DEPARTMENT OF …………………………… SEMESTER ……………3rd/ 4th …….………… SUBJECT NAME …Organizational Behaviour SUBJECT CODE ………………………………

BY MR. S.Kameswar Rao Lecturer, Dept. of Management.


MODULE – I (Pages 1 to 26) 1. OB meaning and definition, why do organizations exists, Importance, nature & scope of OB. 2. Foundations of OB, Disciplines contributing to OB, OB model, Approaches to the study of OB. 3. Challenges to OB specialist, Learning and how learning occurs. 4. Principles of learning MODULE – 2 (Pages 27 to 57) 1. Personality, Theories of personality, Determinants of personality, How personality develops. 2. Personality traits, The ‘Big Five’ personality traits, Personality and OB. 3. Perception, Perceptual process, Perception and OB. 4. Motivation, Importance and theories of motivation. MODULE – 3 (Pages 58 to 104) 1. Communication, Its importance and types, Process of communication, Communication
networks. 2. Barriers of communication, Groups in organizations, Types of groups, why people join groups.

3. Group cohesiveness, Group decision making, Techniques in decision making, Effective team
building. 4. Leadership,Styles and theories of leadership, Conflict and its management, Manager’s role, skills, functions.

MODULE – 4 ( Pages 105 to 124) 1. Organisational culture, Introduction to HRM. 2. Recruitment, Selection, Orientation, Placement, Training and development. 3. Performance appraisal, Organisational change, Types of changes, Resistance to change. 4. International OB, Cultural differences & similarities, Individual and group behaviour in the
global perspective.


(b) The study is about behaviour in organizations and (c) Knowledge about human behaviour would be useful in improving an organization’s effectiveness.Local communities.Organizations are said to be effective when they produce quality goods and services at reasonable cost without compromising on profit making. “it is concerned with the understanding.Customers. employees and investors. Luthans defined OB as. prediction and control of human behaviour in organizations”. group behaviour and of the organization itself. Secondary stakeholders :. foreign governments. So OB is the study of human behaviour in organizational settings. suppliers. social activist groups. Stakeholders are all the people and groups affected by or that can affect an organizations decisions. Robbins. OB obviously comprises individual behaviour. .ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR MODULE-1 OB-Meaning and definition:Organizations are groups of people who work together to achieve a set of goals. Organizational behaviour is the study and application of knowledge about how people as individuals and as groups behave or act in organizations. The other requirement is to satisfy their diverse stakeholders OB helps firms achieve effectiveness in their activities. policies and operations. Behaviour is the way of treating others. media and the general public. “OB is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals. Primary stakeholders :. groups and structure have on behavior within organizations for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organization’s effectiveness”. The following three features need to be emphasized in any definition(a) OB is the study of human behaviour. government departments. Organizational effectiveness:.

economize on transaction costs and exert power and control. social and political factors but also the resources from which it obtains inputs and the market place into which it releases its outputs. but and organization has the resources to develop specialists to anticipate or attempt to influence the many demands from the environment.Organizations are able to take advantage of the economies of scale and scope that result from the use of modern automated computerized technology. Economies of scope are the cost savings that result when an organization is able to use under utilized resources more effectively. organization allows the development of specialization and division of labour.. Firms such as WIPRO have provided enabling environments for individuals to enhance their skills for organization and individual growth. use large scale technology. . who will get paid what amounts and how to decide if each worker is doing his or her share of the work. (a) To increase specialization and the division of labour:.When people cooperate to produce goods and services. (b) To use large scale technology:. they have to jointly decide who will do which tasks. (d) To economize on transaction cost:. For many kinds of productive work.An organization’s environment includes not only economic. The costs associated with negotiating. Managing complex environments is a task beyond the abilities of most individuals. > (a) increased specialization and division of labour > (b) Use of large scale technology Organisation allows People jointly to: > © Manage the external environment > (d)Economise on transaction costs > (e)Exert power and control > (which increases the value that an organization can Create). Economies of scale-are the cost savings that results when goods and services are produced in large volumes.People who work in organizations may become more productive and efficient at what they do than people who work alone.An organization allows people to jointly increase specializations and division of labour. mange the external environment. © To manage the external environment:.Why do organizations exist: .

perception. (2) The knowledge of OB helps managers know individual employees better and motivate employees to work for better results. organizations can use them to exert power over individuals. A manager in a business establishment is concerned with things done through delegation. It helps understand the cause of the problem. This helps greatly in improving our inter personal relations in the organizations. a better canteen often the attitude of the boss makes the worker lazy. it is not always because of denial of promotion or a poor work environment. It is helpful in maintaining cordial industrial relations. they must pay attention to the organization’s needs as well as their own. He or she will be successful when he or she can motivate subordinates to work for better results. Employment. Understanding of topics such as attitude. Friendly and cordial relations between employees and management and also among the employees create a congenial (friendly) work environment in organizations. the basic issue may not be a demand for more wages. If an employee is slow in his work or his productivity is steadily declining. conflict will change the very style of talking and functioning of an individual. ---------------------------------------------------------------Importance of OB / why study of OB/ Need for OB (1) OB helps us to understand ourselves and others in a better way. Organizations can discipline or fire workers who fail to confirm and can reward good performance with promotion and increased rewards. Similarly.monitoring and governing exchanges between people are called transaction costs. Organizations reduce the transaction costs associated with the exchanges. (3) OB tackles human problems humanly.Organizations can exert great pressure on individuals to increase production efficiency. if the union of workers gives a strike call. predicts its future course of action and controls its evil consequences. communication. higher bonus. Similarly.Infosys for creating an organizational setting in which people are given the freedom to develop their skills and capabilities to create valuable new products. however. (e) To exert power and control:. promotion and increased rewards are important and often scarce. When individuals work for an organization. reluctance of the . Example.

The planning function refers to define an organization’s goals. All managers engage in planning. Success or failure of an organization is squarely (directly) depends on these people. not technical.Managers are responsible for designing and developing an organization’s structure. (9) OB uses scientific research to help us understand and predict organizational life. (7) OB help us make sense of the workplace and to some extent predict what people will do under various conditions. It includes the determination of what tasks are to be done. (4) The most popular reason for studying OB is to learn how to predict human behaviour and then apply it in some useful way to make the organization more effective. --------------------------------------------------------- MANAGER Managers are individuals who plan. Functions of Management:(a) Planning:. The effective utilization of people working in the organization guarantees success of the organization. OB helps managers how to manage human resources efficiently in the organization. Relations between management and employees are often strained for reasons which are personnel issues. OB helps to communicate effectively with others. establish an overall strategy for achieving those goals. make better decisions. Managers get things done through other people. (b) Organizing:. allocate resources and direct the activities of others to attain goals. (6) OB theories and concepts help us influence organizational events. help work teams operate more effectively. They make decisions.management to talk to union leaders about issues might provoke them to give a strike call. lead and control the organizational resources for attainment of its goals. . who is to do them. (8) OB provides a road map to our lives in the organization. Managers are individuals who achieve goals through other people. organize. who reports to whom and where decisions are to be made. Plans give them the goal and the actions needed to reach the objective. manage conflicts. (5) Organisations are run by man and man working in the organizations makes all the difference. It helps in inspiring and motivating employees towards higher productivity and better results. how the tasks are to be grouped.

(c) Leading:- Every organization contains people and it is the job of the management to direct and coordinate those people. This is leading function. Managers have to motivate employees, direct the activities of others, select the most effective communication channels, or resolve conflicts among members. (d) Controlling:- Management must monitor the organization’s performance. Actual performance must be compared with the set goals. If there are any significant deviations, it is management’s job to get the organization back on track. This monitoring, comparing and correcting is meant by the controlling function. Management skills:(i) Technical skills:- Technical skill refers to the ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. Vocational and on-the-job training programmes largely do a good job in developing this skill. All jobs require some specialized expertise and many develop their skills on the job. (ii) Human skills:- Human skills refers to the ability to work with, understand and motivate other people, both individually and in groups. Many people may be technically proficient but interpersonally incompetent. They might be poor listeners, unable to understand the needs of others or have difficulty in managing conflicts. Since managers get things done through other people, they must have good human skills to communicate, motivate and delegate. (iii) Conceptual skills:-Managers must have the mental ability to analyse and diagnose complex situations. These tasks require conceptual skills. For example decision making requires managers to spot problems, identify alternatives that can correct them, evaluate those alternatives and select the best one. Managers can be technically and interpersonally competent yet still fail because of an inability to rationally process and interpret information. Role of a manager:According to Henry Mintzberg a manager has 10 roles, broadly categorized under 3 heads.

(A) Interpersonal Roles :- (i) Figure head:- As a figure head, the manager performs ceremonial and symbolic activities for the organization. He outlines the organisation’s goals, guidelines and the principles to employees and how to behave with customers and suppliers. (ii) Leader:- As a leader, the manager’s role is to motivate subordinate for better performance. Give direct commands and orders to subordinates, make decisions concerning the use of human and technical resources. (iii) Liasion:- Coordinate the work in different departments and establish alliances between different organizations and develops information sources both inside and outside the organization. (B) Informational Roles:- (iv) Monitor:- Evaluate the performance of managers in different functions, and take corrective action to improve their performance and keep watching for changes occurring in the internal and external environment that may affect the organization in future. (v) Disseminator:- Informs employees about changes taking place in the external and internal environment that will affect them and the organization and about the organization’s vision and purpose. (vi) Spokesperson:- As a spokesperson, give a speech to inform the stakeholders about the organisation’s future intentions and to promote new goods and services. © Decisional Roles:- (vii) Entrepreneur:- the manager must decide which programmes and projects to initiate and how to invest resources on them. (viii) Disturbance Handler:- As a disturbance handler, the manager assumes responsibility for handling crisis from the internal and external environment. Move quickly to take corrective action. (ix) Resource Allocator:- Manager allocates the orgnisational resources to various departments and functions and will decide how best the people and other resources can be used to increase the organizational effectiveness. He will set budgets and salaries. (x) Negotiator:- As a negotiator the manager negotiates with suppliers, distributors and labour unions to reach agreements.


Scope of OB:OB is the study of human behaviour at work in organizations. Accordingly, the scope of OB includes the study of individuals, groups and organization / structure. (a) Individuals:- Individuals differ in many respects. The study of individuals therefore, includes aspects such as personality, perception, attitudes, values, job satisfaction, learning and motivation. (b) Groups:- include group dynamics, group conflicts, communication, leadership, power and politics and the like. © Organisation / structure:- study of organization / structure includes aspects such as formation of organizational structure, culture and change and development. In a nutshell, OB studies how organisations influence people or how people influence organizations.

Nature of OB:- The nature of OB is identified as –
(a) A separate field of study and not a discipline only:- OB has a multidisciplinary orientation. Therefore it is better reasonable to call a separate field of study rather than a discipline only. (b) An interdisciplinary approach:- For studying OB, it has drawn knowledge from related disciplines like psychology, sociology and anthropology. (c) An applied science:- The very nature of OB is applied. OB basically applies various researches to solve the organizational problem related to human behaviour. (d) A normative science:- OB deals with what is accepted by individuals and society engaged in an organization. (e) A humanistic and optimistic approach:- OB realizes that people working in the organization have a desire to be independent, creative and productive, if they are given proper conditions and environment. (f) A total system approach:- The systems approach is one that integrates all the variables affecting organisational functioning. -----------------------------------------------------------------------

diction (projection) or any such trait. while at the same time. his/her social background. It is because of individual differences that OB begins with the individual. (c) Caused behaviour:. People see organizations as a means to help them reach their goals. political science. Psychology:. sociology and anthropology.Organisations need people and people also need organizations. Psychology has contributed greatly to the intra individual dynamics of human behaviour. (a) Individual differences:.It confirms that people are to be treated differently from other factors of production because they are of a higher order in the Universe. It has also drawn from subjects such as economics. (f) Mutuality of interest:. intra- . The behaviour is influenced by their group as well as by their individual drives. It recognizes that people want to be treated with respect and dignity and rejects old idea of using employees as economic tools. When a worker comes late to his or her work. (g) Holistic concept:. or abuses the supervisor there is a cause behind it.Each person in the world is different from others in several ways. physique. his/her skill alone is not hired. likes and dislikes. This concept interprets people-organisation relationships. (e) Organisations are social systems:. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Major disciplines and their contribution to OB OB has drawn many concepts from a number of applied behavioural sciences such as psychology.When the above six fundamental concepts of OB are placed together. A person’s family life cannot be separated from his or her work life. personality. one can find striking differences. organization need people to help attain organizations objectives.It is the science of behaviour and includes animal as well as human behaviour. (b) A whole person:.The behaviour of the employee is caused and not random.Foundations of OB:The subject OB is based on a few fundamental concepts which revolve around the nature of people and organizations. engineering and medicine. (d) Human dignity:.From sociology we learn that organizations are social systems and the activities are governed by social as well as psychological laws. pelts stones at a running bus. Whether it is intelligence.When an individual is appointed. history. a holistic concept emerges. Organizations have human purpose. pride and prejudices (discrimination) are also hired.

communication. Medicine:. Sociology :. specially in the area of stress.It is the study of the human race. communication patterns. productivity measurement. The culture of the organization will have an influence on the employee.It is the study of both psychology and sociology. workflow analysis and design and labour relations.Contributions from political science such as conflict resolution. -------------------------------------------- OB Model Personality Perception Learning Attitudes and attribution Motivation Individual behaviour Group dynamics Team dynamics . Social psychology:. opinion and learning owe their study to psychology. It is the study of group behaviour. the ways in which group activities can satisfy individual needs and in group decision-making process. allocation of power and how people manipulate power in their self-interest are significant for better understanding of OB. understanding and changing attitudes.personal aspects of OB like motivation. Culture has significant influence on human behaviour and dictates what people learn and how they behave. perception. group-dynamics. Social psychology is useful in measuring. Engineering:. Anthropology:. Political science:.It studies the behaviour of people in relation to their fellow human beings. in particular its culture. group coalition. It has contributed to the study of interpersonal dynamics like leadership. formal and informal organizations.Medicine has also come into play in connection with the study of OB. attitude. It is important to control the stress for the well being of the individual and organizations.Industrial engineering in particular has concerned with work measurement.

----------------------------------------------Organisation Approaches to the study of OB HR Approach Contingency Approach Productivity Approach OB Systems Approach Interactionalism Approach . The cumulative effect of all these behaviours is felt on organizational effectiveness which in turn has impact on individual.Leadership Power and politics Communication Conflict Group behaviour Organisational effectiveness. which inturn has impact on behaviour of organization. group and organizational behaviour. Organisational culture Human resource policies & practices Work stress Organisational change and development Individual behaviour will influence and is influenced by group behaviour.

purposeful system composed of interrelated parts. Productivity approach:. interpret and change various situations. human. The organization converts these inputs into products or services. financial and informational. Contingency approach:. The higher the numerical value of this ration. is a measure of an organization’s efficiency. profits or losses and additional information and supplies these to the environment. creativity and fulfillment. the greater the Emerging challenges to the OB specialist Managing diversity Ethical behaviour Technology transformation OB Challenges Changing demographics of workplace Changed employee expectations Globalisation .According to this approach.HR approach:. Thus the organization becomes an input-transformation-output system. an organization system receives four kinds of inputs from its environment : material. --------------------------------------------------------------effectiveness. According to this approach. employee behaviour. The system then receives feedback form the environment regarding the output. people are the central resource in any organization and they should be developed towards higher levels of competency. Interactionalism attempts to explain how people select. Systems approach:. which is the ratio of output to input. Interactionalism:.Productivity. This approach is also called as supportive approach. It suggests that in most organizations situations and outcomes are contingent on or influenced by other variables.This is another useful way of looking OB and assumes that there is no “ one best way” available in the organization.This is relatively a new approach to understanding behaviour in organizational settings.This approach views organization as a united. People thus developed will contribute to the success of the organization.

Set of beliefs about a group that is applied universally to all members of that group. sexual orientation. (e) Harassment:.Negative reaction to the gaining of power and influence by members of previously under represented groups. such as “all poor people are uneducated” or “all Asians are good at maths”. How to manage diversity effectivelyManagers need to ensure that they and their subordinates appreciate the value that diversity brings to an organization. (b) Ethnocentrism:. management and non-management values. uninvited intimate way. beliefs and opinions.Unjustified negative attitude towards a person based on his or her membership of a particular group. geographic origin.Approaching a person in an unwanted. (f) Sexual harassment:. © Stereotypes:. (g) Backlash:.Consciously shunning (avoid. businesses are able to – (a) Access to a changing marketplace (b) Superior customer service © Alliances with suppliers and customers (d) Continuous learning. understand why diversity should be celebrated than ignored. By ensuring the diversity. education. Managing diversity involves- . background. tenure with an organization. It includes age. nationality or sexual orientation.1.A tendency to regard one’s own group.Diversity is dealing with a collective mixture of differences and similarities in a given group. ethnicity. (d) Discrimination:. gender. age. Managing diversity:. function and personality. Barriers to accepting diversity:(a) Prejudice:.Barring an individual from membership of an organization or from a job because of his or here membership of a particular group. and work effectively with men and women who are physically challenged or are of a diverse race. It also includes lifestyles. ignore) or verbally or physical abusing an individual because of membership of a particular group. culture on nation as superior to others.

(3) Changing employee expectations:. ambitious. Today’s worker demands better treatment. enthusiastic and emotive have to be handled with circumspection. Indians. who are fresh.With the change in the demographics of workforce. Bolivians. The increasing number of dual-career professionals limits individual flexibility in accepting such assignments and may hinder organizational flexibility in acquiring and developing talent.Cultural diversity in the workplace is growing because of globalization. biases (favouratism) and stereotypes and the differing perspectives of diverse managers. (b) Increasing diversity skills:. People of diverse national origins-Koreans. Britishers and others working together in teams to perform task. Job security. managers down the line embrass diversity through their actions and spread message that diversity can be a source of competitive advantage. challenging assignments and career assignments. (e) Committing top management to diversity:. their share of the rewards is not increasing commensurately.Increasing diversity skills focus on improving the way the managers and their subordinates interact with each other and on improving their ability to work with different kinds of people. Though women’s participation in the workplace is increasing. (2) Changing demographics of workplace:.When there is a commitment to diversity at top.couple where both partners are actively pursuing professional careers. providing counseling etc. employees expectations and attitudes have also changed. Educating managers and their subordinates to help to develop or healthy respect for diversity and to take advantage of the skills and abilities of its diverse workforce. Awareness programmes in an organization should increase managers’ and workers’ awareness of their own attitudes. Another change in the demographics of workplace is the growing number of young employees. . One has to recognize the strengths in both the sexes.Awareness demands appreciation of diversity as a fact of organizational life.The managers or OB specialists have to encourage gender diversity. co-workers and customers. (d) Encouraging gender diversity:. Australians. encouraging employees to accept foreign country assignments. subordinates. (c) Encouraging cultural diversity:.The major challenge from changing demographics of workforce relates to dual career couple. monetary benefits.(a) Increasing awareness:. The manager or OB specialist has to encourage cultural diversity by providing language training.

and just and unjust actions of manager. The information revolution has changed and will continue to change. Employers must also plan for the effects of automation on their workforce. not only in his private life but also in his workplace. housing. Automation may change the job of a low-level worker from assembling a product to monitoring the machines that do the assembling.Desires to be ethical. (4) Globalization:. To face this challenge. which is shaking the organizations and forcing OB scholars to re-examine their concepts in the light of revolutionary changes brought about by it. training.Growing internationalization has its impact on people management. replacement or retaining.Public will honour and respect a company with ethical values and favour its products and also public issues. whether they include worker displacement. Enforcing ethical behaviour is a major challenge. the management must be flexible and proactive. (b) Values create credibility with the public:. organizations tend to compromise on ethics. (5) Technology transformation:. and the motives and consequences of these actions.Technology may be understood as anything that workers of an organization use to transform its inputs into outputs. Personnel functions such as hiring. the way we live and work. . he knows that his decisions may affect the lives of several employees. attitudes. by which the workers becomes bored and alienated and the consequence can be poor quality and low productivity. competitors. right and wrong. the goodness and badness of actions. This may encourage the management to automate further. management styles. compensating. The 21st century belongs to IT. therefore may not motivate the employees. Ethics refers to a system of moral principles – a sense of right and wrong. work ethics and more.As competition becomes severe.uniform. practices. being a manager. Attracting and retaining capable employees is a big challenge to OB experts. (6) Promoting ethical behaviour:. Why ethics are important ? (a) Ethics correspond to basic human needs:. languages. The management has to cope with problems of unfamiliar laws. maintaining and the like must acquire a global perspective. As applied to the organizations ethics is the study of good and evil. buses and other facilities alone. canteen.

Managing ethics:(a) Ethical committees should be formed to advice on ethical issues. (e) the code of ethics describes the general value system of the organization. ethics can. Government cannot always regulate all activities which are harmful to the society. change should be relatively permanent. (d) The change in behaviour should occur as a result of experiences .Company with ethical value is most likely to be successful in the long run. --------------------------------------------------------------------- Learning Learning can be defined as relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a result of practice or experience. it may be good or bad. © Ethics hot line. practice or training. Components of learning:(a) Learning involves change. (e) Values help the management in better decision making. (d) Top management’s commitment for initiating and ensuring the ethical standards in his or her organization. even though the decisionmaking is slower. Decisions which are in the interest of the public. . (d) Values gives the management credibility with its employees. (f) Law cannot protect the society. An ethically-oriented management takes measures to prevent pollution and protect workers health even before being mandated by law. (b) Not all changes reflect learning. To constitute learning. (b) Ethics training programmes. Values bring the leadership and its people together. though in the short run they may lose money. their employees and the company’s own long-term good.© Ethics and profit go together:. Simply-learning is the modification of behaviour through practices training or experience. © Learning is reflected in behaviour.

Learning occurs throughout one’s life. Explicit & Tacit knowledge:.that does not elicit (draw.(e) The practice or experience must be reinforced in order for learning to occur. How learning occurs:There are four theories which explain how learning occurs- (1) Classical conditioning:. The dog has learnt to respond (salivate) to the bell. After a while.. Then Pavlov proceeded to link the meat and the ringing of the bell. Explicit knowledge is organized and can be communicated from one person to another. the dog exhibited a noticeable increase in salivation. the dog has no salivation. even if no food was offered. bring out) a particular response gradually acquires the capacity to elicit that response as a result of repeating pairing with a stimulus that can elicit a reaction.. the information a student receives in class room. After repeatedly hearing the bell before getting the food. a truck driver does not learn how to operate the vehicle through lectures. When Pavlov presented the dog with a piece of meat. the dog began to salivate as soon as the bell rang. E.Ivan Pavlov propounded this theory.g.g. Majority of the people have tacit or implied knowledge. Pavlov conducted an experiment on dog and tried to relate the dog’s salivation and the ringing of a bell. E.When employees learn. Explicit knowledge can be written down and given to others. Tacit knowledge is what one knows but cannot tell. the dog would salivate merely at the sound of the bell. Tacit knowledge is the idea that one knows more than what he or she can tell. When he withheld the presentation of meat and merely rang a bell. Tacit knowledge is acquired through observation and direct experience. they acquire both explicit and tacit knowledge. According to this theory a physical event (or object) – termed a stimulus. Before conditioning(US)Unconditioned stimulus(Food)--------------------- (UR)Unconditioned response (Salivation) During conditioning(CS)Conditioned stimulus (Bell) -------------------- (US) Unconditioned stimulus (Food) ! ! .

(3) Cognitive theory of learning:. he or she will recognize that the choice was a good one and will understand why. When Pavlov repeated the presentation of meat after ringing the bell.(a) Manufacturing plant  Top executive - cleaning up offices -Employees would turn on their best. The employee recognizes his or her two alternatives and chooses one. Researchers call “operant behaviour” because they operate on the environment. If our actions have pleasant effects then we will be more likely to repeat them in the future. Second people make choices about their behaviour. which affects future choices. behaviour is the function of its consequences. Third.(UR) Unconditioned response (Salivation) After conditioning(CS) Conditioned stimulus (Bell) ------------------- (CR) Conditioned response (Salivation) Salivation in response to food is natural. Thus. For example. Finally. The bell is conditioned stimulus (CS) and the salivation is conditioned response (CR). our behaviour produces certain consequences and how we behave in future will depend on what those consequences are. we are less likely to repeat them in the future. If. Thus according to this theory.they make the environment respond in ways that we want. In the cognitive view. when the employee finds the job assignments rewarding and fulfilling. Example: Coffee vending machine. (b) Traffic police. our actions have unpleasant effects. if an employee faced with a choice of job assignment will use previous experiences in deciding which one to accept. people draw on their experiences and use past learning as a basis for present behaviour. was called the unconditioned reflex. people evaluate those consequences and add them to prior learning. and after some time the dog salivated in response to bell. According to this theory. Example:. . unlearned response is a reflex. The food is unconditioned stimulus. however. active participants in how they learn. people recognize the consequences of their choices. (2) Operant conditioning :- It is also called instrumental conditioning.According to this theory people are conscious.

fatigue and spurt. --------------------------------------------------------------- Principles of learning:Principles of learning are many but the most important of them are: motivation. .In parts learning. the more effective the learning will be. Positive reinforcement strengthens and enhances behaviour by the presentation of positive reinforces.(4) Social learning theory:. Learning proceeds in stages. Observational learning involves several processes:(a) The learner must pay attention to the model. (c) Observer must practice model’s behaviour. shelter and sexual pleasure.This theory emphasized the ability of an individual to learn by observing others. (b) The observer must have good retention of the model’s behaviour.called curves. Punishment and extinction (disappearance. the observer must have some motivation to learn from the model. trophies and praise from others. Important models include parents. Primary rein forcers satisfy basic biological needs and include food.Reinforcement is used to enhance desirable behaviour. peers. Secondary reinforcers include money. Enthusiasm at commencement of training session. teachers. (b) Reinforcement:. then peaks. extreme cold or electric shock etc. (d) Learning curves:. Some negative rein forcers are heat. TV artists. motion pictures. reinforcement. According to this theory an individual acquires new knowledge by observing what happens to his or her model. meaningfulness of material and learning styles.the greater the attention.A diagrammatic presentation of the amount learned in relation to time. (c) Whole versus part learning:. the individual is not only required to learn each individual part but must be able to combine the separate parts so that the whole performance can be accomplished. These are primary rein forcers and secondary rein forcers. learning curves. whole versus part learning. bosses and others. (d) Finally. No overall conclusion to decide whether learning a whole job is superior to breaking the job into parts. loss) are employed to minimize undesirable behaviour. water. status. (a) Motivation:. grades. In negative reinforcement an unpleasant event that precedes a behaviour is removed when the desired behaviour occurs.Without motivation learning does not take place.

Learning of nonsense syllables proceeds more slowly than that of prose or poetry. Learning and OB:Learning is of great relevance to the study of OB. Training becomes effective if training is conducted keeping learning principles in mind. (ii) Diverger – Learns by observing and feeling. Research on discipline shows that manager should act immediately to correct the problem. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . (f) Learning styles: . (b) Learning through feedback:. (iv) Assimilator – Learns by observing and thinking.The more meaningful the material. (a) Learning and training:. Disciplining employees for undesirable only tells what not to do. When confronted with a new stimulus. the person learns the basic stimulus-responseconsequence sequence for one stimulus. he or she can discriminate between the two stimuli and respond differently. late arrivals to work. There are four styles(i) Accommodator.Employee indiscipline acts are drunkenness on the job. (d) Stimulus generalization in organizations:.Feedback improves employee ability by frequently providing information to correct performance problems.(e) Meaningfulness of material: .Learning is major objective of training.Learning styles refers to the ability of an individual to learn. stealing company property etc. © Employee indiscipline:.Learns by doing and feeling. In stimulus generalization. Feedback makes people aware of their performance errors and helps them correct those errors quickly.Learns by doing and thinking. the better does learning proceed. (iii) Converser.It is the ability to recognize differences among stimuli (incentive).


Nature of personality:(a) Personality has both internal and external elements. For example sociability. Internal elements are thoughts. . values and genetic traits.II MODULE – II Personality The term personality is derived from Latin word “personae” which means “to speak through”. which are relatively stable and which make the individual different from others. Personality refers to the sum total of internal and external traits of an individual.MODULE . The external traits are the observable behaviours what we notice.

emotional stability. © Mesomorph:. Theories of personality:(1) Type theory: . thin person.(b) An individual’s personality is relatively stable. aggressiveness. Extroverts are sociable and gregarious (unreserved. noisy. cautious. restrained. callous (heartless) and fond of physical activity. According to this theory personality can be described by a trait. and serves as useful unit of analysis to understand personality. A trait differentiates one from another in a relatively permanent or consistent way. events and objects. quiet and retiring. sociable) individuals. (d) Each individual is unique in behaviour. A personality trait is understood as being an enduring attribute of a person that appears consistently in a variety of situations. people are grouped into identifiable categories. when we are describing ourselves and others as friendly. Type theories are simple as they are based on physical attributes or psychological factors for categorization of personalities. creativeness etc.According to this theories. sociable. (2) Trait theory:Another important approach to understand personality is the trait. We could rate an individual on a scale of intelligence. self conscious. Kretschmer and Sheldon classified as(a)Endomorph:.A short. intelligent. and anxious we are using trait terms. According to this theory personalities are classified according to the structure of the body. They are more oriented towards other people. excitable. relaxed and even (calm)-tempered. © An individual’s personality is both inherited as well as shaped by the environment. plump (fatty) person. .A tall. A trait of an individual is abstracted from his behaviour.A heavy set of muscular individual. (b) Ectomorph:. Carl Jung divided into introverts and extroverts. Introverts are shy.

(b) The Ego:. manual skills. feelings and behaviours. A rating scale is filled by someone else by what he or she knows about the individual or by studying his or her behaviour in certain situation. The starving man cannot satisfy his hunger by eating images. © The Super ego:. The id seeks pleasure. It checks the id through logic and intellect. Reality must be considered. (ii) someone else evaluates the person’s traits either from what he knows about the individual or from direct observations of behaviour. The ego is associated with reality. According to this theory behaviour is influenced by unconscious framework and this unconscious framework is composed of three elements. fears.Id.The id is unconscious part while ego is conscious part of human personality. According to the social learning theory a situation play an important role in determining the behaviour. A personality inventory is a questionnaire in which the person reports reactions or feelings in certain situations. desires that unconsciously direct and determine our behaviour.Sigmund Freud developed this theory. The hungry man must have food if the tension of hunger is to be reduced. (3) Psychoanalytic theory:.The social learning theory emphasizes on how an individual behaves or acts in a given situation. language. Ego and Super ego.There are two ways of assessing personality traits (i) the person describes himself by answering questions about his attitudes. a personality inventory is used and the second involves using rating scales. The super ego represents the values and morals of society as taught to the child by parents and others. (a) Id:. personality traits etc.The super ego judges whether an action is right or wrong according to the standards of the society. Learning occurs through two ways – (i) learning through .It is the storehouse of all instincts such as wishes. Through learning one acquires knowledge. which strives for immediate gratification of all desires. If the needs are not satisfied. values. The super ego guide and govern a person to behave properly in the society. The first method. wants and needs. attitudes. the ego tests reality and the super ego strives for perfection. The id is driven by the pleasure principle. the result is anxiety or tension. Mental images do not satisfy needs. Id knows and obeys no laws and rules and it is danger for the person and for society as well. (4) Social learning theory:. The ego can be described as controlling id through realities.

According to this theory. perceptions and characterize ‘I’ or ‘me’: it includes the awareness ‘what I am” and ‘what I can do’. They believe that an individual can store his observations in memory.The humanistic approach to the study of personality includes a number of theories.reinforcement and (ii) learning by observing other. Determinants of personality:Heredity Environment Family PESONALITY . each person alone is responsible for his own existence.. feelings and his concepts of world and self.This theory is also described as ‘phenomelogical’ which studies individual’s subjective experience. he can learn by observing the actions of others and by noting the consequences of those actions. This theory asserts that a person’s action in a given situation depend upon the specific characteristics of a situation. behaviour is the result of immediate events as they are actually perceived and interpreted by the individual. and past behaviour in similar situation. The self consist of all ideas. also called vicarious learning. reinforcement is not always necessary for learning. the individual’s understanding of the situation. (b) Maslow’s self-actualization theory:. i. The drive of man which is inherent in him is called self – actualization. (a) Carl Rogers self theory:. For social learning theorists. He is never static. According to this theory behaviour is dependent upon how one perceives the world.Maslow is regarded as the spiritual father of humanism in American psychology. He tries to become a useful member of the society and try to lead a fruitful life. Roger’s personality theory has two concepts: self and self-actualization. (5) Humanistic approach:.e. Self actualization is the basic motivating force representing the inherent tendency of the organism to develop all its capabilities which serve to maintain or enhance the person.

followed by social groups (peers. A poor boy raised in an urban slum is expected to behave differently in some respects from a well – to.The family has considerable influence on personality development. For example. facial attractiveness temperament. one’s early conditioning. may feel frustrated and behave aggressively. particularly in the early stages. But. friends and social groups put an impact on one’s personality formation. Most cultures expect different behaviours from males and females. Environment:. indicates that his personality changed under changed situation. Socialization process:. For example. Heredity plays an important role in determining one’s personality. yet developmental history would predict that the individual is a very hard worker. For example. . the family norms. The cultural environment in which people are raised plays a major role in shaping personality. also affects the personality.Heredity refers to the transmission of the qualities from the parents to the children through a biological mechanism. socialization process. loving and stimulating environment. Family:. when the same worker is placed in a highly bureaucratized work situation. Physical structure.The environment i. After infancy. Situation exerts (exercise) on important pressure on the individual to behave in a particular manner. Socialization process starts with the initial contact between a mother and her infant. siblings (brothers and sisters) also influence shaping of personality. school friends and members of the working group) play influential roles. other members of the immediate family. a worker whose personality history suggests that he had need for power and achievement.Individual’s personality does change depending on the situation. This worker appears to be lazy and or a troublemaker.. Elders serve as models for Youngers.do rise in a middle-class suburb. Situation:.e. sex. muscle composition are examples that are generally influenced by one’s parents. the same person while facing an employment interview and while enjoying picnic with his/her friends in a public park behaves quite differently depending on two different situations. children raised in orphans are much more likely to socially and emotionally maladjusted than their counterparts raised by parents in a warm.The continuous impact of different social groups called.Social Situational Heredity:. Parents have more effect on the personality development of their children as compared to other members of the family. Besides parents.

(b) The anal stage: . If the mother is too harsh (rough) and repressive (suppressive) the child withholds faces (waste matter). Alternatively. makes the infant optimistic about the world. The latency period is very important for the social development of the child. masturbating and expressing interest in matters of birth and sex. Freud postulates that the stimulation given to the infant both in excessive and inadequate amounts.---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- How personality develops? Personality develops with advancement in an individual’s age passing through certain stages. and disorderliness. This period is characterized by children’s disinterest in matters related to sex. The sexual gratification shifts to sex organs. punctuality and cleanliness. destructiveness. Sigmund Freud is considered one of the pioneers among the theorists. According to Freud.This stage extends from 1 to 3 years. and fondling their genitalia.(4 to 6 years). Also referred as elementary school age. Dependence is their only way of obtaining instinctual gratification. and if this becomes excessive the child develops traits such as orderliness. Thumb sucking by an infant gratifies his/her sex drive. They are(a) The oral stage: . if the mother pleads with the child to have regular bowel movements the child will develop an anal-aggressive structure and show traits of cruelty. He/ she also have a tendency to exploit or dominate others to satisfy the needs. (d) The latency period:. Later on biting satisfies the drive for seeking pleasure. Mouth becomes the first body zone through which biological drives are met. there are four stages of psychological development that shape one’s personality and its development. The infants are totally dependents upon others for their survival and growth.The oral stage extends throughout the first year of life and also called as infancy stage. . The anal becomes the body zones for sexual gratification. The children in this age can be observed examining. © The phallic stage :-( 3 to 4 years). for acquiring the knowledge and skills needed to get along in the workday world. Toilet training given to the child by his parents will have influence on adulthood.

When the child is allowed to it.This stage spreads between two and three years of a child. During this stage. (b) Early childhood:. One takes interest in opposite sex.Twelve to twenty years. he/she feels autonomy.This stage occurs between adolescence to adulthood. No fear of death. (g) Adulthood:. one tends to seek sexual gratification through heterosexual love and attraction.This stage spreads between twenty to twenty four years.(e) The genital stage: . The sexual drive and interest are revived in this stage. he/she feels lack of self confidence.This stage is extended to one year from birth. They do not want to become confused about themselves who they are. If disallowed. present and future and becomes fully satisfied. Lack of love and affection leads to mistrust. The young during this stage try to develop deep and permanent relationship with others to have a feeling of intimacy. he/she learns knowledge and skills. © Play age:. (f) Young adulthood:. the child seeks to discover what can be done. (e) Adolescence:. Adults. (d) School age:. The infants raised in loving and affectionate atmosphere learn to trust others. He/she appreciates continuity of past. This bears long lasting impact on one’s personality and behaviour. it develops a sense of industry and opposite results in a sense of inferiority.The adult of integrity gains a sense of wisdom. Adults face the situation of generativity or self absorption. (a) Infancy:. -------------------------------------Erikson’s stages of personality development:Erikson extended Freud’s psychosexual development in a more systematic manner and identified eight stages of human life. child starts to acquire independence. If the child is discouraged to do.When the child joins school from 6 to 12 years. If the child is allowed and encouraged to do what he/she wants to do. The reverse . Self absorbed adults do not look beyond themselves. Feeling in it results in a sense of isolation. The first year of the life of a person is characterized by trust versus mistrust.Twenty five to sixty five years. If the child makes progress. raise children with serious concern and guide to next generation are called generative. a sense of shame and doubt develops in the child. (h) Old (Sunset) age:. the child develops a sense of initiative. who are productive in work.In the age of four and five years. In other words. During this stage children try to gain a sense of identity for them in the society.

introverts excels (do extremely well) at tasks that require thought and analytical skills.The following are important personality traits for OB that influence an individuals behaviour in organizations. © Introverts extroverts:. Extroverts are suitable for positions that require interaction with others. logical and assessing the system around him. quiet and retiring. authenticity) of established mechanism of formal authority.An individual who has a strong belief in the legitimacy(authority. Managerial positions are dominated by extroverts. desire for living second time and depressed. . tries to control people.situation in a sense of despair. People with high selfesteem believe that they have abilities to undertake challenging jobs. They are tend to be rigid in their positions. have higher absenteeism rates. Internals have more control over their behaviour. (e) Self esteem:.Locus (what happens) of control refers to an individual’s belief that events are either with in one’s control(internal locus of control) or are determined by forces beyond one’s control (external locus of control).Machiavellianism is named after Nicolas Machiavelli who wrote in the 16th century about how to manipulate and gain powers. (b) Locus of control:. (d) Machiavellianism:.Extroverts are sociable individuals while introverts are shy. Machiavellianism refers to an individual’s propensity to manipulate people for solving his/her interest. Externals are less satisfied with their jobs. are more alienated from work settings and are less involved on their jobs than internals.Self esteem refers the feeling of like or dislike of one-self. (a) Authoritarianism:. places moral value on their beliefs. and are strongly oriented towards conformity to rules and regulations. (loosing hope) fear from death. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Personality traits:. They are good for jobs that need bargaining skills (labour negotiations) and commissioned sale. events and situations by manipulating the system to his advantage. High esteems are more satisfied with their jobs than the low esteems. An individual high in Machiavellianism tends to be cool. more active in seeking information to make decisions and are more active socially than externals.

A highly conscientious person focuses on relatively few goals at one time. because they have to play multiple roles. (d) Emotional stability focuses on an individual’s ability to cope with stress. responsible. People who score low on agreeableness focus more on their own need than the needs of others. ------------------------------------------------------The ‘Big Five’ personality traits / model (a) Extroversion refers to a person’s comfort level with relationships. self-disciplined and achievement-oriented. making quick decisions are some of the behavioral examples of A type. He or she is likely to be organized. . They are cooperative ad trusting of others. In organizations usually great salespersons are of A type but senior executives are B type. Highly agreeable people value harmony more than they value having their way. © Conscientiousness refers to the number of goals that a person focuses on. People with high self monitoring are likely to be more successful managers. (g) Self monitoring:. less talkative. beliefs and attitudes in response to new information. A person with a low conscientious nature focuses on a higher number of goals at one time. thorough. Open people are willing to listen to new ideas and to change their own ideas. working for long hours. systematic. careless and irresponsible. (b) Agreeableness refers to a person’s ability to get along with others.It refers to an individual’s ability to adjust his or her behaviour to external factors/situations. incompetent and easy going. Managers with high risk taking make more rapid decisions and use less information in making choices than do the low risk taking managers. (h) Type A and Type B personalities:. The individual with positive emotional stability tends to be calm. as well as less self-disciplined.(f) Risk taking:. assertive and open to establishing new relationships. They can behave differently in different situations. Extroverts are sociable. A person with low emotional stability tends to be nervous. enthusiastic and secure. talkative. The individual is more disorganized. People with low level of openness tend to be less receptive to new ideas and willing to change their minds. Type B personality is relaxed. depressed and insecure. less assertive and more reluctant to begin relationships. (e) Openness addresses one’s range of interests. emphasizing quantity over quality.People differ in taking risks. careful.Type A people are impatient and aggressive to achieve more in less time. working fast. Introverts are less sociable. People with high self-monitoring show greater adaptability to adjust themselves with external situations.

. giving meaning to the environment around us. A nurse working in a post-operative care might ignore the smell of recently disinfected . and glands secreting behaviour influencing hormones.e. For example. The process starts with – (a) Receiving stimuli :. External stimuli include light waves. (b) Selection of stimuli:. the others as ugly.Personality and OB:(a) Understanding personalities is important because personality affects behaviour. hear sounds. -------------------------------------------- Perception Perception can be defined as the process which involves seeing. Stimuli may be internal or external. selecting. The need for understanding human characteristics is more significant. Perceptual process Perception is a process of receiving and interpreting stimuli (thing that produces a reaction in living things). smell. Some stimuli are noticed and some are screened out. some may perceive it as beautiful. taste and touch things. interpreting and giving meaning to the environment. In simple sense. but perceive it differently. Through the five organs. A girl may always need a transistor to be tuned on while she is reading or writing. Some personality characteristics are more productive than others. perception means perceiving i. The stimuli are received from various sources. receiving. Internal stimuli include energy generated by muscles. food passing through the digestive system. We look at something.The perception process starts with the reception of stimuli.All stimuli which are received are not accepted. She happily concentrates on her lessons even as the electronic device blares film songs. organizing. mechanical energy or pressure and chemical energy from objects that one can smell and taste. © The concept of personality is not to be understood in an organizational context only. looking at a painting. we see things/objects. while opposites do not. people with similar personality types tend to get along well at work. sound waves. (b) Personality profiles are used to categorize people as a means of predicting job performance.

people or animals.Generally. Colour can be used to emphasize the attractive features of a product. A full page advertisement attracts more attention that a few lines advertisement. New objects in familiar objects in new settings will draw more attention. or which are not what people are expecting.The contrast principle states that external stimuli which stand out against the background. for example.Learning has considerable influence on perception.Colour is used to attract attention.The novelty and familiarity principle states that either a novel or a familiar external situation can serve as an attention getter. In a newspaper or magazine. animation and unusual graphics in an add. (viii) Novelty and familiarity:.The principle of motion states that a moving object receives more attention than an object that is stationary. (iii) Colour:. humour. when the centre is not possible. . The process of filtering information by our sense is called selecting stimuli. (vii) Repetition:. In organizations.By nature we mean whether the object is visual or auditory and whether it involves pictures.The best location for attracting attention is directly in front of the eyes and in the centre of a page. Internal factors influencing selection:(i) Learning: . will receive their attention. the upper portion is favorable than lower portion and left hand side receives more attention than right. (ii) Location:. (v) Contrast:. larger size objects attract more attention than do smaller ones. Several factors (internal and external) influence selection. Pictures attract more attention than words picture with human being attracts attention more than objects alone. Any this novel attracts attention fast. (vi) Movement:. External factors influencing selection are – (i) Nature:. Example daily TV add.This principle states that a repeated external stimulus is more attention drawing than a non-repetitive one. (iv) Size:.instruments or the sounds of co-workers talking nearby. But a small flashing red light on the nurse station is immediately noticed because it signals that a patient’s vital signs are failing. managers and employees past experiences and learning strongly influence their perceptions.

A thirsty person in a desert. (c) Perceptual organization:. For example. All workers coming from the same place may be perceived as similar on the basis of proximity. (ii) Closure:.Another factor of perceptual selection is ambivalence or mixed feelings about a situation. Assigning meaning to data is called interpretation.The data collected and organized remain meaningless for the perceiver till these are assigned meanings.Needs play a significant role in perceptual selectivity.Perception is influenced by the interests of the perceiver. In this process. Someone else may pass the same building everyday for years without ever observing such details. They may do it on the basis of their experience.When people find themselves overloaded with information. Thus. An architect will notice many details of buildings though he or she passes by only once. who wear white collars may be perceived a common group. they try to simplify it to make more meaningful and understandable. what they do is to subtract less important information and concentrate on important ones only. for instance.Having selected stimuli or data. The . gets the illusion of water when seeing sand from a distance. In an organization for example.(ii) Psychological needs:. Different perceptions of old and young executives are due to their age difference. these need to be organized in some form so as to assign some meaning to them. hunches (guess) or past data. (v) Ambivalence:. young ones to take tough decisions concerning terminating people or paying attention to details and paper work. (iv) Interest:. There are three ways by which the selected data is organized(i) Grouping:. he represses the awareness of her negative qualities and selectively perceives only those that are favorable. But a young man who wants to remain a success in his circle. The tendency to form a complete message from an incomplete one is known as closure. they tend to fill the gaps themselves to make it more meaningful.When people face with incomplete information. size or colour tend to be grouped together. (iii) Simplification:.Older. (d) Interpretation:. a young man may be ambivalent about his fiancée’s virtues and shortcomings.Grouping principle is exemplified when objects of similar shape. organizing the bits of information into a meaningful whole is called organization. senior executives complain about the inability of the new. (iii) Age difference:. Unreal things look real because of needs.

it is perceived that he has done it in the interest of the organization. is called stereotyping. If a poor worker also does the same. It refers to a tendency of perceiving people in terms of good and bad and ascribing all good qualities to one who is liked and all bad qualities to another who is disliked. Some examples of common stereotypes are women.parlakhemundi interpretation process is the most important element in the entire process of perception. (iii) Stereotyping:. (v) Projection:. motives into their judgment of others. the action of behaviour is perceived as being for money.Drawing a general impression about an individual based on a single characteristic or trait is called hallo effect. The following are the important factors which influence interpretation in organizations.Previously held beliefs about objects influence an individual’s perceptions of similar objects-called perceptual set.Attribution refers to explaining human behaviour in terms of cause and effect. past experience and expectations are important factors effect perception. ‘over-weight people lack discipline’. artists. attitudes.When individuals are judged on the basis of the characteristics of the group to which they belong. (vi) Perceiver:. The professor who likes the student wants him to do well in the examination and his perception about the student’s examination are influenced by what he wants to see. Stereotyping does not give in-depth truth. they project their own feelings. (ii) Attribution:. a manager may have developed general beliefs that workers are lazy and they want to gain whatever is possible from the organization without giving of their best to it. tendencies. The ‘older workers cannot learn new skills’.Under certain conditions. interests. ‘Japanese are nationalistic’. professors.The perceivers motives. (iv) Perceptual set:. one who is dishonest may perceive others as dishonest and who are afraid of interpret others as fearful. For example. For example. a professor awarding more marks to a well-liked students. if a prosperous worker does overtime on any day. That is. doctors. The evaluation and reaction to others behaviour may be heavily influenced by their perception. (i) Halo effect:. In organizations. For example. . a person who is not energetic may see others as lazy. and ‘workers are antimanagement’ are some other examples of stereotypes. executives. people tend to see in another person traits that they themselves possess. superiors evaluate subordinates on certain dimensions may assume that some one who is good in one dimension must also be good at other things and rate the person highly. For example. workers and the like.

Like effort. Motivation is the process that starts with a physiological or psychological need that activates behaviour that is aimed at a goal or incentive. assessment of loyalty is also a subjective judgment susceptible to perceptual distortions and bias. The action depends on whether the perception is favourable or unfavourable: it is positive when the perception is favourable and negative when the perception is unfavourable. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Motivation Motivation is derived from Latin word “movere” which means “to move”. they look for better ways to do a job. Another way is to check with others.Motivated employees come out with new ways of doing jobs. . (iv) Employee effort:.An employee’s future in an organization depend on effort. (v) Employee loyalty:. (f) The process of reacting:. They are quality oriented.The last phase is reaction. The perceiver will indulge in some action in relation to his or her perception. (ii) Performance appraisal:.Assessment of an employee’s performance very much depends on the perception of the evaluator about the employee. One way of checking is to put a series of questions to himself or herself and the answers will confirm whether his or her perception is correct or incorrect. Any technology needs motivated employees to adopt it successfully. They are more productive. arrive at different perceptions about the same candidate. Importance of motivation:. Motivation in simple terms may be understood as the set of forces that cause/affect/ influence people to behave in certain ways.Different interviewers try to see different things in the same candidate and thus.New employees during their selection process acquire a set of expectations both about the organization and about the job. (iii) Performance expectation:.(e) The process of checking:. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Perception and OB (i) Employment interview:.The perceiver tends to check whether his interpretations are right or wrong. (i) Motivated employees perform allotted tasks.

or from the basic to complex. Three behavioural dimensions of human resources are significant to the organization. satisfied need do not act as motivators. (iv) Every organization requires human resources. Since needs are many. Theories of motivation Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory This theory is propounded by Abraham Harold Maslow. The high productivity of Japanese workers. Maslow divided human needs into five levels.(ii) A motivated employee is generally more quality oriented. (v) Any technology needs motivated employees to adopt it successfully. only when the lower level is at least minimally satisfied. or hierarchy. The secret behind the success of ISRO has been its employees who are both capable of using and are willing to use the advanced technology to reach the goals. Maslow’s theory is based on human needs. form the basic to complex. Motivation helps a manager make his employees quality oriented. is the simplest and most widely discussed theory of motivation. For an organization to be effective. (b) people must perform tasks for which they are hired and in a dependable manner. Self Actualisation . or a clerk taking extra care when filing important documents. (a) People must be attracted not only to join the organization but also to remain in it. (c) People must go beyond this dependable role performance and engage in some form of creative and innovative behaviour at work. The person advances to the next level of hierarchy. According to this theory only unsatisfied wants can influence behaviour. This is true whether we are talking about a top manager spending extra time on data gathering and analysis for a report. makes them to produce an automobile with fewer workers than elsewhere. motivation must stimulate. they are arranged in an order of importance. (iii) Highly motivated workers are more productive.

Maslow’s theory provides an important explanation for the changing motivation of workers over time. These needs are to be met first at least partly before higher level needs emerge. Esteem needs:. Meeting these needs requires more money and the individual is prompted to work more. Social needs:. reputation and attention. waves. Social needs are those related to interaction with other people and may include.. Included in this group are food. Inability to fulfill these needs leads to feelings like inferiority. the dual factor theory and the motivation-hygiene . air. need for belongingness and need to give and receive love. shelter.Esteem from others include prestige.Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs Physiological needs:. Individuals need to be appreciated for what they can do. These needs influence tremendously on human behaviour. ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Herzberg’s Motivation Hygience (Two Factor) Theory Another important theory of motivation is proposed by psychologist Frederick Herzberg. Safety needs:. recognition.need for friends. When a new employee first starts on the job. Self actualization needs:. This theory is also known as two factor theory. social needs arise. the attention will turn to higher needs. water and other necessities of life.Self actualization is to become the total kind of person that one wants to become to reach the peak of one’s potential. less than one percent of the population fulfills the need for self – actualization. Later. This needs become inactive once they are satisfied. Maslow estimated only a few i. Once physiological needs are satisfied. status. weakness and helplessness. These needs relate to the survival and maintenance of human life. floods. attention. riots and other similar conditions in this group. physiological or safety needs are likely to command the most attention. they no longer motivate the man. one’s attention turns to safety or security needs. strength and capability of being useful in the organization. earthquakes. acceptance. One can include economic security and protection from physical dangers such as war.Once physiological needs are met. clothing.Once the safety needs are met.e.These needs are basic to human life. crime. Satisfaction of esteem needs generates self-confidence.

managers should cope with both satisfiers and dissatisfiers. Advancement and growth. On the other hand. Factors such as achievement. The essence of this theory is. Managers should not expect motivation by only improving the hygiene work environment. and maintenance factors as they help prevent occurrence of undesirable consequences. Interpersonal relations. the work itself. Recognition. Working conditions. According to Herzberg. security and interpersonal relations. . Work itself. improve hygienes and provide motivators – motivation takes place. advancement and growth are related to job-satisfaction. work conditions. supervision. He asked these people to describe to describe two important incidents at their jobs: (i) when did you feel particularly good about your job and (ii) when did you feel exceptionally bad about your job. has been widely accepted by the managers concerned with the problem of human behaviour at work. Supervision. To achieve motivation. Satisfied needs make an individual search for higher level needs and frustration at one level will push an individual down to lower level needs. These factors are known as dissatisfiers. The replies the respondents offered were consistent. Responsibility. Motivators: Job satisfaction Achievement. status. Satisfaction is affected by motivators and dissatisfaction by hygiene factors/. Herzberg conducted study on 200 accountants and engineers. respondents tended to attribute these characteristics to themselves. salary. recognition. they tended to factors. such as company policy and administration. The replies respondents gave when they felt good about their jobs were significantly different from the replies given when they felt bad. motivation will then take place. Provide satisfiers.theory. responsibility. Improving hygiene factors – removes dissatisfaction from the minds of employees. when they were dissatisfied. hygiene factors. they are two separate dimensions. These factors are known as motivators when questioned when they felt good about their work. He used critical incident method for obtaining data. This is key idea for managers. Hygiene: Job dissatisfaction Company policy and administration. satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposite poles of one dimension.

Salary, status, security. ------------------------------------------------

Theory X and Theory Y (Mc Gregor’s Participation Theory)
Mc Gregor formulated two distinct views of human being. Theory X is basically negative labeled and theory Y is positive labeled. Theory X assumes: (a) People like to work as little as possible. (b) People dislike responsibility and prefer to be directed by others. © People are self-centered and indifferent to organizational needs and goals. (d) People are not very sharp and bright. Theory Y assumes: (a) People are not by nature passive. (b) They want to assume responsibility. © They want their organization to succeed. (d) People are capable of directing their own behaviour. (e) They have need for achievement. McGregor tried to outline the extremes to draw the fencing within which the organizational man is usually seen to behave. ---------------------------------------------------

Alderfer’s ERG Theory
This theory was propounded by Clay Alderfer. Alderfer’s views are the results of questionnaire’s he gave to over 100 bank employees. According to Alderfer there are three categories of human needs. These are: (i) Existence (E) :- The basic physiological needs (hunger and thirst) and protection from physical danger. (ii) Relatedness (R) :- Social and affiliation needs and the need for respect and positive regard from others. (iii) Growth (G) :- The need to develop and realize one’s potential.

Maslow proposed “satisfaction- progression”, Alderfer came out with “frustration-regression” hypothesis. If fulfillment of a higher need is blocked an individual’s attention will regress back towards fulfillment of lower level needs. For example, if relatedness needs are relatively fulfilled but growth-need fulfillment is blocked, an individual’s attention will return to fulfillment of relatedness needs.




The word “communication” is derived from the Latin word “communis” which means common. Communication is the process of exchanging information and understanding between people. Communication means transference of messages or exchange of ideas, facts, opinion or feelings by two or more persons. Communication does not simply involve sending of a message by one person. It also involves the receiver listening to it, interpreting and responding it or acting according to it. Communication involves at least two people- one to transmit the message (sender) and another to receive the message (receiver).

(d) Communication fosters motivation by clarifying to employees what is to be done. Inter-personal. how well they are doing and what can be done to improve performance if it is below standard.when the message is conveyed orally. Communication is thus the foundation upon which the management function depends. It is the most economical both in terms of time and money. reports. when employees are required first to communicate any job-related grievance to their boss. to follow their job description. (e) Communication provides a release for the emotional expression of feelings and for fulfillment of social needs. (c) Non-verbal or gestural communication:. (f) Communication is highly significant as it can destroy or create interpersonal relations. as conveying of message from one person to another. Communication within the group helps the members to show their frustration and feelings of satisfaction. is called gestural communication. Organizations have guidelines that employees are required to follow. it is called verbal communication. Blood cells will malfunction and die if oxygen is not supplied. bulletins etc. (b) Written communication:. To achieve group goals managers have to communicate with subordinates. organizing. Organization requires communicating with others about their job assignments. in the same way organization will malfunction if it is deprived of necessary information. Importance of communication:(a) Effective communication is important for managers in organizations to perform their basic functions of planning. Formal communication is usually in written form such as orders. More than 75% time of managers spent in communicating with others.Communication that takes place between people in written form is called written communication. (c) Communication helps control member behaviour in more than one way.When the message is transmitted through some gesture. (b) Effective communication is a basic requisite for successful functioning of an organization.Hudson defined communication. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Types of communication:(a) Verbal communication:. instructions. leading and controlling. inter-group and intra group communications are essential for flow of information. People use different gestures such as moving hands and .

(e) Upward communication:. (i) Informal communication:.Communication which takes place on the basis of informal or social relations among people in an organization is known as informal communications.eyes to communicate their views. The formal channels of communication are used for the transmission of official message within or outside organization. (d) Horizontal communication:. ideas etc. (e) Decoding.It refers to the flow of information of from higher level to the lower level employees.Horizontal communication takes place between peers and it is also called as lateral communication.When communication flows form lower-level to higher level employees. ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Inter-personal communication The process of communication includes the following seven elements(a) The sender. (d) The channel.Diagonal communication refers to flow of messages between persons who are in positions at different levels and in different departments. It refers to transfer of information among positions of the same level. if the superior pats his subordinate on his back. (f) The receiver and . (b) Encoding.The channels of communications established formally by the management are called formal communication. people working in different divisions and units. (f) Downward communication:. it is called upward communication. (g) Diagonal communication:. Upward communication encourages employees to participate in the decision making process and submit valuable ideas and suggestions. (c) The message. It may take place between persons across positions. For example. (h) Formal communication:. it is understood as appreciation for work.

Let us assume there are only five persons in an organizations. D. the writing is the message. Message is the physical form into which the sender encodes the information. and E. B. gestures etc. Electronic channels include e-mail. C. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Communication Networks A communication network is the pattern of communication flows among various positions in an organization. viz. a sensitive person will look at the communication process from the receiver’s perspective. when we gesture the movements of arms.Feedback is the response of the receiver to the message. (e) Decoding:. (b) Encoding:. reports manuals and forms.Encoding refers to converting a communication message into a series of symbols or gestures. fax machines.The channel is the medium through which the message is transmitted. When we speak. Communication to be effective needs to receiver – oriented.(g) Feedback.The communication process begins with the sender who has an intended message to communicate. (c) Message:. networked computers and video conferencing. (a) Wheel network:.. may also be used.The message is the physical product from the source of encoding. Workers have Diagrams .The wheel net represents four workers and a supervisor who is placed in the midst of the workers. Oral communication via sound waves is the verbal channel utilized in speeches.The person who receives the message is called receiver. The choice of channel assumes significance as the use of proper channel also determines the effectiveness of communication. The characteristics of the sender influence the communication process. an insensitive person will be primarily concerned with his or her own needs. For example. (f) Receiver:. when we write. phone calls or informal discussions. A. symbols. Besides non-verbal channels like signals.Decoding is the process of translating the sender’s message by the receiver. Encoding is necessary because information can only be transferred from one person to another through representations or symbols or gestures. the speech is the message. Feedback enables the communicator to check whether the message has been properly understood or not by the receiver. (d) The channel:. voice mail. portable telephones. the expressions on our face are the messages. (a) The sender:. Written communication channels include letters.. meetings. (g) Feedback:. memorandums.

Fear is another barrier of communication. All communication must pass through the supervisor. two people report to a supervisor or boss.In all channel net. For many school becomes “ischool”.There must be some goal or objective in communication. every member has easy access to every other member in the group. (ii) Communication skills:.In this network. not clear to the receiver. one person transits information to another as per the chain in the organizational hierarchy. This is highly a centralized network. who tells his/her manager. the president informs the vice-president who then passes to the head of the department. -------------------------------------------------------------------- Barriers to communication (i) Communication goals:. and proper organization of sentences or speeches. A person under the influence of fear is likely to lose balance and his or her communication skills will be affected adversely. often. Absence of these make it difficult for the receiver to understand the message clearly. (d) Y network:. English is spoken differently in different states. who passes on to the supervisor. (iv) Fear:.The way the sender utters a word or a phrase is.In this type. . correct spelling or pronunciation. For example. (b) Chain network:.The circle network allows each member to converse With the person on his or her left or right and no farther. correct word usage. (e) All channel network:.Communication skills refer to clarity of thought. (iii) Improper diction(pronunciation):. proper delivery of message. © Circle network:. grammatical accuracy. who then informs the employee. This goal provides the ender with the basis for formulating the message. statistics is “istatistics”.no interaction among themselves.

There will be delay in communication if the distance between the sender and the receiver. and it is difficult to communicate with such a person. familiar only to a group. are aware of one another and perceive themselves to be part of group.The failure of mechanical equipment may also disrupt communication. (xii) Distance:. (x) Information overload:.Because of information overload. (vi) Selective and poor listening:. The more receiver trusts the sender.Selective listening refers to the people’s tendency to hear only what they want.A group may be defined as a collection of people who have a common purpose or objective. . (xiii) Mechanical failure:.(v) Sender credibility:. A nonresponse means that the receiver is not interested in the message. (vii) Lack of responsive feedback:. Poor listening also distorts communication. the greater will be the receivers willingness to listen the sender’s message. superintendent said.Jargon means unintelligent or meaningless talk or writing. It is full of special words known only to the members of a group. Upon hearing the girls in the office burst into loud laughter.Noise will disrupt or interface with the receiver’s ability to receive the messages accurately. interact with each other to accomplish the group objectives. The foreman got one or more of the following messages. a superintendent and foreman were standing at the latter’s office.Non-response discourages the sender of the message. “ the girls seem happy this morning”. the receiver cannot accommodate a heavy load of message from the sender and the result is miscommunication. “you are not exercising proper control”. We try to ignore information that conflicts with established beliefs or values. “your secretaries do not take their work seriously”. (xi) Noise:. --------------------------------------------------------------------- Groups in organizations Group and its nature:. “your secretaries are loafing (be idle) on the job”. (ix) Jargon:. For example. This is particularly true in case of letter writing.The amount of faith the receiver places on the message depends on his or her evaluation of the sender. Foreman changed the work stations. (viii) Meta-communication:.Meta-communication means an additional idea accompanying every idea that is expressed.

foreman and his group of subordinates. The employees belong to different departments. There is no specific limit on the maximum number of persons to form a group. Formal group:. (b) Task group:.Each group member knows one another. This group is permanently specified in organizational structure.Is a temporary formal group created to solve specific problems.Group of people watching India Vs Pakistan one-day cricket match will not be called as group because people do not interact with one another. the HOD and other members.Groups established by the organizations to achieve organizational goals are called formal groups. over the telephone. (iv) Common purpose:. do not know one another and also do not share a common purpose. For example. at least two persons are must. Each member of the group perceives that he/she is a part of group. Types of groups:Different kinds of formal and informal groups are listed in the following tableFormal group Command group Task group Project group Committees Informal group Friendship group Interest group Reference group. The group comprises employees who work together to complete a particular task or project. and across a computer network. (ii) Collective identity:. (iii) Interaction:.The members of the group work to achieve some common purpose or objective. but who do not necessarily report to the same supervisor.Each member share his ideas with other members through different communication methods such as face-to-face in writing.For group formation. A formal group is one that is deliberately created to perform a specific task. (a) Command group:. stay .Also called as standing task group is composed of a supervisor(manager) and the subordinates who directly report to that supervisor. Groups possess the following characteristics:(i) Two or more persons:.

Are usually created outside the usual command group structure to solve recurring problems. new members joining and existing one leaving. For example. a research project assigned to a University professor by the UGC is a project group. but they are united by their interest in a common issue. For example. Open group has relatively a short time perspective. (c) Project group:. In-group and Out-group:. (b) Interest group:.Project groups are formed to complete a specific project. © Reference group:.Friendship groups are associations. (d) Committees:. a group of university professors organizing a seminar. religious value and other bonds of attraction.Interest groups are composed of individuals who may not be members of the same organization. The groups to which we belong are in-groups and groups which we don’t belong is outgroup. political beliefs. The following are the most popular reasons for joining a group- . In open group members keep changing. such as age. (a) Friendship group:. members return to their respective groups. the reference group for a new university lecturer.Open group is in a constant state of change and the closed group is quite stable. Such groups are formed because members have one or more common characteristics.An in-group is one in which we are already members and the one in which we are not associated is an out-group. Informal groups:.A reference group is any group with which an individual identifies for the purpose of forming opinions or making decisions. For example. This groups satisfy affiliation (attachment) needs of their members. Open and closed groups:. University’s examination discipline committee to solve disciplinary problems relating to exams. For example. ------------------------------------------------ Why do people join groups? People join groups because different groups offer different attractions and benefits to their members.Groups that are neither created nor controlled by the organization are called informal groups. composed of people who like each other and who like to be together. may be other scholars in the same discipline working in other universities.together till the task is completed and once the work is completed.

Second. It is common knowledge that we try to understand ourselves through the behaviour of others towards us. First. no employee likes to stay alone. ----------------------------------------------------- Group cohesiveness (Tendency to stick together. those who possess common interests.Groups provide security from outside pressures. than they do as individuals. A person belonging to a high status group is usually accorded a high status by outsiders. If management creates an environment in which employees feel insecure. Probably the strongest reason for group formation is the people’s need for security. if others enjoy our jokes.Membership of groups offer power to members in at least two ways. the close relationship provides opportunities for recognition and praise that are not available outside the group. If others praise us we feel we are great.(a) Security:. (e) Affiliation:. (f) Huddling (crowd together):. First. Studies show persons prefer to be absent from work where they are unable to belong to groups. Second.An individual can increase his self esteem through group membership. (c) Power:. feel stronger and are more resistant to threats.Another reason why people join groups. By joining a group one can reduce insecurity. (b) Esteem (respect) needs:. workers enjoy much greater power collectively.Because of the way bureaucracies work. one may gain esteem by becoming a member of a high status group. is that people enjoy the regular company of other people. an individual gets identity. gets a praise from others.As a member of a group. individuals make use of informal get together called huddles. leadership of an informal group enables an individual to exercise power over group members. New or experienced. . “who am I ?’. Groups satisfy number of social needs. When one does a good piece of work. unity) Group cohesiveness refers to the extent to of liking each member has towards others and how far everyone wants to remain as the member of the group. Group cohesiveness is the degree/extent to which the members are attracted to each other and to the group. we see ourselves as funny persons and so on. particularly. (d) Identity:. they are likely to turn to unionization in order to reduce their feelings of insecurity.

Groups that share the common goals are likely to be more cohesive than those that do not share such goals. Implications for managers:(a) Cohesive group being united commands control over its members. The productivity of a cohesive group tends to be higher than a less cohesive group. attitudes is usually reinforcing.If the group size increases. that may influence the group cohesion. (b) Members of cohesive group communicate with each other more than members of less cohesive groups. Consequences of group cohesiveness:(a) Cohesiveness affects the productivity of group members. (f) Allocation of rewards:.If the attitudes and values among group members are similar. (e) Shared goals:. Highly cohesive group members tend to have lower absenteeism (non-attendance) and turnover(return). Cohesiveness binds all group members to work as one man to attain the set goals. © Encouraging competition:. In large size groups possibilities of interactions among members are less. Factors influencing the group cohesiveness:(a) Interaction:.Allocating rewards to the groups not to the members for increasing group cohesiveness.Encouraging competition with other rival groups or threat from outside the group will increase the group cohesiveness. (d) Similarity of attitudes:. . © Each member of the cohesive group likes the other. (b) Size:. (d) High group cohesiveness offers job satisfaction to its members. It enables the group to command a powerful bargaining power. cohesiveness tend to decrease. Sharing ideologies. by which conflicts are reduced and better communication among members.When individual members spend more time with each other they become more cohesive.Persons in a highly cohesive group value their membership and strive to maintain positive relationships with other group members.

it can be either through the consensus mode or through majority vote. some group activity is diverted from goal accomplishment and directed towards resolving this conflict. STATUS CONGRUENCE(Comparison) Status may be defined as a social ranking within a group and is assigned to an individual on the basis of position in the group of individual characteristics. A person is given status because of some personal characteristics such as age. seniority. sex. when there is disagreement on status levels within the group. alternatives are developed through different sources like experience.(b) If the cohesive groups are not managed and motivated effectively. --------------------------------------------------------------- Group Decision Making Decision making is the process whereby a final but best choice is made among the available alternatives. Process of decision making:This process involves the following four steps(a) Diagnosing the problem:. Status congruence is understood as the agreement between group members on the level of status of individual members. If majority of the group members agree. However. When a group makes decision. (b) Developing alternatives:.Decisions are made out of alternatives. . Therefore. When there is full agreement on member status levels (status congruence) the major activity of the group is directed towards goal accomplishment. practices in other organizations and ideas and suggestions from different parties related to the diagnosed problem. its productivity is sure to be low. it is called majority vote. The Professor in a University has a better status than a lecturer.Decisions are made to solve problems. skill or education. The first step is to identify the problem. it is called “consensus”. If all members of the group agree to the decision arrived at.

The last step is implementing and then monitoring it. (c) Sometimes. (d) Implementing and monitoring the decision:. If not. comprehension (knowledge. the groups usually have a greater knowledge. As such. . group decisions are simply a compromise between the various views and opinions offered by the group members. Then finally the most appropriate alternative is to be selected. (b) Influence groups usually manipulate the group decision in a direction of their liking and interest. (d) Following increased group participation. It is based on the following four guidelines:(a) Generate as many ideas as possible. brainstorming means using the brain to storm the problem. Advantages of group decision making:(a) Compared to an individual. command) of final decision arrived at is usually high.These alternatives are to be evaluated to know their advantages and disadvantages. According to Osborn. © Helps to reach at a quality decision. (b) Be creative.© Evaluating the alternatives:. the participants should be connected with the problem directly or closely. (b) Large number of members provide more perspectives of the problem. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Techniques / Methods to improve group decision making (i) Brainstorming:. freewheeling(relaxed) and imaginative.This technique was developed by Alex Osborn in 1938 in an American company for encouraging creative thinking in groups of six or eight people. appropriate measures need to be taken to correct the situation. expertise and skill base to make better decisions. In brainstorming. Disadvantages:(a) Is a time consuming process. like seeing whether the activities are taking place according to plan or not. the narrow vision of a single perspective is avoided in making decisions.

(c) Build upon piggyback (attached). and then feel free to express them. (ii) Nominal group technique (NGT):. The questionnaire is then completed by the larger group. The results so obtained are then tabulated (put into a table) and used in developing a revised questionnaire. The Delphi technique follows the following processFirstly. a small group of members design a questionnaire which is administered (run) in a larger group. extend or combine earlier ideas. (b) Each member develops solution/ideas independently and writes them on cards. it facilitates to develop the higher-quality ones. Members selected because they are experts or have relevant information to share. by which all ideas are encouraged without criticism and evaluation. (e) Group members individually rank their preferences for the best alternatives by secret ballot. (c) Each member presents his/her ideas to the group in a round-robin procedure. (d) When the presentation of ideas by each member is over. and to use these thoughts to spark new ideas of their own. (f) Based on above. the group decision is announced. The success of brainstorming depends on each member’s capacity and willingness to listen others thoughts. There are two basic principles that underlie brainstorming(i) Deferred judgment. As more ideas come forth. members are scattered over large distances and not have face-to-face interaction for decision making. The advantage of NGT is the integration of both group creativity and individual creativity and the equal participation by all members in group decision making. (ii) Quantity breeds quality. The results of the first .In the NGT members have minimal interaction prior to making a decision. (iii) Delphi Technique:. brief time is allotted to clarification of ideas or solutions. (d) Withhold criticism of others ideas. NGT follows the following process(a) Members are brought together and presented a problem. Brainstorming sessions last from 10 minutes to one hour and do not require much preparation. The disadvantage is that the members do not have the opportunity to benefit fro crossfertilization of ideas. In Delphi technique of decision making.The name Delphi indicates a shrine (holy place) at which the ancient Greeks used to pray for information about the future.

to address work related problems such as quality control. Characteristics of a team:- . (d) Promoting morale of employees. The effectiveness of the Delphi technique depends on adequate time. an attempt is made to arrive at a decision by pooling the ideas together generated by several task sub-groups.In this technique. Objective of QC. production planning and techniques and even product design. --------------------------------------------------------------- Effective Team Building Team:A team is a small number of people have complementary skills and are committed to a common purpose or common performance goals for which they hold themselves mutually responsible.round are fed back to the respondent group to use these in their subsequent responses. The ideas so generated by the task sub-groups (grouped closely together) are developed and narrowed in smaller number of ideas. © Development of employees participating in QC. It begins with developing ideas by a task sub-group. cost reduction. (iv) Consensus Mapping:. Then all ideas are consolidated into a representative structure called “straw man map” for the all ideas generated by the sub-groups. (e) Respect humanity and create a happy workplace worthwhile to work. The process is repeated until consensus is reached. The facilitators encourage participants to further develop clusters of ideas. This technique is best suited for problems that are multi-dimensional.(a) Improvement in quality of product manufactured by the organization. participants expertise. --------------------------------------------------------------------- Quality circle:QC is a small group of employees who work voluntarily on company time. Straw man map is further narrowed down to arrive at a mutually acceptable solution. have interconnected relationships and involve many sequential steps in problem solving. communication skill and motivation of members to immerse (submerge) themselves in the task. (b) Improvement in the methods of production and productivity.

engineers in U.These are primarily concerned with the work done by the organization.These teams are made up of members drawn from different departments or functional specialists.(a) It creates positive synergy. Their principal focus is on using the organization’s resources effectively. For example. is constituted to solve some specific problem an organization or its some department is facing. (d) It also encourages members involvement in the team work.S. They are relatively permanent because their work does not end with the completion of a particular project or . Types of teams:(i) Problem solving teams:. It is also called as “autonomous” or “empowered” team. the team is usually disbanded. asked to control its behaviour and produce significant results. can contact audibly and visually with their counterparts all around the globe. Their activities take place on the computer via teleconferencing and other electronic information systems. The member in such teams are drawn from the sections or departments that are related to the problem to be solved.Those are the teams that may never actually meet together in the same room. (iii) Work teams:.. © It encourages members to sublimate their individual goals for those of the team. productivity as skyrocket. particularly from those functional areas which have high interdependence. providing services for customers and so on.managed team:. also known as corrective action team. (vi) Management teams:. self plan. Self managing team is characterized by empowerment. Howlett Packard. Such team is usually disbanded when the problem is solved. (iv) Cross functional teams:. Decisions are made much faster. (v) Virtual teams:.when its teams are empowered they discovered. The basic objective in forming such team is to solve problem that cannot be done by a particular department.Management teams consists of managers from various areas. (ii) Self. For example. self inspection and self responsible for the results.This is natural group that is given substantial autonomy and in return. (b) It creates and fosters comraderies among the members through regular and repeated interactions. After solving the problems. allowing members to return to their normal work. such as developing and manufacturing new products. Over the years emphasis on building self-managed teams has remained because of the advantages these teams offer.Problem solving team.

These are(a) Do pre-work:. (i) In groups performance depends on the work of individual members. but team members share a common commitment to purpose. GROUP On the work of individual members. The team performance depends on both individual contributions and collective efforts of team members. (iii) Groups are required to be responsive to the demands regularly placed on them by management. (ii) Members of groups usually do not take responsibility for any results other than their own. (iv) Members in a group possess diverse skills but the skills in a team are complementary. But in case of teams. Teams Versus Groups BASES Performance Accountability Connection to management Skills TEAM On both individual member’s work and collective work. This stage is marked by decisions like what is the need for building a team. The second most important task is to coordinate the work between work teams that are interdependent. what authority the team should have and alike. . Complementary Common commitment to purpose. (v) Group members share a common goal. once goals are set. On group as a whole.solving a problem. building an effective team involves a process that proceeds four distinct stages. then the management gives enough freedom and flexibility to do its job.This stage is in a way of forming stage of team building. On both individual and mutual accountability. The primary job of the management teams is to coach and counsel other teams to be self managing by making decisions within the teams. Responsive to demands placed on it by management. Effective Team Building According to Hackman. Teams focus on both individual and mutual accountability. Common purpose. Usually self-managed or autonomous. Diverse skills.

the concerned officials have to ensure that proper conditions are created for performing the job. clarify who is a member and who is not a member of a team. Second..Training is necessary because team members must know how to function effectively as a team. (iv) Predictability:. To the extent that teams performs well. Similarly. equipment and money) and human resources (e. and to neglect opportunities to help a team do even better.In this stage. © Form and build the team:. In addition. © Training:.It is cooperation. Research has proved that.g.. coaching and support for team member’s ideas.Keep team members and employees informed by explaining policies and decisions and providing accurate feedback. training and rewards. (iv) Fairness:. -------------------------------------------------------------------------- EFFECTIVE TEAMWORK Team work depends on cooperation.(b) Create performance conditions:. not competition. First. It may be unwise for managers to intervene in the successful affairs of a team. it needs to be provided with needed and timely assistance to keep it ongoing. For building trust.Provide help. (d) Provide ongoing assistance:. ------------------------------------------------------------------- Leadership . in the form of real decision making authority. arrive at an agreement about the overall mission and purpose.cooperation is superior to competition in promoting achievement and productivity.Delegation. they should be rewarded.Be quick to give credit and recognition to those who deserve it. clarify the behaviour expected of each member. that ensures team performance.Absence of trust affects team performance adversely. trust. Measures for building trust are – (i) Communication:. advice. on the one hand. It involves making both material resources (e. Third. For this managers may interfere to eliminate team problems if any. on the other. (b) Trust:. skilled personnel) available to the teams. (a) Cooperation:. they may counsel the disruptive team members or replace them by new ones.Once the team has started functioning.Be predictable and keep promises. (ii) Support :. tools.While rewarding the team success also should be considered.g. (iii) Respect:. either management or employees need to take initiative. (d) Rewards:. the support from the management is also needed to the team to do its own work. For example. material resources may need to be upgraded.This stage involves three things to be done.

© Leaders inspire others to achieve results. He has to create a healthy working environment for his team. © Managers achieve results by directing the activities of others. Management (a) Manager manages things. Without leadership. (g) Any one can become a leader in an organization. (g) But management is confined to people in particular positions. (d) Managers engenders fear. Leadership (a) Leader leads people. directing and controlling the group activities to accomplish organizational gaols Leadership is a part of management.Leadership is the process of encouraging / influencing and helping others to work enthusiastically towards objectives. (d) Leader inspires enthusiasm ( strong feeling of Interest. an army without a general. (subordinates obey out of fear). (b) Managers hold formal positions. Functions of leadership or role of leader in organisaion (a) Developing team work:. eagerness). coordinating. (f) The main aim of a manager is to meet organizational goals. “ like a heard of cattle without a keeper. such would be the country where the king is not seen”. an organization would be what the sage Valmiki wrote in the Ramayana. Leadership and management:. Leadership transforms potential into reality. (f) The main job a leader is to satisfy his followers. (e) Leaders have followers. .The person who guides or influences the behaviour of others is called “leader” and people influenced are called “followers”. organizing. (b) Leader can use his informal influence. a night without moon.Management is a process of planning. Leadership:.Leader has to develop and combine his followers as a team. (e) Managers do not have.

but not why. (e) Using proper power:. If requires.In democratic style. The subordinates have no opportunity to make suggestion or take part in decision making. (f) Securing group effectiveness:. The subordinates enjoys full freedom to decide as and . the leader takes decision in consultation with the subordinates. (c) Laissez-Fair or Free-Rein style:. In other words.He has to exercise his power and authority over his subordinates as per the demand of the situation. (b) Democratic or participative style:.The leader has to ensure the timely completion of activities undertaken by his / her team members. he communicates the problems of his subordinates to the management. The leader commands and decides. this is also known as participative style. Develop subordinates potential abilities and helps in making right decision. the subordinates participate in decision making. The following are the three basic styles(a) Autocratic or authoritative style:. Hence. since there is no opportunity for time consuming two-way communications.(b) Representing the team:. © Counseling the workmen:.When team members face problems in doing they seek guidance and advance from their leader. decision is passed on to subordinates and they have to obey the orders. The advantages of this style is it will improve subordinates moral and job satisfaction.This is just the opposite to autocratic style.The leader needs to provide for a reward system to improve the efficiency of capable workmen. Frequent interaction between the leader and subordinates also helps build mutual faith and confidence. In this style workers are made aware of what to do. (d) Managing the team:. The problem may be technical or emotional in nature.In autocratic style.He serves as a linking pin between his team members and management. the leader centralizes power and decision making is by himself / herself. and also helps in problem solving. This results low morale and job dissatisfaction. Participation in decision making enables subordinates to satisfy their social and ego needs and makes them more committed. Leadership styles:The way the leader influences his followers is called “leadership style”. delegate authority and invite participation in decision making. The advantage of this style is that tasks are efficiently completed. The leader leaves decision making to the subordinates.

(f) Low susceptibility (easily influenced) to interpersonal stress.The leaders use rewards to encourage performance. Limitations:(a) The list of traits of successful leaders is too long and no finality about it. The biggest limitation is due to full freedom. (e) Willingness to accept behavioural consequences. (h) Ability to influence other people. disorganization. leaders possess a set of traits which makes them distinct from followers. (c) Initiative applied to social situations. upward communication is permitted but to the extent the boss wants. though the major decisions are made by the people at the top of the hierarchy. . (g) High tolerance of ambiguity (uncertainty). -------------------------------------- Theories of leadership Trait theory:This theory of leadership focus on the individual characteristics of successful leaders. lack of character and mental health problems such as aggression. depression. (b) Persistent (Refusing to give up) pursuit (chase) of goals. and there is some delegation in decision making. (i) Ability to structure social interactions.what they like. Since all did not have these qualities only who possess be considered potential leaders. According to this theory. inability to get along with others. Benevolent authoritative style:. it may create mismanagement in decision – making. lack of vision. Attempts were made to identify such qualities and Ralph Stogdill. (j) Creativity and intelligence used to solve problems. experienced and committed members. surveyed more than 5000 leadership studies and concluded that successful leaders tend to have the following qualities(a) Strong desire for accomplishment. This style is suitable when the group is composed of competent. (d) Self-assumed personality. self-centeredness. Ineffective leadership is associated with such qualities as poor temperament.

(b) Consideration refers to leader behaviour that can be characterized by friendliness.The researchers at the University of Michigan distinguished between two dimensions of leadership.These studies were started shortly after World War – II. respect. openness. supportiveness. -------------------------- Behaviour theory According to the behavioural theories. © This theory assumes that leaders are born not trained. The main point in the study is that both consideration and initiating structure are not seen as being placed on a continuum. not the personal traits were the main focus. Ohio State University studies:. Other variables like the situation. . Second. or high on both or low on both. particularly psychological. The two leadership dimensions identified are(a) The initiating structure. trait theories sought to separate leaders from non-leaders. Certain traits.(b) How much of which trait a successful leader must have is not clear. the task. This is not accepted by the contemporary thinkers. Behavioural theories differ from the trait theories in at least two ways. the organization and the characteristics of followers also determine. Leadership can be identified by reference to their behaviour in relation to the followers. (d) Leadership effectiveness does not only depend on the personality of the leader alone. assigns the tasks to employees and supervises their activities. cannot be quantified. First actual leader’s behaviours. which refers to leader behaviour that defines and organizes the group tasks. The leader could be low on one dimension and high on the other. trust and concern for the welfare of the employees. The University of Michigan studies:. The main objective of the studies was to identify the major dimensions of leadership and to investigate the effect of leader behaviour on employee performance and job satisfaction. but behavioural theories attempted to determine how different kinds of behaviours affect he performance and satisfaction of the followers. leadership can be described in terms of leaders’ behaviour rather than the traits.production centered and employee centered. The two important behavioural theories are Ohio State University studies and the studies of Michigan University.

Production centered leaders set rigid work standards. Diagram from page no.Leader is primarily concerned with production and has little concern for people.1) :.9) :. Based on these two dimensions. This person believes in getting work done at all costs.5) :. The authors have identified five basic styles of leadership.This style demonstrates high concern for both production and people and is the ideal approach to leadership. 446 of text book of OB by Aswathappa. the authors have generated a 9 by 9 grid representing concern for production along the horizontal dimension and concern for people along the vertical dimension. .9) :. organized tasks down the last detail. (c) The middle of the road management(5. prescribed the work methods to be followed and closely supervised subordinates performance. (d) The team management (9. In his study. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Managerial Grid One of the most widely known styles of leadership is the managerial grid developed by Blake and Mouton.Leader is primarily concerned with people. Employee centered leaders encouraged employee participation in goal setting and in work related decisions and helped ensure high performance by inspiring respect and trust. The grid is based on two underlying dimensions labeled as concern for production and concern for people.Leader represents a moderate concern for both. (a) Task management (9. Likert of the University of Michigan found that the employee centered style resulted in higher performance compared to production centered one. (b) The country club management(1.

is the degree of followers’ trust. the success of leadership depends upon the situation in which the leader operates. has methods of operation and whose accomplishment can easily be measured. (b) Task structure. When the task is unstructured the situation is not favourable. Leaders differ in their motivational styles.oriented. Some believe in getting the task done are task . Leaders are motivated by either interpersonal relations or goal accomplishment. The model is useful to managers in as much as it helps them identify their current styles and develop the most desirable style.1) :. According to him.describes the extent to which the task has a well defined goal. the leader’s effectiveness depends upon – (a) his motivational style and (b) the favorableness of the situation. ---------------------------------------------------------------- Contingency Theories of Leadership According to the contingency theories of leadership. Others are relations – motivated leaders and they believe in getting along with others. A high degree of task structure contributes to a favourable situation for the leader which enables him to influence and control the behaviour of subordinate. Fred E. These leaders believe in participative style. © Position power – comprises formal authority to command needed resources for task accomplishment and reward power to award a reward for good performance and punishment for laxity (negligence) on the part of subordinates. confidence and respect for the leader.Leader has minimum concern for people and production. Situational favourableness:. (a) Leader-member relations. Fiedler developed a contingency model of leadership. . The greater the power the greater the leader’s control over subordinates.The situation is favourable to the leader when he has influence and control over his subordinates performance.(e) The impoverished management (1. The situation favourability is determined by (a) leadermember relations (b) task structure and (c) position power.

This theory suggests that leaders should first assess the situation and select a leadership behaviour appropriate to the situational demands. which in turn. The path goal theory focuses on how leaders might influence motivation by increasing the availability and attractiveness of rewards and by strengthening the expectancies that effort can result in performance and performance in rewards. Path goal theory suggest that depending on the followers and situation.The most favourable situation for leaders to influence their group is one in which they are well liked by the members. According to the goal setting theory. the task is highly unstructured and little power is attached in the organization. the task performed is highly structured and the leader has enough power in the organization. This theory states that leaders can exercise four different kinds of styles: Directive leadership – giving directions to the subordinates rather than seeking their cooperation. the most unfavourable situation is one in which they are disliked. On the other hand. The theory is called path goal because its major concern is how the leader influences the subordinates’ perceptions of their work goals. According to this theory the leader must clarify goals for the subordinates and clear the path for realizing the goals. will lead to valued rewards. According to this theory the leader’s effectiveness depends on the characteristics of the environment and the characteristics of the subordinates. enhance their level of satisfaction and raise their expectations that effort will result in effective performance. these different leader behaviours can increase goal clarity of followers. participative leadership – asking for suggestions from subordinates before making decisions. supportive leadershipbeing friendly and approachable to subordinates. achievement –oriented leadership – setting challenging goals and assignments for subordinates. leader’s job is to create a favourable environment that helps employees reach the organization’s goals. ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Leadership and followership:- . personal goals and paths to goal attainment. ------------------------------------------------------------PATH-GOAL THEORY OF LEADERSHIP The path goal theory is one of the contingency models and is developed by Robert House.

the characteristics of employees and their tasks do yield influence on the leader. personal background and the like. Followers’ influence on leader:. How to be an effective leader Leader does not mean imposing will on unwilling working under one in an office or a factory. (ii) coercive power which is the flip side of reward power and refers to the leader’s capacity to coerce or punish followers. (v) peers and their influence on the leaders and (vi) influence of supervisors on the leader. such as male or female.A leader should have required knowledge and professional competence and has to update continuously. young or old.why is leader able to influence his followers? What makes followers simply obey whatever their leader says? A leader is able to change the behaviour of his followers because he enjoys power which comes to him from at least five sources.A healthy mind rests in a healthy body. (iv) organizational policy and climate. (iv) expert power that refers to power that a leader possesses as a result of his knowledge and expertise regarding the tasks to be performed by subordinates and (v) referent power which is dependent upon the extent to which subordinates identify with. Thus leadership needs to win the hearts of others to attain some desired goals. . (iii) legitimate power which refers to the power a leader possesses as a result of occupying a particular position or role in the organization.The fact that the followers and situations will influence their leader is a recent discovery. They are (i) reward power which refers to the leader’s capacity to reward followers. He must also possess stamina and balanced temperament. (iii) the nature of the task. people are always impressed by something extraordinary and great and are prepared to follow it if it really touches their hearts.It is true that leadership refers to the influence of the leader on the followers. (ii) Intelligence and knowledge:. Factors that influence leadership effectiveness are(i) Mental and physical health:. In practice. The following are some of the sources of influence on the leader’s behaviour – (i) performance or responses of subordinates. Leadership is therefore. look up to and wish to emulate the leader. A leader needs to have sound health both mental and physical to be able to bear the pulls and pressures of his role as leader. a mutual influence process. Leader’s influence on followers. At the same time. (ii) characteristics of subordinates.

the manager follows the chain of command and exerts influence downward in the hierarchy of authority from manager to subordinates. (vi) Initiative and drive:. (iv) Sense of responsibility:. Initiative and drive are. the manager influences employees outside the formal organizational chain of command. pay hike. TRANSACTIONAL AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP Transactional leadership:.A leader must have sense of responsibility for the task assigned to him. The exercise of formal authority through such acts as assigning duties derives. They get things done by giving rewards. But when acting as informal leader. how to achieve and then reinforce it by a strong will power and conviction.A leader needs to have capacity to appreciate others and look at things from his subordinates angle. Leader must have courage of conviction to impress upon his subordinates. therefore.There are millions with opinions but very few with convictions. recognition who perform better.Actions without clear cut directions leads no where. ------------------------------------------------------------------ FORMAL AND INFORMAL LEADERSHIP:Formal leadership occurs when a manager leads by exercising formal authority. from the manager’s official position within the organisation’s hierarchy of authority. (v) Motivation:. When acting as a formal leader. Hence.Passive goodness of leader is never helpful unless it is action-oriented and result producing.Transactional leaders manage the transactions between the organization and the its members so that the organizations objective is achieved. Managers themselves may act as formal leaders in some situations and as informal leaders in some situations. the essential pre-requisites of effective leader. . a leader needs to be very clear in mind about what to achieve.(iii) Clear-cut and worthy goals:. Informal leadership arises when a person without formal authority is influential in directing the behaviour of others. (vii) Conviction:.

conflict between government agency and organization and conflict between head office and manufacturing unit.Transformational leadership:. (b) Interpersonal conflict:. track events are examples of competition because each runner attempts to run faster than the others. Conflict and competition:Competition does not involve direct action by one party to interfere with the activities of the other. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Conflict Conflict can simply be defined as disagreement. Such conflict may include conflict between organizations pursuing similar objectives.When conflict occurs within an individual. one party tries to prevent the success of others. Group conflicts can be constructive also. For example. For example. . it is called intrapersonal conflict. increased focus on tasks and increased loyalty to the group. when a child gets sick at school. It emerges as a result of conflicting role taken by the individual.Conflicts that occur between two or more organizations. in the case of conflict. Leaders generate awareness and stir their subordinates to look beyond their self-interest for the good of the group/organization. (c) Inter-group conflict:. be it in violent or subtle (delicate) form between two parties or persons. Individual differences create interpersonal conflicts. Group conflicts increase group cohesiveness.When conflict occurs between groups or teams is inter group conflict. Group conflicts emerges when one group gain power and improve its image. the parent often must leave work to care for the child. But. but in the game of football each team tries to prevent the other to win involve both competition and conflict. Types of conflicts:(a) Intrapersonal conflict:. (d) Inter organizational conflict:.Conflict between two or more people is called interpersonal conflict.The leaders focus on changing the attitude of employees towards building the commitment for organizational objectives.

The destructive form of conflict which hinder group performance is called dysfunctional conflict. Accommodating manager may become frustrated as his/her own needs are never met. (d) Compromising:. when time is of the essence.Avoiding is a deliberate decision to sidestep a conflictful issue. Styles/Techniques of conflict management:(a) Avoiding:. A style in which one is concerned with the other party’s goals be met but relatively unconcerned with getting one’s own way is called accommodating. postpone addressing it till later or withdraw from a conflicting situation. when two parties are much angry and need time to cool down. These are also called ‘constructive conflicts’. (b) Accommodating:. Thus. a creative solution usually emerges because of the joint efforts of both the parties who are keen on both gaining from the situation without hurting the other.sacrifice in the interest of the other part.Conflicts that support the goals of the group and improve the performance are functional conflicts. For example. Conflict Resolution:Goal conflict occurs when the attainment of one goal excludes the possibilities of attaining another.Each party tries to sacrifice something to reach a solution to the conflict. Much reliance on competing strategy may be dangerous because one who does so may become reluctant to admit even when he/she is wrong. one party is willing to self. Comprises are often made in the final hours of unionmanagement negotiations.In this style. intense conflict between employees and administration destroys the working relationships between them and seriously reduces the level of organizational efficiency and performance. For example. (c) Competing:. (b) Approach- . Moderate or optimum level of conflict contributes to high organizational performance. one tries to meet one’s goals at the other party’s expense. A typical “give” and “take” policy. (e) Collaborating:. In turn he may lose self-esteem. In this style. it may be best to use avoidance.Collaborating style involves attempts to satisfy the needs of both the parties.(e) Functional conflict and dysfunctional conflict:. Four major forms of goal conflict are – (a) Approach-approach conflict.In this style. it is based on “win-win” style. In certain situations it may be appropriate to avoid a conflict.

The adult ego is “thinking” ego state. Approach. in which two alternatives. “the study of moves people make in their dealings with each other and is based on the idea that people’s interactions resemble moves in games”. This conflict is resolved by giving up one of the goals. The parent ego state represents that part of a person’s personality that is authoritative. but fearing he or she may insult the other person or be turned down.This conflict arises when an individual is forced to choose between two negative but exclusive goals. parent. a person is feeling hungry and sleepy at the same time. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Transactional Analysis (TA) When two people interact with each other there results a social transaction. These characteristics are learnt from one’s parents. (c) Avoidance-avoidance conflict and (d) Multiple approach-avoidance conflict.This conflict arises when an individual is simultaneously attracted to and repelled by a single goal object. Marriage with the damsel would have turned the boy’s life for better. critical and righteous. but his mother’s death snatched the opportunity from him. rational and objective part of peron’s personality.This conflict arises when the individual is caught between two or more positive but mutually exclusive goals. TA is. he or she quickly puts the receiver back on the hook.avoidance conflict:. Analysis of the social transactions is called “TA”..A conflict of this type. TA assumes that a person has three ego states. Avoidance-avoidance conflict:.both involving positive and negative features. but it did not. For example. Dancing at Delhi would have been a breakthrough in the life of the boy. a person picks up the telephone receiver and begins to dial the number of someone from whom he or she wants to ask a favour.is referred to as a double approach-avoidance conflict. strict) overprotective.avoidance conflict. controlling. viz. Multiple approach-avoidance conflict:. a choice between the pain from a chronic disease such as ulcers and the fear of going to the hospital for surgery. dogmatic (rigid. For example. For example. These characteristics are acquired as one matures into adolescence and adulthood. Therefore. the parent ego is the “ taught” ego state. nurturing. adult and child. Approach-approach conflict:. The adult ego state represents the mature. .

They make decisions. who reports to whom and where decisions are to be made. adult or parent ego state. allocate resources and direct the activities of others to attain goals. who is to do them. (d) Leading:. Ulterior transaction involve at least two ego states on the part of the first person. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- MANAGER Managers are individuals who achieve goals through other people. establish an overall strategy for achieving those goals and developing a comprehensive hierarchy of plans to integrate and coordinate activities. (c) Organizing:. the interaction can be either complimentary. crossed or ulterior. This is leading function. It includes the determination of what tasks are to be done. Depending on the kinds of ego states involved. In crossed transactions the receiver’s response is not what was expected by the sender and does not satisfy the sender’s needs. Managers get things done through other people. how the tasks are to be grouped.The planning function refers to define an organization’s goals.Every organization contains people and it is the job of the management to direct and coordinate those people. the stimulus comes from the first person under the adult ego state. but the response from the other person is under the child ego state.The child ego state represents the childish. dependent and immature part of the personality. For example. Social transactions: People interact with each other from the child. Complimentary transactions occur when the message sent or the behaviour exhibited by one person’s ego state receives the appropriate or expected response from the other person’s ego state. Child is the “felt” ego state. The individual may say one thing (as in adult) but mean something quite different (as a parent). These transaction is the most difficult to identify and deal with. Managers have to motivate .Managers are responsible for designing an organization’s structure. Functions of Management:(b) Planning:.

This role includes hiring. Many people may be technically proficient but interpersonally incompetent. Actual performance must be compared with the set goals. motivating and disciplining employees. motivate and delegate. evaluate those alternatives and select the best one. (vi) Conceptual skills:-Managers must have the mental ability to analyse and diagnose complex situations. When the sales . Role of a manager:Managers are required to perform duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature.Technical skill refers to the ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. or resolve conflicts among members. both individually and in groups. They might be poor listeners. Management skills:(iv) Technical skills:. Vocational and on-the-job training programmes largely do a good job in developing this skill. comparing and correcting is meant by the controlling function. All jobs require some specialized expertise and many develop their skills on the job. This monitoring. (v) Human skills:. select the most effective communication channels. they must have good human skills to communicate. training. For example decision making requires managers to spot problems. understand and motivate other people. Managers can be technically and interpersonally competent yet still fail because of an inability to rationally process and interpret information.Human skills refers to the ability to work with.employees. which means contacting outsiders who provide the manager with information. If there are any significant deviations. unable to understand the needs of others or have difficulty in managing conflicts. identify alternatives that can correct them. it is management’s job to get the organization back on track. These tasks require conceptual skills. direct the activities of others. Since managers get things done through other people. These may be individuals or groups inside or outside the organisation. (e) Controlling:. All managers have a leadership role. Then the liaison role.Management must monitor the organization’s performance.

Performance evaluation:. managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization’s performance.Managers are strongly influenced in their decision making by the criteria by which they are evaluated. For instance. In the entrepreneur role. Reward systems:. commitments made in the past constrain current options. They also perform informational role by collecting information from outside their organizations and by reading magazines and talking with other people to learn changes about what competitors may be planning and the like. a report on new-product development has to be ready by the first of the month . Managers handle disturbance handling role by taking corrective action in response to unforeseen problems.Decisions made in the past are ghosts that disturb current choices. If a division manager believes that the manufacturing plants under his responsibility are operating best when he hears nothing . (ii) (iii) (iv) Historical precedents:.The organization’s reward system influences decision makers by suggesting to them what choices are preferable in terms of personal payoff. Allocators role refers to allocation of human. --------------------------------------------- Constraints in decision making (i) Time constraints:. physical and monetary resources. Managers perform a spokesperson role when they represent the organization to outsiders. Managers perform the disseminator role by transforming information to organizational members. For example. department budgets need to be completed.Organizations impose deadlines on decisions. When the sales manager has contacts with other sales executives through a marketing trade association it is outside liaison relationship.manager obtains information from the quality control manager in his own company is internal liaison relationship. These conditions create time pressures on decision makers.

we should not be surprised to find his plant mangers spending a good part of their time ensuring that negative information doesn’t reach the division boss. or whether organizational decisions should be made autocratically by an individual manager or collectively in groups. depth of analysis. And of course. (v) Cultural differences:. ------------------------------------ . procedures and other formalized regulations in order to standardize the behavior of their members. in so doing they limit the decision maker’s choice.Organisations create rules.The cultural background of the decision maker can have significant influence on his or her selection of problems.negative. (vi) Formal regulations:. By programming decisions. policies. Arabs don’t necessarily make decisions the same way that Canadians do. For instance. organizations are able to get individuals to achieve high levels of performance without paying for the years of experience that would be necessary in the absence of regulations. the importance places on logic and rationality.


assumptions. assumptions. (d) Integration:.The number of rules and regulations and the amount of direct supervision that is used to control employee behaviour. (f) Control:. (e) Management Support:. favouritism and so on.The degree to which organization creates clear objectives and performance expectations.Degree to which units within the organization are encouraged to operate in a coordinated manner. and support to their subordinates. (g) Identity :. © Direction:. shared feelings and perceptions which influence the actions and decisions taken by the organization. (b) Subculture:. values. (b) Risk Tolerance:. beliefs.The degree of responsibility. (h) Reward system:.The degree to which employees are encouraged to be aggressive.The degree to which organizational communications are restricted to the formal hierarchy of authority.The degree to which members identify with the organization as a whole.Dominant culture is marked by a set of core values that are shared by a majority of the organizational members. . ideologies. values. expectations. Characteristics of organizational culture:(a) Individual Initiative:.Subculture refers to a set of values that are shared by the members of a division or department. ----------------------------------------------- Types of cultures:(a) Dominant culture:. attitudes and norms that knit an organization together and are shared by its employees.Organisational culture (corporate culture) has been defined as the philosophies. freedom and independence that individuals have.The degree to which reward allocations are based on employee performance criteria in contrast to seniority. innovative and risk-seeking. (i) Communication Patterns:.The degree to which managers provide clear communication and assistance. Organisational culture can be defined as a set of beliefs.

Beliefs and values have their base on the past happenings. Business culture tells the people the correct. obtaining patents. National culture has considerable significance for international managers who need to manage cultural diversities.Based on intensity of sharedness.D.National culture is the dominant culture with in the political boundaries of the nation. For example. Sustaining a culture:. it forms weak culture.© Strong and weak culture:. © The founding core group begins to act to create an organization by raising funds. a strong culture is characterized by the organization’s core values being intensely held and widely shared. the actions of top management and socialization methods. Tata’s belief on professionalism.Business culture represent norms. (i) Selection:. When core values are not shared with high degree of intensity. locating space. J. by identifying the suitable candidates who can culturally match the organizational culture. Then. values and beliefs that pertain (relevant) to all aspects of doing business in a culture. The basic purpose of selection process is to appoint right people for right jobs. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- CREATING (DEVELOPING). Three such practices for maintaining culture are selection practices. selection helps sustain culture considerably. (b) The founder brings in some people and creates a core group that shares a common vision. (d) National culture:. . the vision is imposed on all organizational members. The founders start their organization with a vision of what their organization should be. building and so on.Culture once established need to be sustained through reinforcement practices of human resources. incorporating.R. and assumption that only honesty and fair dealings will pay have made the vast Tata empire what it is today. SUSTAINING (MAINTAINING) AND CHANGING A CULTURE Creating or developing a culture:. (e) Business culture:. Thus. According to Luthans the process of creating involves the following steps: (a) A single person (founder) has an idea or vision for an enterprise. acceptable ways to conduct business in the society.The first step in sustaining culture is the careful selection of entry level candidates. The ultimate source of an organisation’s culture is its founders.

----------------------------------------------------------------- Culture and organizational effectiveness (a) Performance and satisfaction:. Strong culture provides control mechanism. © Effective control:.Culture has significant impact on performance. Hence. It is easier to change the culture when it is weak. Employees are motivated when they see their work is rewarding. Therefore. . the new employees need to be trained to adapt the organizational culture. that is all employees share common goal. and people do not engage in poor team work or be disrespected to employees. pay off in terms of pay raises. Hence.As organizations do not remain the same over a period of time.Organisational culture contributes to creativity and innovation by the development of norms that support such a process. (iii) Socialisation:. New organizational members coming form different moods are likely to disturb the common customs and beliefs already established in the organization.(ii) Top management:.e. prescriptions of the employee uniform. If it is so.Socialisation is the process of adaptation. so is the case of culture as well. Strong culture creates a high level of motivation because of shared value. the need for change in organizational culture. the organization must either adapt to new conditions of environment or it may not survive. A strong culture imbibes people to perform effectively and keep firm grip on quality. Changing a strong culture is particularly difficult because the cultural values and assumptions have taken deep roots and employees become so committed to them.. Strategy implementation is made easy through culture. (d) Promotion and innovation:. promotions and other rewards also help create a common history i. Changing a culture:. Culture established in one type of environment may not remain effective in changed environment.Culture provides a sense of identity to members and increases their commitment to the organization.Subordinates imitate their superiors. culture in the organization. Culture is characterized by goal alignment. (b) Strong commitment from employees:.Culture serves as control mechanism that shapes behaviour of employees. the actions of top management such as what the managers say and how they behave have a major impact on the employees working at lower levels. Managerial actions like degree of freedom granted to the subordinates. Changing culture is as much important is not so simple.

induction and internal mobility.(e) Strategy formulation and implementation:. Recruitment is the first stage in the process which continues with selection and ceases . placement. HR planning.Improving skills. staffing. ----------------------------------------------- HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT HRM is the function performed in organizations that facilitates the most effective use of employees to achieve organizational and individual goals. The result is a pool of applicants from which new employees are selected. recruitment. Human resources create organizations and makes them survive and prosper. knowledge. compensation and reward. Every organization is made up o people. employee protection and representation and organization improvement.Culture energizes people in the company to do their jobs in a strategy. performance appraisal and review. stimulate and keep outstanding workers will be both effective and efficient. job analysis. the organization is unlikely to do well.support manner. aptitude and value. training and development.Providing good working conditions and to retain people who are performing at high levels. The process of HRM includes human resource planning.job analysis. If human resources are neglected or mismanaged. Recruitment:Recruitment is the process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment. job and work design. © Motivation of human resources (d) Maintenance of human resources. The recruitment process begins when new recruits (employees) are sought and ends when their applications are submitted. develop. selection. HRM process consists of four functions(a) Acquisition of human resources. Those organizations which are able to acquire. (b) Development of human resources.

Recruitment and selection are two crucial steps in the human resource process. Recruitment may be from internal to the firm or external sources. Recruitment is the process of identifying and encouraging prospective employees to apply for jobs. The general purpose of the recruitment is to provide a pool of potentially qualified job candidates. colleges/universities/institutes. founding fathers. Recruitment is said to be positive in its approach as it seeks to attract as many candidates as possible. Selection is the process of picking individuals with required qualifications and competence to fill jobs in the organization. also called induction. new talents and new experiences. selection is negative in its approach as it seeks to eliminate as many unqualified applicants as possible to identify the right candidates. Organizations will have new skills. (ii) A review of the orgnisation’s history. Creative problem solving may be hindered by the lack of new talents. Typically. competitor firms. objectives. But this may dismotivate and put impact on the morale of employees.with the placement of the candidate. products or services as well as how the employee’s job contributes to the organisation’s needs. is designed to provide the information to the new employee who need to function comfortably and efficiently in the organization. induction conveys three types of information(i) General information about the daily work routine. External sources areadvertisements. employment exchanges. former employees and previous applicants. employee referrals. Orientation:. Among the internal sources are the present employees.Orientation. Internal recruitment is less costly. skills and abilities of candidates are aware and it will promote the employee morale. Selection is a long-chain process involves activities such as tests. operations.Selection is the process of picking right candidate for the right job. and . trade unions. medical test and job offer. selection is concerned with the picking of right candidates from the pool of applicants. interviews and reference and background checks. Selection:. consultants. Effective selection helps secure people who have the competence and willingness to work.

Workers must be trained to operate machines. and by encouraging them to ask questions and will create a favourable impression about the organization. Techniques include lectures. scrap and damage to machinery and equipment can be avoided or minimized. laboratory training etc. job rotation.On-the-job training method refers to those that are applied in the workplace.Of-the-job training is used away from the work places. supervisors and executives also need to be developed in order to enable them acquire growth and maturity in thinking and actions. The techniques include job instruction training. Importance of training. simulation. Employees feel anxious when they enter in organization. he or she must be placed in his/her right job. Effective orientation programmes reduce the anxiety of new employees by giving them information on the job environment and on supervisors by introducing them to co-workers. Training and development:. A company’s training programme pays dividends to the employee and the organization. Methods and techniques of training:On-the-job training:. Placement:- Placement is the assignment or reassignment of an employee to a new or different job. Placement includes initial assignment of new employees and the promotion. video presentation. attitudinal change and problem – solving abilities. apprenticeship and coaching. Future needs for employees will be met through training and development programmes. Purpose of orientation is to make new employees feel “at home” in the new environments. Off-the-job training:. while the employee is actually working.After the employee is placed on the job. ------------------------------------------------------------------ . Any training and development programme must include such inputs as skills. After an employee has been hired and oriented. he or she needs training to perform his or her duties effectively. It is not that only workers need training. self study. Training and development constitute an ongoing process in any organization. ethics. work rules and employee benefits.Employees become efficient after undergoing training and they contribute to the growth of the organization. reduce scraps and avoid accidents. case study.(iii) Organisations policies. transfer or demotion of present employees. Accidents. education. Managers.

transfers have been effective or not. The performance being measured against such factors as quality and quantity of output. decide pay rises and to confirm probationary employees. (b) to maintain behaviours of employees who are performing in an acceptable manner and (c) to recognize superior performance behaviour so that they will be continued. © To let the employees know where they stand in so far as their performance is concerned. Methods/approaches of appraisal can be classified into (i) past . (b) To assess the training and development needs of employees. (e) To effect promotions based on competencies. Methods of appraisal:Number of methods have been devised to measure the quantity and quality of employee job performance. specially when it is inadequate. so that they will receive feedback about where they stand in the eyes of the superiors. training.Once appraisal has been made on an employee. the raters should discuss and review the performance with the ratees. Objectives:. supervision and cooperation. Performance appraisal is done for effecting promotions. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- EMPLOYEE REMUNERATION .oriented methods and (ii) future oriented methods. Performance interview has three goals-(a) to change behaviours of employee whose performance is not meeting organizational requirements or their own personal goals. for some organizations.PERFORMANCE APPPRAISAL Performance appraisal is the assessment of the individual’s performance in a systematic way. Each of the methods could be effective for some purposes.(a) To decide upon a pay rise. leadership abilities. initiative. Performance interview:. Feedback is necessary to effect improvement in performance. (d) To determine whether the programmes such as selection.

retain and maintain productive workforce. invested in mobile communication. Reasons for organisational change:External reasons:(a) Government policies:. Government policy of privatizing the power sector encouraged many companies to diversify into the power sector. Today. Organizations are compared with human beings. slashing of grants by UGC have forced universities to strengthen their revenue by conducting training programmes. Individuals have two types of changes.monetary benefits constitute employee remuneration. incentives or payment by results. . Organizations change because both of situational fluctuations in the environment demands as well as because it is in their nature to grow and develop. even externally nothing changes. Nokia invested in electronics and was soon making televisions and computer monitors. One. people around the world know of Nokia for its cellular telephones. they try to adjust and adopt to the changes occurring in the external environment such as offer of new job.). Importance of change:. Remuneration package of employees includes varied components such as wage and salary.Change is inevitable.Nokia started in 1865 as a pulp and paper company and bought into rubber business 30 years later and into cable wiring in the 1920s.Organisations need to come up the challenges posted by the competitors to sustain and survive. family responsibilities. Example:. competition or loss of property. self finance courses.Government policies necessitating changes in organizations. consultancy. fringe or non-wage benefits. (b) Competition:.Remuneration is what employees receive in exchange for their contribution to the organization. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE Organisational change is the process in which organizations move from their present state to an improved state. In the 1980s. Adequate remuneration helps the organization obtain. still individuals keep changing (adulthood. Industrial peace largely depends on the remuneration. non. For example. Second. sickness. oldage etc.

(d) Change in people requirements:.Organisational life cycles act as potent sources of organizational change.Technology advances has posed a question before the organization either run or ruin. (e) Globalisation:. The major players in the global markets are MNCs and they seek entry into the Indian market through joint ventures. (b) Introducing new technology:. . cutback in the budget.For meeting crises makes continuation of the status quo unthinkable and difficult. secretarial services. (e) The domino effect:. entered into a joinventure with Godrej in 1992. P & G engineers have introduced new systems of manufacturing and material resource planning in Godrej plants which compelled for several structural changes.Change in leadership changes culture and values in the organization. © Organisational life cycles:. gather and disseminate (circulate) information and develop people to become global citizens. business centres etc. budget allocation etc.Globalisation made organizations to rethink their boundaries of markets and to encourage their employees to think globally.g.Scarcity of resources is another external force which is invoking organizational change.Introducing new technology is bound to have consequences for other functions as well. loss of major suppliers. For e. Globalizing the organization means rethinking the most efficient ways to use resources.Krishnamurthy of SAIL. V. Revolutionary changes in communication technology compelled Doordarshan to restructure. establishing the department of business administration may cause the creation of teaching and non-teaching positions and construction of building. Sudden death of CEO. With changing requirements of customers the five-star-hotels started to offer new services such as conference hall facilities. P & G the American FMCG giant.The domino effect means one change triggers off a series of related changes..Customers dictate the organizations what they actually require. (d) For meeting crises:.© Technological advances:. civil disturbances are the examples of unforeseen crises. Ratan Tata are examples how the change in leadership led to internal changes in the organization. (g) Scarcity of resources:. Internal reasons(a) Change in leadership:.

For initiating planned change. This theory is useful in understanding the ways of managing change. the manager needs to constantly watch the changes taking place in the external and internal environment of the business so that corrective measures are taken accordingly and the changes could be effected successfully. planned changes occur. Change is introduced in a planned manner. Workers in a TQM system are expected to make suggestions for improving all aspects of the work process and are expected to share their specialized knowledge with management so that it can be communicated throughout the organization. Proactive changes are affected in a planned manner after assessing the underlying forces in the system. (b) Reactive changes:. improve quality and reduce waste. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TYPES OF CHANGES:(a) Proactive changes:. The broad goal of total quality management is continuous improvement. effective changes occurs by unfreezing the current situation. TQM aims to reduce costs.Proactive changes occur when some factors make realize organization think over and finally decide that implementation of a particular change is necessary.When changes are effected after working out when and how they will be carried out. between these two opposing forces.Reactive changes occur when forces compel organization to implement change without delay. Planned change:. This model is a process of 3 steps. ----------------------------------------------------------KURT LEWIN’S CHANGE MODEL OR FORCE FIELD MODEL OR 3 STAGE MODEL OF CHANGE SYSTEM Kurt Lewin developed the Force Field Theory which demonstrates how forces for and against change balance and how the organization is balanced at anytime. and then refreezing the system so that it remains in this desired state. moving to a desired condition. According to this model. .-----------------------------------------------TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) TQM is a technique developed by Edward Demming to improve the efficiency of flexible work teams.

that cause resistance to change. If organizational change disrupts values and requires people to change their personalities.According to this model. (d) Structural inertia (inactivity) :. behaviour.Second step aims to shift or alter the behaviour of individuals. For example. Thus.The values and norms in an organizational culture are another source of resistance to change. © Refreezing:. departments or orgainsation in which the changes are to take place.Unfreezing involves encouraging individuals to discard (abandon) old behaviours by shaking up the equilibrium state that maintains status quo. new behaviours be introduced and those new behaviours be institutionalized and rewarded. Job assignments. Managers are often influenced by previous commitments and they stick to a course of action even if it is not working. Unfreezing is accomplished by linking rewards with willingness to change and punishment with unwillingness to change.Here the change becomes permanent. (a) Organizational structure:. Mangers should ensure that the reward system encourage the new behaviours and avoid the old ways of functioning. selection and training of new employees and performance reward . (b) Changing:.An organization’s structure can be an obstacle to change.organizations have several systems designed to maintain stability. these three stage process must be completed. © Organisational strategy:. values are established as the new status quo. ----------------------------------------------------- Organization level resistance to change / Sources of organizational resistance Many forces make it difficult for an organization to change in response to changing conditions in its environment. values and attitudes. Generally changing or moving implies developing new behaviours. moving to a desired condition and then refreezing the system so that it remains in this desired state. attitudes and beliefs. effective change occurs by unfreezing the current situation. Successful change thus requires that old behaviours be discarded. New attitudes.An organisation’s strategy can be an obstacle to change. (b) Organisational culture:. For change efforts successful. Most changes have the capacity to change the organisation’s power structure. (a) Unfreezing:. introduction of decentralized decision making is seen as a threat to the power of supervisors and middle managers but a welcome by lower-level employees. individuals are made to feel that they have to forget their old ways and accept the new way.

group presentations or reports. © Facilitation and support:. Employees can be educated through discussions. (f) Coercion:.Some feel that changes often bring in ambiguity and uncertainty.Change disrupt the stable friendship. So managers should be sensitive to the resistance to changes so that it can be overcome. © Disruption of stable friendship:. (d) Negotiation:. (d)Distrust of management:. (b) New learning:. (e) Manipulation:. technology. (a) Education and communication:. Individual level resistance to change :(a) Fear of the unknown:. Whenever an organization is confronted with change.Employees suspect managers as they may exploit. The following are the six key approaches suggested to manage the organizational change.Before a change is introduced. skill training or short paid leave may be provided. particularly those oppose the change can be brought into the decision process. this structural inertia acts as a counter balance to sustain stability. Reward package may be negotiated to meet the needs.Negotiation particularly with a group of people resisting to change. ------------------------------------------------------------INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR .As a last resort. (b) Participation:. dealing with the change. For example. ------------------------------------------------------------------- Managing resistance to change:Organisational change is inevitable.One require to learn a new language. loss of promotion etc.Misunderstanding can be reduced by providing details to the employees about why change is needed. introducing a new computer system.Facilitation should be provided to the employees who have trouble.systems are designed to maintain stability. Some may fear they may fail and develop a negative attitude.Manipulation implies covert attempts to influence. Counseling therapy. can apply direct threats such as threats of transfer.

1 trillion an increase of 66%. Most major firms earning more from their international operations than from domestic markets. world exports grew from $ 51 billion to $ 415 billion (7 fold increase) and in 1990’s $ 4. Siemens do business in more than 50 countries. The world has entered an era of global economic activity. For example. From 1948 to 1972. Cultural values have a major influence on the way people relate to each other and also to what they aspire for in a . Japanese culture values belongingness . There are similarities and dissimilarities in certain respects between national and international organizations. but culture is the determining factor. International OB:An international business organization is one which expands its business activities that crosses national borders. norms and values that guide the everyday life of an individual and these are passed on to the generations through stories. The assets of most MNCs are owned by different nationalities and their employees hail from different countries. Cultural values tell what is most dear to our hearts. rituals and symbols. FDI:. and what clothes one can or cannot wear to a function or to the office. human behaviour at work in them underlines the need for understanding international organizational behaviour.one must belong to and support a group in order to survive. Culture is a set of beliefs.$ 7. Americans value freedom to choose one’s own destinywhether it leads to success or failure. including world wide production. For example. Cultural variations across the nations. distribution and increasingly large number of international joint ventures. Cultural norms prescribes behaviors and practices like when and whom we can marry. Imports exceeded $ 1 trillion by 1980 from $ 800 billion in 1975. 1999 . there are factors like differing standards of living and varied geographical conditions which can cause variations in behaviour.Trends in International business:The post-world war-II years saw a major expansion of world trade. In fact. Belonging to a group than individualism. Honda. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES:Culture is an important factor for variations in behaviour.3 trillion. British Petroleum. multinational mergers and acquisitions and alliances.Some companies make a direct investment to take full advantage offered by foreign markets in another company through foreign direct investment (FDI).

Japanese motivation comes through group harmony. (1) Motivation:. but Japanese recognition comes through identification with group. Japanese motive through counseling. social services and fringe benefits. the recognition will first go to the head and then down to the lowest level of employees. In India employees of MNCs are paid much more than their counterparts in host countries for identical work and different industries have different wage and salary structures. The variations can be studied in terms of motivation. (a) Recognition:. incentives such as bonuses and pension benefit. Canadians with British partners. Culture is the major cause for variations in human behaviour across organizations. (b) Control:. cultural adjustment and managerial responses. Improvements in communication and transportation made clustering possible.Management styles are important motivators in each culture. New Zealand focus first exporting efforts on Australia. International business utilize the culture clustering approach in formulating their strategy. Hong Kong firms to China markets. -------------------------------------INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR IN THE GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE Individual behaviour varies across cultures. (2) Compensation:.job. everyone is not motivated by the same factors.Americans want to be directly recognized fro their individual contributions.All people are motivated by the power of being in control of their own lives or work space. Americans feel good about being independent and in control of their own destinies.Compensation includes wages and salaries. Monetary rewards motivate Americans.In a multicultural work environment. Motivation appeals. There are wide variations both among countries and among organizations within countries. © Management styles:. rewards for performance and punishment need be culture-specific. Though cultures across countries vary. American styles are characterized by professionalism and friendliness. But Japanese are motivated by rewards shared among the group such as bonuses. For example. Cultural similarities shared by countries from cultural clusters. In Arab culture. Human behaviour varies across cultures. when a department reaches its goal. Americans measure individual success more in terms of material possession. there are similarities. .

power and conflicts and communication. so does group behaviour also. realities of every day life begins. homesickness sets in. . They are – group dynamics.But after some time. Phase – 2. The curve is based on psychological reactions to overseas assignments and comprises 4 phases. (4) Managerial responses:. Phase – 4 – This level off over a time to what has been described as healthy recovery. There are 4 key areas in which group behaviour varies. ----------------------------------------------------------INTERNATIONAL BEHAVIOUR IN GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE As the individual behaviour varies across cultures. sense of adventure and so on. The concept of an adjustment cycle or curve. depicted is helpful in demonstrating the phases encountered during cultural adjustment. The phases of cultural adjustement- Phase-1. which need the help of managers for group cohesiveness and cooperation in its functioning.Cultural adjustment is a critical determinant of expatriate ( an individual who lives and works away from his own country) performance. fear of the unknown. This is a critical time and how the expatriate copes with the psychological adjustment has an important outcome in terms of success or failure.Group formation based on members belonging to diverse cultural background may create distrust among group members. There can be an upswing of mood. (i) Group dynamics:. leadership.Managers in the international environment need different competencies and skills. Phase – 3 – As the person begins to adjust to the new environment. and a down swing may occur.(3) Cultural adjustment:.Begins with anxiety. which has been referred as the “honeymoon” or “tourist” phase. stereotyping and communication problems. there is an upswing.

Language varies from country to country and in turn culture to culture. (iii) Power and conflict:. leaders adopt autocratic style as employees expect the leaders to make decisions. his Russian counterpart in Moscow may be have asleep. For example. For example. power and conflict are more pronounced in India and U. Communication binds and coordinates people together working in different cultures. Conflict among organizational members is inevitable and may vary from culture to culture. This creates coordination problem between the two.Variations in language and coordination issues across culture also affect communication in the international organisations. But in Japan. in a culture characterized by high power distance. but more focus is given on promoting harmony and group cohesiveness. when an Indian manager needs to talk on telephone. but a time difference also. (iv) Communication:.Leadership effectiveness depends upon the situation in which leadership is exercised.Power is strength and there is always a craze for hoarding power as much as one can. The solution lies in evolving innovative methods for coordinating organizational activities across the cultures scattered on the globe.K. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . Leadership styles are also dictated by the cultural factors in a situation. For example. exercise control and solve problems. attempts to increase one’s power are foiled.(ii) Leadership:. In a culture with low power distance employees expect their participation in decision making. Mangers need to contend not only with the differences in language.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.