key: from this view| = inability to think otherwise or differently

 Somatic Delusion (ex: brain is melting, stomach filled with
concrete {literally} )

 Erotic Delusion (ex: person is in love with you, wants to marry
you )


Ali Kilinc 900235909 11/27/2007

 Delusions of Grandeur: the individual believes that they are
someone they are not in reality (ex: prince, doctor, CEO )

 Delusions of Persecution: the individual believes that he is
constantly trying to persecuted or that someone is “out to get him” all the time (ex: spies all around)

 Hallucination: he individual sees and/or hears things that are not
real Common Dysfunctional Behavior

 Disordered Intellectual Dysfunction: cannot function properly in
society and with other people (ex: cannot perform basic tasks or converse {not a retard} )

 Disordered Emotional Dysfunction: occurs in two forms
(A) Emotionally FLAT: No emotion whatsoever. No cumulative emotion. (B) Emotionally EXAGURRATED: All emotions to the maximus. The individual experiences happiness, sadness, anger and all emotions, but feels all of them to a heavily extent. The individual is unable to have “normal” emotions.


Ali Kilinc 900235909 11/27/2007

→ Schizophrenia (Psychotic Behavior)
o o Most serious problem facing psychologists today Four different types, all of which are psychotic in nature: 1) Disorganized Schizophrenic: very flat or exaggerated emotions 2) Catatonic Schizophrenic: bodily state dominates; stupor level. All levels of bodily effort are brought down to as minimum as POSSIBLE.  Individuals sometimes freeze themselves and stay that way for hours at time, sometimes even days, weeks.  Waxy Flexible: ability to move the body or reposition limbs into comfortable positions when frozen  Rigid: body cannot move or be repositioned whilst frozen 3) Paranoid Schizophrenic: experiences delusions of grandeur PLUS persecution simultaneously, whilst possibly hearing and seeing things as well.  Most “potentially” dangerous of all psychopaths 4) Undifferentiated Schizophrenic: an individual who exhibits characteristics and symptoms of a schizophrenic, but does not specifically fit into type 1, 2 or 3. o Possible Causes |key: = relevant data, but not extremely conclusive as final cause|

 Patients of schizophrenia are commonly found to have some
kind of heavy trauma at one point or another in their lifetime

 The probability of the disorder being genetically transferred is

 Individuals with schizophrenia are commonly found with higher
than normal levels of dopamine {similar to being “high” all the time} 5

Ali Kilinc 900235909 11/27/2007

 MRI scans reveal: brain ventricles are wider than normal  PET scans reveal: lower than normal brain activity in the
frontal lobes

 Autopsies reveal: wider than normal brain fissures → Mood Disorders
(A) Major Depressive Disorder: classified as a deep, DEEP form of depression; deepest and lowest possible state. Learned helplessness has taken on most extreme form.  Suicide a very high probability. (B) Bipolar Disorder – f.k.a. “Manic Depressive Psychosis”: 1: Individual experiences EXTREME mood swings (ex: from overexaggerated happiness to heavy and deep depression). Does not experience mania. 2: Individual experiences severe depression, but without any instances of mood changes, as in non-altering.  Expresses at least one instance of mania or manic depression (C) S.A.D. (Seasonal Affective Disorder): classified as depression brought on by the change of time in the day or seasons of the year | ex: {summer⇒happiness} {winter⇒sadness}


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