Note: The source of the technical material in this volume is the Professional

Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services.
War ning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi
Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramco’s
employees. Any material contained in this document which is not already
in the public domain may not be copied, reproduced, sold, given, or
disclosed to third parties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part, without
the written permission of the Vice President, Engineering Services, Saudi
Aramco.
Chapter : Vessels For additional information on this subject, contact
File Reference: MEX21001 J.H. Thomas on 875-2230
Engineering Encyclopedia
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
Heat Exchanger Concepts, Basic
Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels
Heat Exchangers Concepts, Basic
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
CONTENT PAGE
MAIN TYPES OF HEAT EXCHANGERS AND THEIR PRIMARY
COMPONENTS....... ............................................................................................................ 1
TEMA-Type Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers..................................................................... 1
Design Standards............................................................................................ 3
TEMA Classifications .................................................................................... 4
TEMA Designations....................................................................................... 5
Considerations for Selecting Exchanger Component Options........................ 8
TEMA Component Nomenclature................................................................ 10
TEMA Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers Used by Saudi
Aramco......................................................................................................... 16
Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers............................................................................................... 20
Design Standards.......................................................................................... 21
Types of Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers......................................................... 21
Component Nomenclature............................................................................ 23
Header Box Options ..................................................................................... 24
Other Types of Heat Exchangers......................................................................................... 26
Double-Pipe Heat Exchangers...................................................................... 26
Plate-and-Frame Heat Exchangers ............................................................... 27
PRIMARY PROCESS FUNCTIONS OF HEAT EXCHANGERS..................................... 29
Change in Temperature ....................................................................................................... 29
Shell-And-Tube Heat Exchangers ....................................................................................... 32
Principal Applications .................................................................................. 32
Size Limitations............................................................................................ 32
Principal Applications .................................................................................. 32
Size Limitations............................................................................................ 33
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Heat Exchanger Applications and Limitations Summary.................................................... 33
Flow Arrangement Factors for Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers....................................... 35
Shellside Flow Arrangement Factors ........................................................... 35
Tubeside Flow Arrangement Factors ........................................................... 36
GLOSSARY ........... .......................................................................................................... 45
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MAIN TYPES OF HEAT EXCHANGERS AND THEIR PRIMARY COMPONENTS
Heat exchangers transfer heat from a hot fluid to a colder fluid through the combined
mechanisms of conduction and forced convection. In most heat exchangers, a metal wall
separates the two fluids. All heat exchangers are similar in their principle of operation;
however, heat exchangers may differ in the specific fluids that are used in the heat transfer
process, the layout of the metal tubes, and the configuration of the enclosure.
In order of usage, the main types of heat exchangers that are used by Saudi Aramco are as
follows:
• Shell-and-tube heat exchangers
• Air-cooled heat exchangers
• Double-pipe heat exchangers
• Plate-and-frame heat exchangers
In addition to heat exchangers, other types of heat transfer equipment, such as cooling towers
and process furnaces, are used in Saudi Aramco. Cooling towers are a special class of heat
exchanger in which water is cooled by an evaporation process. Process furnaces transfer heat
to a process fluid primarily through radiation. Cooling towers and process furnaces are not
discussed in this course.
TEMA-Type Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger s
The shell-and-tube heat exchanger is the type that is most commonly used in process plants.
TEMA (the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association) is an association that consists of
companies who manufacture shell-and-tube heat exchangers. TEMA has developed an
engineering standard that is used for the design of shell-and-tube heat exchangers. Specific
design requirements that are contained in the TEMA standard will be discussed later. The
phrase "TEMA-type shell-and-tube heat exchanger" refers to heat exchangers that are
designed to meet TEMA requirements.
Figure 1 illustrates the basic arrangement of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger.
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In shell-and-tube heat exchangers, one fluid, known as the "tubeside" fluid, flows inside a set
of parallel tubes known as the "tube bundle." These tubes are enclosed within a metal shell.
The other fluid, known as the "shellside" fluid, flows inside the shell but over the outside of
the tubes. Both the metal shell and the tubes are pressurized, and they must withstand the
specified design pressures during the intended lifetime of the equipment.
Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger
Figur e 1
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Design Standar ds
Saudi Ar amco Engineer ing Standar d SAES-E-001 - SAES-E-001, Basic Design Criteria for
Unfired Heat Transfer Equipment, provides both the process designer and the Saudi Aramco
Engineer with design criteria for four types of heat exchange equipment, including air-cooled,
double-pipe, and plate type heat exchangers, and induced draft cooling towers. SAES-E-001
specifies the applicable codes, standards, and specifications for each of the four heat exchange
equipment types. A copy of
SAES-E-001 is in Course Handout 2.
Saudi Ar amco Engineer ing Standar d SAES-E-004 - SAES-E-004, Design Criteria of Shell-and-
Tube Heat Exchangers, covers the requirements for the thermal and mechanical design of
shell-and-tube heat exchangers for hydrocarbon, hydrogen, caustic, amine, wet sour, steam,
and utility services. SAES-E-004 also covers the repair requirements for existing shell-and-
tube exchangers. A copy of SAES-E-004 is in Course Handout 2.
Saudi Ar amco Mater ials System Specifications - Saudi Aramco Materials System Specifications
(SAMSSs) are technical specifications that accompany the purchase orders that are sent to
equipment manufacturers. Each of the SAMSSs includes engineering requirements that are
specific to Saudi Aramco and that modify or supplement the applicable industry standards.
32-SAMSS-007, Heat Exchangers, Shell and Tube Type, applies to TEMA-type shell-and-
tube heat exchangers. A copy of 32-SAMSS-007 is in Course Handout 2.
ASME Pr essur e Vessel Code - All heat exchangers are typically built in accordance with a
pressure vessel code. Saudi Aramco has adopted most of the United States codes and
standards, and it requires all heat exchangers to be built in accordance with the American
Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII,
Division 1 or 2. This compliance with the ASME Code ensures that the Saudi Aramco
equipment is designed, fabricated, inspected, and tested in accordance with a widely accepted
industry standard. Heat exchangers can therefore be considered as special purpose pressure
vessels.
However, the design rules that are contained in the ASME Code are not sufficiently specific
for the many types of heat exchangers that are in use. Therefore, a number of industry,
manufacturer, and Company standards have been developed to clarify the design
requirements for specific applications and environments.
TEMA Standar d - TEMA has developed a standard that is entitled Standards of the Tubular
Exchanger Manufacturer's Association. This standard covers the shell-and-tube heat
exchangers that are built for use in the petroleum industry as well as in many other industries.
Portions of the TEMA standard are discussed later in this module and in subsequent modules.
A copy of the TEMA standard is in Course Handout 1.
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API Standar d 660 - In addition to the ASME Code and the TEMA standard, the American
Petroleum Institute (API) has published a standard that is entitled API Standard 660, Shell-
and-Tube Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Service. This document stipulates many of
the design requirements for shell-and-tube heat exchangers that are used in oil refineries. A
copy of API-660 is in Course Handout 1.
TEMA Classifications
Most process services in refineries require heavy-duty heat exchangers in order to achieve
high reliability. Some process services are less severe and do not require such robust designs;
therefore, the TEMA Standard 7th Edition (1988) specifies requirements for three different
heat exchanger classifications, designated as Classes R, C, and B. These classifications cover
a broad range of industrial services.
TEMA Class R - TEMA Class R specifies design and fabrication requirements for shell-and-
tube heat exchangers that are in the severe service environments of petroleum refineries and
related industries. Class R is generally selected by designers for applications where durability
and safety are the primary concerns.
TEMA Class C - TEMA Class C specifies design and fabrication requirements for shell-and-
tube heat exchangers that are in the generally moderate service environments of commercial
and general process industries. Equipment that is fabricated in accordance with the Class C
requirements are designed for maximum economy and overall compactness, and are,
therefore, consistent with moderate safety and service requirements.
TEMA Class B - TEMA Class B specifies design and fabrication requirements for shell-and-
tube heat exchangers that are in the chemical process industry. Class B is similar to Class R
with respect to design requirements, but Class B is closer to Class C than to Class R with
respect to minimum thickness and corrosion allowance.
Most Saudi Aramco shell-and-tube heat exchangers are Class R; however, there are service
applications for which less expensive Class C exchangers may be used. SAES-E-004, Para.
7.5.1, indicates that a Class C exchanger may be used for nonhydrocarbon services, and for
the lubricant and seal oil coolers that are included in standard packaged units.
Figure 2 compares some of the TEMA requirements for Class R, C, and B exchangers.
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Design Class/Ser vice
Item R/Refiner y C/Gener al B/Chemical
Corrosion Allowance
(carbon steel)
1/8 in. 1/16 in. 1/16 in.
Minimum Thickness of Shell See Table
R-3.13
See Table
CB-3.13
See Table
CB-3.13
Minimum Tie-Rod Diameter 3/8 in. 1/4 in. 1/4 in.
Gasket Contact-Surface
Tolerance
±1/32 in., max. None None
Minimum Bolt Size 3/4 in. 1/2 in. 5/8 in.
TEMA Requirements for Class R, C, and B Exchangers
Figur e 2
TEMA Designations
TEMA designations for shell-and-tube heat exchangers are used in the petroleum refining and
chemical processing industries to identify exchanger sizes and types. The TEMA designation
is usually made up of a two-part size designator and a three-letter type designator. The
TEMA designation method is illustrated by the example that is shown in Figure 3.
TEMA Size Designation - The TEMA size designator consists of two numbers that are separated
by a hyphen (-). The first number ('23' in the example of Figure 3) indicates the nominal shell
diameter in inches, rounded to the nearest integer. The second number ('192' in the example
of Figure 3) indicates the nominal tube length in inches. The three letters ('AES' in the
example) indicate that the heat exchanger has a front-end type A, a shell type E, and a rear-
end type S.
Note that the TEMA system of size designations for some types of heat exchangers, such as
kettle-type reboilers, does not exactly follow this designation method. Refer to the TEMA
standard for information on how the sizes of these heat exchanger types are designated.
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TEMA Designation System Example
Figur e 3
TEMA Type Designation - The standard TEMA shell-and-tube heat exchanger types are
illustrated in Figure N-1.2 of the TEMA Standard, which is shown in Figure 4.
• The first letter of the three-letter TEMA-type designation describes the heat
exchanger front-end or stationary head type. The first letter is selected from the
five types that are illustrated in the first column of Figure N-1.2.
• The second letter of the three letter TEMA-type designator describes the heat
exchanger shell, and it is selected from the seven types that are shown in the
middle column of Figure N-1.2. This letter may be omitted in a specification or
proposal if a shell is not included in the equipment that is to be purchased (for
example, if the specification or a proposal is to be used for the purchase of a
replacement tube bundle with tubesheet[s], only).
• The third letter of the three letter TEMA-type designator describes the heat
exchanger rear-end or floating-head type, and it is selected from the eight types
that are shown in the right-hand column of Figure N-1.2.
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TEMA Figure N-1.2
Figur e 4
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Consider ations for Selecting Exchanger Component Options
There are five stationary head types that are used in shell-and-tube exchangers. Figure 5 lists
the considerations that are used to select the appropriate stationary head type for specific
applications. Figure 6 lists the considerations that are used to select the appropriate shell
design. Selection criteria for the rear end are listed in Figure 7.
Type Descr iption Selection Consider ation
A Channel and
Removable Cover
The most common type of head that is used in shell-
and-tube heat exchangers. Used with fixed tubesheet,
U-tube, and floating head exchangers. In most cases,
the bundle is removable for mechanical cleaning.
B Bonnet or Removable
Channel with Integral
Cover
Normally used only for low-fouling tubeside services.
Used with fixed tubesheet, U-tube, and floating head
exchangers. Less expensive than Type A head.
C Channel Integral with
Tubesheet and
Removable Cover
Used with some types of fixed tubesheet exchangers
and reboilers.
N Channel Integral with
Tubesheet, Shell, and
Removable Cover
Shellside fluid must be relatively low-fouling so that
chemical cleaning can be used. Not recommended for
use with U-tube or floating head exchangers because
of maintenance difficulties.
D Special High Pressure
Closure
Special high pressure head that is used when the
tubeside design pressure exceeds approximately 10
340 kPa (1 500 psi).
Selection Considerations for Stationary Heads
Figur e 5
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Type Descr iption Selection Consider ation
E Single Pass The most common shell design.
F Two Pass Two pass affords slightly better heat transfer than single
pass because two passes on the shell side more closely
approximates counter-current flow.
In order to avoid an excessively thick longitudinal baffle,
two pass should not be used with a shellside pressure drop
greater than approximately 70 kPa
(10 psi). Shellside temperature range should be limited to
175°C (350°F) to avoid both excessive heat leakage
through the baffle and thermal stress in the baffle, the
shell, and the tubesheet.
G Split Flow
H Double Split Flow
J Divided Flow Shell Typically used in condensing and boiling services to
reduce pressure drop and to enhance heat transfer duty.
X Cross Flow
K Kettle-Type
Reboiler
Typically used for boiling/vaporizing services. The large
shell promotes heat transfer and vapor disengagement.
Selection Considerations for Shell Designs
Figur e 6
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Type Selection Consider ation
L Used with fixed tubesheet exchangers when the tubes must be cleaned
mechanically.
M and
N
Used, if necessary, with fixed tubesheet exchangers when the tubes can be
chemically cleaned.
P Not recommended because of the tendency of packed joints to leak. Type P heads
should never be used with shellside hydrocarbons or toxic fluids.
S and
T
Removable bundle designs. The floating head in an S-type exchanger has a split
backing ring that reduces shell diameter requirements and that maintains high
thermal efficiency. For maintenance reasons, Saudi Aramco generally prefers the
Type T head, which allows the bundle to be more easily removed.
U Used with U-tube bundle where tubeside does not need mechanical cleaning.
Typically, a formed head is used on the shell, although a bonnet-type head can be
used also.
W Uses a packed joint to separate the tubeside and shellside fluids. Not
recommended because of tendency of packed joints to leak.
Selection Considerations for Rear Ends
Figur e 7
TEMA Component Nomenclatur e
TEMA has established standard terminology for the individual components of shell-and-tube
heat exchangers. These components are shown in Section N of the TEMA Standard. Some
of this nomenclature is used in this and later modules, and this nomenclature is discussed
below.
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Baffle Type - Baffles are installed on the shellside of heat exchangers to force the shellside
fluid to flow across the tubes in a specific pattern. The modified flow improves heat transfer
between the shellside and tubeside fluids. Baffles may be oriented either transversely (i.e.,
perpendicular to the axis of the heat exchanger) or longitudinally (i.e., parallel to the axis of
the heat exchanger). Transverse baffles include segmental and "doughnut and disk" baffles.
These baffle types are illustrated in Figure 8. The segmental transverse baffles can be single
segmental, double segmental, or triple segmental.
Single segmental baffles have one fluid passage cut through the baffle. Double and triple
segmental baffles have two and three passages, respectively. Single segmental baffles are
prevalent in heat exchangers in which the shellside fluid is a liquid. Double and triple
segmental baffles are generally used when the shellside fluid is a gas. Segmental baffles can
be cut horizontally or vertically. Vertical cut baffles are illustrated in Figure 8.
In some cases, such as when tube vibration is a concern, a no tube in the window baffle design
is used. In a no tube in the window design, the bundle is laid out in such a way that there are
no tubes located in the window of the baffle (i.e., the region where a particular baffle does not
support the tubes). In this manner, every tube is supported by each baffle, and the lowest
mechanical natural frequency of the tube bundle is increased. The no tube in the window
design greatly increases the size of shell that is required, because a larger number of tubes are
needed in order to achieve the necessary heat transfer.
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Typical Baffle Configurations
Figur e 8
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Bundle (or Tube Bundle) - In heat exchangers with removable bundles, the bundle consists of
the tubesheet (or tubesheets), tubes, baffles and/or supports, tie-rods, and spacers. The bundle
of a straight-tube, split-ring, floating-head-type heat exchanger is shown in Figure 9. The
bundle of a U-tube heat exchanger is shown in Figure 10. For fixed tubesheet exchangers, the
bundle refers to the part of the exchanger that extends from tubesheet to tubesheet, exclusive
of channels and bonnets.
Bundle for a Straight-Tube, Split-Ring, Floating Head Heat Exchanger
Figur e 9
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Bundle of a U-Tube Heat Exchanger
Figur e 10
Tube Cleaning Lanes - Tube cleaning lanes are the spaces that are between rows of tubes in a
removable-bundle heat exchanger and that are large enough to permit entry of brushes and
other cleaning devices, such as hydroblast equipment. Cleaning lanes are typically provided
when the tubes are arranged on a square or rotated square pitch, as shown in Figure 11.
Tube Pitch Patter n - The tube pitch pattern describes the arrangement or layout of tubes as the
tubes pierce the tubesheets, baffles, and supports.
Typical pitch patterns are illustrated in Figure 11. These patterns include:
• Square
• Rotated square
• Triangular with flow parallel to the base of an equilateral triangle
• Triangular with flow that enters at the apex of an equilateral triangle
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Tube Pitch Patterns
Figur e 11
Tubeside Passes - Tubeside passes refer to the number of times that the fluid flows from one
end of a bundle to the other end. In heat exchangers that have more than a single tubeside
pass, a number of tubes are grouped together in the channel. Pass partition plates, which
separate the individual groups of tubes, are located in the channel. Pass partition plates are
also sometimes located in the floating head as well, depending on the number of tubeside
passes that are required. Each group of tubes in a pass receives the full flow from the inlet of
the heat exchanger. Figure 12 illustrates two-pass and four-pass tubeside heat exchanger
designs.
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Two-Pass and Four-Pass Tubeside Flows
Figur e 12
TEMA Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger s Used by Saudi Ar amco
This section discusses the primary types of shell-and-tube heat exchangers that are installed in
Saudi Aramco facilities. These types include the following:
• Split-Ring Floating Head
• Pull-Through Floating Head
• U-Tube
• Kettle-Type
• Fixed Tubesheet
• Special High Pressure
• Double Tubesheet
Split-Ring Floating Head (Example: TEMA-Type AES) - Split-ring floating head heat exchangers
are standard units that were purchased by Saudi Aramco several years ago. To remove the
tube bundle from this type of exchanger, the shell head, the floating head cover, and the split-
ring backing device must be removed.
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A standard TEMA-Type AES exchanger is illustrated in Figure N-2 of the TEMA Standard.
(See the TEMA Standard in Course Handout 1.)
Pull-Thr ough Floating Head (Example: TEMA-Type AET) - TEMA-Type AET heat exchangers
have pull-through floating head tube bundles, and they are the current standard design that is
used in most Saudi Aramco facilities. Figure 13 illustrates the standard TEMA-Type AET
heat exchanger. The shell is slightly larger and more expensive than the AES shell; however,
it is not necessary to disassemble the shell cover and the floating head for purposes of
removing the bundle from the shell. Thus, the AET design reduces field maintenance and
turnaround time.
TEMA-Type AET Heat Exchanger
Figur e 13
U-Tube Kettle Reboiler s (Examples: TEMA-Type AKU and BKU) - The AKU kettle reboiler has a
removable channel cover. The BKU kettle reboiler, illustrated in Figure 14, has an integral
welded channel cover. The BKU design is used when the tubeside fluid is clean (e.g., steam
applications). The BKU design is also specified when it is necessary to minimize heat loss to
the atmosphere. The entire bonnet channel can be insulated to conserve heat.
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TEMA-Type BKU Heat Exchanger
Figur e 14
Pull-Thr ough Kettle-Type (Example: TEMA-Type AKT) - These kettle-type reboilers have pull-
through floating heads. The AKT is normally used when excessive fouling on the tubeside
requires mechanical cleaning inside the tube bundle. The AKT heat exchanger is illustrated in
Figure N-2 of the TEMA Standard. (See the TEMA Standard included in Course Handout 1.)
Fixed Tubesheet (Example: TEMA-Type BEM) - The TEMA-type BEM exchanger has bonnet
heads on both channels. This exchanger type is typically used in a single tube pass
arrangement as a vertical thermosyphon reboiler. The tubesheets are integrally welded to the
shell. If temperature differences between the tubes and the shell exceed 30°C (50°F), an
expansion joint in the shell may be needed. Figure N-2 of the TEMA Standard illustrates a
BEM-type exchanger with a modified conical rear head. (See Figure N-2 in the TEMA
Standard included in Course Handout 1.)
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Special High Pr essur e U-Tube (Example: TEMA-Type DFU) - Figure 15 illustrates a TEMA-type
DFU exchanger. The TEMA-type DFU exchanger has special high pressure closures on the
channel (or tube) side. These closures are used when the tubeside pressure is approximately
10 340 kPa (1 500 psi) or higher. The channel is usually made from a forged steel ring, and
the tubesheet is usually welded to the channel. The tubesheet also may be forged integrally
with the channel through the use of a "cup" forging. The channel cover is designed with a
shear-key ring that is held in place, usually by a key backing ring flange that is bolted to the
channel. Many high-pressure closures incorporate proprietary designs of the manufacturers.
TEMA-Type DFU Heat Exchanger
Figur e 15
Double Tubesheet - A double tubesheet design uses two tubesheets between the tubeside and
shellside fluids rather than one tubesheet, and the tubes must pass through both of these
tubesheets. This type of construction is sometimes used in applications that have very high
tubeside pressures, or where any leakage of one side's fluid into the other side's fluid is
unacceptable. Double tubesheet configurations include a number of manufacturers'
proprietary designs.
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Air -Cooled Heat Exchanger s
Air-cooled heat exchangers are used to cool process fluids that flow through tubes. The tubes
are fitted with external cooling fins in order to enhance the transfer of heat from the fluid to
the ambient-temperature air. A typical forced-draft air-cooled heat exchanger is illustrated in
Figure 16.
Typical Forced-Draft Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger
Figur e 16
Air-cooled heat exchangers are used when it is impractical to exchange heat between two
process fluids. Exchanging heat between two process streams is usually not practical when a
second process fluid is not available at the temperature that is required to achieve useful heat
transfer. In such cases, a shell-and-tube design would require water to cool the single process
fluid. Because it is uneconomical to use water for cooling purposes in many Saudi Aramco
facilities, air-cooled heat exchangers are recommended when a second process fluid of the
right temperature is not available. The ultimate selection between a water-cooled or an air-
cooled heat exchanger is normally governed by economic considerations, which include both
initial investment costs and long-term operating costs.
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Design Standar ds
Saudi Ar amco Engineer ing Standar ds - SAES-E-001, previously introduced, is a general design
standard that also is applied to air-cooled heat exchangers. SAES-E-001 references the code
and industrial standards that are listed below. 32-SAMSS-011, Air Cooled Heat Exchangers,
is a Saudi Aramco Materials System Specification that is applicable to air-cooled heat
exchangers, and it is written with paragraph numbers that correspond to the paragraph
numbers of API-661. This arrangement facilitates incorporation of the Saudi Aramco
supplementary requirements into the design of air-cooled heat exchangers. A copy of 32-
SAMSS-011 is in Course Handout 2.
ASME Boiler and Pr essur e Vessel Code - The design and fabrication of air-cooled heat exchangers
are subject to the requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII,
Division 1. The ASME Code is supplemented by the requirements of API-661, Air Cooled
Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Service, and Saudi Aramco SAESs and SAMSSs.
API Standar ds - API has developed API Standard 661, Air Cooled Heat Exchangers for
General Refinery Service. API-661 augments the ASME Code in the areas of design,
manufacture, and product reliability, and it provides requirements for air-cooled exchangers
in refinery and petrochemical service. A copy of API-661 is in Course Handout 1.
Types of Air -Cooled Heat Exchanger s
Three principal types of air-cooled heat exchangers are used in Saudi Aramco: forced draft,
induced draft, and humidified forced-draft.
For ced Dr aft - In a forced draft heat exchanger, air is forced across the tube bundle by a fan
that is located in an air plenum below the bundle. The fan pressurizes the entire bundle.
Figure 16 illustrates a horizontal tube, forced-draft, air-cooled heat exchanger.
Induced Dr aft - In an induced draft heat exchanger, the fan is located above a hood that covers
the tube bundle. The air is pulled across the tube bundle and is exhausted through the hood.
Figure 17 illustrates the horizontal tube, induced-draft, air-cooled heat exchanger. Except for
the fan location, the exchanger is similar to the forced-draft design.
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Horizontal Tube, Induced-Draft, Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger
Figur e 17
Humidified For ced-Dr aft - The humidified forced-draft heat exchanger is illustrated in Figure
18. The tube bundle of the humidified exchanger is similar to the forced-draft and induced-
draft exchangers, except that the air is humidified before it is forced to flow across the rows of
tubes. The water that is sprayed into the air evaporates as it passes through the tube bundle.
The evaporation process draws heat out of the air, and it thereby cools the air to a temperature
that is below the temperature of the process fluid that is in the tubes. The increased
temperature differential between the humidified air and the process fluid enhances the cooling
effectiveness of the heat exchanger.
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Humidified Forced-Draft Heat Exchanger
Figur e 18
Component Nomenclatur e
Some of the major component parts of air-cooled heat exchangers are shown in Figures 16
through 18, and they are defined below. A complete list of air-cooled heat exchanger
component nomenclature is listed in Section 1.4 of API-661. Refer to the copy of API- 661
that is included in Course Handout 1.
Tube Bundle (Coil Assembly) - Tube bundle refers to an assembly of tubes, header boxes, side
frames, and other components. Figure 19 illustrates the tube bundle of an air-cooled heat
exchanger. The tube bundles for both forced-draft and induced-draft heat exchangers are
rectangular, and they contain many rows of tubes that are arranged in a triangular pitch. A
rectangular pressurized header box usually is located at each end of the bundle. The tubeside
fluid enters and leaves the tubes through nozzles that are welded to the header boxes.
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Typical Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger Tube Bundle Components
Figur e 19
Heat transfer in air-cooled heat exchangers is generally counter-current, which means that the
hot fluid enters the top of the bundle, and air enters from the bottom. The air flows over the
tubes to cool the fluid that is within the tubes. Typically, the tubes are finned to increase heat
transfer to the air.
Inlet Header Box - The inlet header box is a rectangular pressurized box that is used to
distribute the process fluid from the inlet nozzle equally to all of the tubes in the bundle.
Outlet Header Box - The outlet header box collects all of the process fluid from the exchanger
tubes and directs the fluid to the outlet nozzle.
Retur n Header Box - In a multiple-pass bundle, the return header box collects, turns, and
redistributes the flow between the multiple tube passes.
Header Box Options
Typical tube bundle header box construction options are shown in API-661 as follows:
Figure 3a - With removable coverplate
Figure 3b - With removable bonnet headers
Figure 5 - Assembled, with plug headers
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Refer to the copy of API-661 in Course Handout 1. These different types of header boxes are
selected on the basis of the maintenance and cleaning requirements of the process service.
32-SAMSS-011, Paragraph 5.1.5.7, requires that plug-type headers be used for all process
applications. Other types of headers may be used for lube oil and seal oil coolers. Figure 20
illustrates a typical plug-type header box. Note that, in this design, threaded/gasketed plugs
are in the header box end plates and that they are aligned with the tubes. This arrangement
permits individual inspection and cleaning of the tubes.
Tube Bundle with Plug Headers
Figur e 20
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Other Types of Heat Exchanger s
Double-Pipe Heat Exchanger s
Figure 21 illustrates a double-pipe heat exchanger, which is a special type of shell-and-tube
heat exchanger. Double-pipe heat exchangers often are used when the required heat transfer
surface is less than approximately 10 square meters (100 square feet). Typically, a double-
pipe heat exchanger is used to cool lubricants and hydraulic fluids for large machines.
Sometimes, double-pipe heat exchangers are used to cool samples and liquids for process
analyzers.
A double-pipe heat exchanger consists of a tube-within-a-tube. One of the fluids flows inside
the inner tube, and the other fluid flows in the annulus between the tubes. Tubes in a double-
pipe heat exchanger are occasionally long, and they may be U-shaped. Typically, the inner
tube has external longitudinal fins. In very clean services, the inner and outer tubes can be a
single forging, or the inner tube can be welded to the outer tube. In other services, the tubes
can be made with packed or gasketed joints between the inner and outer tubes. The packed or
gasketed joints enable the inner tubes to be removed to be cleaned. For U-shaped tubes, the
inner tubes are made with bolted-on covers on the U-bend end of the shell to make it easier to
clean the tubes.
Specifications for double-pipe heat exchangers are covered in SAES-E-006 and in 32-
SAMSS-028.
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Double-Pipe Heat Exchanger
Figur e 21
Plate-and-Fr ame Heat Exchanger s
Plate-and-frame heat exchangers generally are used in applications in which a high overall
heat transfer coefficient is required and where high-alloy materials, rather than carbon steel,
must be used for the heat transfer surface. Plate-and-frame heat exchangers provide a large
heat transfer surface area in a relatively compact package. Figure 22 is an illustration of a
plate-and-frame heat exchanger.
As specified in SAES-E-014, plate-and-frame heat exchangers may be used as an alternative
to shell-and-tube type heat exchangers when the operating pressures and temperatures do not
exceed 1 380 kPa gage (200 psig) and 150°C (300°F), respectively, and when a material other
than carbon steel is required for contact with the fluid.
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Further, SAES-E-014 indicates that plate-and-frame heat exchangers should be designed with
10% excess thermal capacity when they are used in clean services. A 15% excess thermal
capacity is required when the exchanger is to be used in fouling services, such as to cool
crude oil, emulsions, or heavy hydrocarbon processing streams. Also, the frames of plate-
and-frame heat exchangers should be designed to permit the addition of 20% more plates in
order to permit a future increase in exchanger capacity. Single pass counter-flow
arrangements are the preferred arrangement for plate-and-frame heat exchangers.
Plate-and-Frame Heat Exchanger
Figur e 22
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PRIMARY PROCESS FUNCTIONS OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
The two main process functions of heat exchangers are as follows:
• To change the temperature of a fluid by the exchange of heat from a higher
temperature fluid to a lower temperature fluid.
• To change the phase of a fluid from liquid to vapor or from vapor to liquid at
constant temperature.
Change in Temper atur e
Heat transfer in heat exchangers involves the combined mechanisms of conduction and
convection. As shown in the sample model of a heat exchanger tube in Figure 23, heat flows
by convection from the hotter fluid inside the tube to the inner surface of the tube. The heat
then flows by conduction through the tube wall and by convection from the outer surface of
the tube to the outside (colder) fluid. Note that it is also possible for the hotter fluid to be on
the outside of the tube and for the colder fluid to be on the inside of the tube. When the hotter
fluid is on the outside of the tube, the direction of heat transfer is from the outside to the
inside of the tube. In the case shown, as the hot fluid flows through the inner tube and heat is
transferred from the fluid, the temperature of the fluid inside the tube is lowered. Similarly,
as the colder fluid outside of the tube flows over the tube, heat is transferred to the fluid, and
its temperature is increased.
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T
h
= Inside Fluid Temperature
T
c
= Outside Fluid Temperature
T
i
= Inside Surface Temperature
T
o
= Outside Surface Temperature
h
i
= Inside Convection Coefficient
h
o
= Outside Convection Coefficient
k = Thermal Conductivity of the Tube Material
Simplified Heat Exchanger Model
Figur e 23
Change in Phase
Some heat exchangers are designed to change the phase of a fluid that passes through the
exchanger. These exchangers can either vaporize a liquid or condense a vapor. A liquid
vaporizes in a heat exchanger when sufficient heat is transferred to the fluid such that it is
heated to fluid saturation temperature (i.e., boiling point). A vapor condenses in a heat
exchanger when sufficient heat is transferred from the vapor such that it is cooled to its
saturation temperature (i.e., condensation point). Note that the boiling point and
condensation point are actually the same temperature for a pure fluid.
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Figure 24 summarizes the terminology that is used by the process engineer to identify the
primary process functions of heat exchangers. It is helpful if the mechanical design engineer
is generally familiar with this terminology.
Ter minology Pr imar y Function
Condenser Condenses vapors in a process stream that enters the exchanger.
Cooler Cools a process stream, usually by water, but can use air or other
process fluid.
Chiller Cools a process stream by refrigerant to a temperature that is lower
than the prevailing water temperature.
Evaporator/
Vaporizer
Evaporates a process fluid by use of a heating medium such as
steam.
Reboiler Heats a liquid in a recirculating cycle to the boiling point.
Steam Generator Produces steam from boiler feedwater.
Heater Heats fluid but does not vaporize. Heating medium is usually
steam or another hot fluid.
Waste-Heat Boiler Produces steam from condensate or boiler feedwater by removal of
heat from high-temperature process or waste gas stream.
Primary Process Functions of Heat Exchangers
Figur e 24
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PRINCIPAL APPLICATIONS AND SIZE LIMITATIONS OF SHELL-AND-TUBE
AND AIR-COOLED HEAT EXCHANGERS
The following sections briefly summarize the principal applications and limitations of shell-
and-tube and air-cooled heat exchangers.
Shell-And-Tube Heat Exchanger s
Pr incipal Applications
The shell-and-tube heat exchanger is one of the most common types of heat exchanger that is
used in refineries and chemical plants. Shell-and-tube exchangers can either heat or cool a
process fluid.
Size Limitations
The size of shell-and-tube heat exchangers is normally limited to the maximum size that can
be transported and erected conveniently. Saudi Aramco has published preferred limits for
exchanger sizes in SAES-E-004. These limits are intended to simplify the logistics and the
maintenance that is associated with Saudi Aramco heat exchangers. The preferred maximum
bundle size is 1.2 m (48 in.), and the preferred maximum tube length is 6.1 m (240 in.).
Air -Cooled Heat Exchanger s
Pr incipal Applications
Air-cooled heat exchangers are used primarily to cool or condense a process stream to a
temperature that is slightly higher than the ambient air temperature. In general, air-cooled
exchangers are selected for locations where water is not economically available in the
quantity or quality that is required to support a water-cooled shell-and-tube heat exchanger.
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Air-cooled exchangers operate efficiently when the condensing temperature and/or outlet
temperature of the process fluid is at least 10°C (18°F) above the maximum dry-bulb
temperature of the ambient air. Compared to water, air has only about one-fourth the heat
capacity per kilogram (or pound) mass; therefore, if the temperature differential between the
process fluid and the ambient air is too small, a very large cooling fin surface area is required
to cool the process fluid to the desired temperature. Because the cost of an air-cooled heat
exchanger is highly dependent on the size of the cooling surface area, an air-cooled heat
exchanger can be prohibitively expensive when the outlet process fluid/air temperature
differential is less than 10°C (18°F). The 10°C (18°F) cutoff differential above the dry-bulb
temperature can be reduced to 10°C (18°F) above the wet-bulb temperature through the use of
a humidified air-cooled exchanger.
Because the maximum dry-bulb air temperature varies geographically, different design
conditions are required for the various Saudi Aramco plant locations. SAES-A-012 provides
the design dry-bulb temperatures for all Saudi Aramco plant locations and the design factors
that apply to different types of air-cooled exchangers and services.
Size Limitations
The size of air-cooled heat exchangers is normally limited to the maximum size that can be
transported and erected conveniently. Saudi Aramco has published a table of preferred
exchanger sizes in 32-SAMSS-011, which is intended to simplify the logistics and the
maintenance that is associated with Saudi Aramco heat exchangers. The maximum tube
length is 12.2 m (40 ft.), unless otherwise approved.
Heat Exchanger Applications and Limitations Summar y
Figure 25 summarizes some of the applications for which various exchanger designs are best
suited, and some of the principal limitations of each type.
The choice between an air-cooled or a shell-and-tube heat exchanger is usually based on
economic considerations. Both the initial investment in the exchanger installation and the
long-term cost of its operation must be considered in order to decide whether to install an air-
cooled or a shell-and-tube heat exchanger.
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TYPE
DESIGNATION
PRINCIPAL
APPLICATIONS PRINCIPAL LIMITATIONS
Floating Head or
Tubesheet
(Removable and
nonremovable
bundles)
High temperature differential
between tube and shell.
Multipass tubeside units. Dirty
fluids require that the shellside
and tubeside be cleaned.
Internal gaskets create danger
of leaks. Corrosiveness of
fluids on shellside parts that
float. Usually confined to
horizontal units.
U-Tube High temperature differentials
that can require provision for
expansion in fixed-tube units.
Clean service on tubeside.
Multipass tubeside.
Bends must be carefully made,
or mechanical damage and
danger of rupture can result.
Very high tubeside velocities
can cause erosion of bends.
Fluid should be free of
suspended particles.
Fixed Tubesheet Condensers; liquid-liquid; gas-
gas; gas-liquid; cooling and
heating, horizontal or vertical,
reboiling. Single pass
tubeside.
Tube-to-shell temperature
difference over 27°C (50°F)
usually requires an expansion
joint in the shell.
Kettle Boiling of process fluid on
shell side that is to be
vaporized.
Limited to horizontal
installation. Physically large in
most applications.
Air-Cooled; plain or
finned tubes
Condensing or cooling a
process fluid well above
ambient air temperature when
cooling water is either not
available or its use is not cost
effective due to the use of
expensive ally materials.
Low heat transfer coefficient;
can be improved with forced
airflow across the tubes; initial
cost is high.
Principal Applications and Limitations of Heat Exchangers
Figur e 25
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PRIMARY FACTORS AFFECTING HEAT TRANSFER DUTY
This section addresses the primary factors that affect heat transfer duty in heat exchangers,
and it highlights the importance of these factors in heat exchanger design. This section does
not address the fundamentals of fluid flow, thermodynamics, or heat transfer. Participants are
directed to ChE 101, Plant Engineering, or pertinent college courses for a review of these
fundamentals, as necessary.
The primary factors that affect heat transfer duty include:
• Flow arrangement
• Temperature distribution
• Heat transfer coefficient
• Effects of fouling
Flow Ar r angement Factor s for Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger s
Flow arrangement factors that affect the heat transfer duty of shell-and-tube heat exchangers
can be subdivided into shellside and tubeside factors.
Shellside Flow Ar r angement Factor s
Tube Layout - The process designer usually specifies the tube layout based on heat transfer and
pressure drop considerations. The triangular layout is generally preferred for clean shellside
service (i.e., where the fouling factor is low), and for applications in which the deposit can be
chemically cleaned. The rotated triangular layout has a slightly lower pressure drop, but it is
seldom used because the heat transfer characteristics are poor. An exchanger with a
triangular layout costs less and transfers more heat per measure of tube surface area (i.e., m
2
or ft.
2
) than a square or a rotated square layout. Figure 11 illustrates these different tube
layouts.
Typically, a square or rotated square tube pattern is specified for the following cases:
• For high shellside fouling factors
• When mechanical cleaning of the outside of the tubes is required
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In most cases, rotated square layouts are preferred to square layouts because of the higher
heat transfer coefficient that is induced by the turbulence associated with the rotated square
layout; however, for pressure-drop limited applications, the square layout is preferred to the
rotated square, because the pressure drop is lower for the square layout.
Cr oss Baffles - The process designer usually specifies that the baffle cut or window area for
flow be consistent with thermal and pressure drop considerations in the shell. Single
segmental baffles usually are cut at about 25% of the shell diameter, although the maximum
practical cut for tube support is approximately 48%. For double segmental baffles, the area
for the central baffle and the area of the window between the two adjacent chordal baffles are
both about 40% of the exchanger cross-sectional area. This percentage of baffle cut allows a
baffle overlap of approximately 10% of the exchanger’s cross section; however, there must be
enough overlap so that at least one row of tubes is supported by adjacent baffles. Double
segmental baffles typically cost more than single segmental baffles, but they result in lower
pressure drop on the shell side. Figure 8 illustrates typical baffle configurations.
Baffle Pitch - If there is no phase change of the shellside fluid, the baffle pitch (i.e., the distance
between baffles) usually does not exceed the shell inside diameter; otherwise, the fluid would
tend to flow parallel with the tubes, which would result in poor heat transfer. With shellside
condensation or vaporization, the maximum pitch is limited by TEMA to ensure adequate
tube support. Minimum baffle pitch is set by TEMA requirements. The minimum allowable
baffle pitch is the greater of 50 mm (2 in.) or 20% of the inside diameter of the shell. A very
tight baffle pitch tends to force the shellside fluid into leakage and bypass streams, which
reduces heat transfer.
Baffle pitch is specified by the process engineer, and it is usually based on thermal
performance and pressure drop considerations. In general, a close baffle pitch improves heat
transfer, but it increases shellside pressure drop. Care is required in the specification of baffle
pitch because the baffles support the tubes, and improper spacing of the baffle can overstress
tubes or cause the tubes to vibrate. In some cases, where tube vibration is a concern, the
baffle pitch must be decreased to raise the tube's natural frequency.
Tubeside Flow Ar r angement Factor s
In general, shell-and-tube heat exchangers have more than one tube pass. Multiple tube
passes are necessary to keep the tubeside fluid velocity high in order to achieve a high heat
transfer rate and to reduce fouling. In exceptional cases, only one tube pass is used (e.g., if
only a small differential temperature is needed, or if using vertical thermosyphon reboilers).
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Flow Ar r angement Factor s for Air -Cooled Heat Exchanger s
Air-cooled heat exchangers normally feature two or four tube passes and counter-current
flow. Counter-current flow means that the direction of temperature change for the fluid is
opposite to the direction of temperature change for the air; for example, if the hot fluid enters
at the top of the exchanger and the cooler fluid exits at the bottom, cool air enters the
exchanger at the bottom and exits hotter at the top.
Some header boxes include a pass partition plate to separate the inlet and outlet fluids.
However, if the temperature difference between the inlet and outlet fluids is over 100°C
(200°F), the pass partition plate is likely to distort. When the temperature difference is above
the 100°C range, separate header boxes (i.e., split headers) are used to prevent pass partition
plate distortion.
In condensing service, air-cooled heat exchanger tubes are usually sloped (typically
10 mm per meter; 1/8 in. per foot) to drain the condensate that collects in the tubes and in the
header boxes.
Flow Ar r angement Factor s in Multiple Exchanger s
If an excessively large surface area is required to achieve the desired heat transfer, the use of
multiple exchangers, arranged in series and/or in parallel, is preferable to the use of a single,
large exchanger. Multiple small exchangers are easier to inspect and maintain than are large
exchangers. These inspection and maintenance considerations apply equally to both shell-
and-tube and air-cooled exchanger designs. Sometimes, shells in series are necessary when
the exit temperature of the hotter fluid is lower than the exit temperature of the colder fluid.
Multiple exchanger configurations can be piped in parallel or in series so that individual units
may be taken out of service for maintenance or for purposes of adjusting flow or heat duty, as
necessary. When one of the units in a multiple exchanger arrangement is out of service, the
other units continue to operate at reduced throughput.
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Temper atur e Distr ibution
The temperatures of fluids in a shell-and-tube heat exchanger are generally not constant;
instead, they vary from point to point along the exchanger as heat flows from the hotter fluid
to the colder fluid. The transfer of heat to or from a fluid changes the temperature of the fluid
if there is no change in phase of the fluid.
Figure 26 illustrates the changes in temperature that may occur in either or both fluids in four
types of shell-and-tube heat exchangers. The distances between the solid lines are
proportional to the temperature differences, ÆT, between the two fluids.
Figure 26a illustrates the case of a vapor that condenses at a constant temperature as the other
fluid is heated. Figure 26b depicts a fluid that evaporates at constant temperature while heat
flows from a warmer fluid whose temperature decreases as the fluid passes through the
exchanger. For both of these cases, the direction of flow of either fluid is immaterial, and the
constant-temperature fluid may also be at rest.
Figure 26c depicts a parallel-flow exchanger and Figure 26d depicts a counter-flow
exchanger. No phase change occurs in either case. No matter how long the exchanger of
Figure 26c is constructed, the colder fluid can never reach the exit temperature of the hotter
fluid in parallel flow. For counter-flow, the final temperature of the cooler fluid may exceed
the outlet temperature of the hotter fluid because a favorable temperature gradient exists all
along the heat exchanger. An additional advantage of the counter-flow arrangement is that,
for a given rate of heat flow, less surface area is required than in a parallel flow arrangement.
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Temperature Distributions in Four Types of Heat Exchanger
Figur e 26
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Heat Tr ansfer Coefficients
Figure 27 is a repeat of the simplified heat exchanger model that was illustrated in Figure 23.
When the fluid temperatures on the inside and outside of the tube are known, the overall
amount of heat transferred, Q, can be calculated through the use of the following equation:
Q · UA
o
T
h
− T
c
( )
(1)
Where:
Q = Overall amount of heat transferred
U = Overall heat transfer coefficient
A
o
= Heat transfer area based on the outside area of the tube
T
h
= Hot fluid temperature
T
c
= Cold fluid temperature
The overall heat transfer coefficient, U, is a function of the individual inside and outside film
coefficients, heat exchanger geometry, and the material thermal conductivity (usually a
known function of the material temperature). The film coefficients and U are usually
determined by the process engineer. Determination of these two items is outside the scope of
this course.
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T
h
= Inside Fluid Temperature
T
c
= Outside Fluid Temperature
T
i
= Inside Surface Temperature
T
o
= Outside Surface Temperature
h
i
= Inside Convection Coefficient
h
o
= Outside Convection Coefficient
k = Thermal Conductivity of the Tube Material
Simplified Heat Exchanger Model
Figur e 27
The heat flow calculation in an actual heat exchanger is more complicated than the simplified
heat flow model that was illustrated previously. In a typical heat exchanger, the temperature
of the fluid sometimes varies from the inlet to the outlet of the exchanger. The temperature
variation is illustrated in the double-pipe heat exchanger of Figure 28, which represents the
more realistic case of two-dimensional heat flow.
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In Figure 28, hot fluid enters the inner tube on the right, and cold fluid enters the outer tube
on the left. As the two fluids flow through the exchanger, the hot fluid warms the cold fluid
and becomes cooler while the cold fluid becomes warmer. These changes in the fluid
temperatures produce a variable temperature difference between the inner and outer fluids.
This temperature difference varies with the position along the length of the exchanger. The
value of the (T
h
-T
c
) term in Equation 1 varies with the length. As a result, an effective
temperature differential that takes into account the variation in temperature along the length of
the exchanger tube must be determined. The convection heat transfer coefficient, h, also
depends on temperature, which causes h
i
and h
o
to vary with the position along the exchanger
length. This variation of h complicates the determination of U and makes it necessary to
employ averaging techniques to calculate heat flow in actual heat exchangers.
Two-Dimensional Heat Flow Model
Figur e 28
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Averaging techniques consider the temperature gradients of an actual exchanger to determine
a corrected mean temperature difference, Æt
m
. Some of the items that are considered in the
averaging process include the exchanger geometry, the direction of flow, fluid properties, and
flow velocity. These averaging techniques are discussed in the Section 7, Thermal Relations,
of the TEMA Standard. The required calculations, which are usually made by the process
engineer, are not covered in this course; however, these calculations are made after a
corrected mean temperature differential, Æt
m
, and an overall heat transfer coefficient, U, have
been found through the use of averaging techniques. Equation 1 can be used to calculate heat
transfer, Q.
Effects of Fouling
The performance of heat exchangers under service conditions, especially in the process
industry, cannot be predicted from a theoretical analysis alone. With most liquids and some
gasses, a dirt film gradually builds up on the heat-transfer surface during operation. This
deposit may be rust, boiler scale, silt, coke, or any number of other substances.
The effect of these deposits, which are referred to as fouling, is to increase the thermal
resistance. The manufacturer usually cannot predict the nature of the dirt deposit nor the rate
of fouling; therefore, only the performance of clean exchangers can be guaranteed. In
general, the thermal resistance of the deposit can be obtained only from actual tests or from
experience. If performance tests are made on a clean exchanger and repeated after the unit
has been in service for some time, the thermal resistance of the deposit (i.e., the fouling
factor) can be determined from the relation:
R
f
·
1
U
f

1
U
(2)
Where:
U = Overall heat transfer coefficient of clean exchanger
U
f
= Overall heat transfer coefficient after fouling has occurred
R
f
= Unit thermal resistance (i.e., fouling factor) of the scale
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Fouling factors (i.e., resistances) for various applications are provided in SAES-E-001, Table
1, and also in TEMA. The fouling resistances are applied as indicated in Equation 3, which
gives the expression for the overall heat transfer coefficient.

1
1
h
o
+r
o
|
.

`
,

1
E
f
|
.

`
,

+r
w
+r
i
A
o
A
i
|
.

`
,

+
1
h
i
A
o
A
i
|
.

`
,




]
]
]
(3)
Where:
U = Overall heat transfer coefficient (fouled)
h
o
= Film coefficient of shellside fluid
h
i
= Film coefficient of tubeside fluid
r
o
= Fouling resistance on outside surface of tubes
r
i
= Fouling resistance on inside surface of tubes
r
w
= Resistance of tube wall
A
o
/A
i
= Ratio of outside tube surface to inside tube surface
E
f
= Fin efficiency (where applicable)
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GLOSSARY
baffle, tr ansver se baffle One of a series of drilled or perforated plates that are slightly
smaller in diameter than the shell inside diameter. Baffles,
through which tubes pass, are located between the front and
rear tubesheets, or between the stationary tubesheet and the
return end of a U-tube bundle. The baffles direct the flow of
fluid in the shell and support the tubes.
baffle cut Expressed as a percent of the shell inside diameter, the
fraction of a segmental baffle that is cut off to allow passage
of the shellside fluid.
baffle pitch Center-to-center distance between adjacent baffles or tube
supports.
baffle spacing Distance between adjacent segmental baffles. The baffle
spacing is equal to the baffle pitch minus one-half of the
thickness of the baffles.
bundle (1) In a removable-bundle heat exchanger, the assembly of
tubesheet(s), baffles and /or supports, tie-rods, spacers, tubes,
and any other appurtenances that are not connected to the
shell. (2) In a fixed tubesheet exchanger, the part of the unit
that extends between the outer tubesheet faces.
cleaning lane Space that is located between adjacent rows of tubes in
removable-bundle heat exchangers and that is large enough
to permit entry of cleaning devices. To form cleaning lanes,
tubes are arranged on a square pitch or on a rotated square
pitch.
conduction A mode of heat transfer in which heat flows from a region of
higher temperature to a region of lower temperature within a
medium (solid, liquid, or gas), or between different media
that are in direct physical contact.
conductivity A measure of the ability of a material to conduct heat.
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convection A mode of heat transfer in which heat flows by means of the
combined action of heat conduction, energy storage, and the
mixing motion of a fluid.
doughnut and disk baffle Baffle system in which the center is removed from a full
circle and located one baffle pitch away from the remaining
annulus. The center is the disk; the annulus is the doughnut.
double tubesheet Two tubesheets at the tube ends. The outer face of the outer
tubesheet is exposed only to the tubeside fluid. The inner
face of the inner tubesheet is exposed only to the shellside
fluid.
double-segmental baffle Cross-flow baffle system that consists of alternate A-section
and B-section segmental baffles. A-sections are opposite
sectors of a circle; B-sections are sections of a circle that
remain after opposite sections have been cut off.
dr y bulb temper atur e The temperature of air as measured by a thermometer with a
dry bulb.
floating head Floating tubesheet and its attached floating cover.
fouling factor A numerical value that represents the resistance to heat flow
that is caused by objects such as dirt, sludge, and other
deposits that form on the tube surfaces while the exchanger
is in service.
hor izontal cut Segments that are cut off from cross-flow baffles alternately
at the top of one baffle and at the bottom of the adjacent
baffle, in order to direct shellside flow up and down over the
tubes.
longitudinal baffle Shellside pass partition.
pass (1) A group of tubes that are combined together in the
tubesheet that receives the full flow from the inlet. (2) One
transit of fluid through the straight tube length in a tube pass.
Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels
Heat Exchangers Concepts, Basic
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 47
pitch patter n The arrangement of tubes that pierce the tubesheets, baffles,
and supports. Also known as tube layout.
single-segmental baffle Cross-flow baffles.
Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels
Heat Exchangers Concepts, Basic
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 48
tie-r ods Round bars that pierce the cross-flow baffles or tube
supports. Tie-rods are attached to the stationary tubesheet at
one end and to the last baffle or tube support at the other end.
tube bundle See "bundle."
tubesheet A plate into which a heat exchanger tube is connected at its
end.
ver tical cut Segments that are cut off from cross-flow baffles alternately
to the left of one baffle and to the right of the adjacent baffle
in order to direct shellside flow side-to-side over the tubes.
wet-bulb temper atur e The temperature of air as measured with a wet-bulb
thermometer. A wet-bulb thermometer has a bulb that is
covered by a cotton wick that is saturated with water.

Engineering Encyclopedia

Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts, Basic

CONTENT

PAGE

MAIN TYPES OF HEAT EXCHANGERS AND THEIR PRIMARY COMPONENTS ....... ............................................................................................................1 TEMA-Type Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers..................................................................... 1 Design Standards............................................................................................ 3 TEMA Classifications .................................................................................... 4 TEMA Designations....................................................................................... 5 Considerations for Selecting Exchanger Component Options........................8 TEMA Component Nomenclature................................................................10 TEMA Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers Used by Saudi Aramco .........................................................................................................16 Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers...............................................................................................20 Design Standards..........................................................................................21 Types of Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers.........................................................21 Component Nomenclature............................................................................23 Header Box Options .....................................................................................24 Other Types of Heat Exchangers.........................................................................................26 Double-Pipe Heat Exchangers...................................................................... 26 Plate-and-Frame Heat Exchangers ...............................................................27 PRIMARY PROCESS FUNCTIONS OF HEAT EXCHANGERS..................................... 29 Change in Temperature ....................................................................................................... 29 Shell-And-Tube Heat Exchangers .......................................................................................32 Principal Applications ..................................................................................32 Size Limitations............................................................................................32 Principal Applications ..................................................................................32 Size Limitations............................................................................................33

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Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts, Basic

Heat Exchanger Applications and Limitations Summary....................................................33 Flow Arrangement Factors for Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers....................................... 35 Shellside Flow Arrangement Factors ...........................................................35 Tubeside Flow Arrangement Factors ...........................................................36 GLOSSARY ........... ..........................................................................................................45

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Engineering Encyclopedia

Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts, Basic

MAIN TYPES OF HEAT EXCHANGERS AND THEIR PRIMARY COMPONENTS Heat exchangers transfer heat from a hot fluid to a colder fluid through the combined mechanisms of conduction and forced convection. In most heat exchangers, a metal wall separates the two fluids. All heat exchangers are similar in their principle of operation; however, heat exchangers may differ in the specific fluids that are used in the heat transfer process, the layout of the metal tubes, and the configuration of the enclosure. In order of usage, the main types of heat exchangers that are used by Saudi Aramco are as follows: • • • • Shell-and-tube heat exchangers Air-cooled heat exchangers Double-pipe heat exchangers Plate-and-frame heat exchangers

In addition to heat exchangers, other types of heat transfer equipment, such as cooling towers and process furnaces, are used in Saudi Aramco. Cooling towers are a special class of heat exchanger in which water is cooled by an evaporation process. Process furnaces transfer heat to a process fluid primarily through radiation. Cooling towers and process furnaces are not discussed in this course. TEMA-Type Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers The shell-and-tube heat exchanger is the type that is most commonly used in process plants. TEMA (the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association) is an association that consists of companies who manufacture shell-and-tube heat exchangers. TEMA has developed an engineering standard that is used for the design of shell-and-tube heat exchangers. Specific design requirements that are contained in the TEMA standard will be discussed later. The phrase "TEMA-type shell-and-tube heat exchanger" refers to heat exchangers that are designed to meet TEMA requirements. Figure 1 illustrates the basic arrangement of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

1

Engineering Encyclopedia

Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts, Basic

In shell-and-tube heat exchangers, one fluid, known as the "tubeside" fluid, flows inside a set of parallel tubes known as the "tube bundle." These tubes are enclosed within a metal shell. The other fluid, known as the "shellside" fluid, flows inside the shell but over the outside of the tubes. Both the metal shell and the tubes are pressurized, and they must withstand the specified design pressures during the intended lifetime of the equipment.

Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger Figure 1

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

2

Heat exchangers can therefore be considered as special purpose pressure vessels. standards.All heat exchangers are typically built in accordance with a pressure vessel code. fabricated. Therefore. a number of industry. However. including air-cooled. steam. Design Criteria of Shell-and- Tube Heat Exchangers. inspected. This compliance with the ASME Code ensures that the Saudi Aramco equipment is designed. 32-SAMSS-007. A copy of SAES-E-001 is in Course Handout 2. Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard SAES-E-004 . and induced draft cooling towers. SAES-E-004 also covers the repair requirements for existing shell-andtube exchangers. and tested in accordance with a widely accepted industry standard.SAES-E-001. TEMA Standard . manufacturer. ASME Pressure Vessel Code . SAES-E-001 specifies the applicable codes. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 3 . Section VIII.Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. amine. Shell and Tube Type. provides both the process designer and the Saudi Aramco Engineer with design criteria for four types of heat exchange equipment. A copy of 32-SAMSS-007 is in Course Handout 2.SAES-E-004. A copy of the TEMA standard is in Course Handout 1. Heat Exchangers.TEMA has developed a standard that is entitled Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturer's Association. caustic. and Company standards have been developed to clarify the design requirements for specific applications and environments. Saudi Aramco has adopted most of the United States codes and standards. hydrogen. and it requires all heat exchangers to be built in accordance with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. and plate type heat exchangers. Basic Design Criteria for Unfired Heat Transfer Equipment. Each of the SAMSSs includes engineering requirements that are specific to Saudi Aramco and that modify or supplement the applicable industry standards. and specifications for each of the four heat exchange equipment types. applies to TEMA-type shell-andtube heat exchangers.Saudi Aramco Materials System Specifications (SAMSSs) are technical specifications that accompany the purchase orders that are sent to equipment manufacturers. Saudi Aramco Materials System Specifications . Portions of the TEMA standard are discussed later in this module and in subsequent modules. and utility services. covers the requirements for the thermal and mechanical design of shell-and-tube heat exchangers for hydrocarbon. Division 1 or 2. Basic Design Standards Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard SAES-E-001 . wet sour. double-pipe. A copy of SAES-E-004 is in Course Handout 2. the design rules that are contained in the ASME Code are not sufficiently specific for the many types of heat exchangers that are in use. This standard covers the shell-and-tube heat exchangers that are built for use in the petroleum industry as well as in many other industries.

the TEMA Standard 7th Edition (1988) specifies requirements for three different heat exchanger classifications. A copy of API-660 is in Course Handout 1. C. This document stipulates many of the design requirements for shell-and-tube heat exchangers that are used in oil refineries. and for the lubricant and seal oil coolers that are included in standard packaged units. TEMA Class B . C. TEMA Class C . Para.1.TEMA Class C specifies design and fabrication requirements for shell-and- tube heat exchangers that are in the generally moderate service environments of commercial and general process industries. Class B is similar to Class R with respect to design requirements. Class R is generally selected by designers for applications where durability and safety are the primary concerns. and B. Some process services are less severe and do not require such robust designs. SAES-E-004.5. there are service applications for which less expensive Class C exchangers may be used. and are. therefore. These classifications cover a broad range of industrial services. but Class B is closer to Class C than to Class R with respect to minimum thickness and corrosion allowance. Basic API Standard 660 .Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts.TEMA Class B specifies design and fabrication requirements for shell-and- tube heat exchangers that are in the chemical process industry. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 4 . Equipment that is fabricated in accordance with the Class C requirements are designed for maximum economy and overall compactness.TEMA Class R specifies design and fabrication requirements for shell-and- tube heat exchangers that are in the severe service environments of petroleum refineries and related industries. Figure 2 compares some of the TEMA requirements for Class R. the American Petroleum Institute (API) has published a standard that is entitled API Standard 660. TEMA Classifications Most process services in refineries require heavy-duty heat exchangers in order to achieve high reliability. and B exchangers. Shelland-Tube Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Service. Most Saudi Aramco shell-and-tube heat exchangers are Class R.In addition to the ASME Code and the TEMA standard. therefore. however. indicates that a Class C exchanger may be used for nonhydrocarbon services. consistent with moderate safety and service requirements. 7. TEMA Class R . designated as Classes R.

C. Class/Service C/General 1/16 in.13 1/4 in.13 1/4 in. See Table R-3. The second number ('192' in the example of Figure 3) indicates the nominal tube length in inches. The TEMA designation method is illustrated by the example that is shown in Figure 3. rounded to the nearest integer. such as kettle-type reboilers. See Table CB-3. TEMA Requirements for Class R. does not exactly follow this designation method. Basic Design Item Corrosion Allowance (carbon steel) Minimum Thickness of Shell Minimum Tie-Rod Diameter Gasket Contact-Surface Tolerance Minimum Bolt Size R/Refinery 1/8 in.. Note that the TEMA system of size designations for some types of heat exchangers. 3/4 in. max. and a rearend type S. B/Chemical 1/16 in. and B Exchangers Figure 2 TEMA Designations TEMA designations for shell-and-tube heat exchangers are used in the petroleum refining and chemical processing industries to identify exchanger sizes and types. See Table CB-3. The first number ('23' in the example of Figure 3) indicates the nominal shell diameter in inches. Refer to the TEMA standard for information on how the sizes of these heat exchanger types are designated.The TEMA size designator consists of two numbers that are separated by a hyphen (-). The TEMA designation is usually made up of a two-part size designator and a three-letter type designator.Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. None 5/8 in. TEMA Size Designation . a shell type E. ±1/32 in. The three letters ('AES' in the example) indicate that the heat exchanger has a front-end type A.13 3/8 in. None 1/2 in. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 5 .

The first letter is selected from the five types that are illustrated in the first column of Figure N-1.2. • The first letter of the three-letter TEMA-type designation describes the heat exchanger front-end or stationary head type.2 of the TEMA Standard. This letter may be omitted in a specification or proposal if a shell is not included in the equipment that is to be purchased (for example.The standard TEMA shell-and-tube heat exchanger types are illustrated in Figure N-1.2. which is shown in Figure 4. if the specification or a proposal is to be used for the purchase of a replacement tube bundle with tubesheet[s].2. The second letter of the three letter TEMA-type designator describes the heat exchanger shell. only).Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. Basic TEMA Designation System Example Figure 3 TEMA Type Designation . and it is selected from the eight types that are shown in the right-hand column of Figure N-1. The third letter of the three letter TEMA-type designator describes the heat exchanger rear-end or floating-head type. • • Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 6 . and it is selected from the seven types that are shown in the middle column of Figure N-1.

2 Figure 4 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 7 .Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. Basic TEMA Figure N-1.

Figure 6 lists the considerations that are used to select the appropriate shell design. Used with some types of fixed tubesheet exchangers and reboilers. Less expensive than Type A head. Shellside fluid must be relatively low-fouling so that chemical cleaning can be used. U-tube. the bundle is removable for mechanical cleaning. and floating head exchangers. and floating head exchangers. Used with fixed tubesheet. and Removable Cover Special High Pressure Closure C N D Selection Considerations for Stationary Heads Figure 5 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 8 . Selection criteria for the rear end are listed in Figure 7. Not recommended for use with U-tube or floating head exchangers because of maintenance difficulties. B Bonnet or Removable Channel with Integral Cover Channel Integral with Tubesheet and Removable Cover Channel Integral with Tubesheet. U-tube. Used with fixed tubesheet. Figure 5 lists the considerations that are used to select the appropriate stationary head type for specific applications. Basic Considerations for Selecting Exchanger Component Options There are five stationary head types that are used in shell-and-tube exchangers. Shell. Type A Description Channel and Removable Cover Selection Consideration The most common type of head that is used in shelland-tube heat exchangers.Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. Normally used only for low-fouling tubeside services. In most cases. Special high pressure head that is used when the tubeside design pressure exceeds approximately 10 340 kPa (1 500 psi).

two pass should not be used with a shellside pressure drop greater than approximately 70 kPa (10 psi).Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. The large shell promotes heat transfer and vapor disengagement. Shellside temperature range should be limited to 175°C (350°F) to avoid both excessive heat leakage through the baffle and thermal stress in the baffle. the shell. In order to avoid an excessively thick longitudinal baffle. Two pass affords slightly better heat transfer than single pass because two passes on the shell side more closely approximates counter-current flow. and the tubesheet. Selection Considerations for Shell Designs Figure 6 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 9 . G H J X K Split Flow Double Split Flow Divided Flow Shell Cross Flow Kettle-Type Reboiler Typically used for boiling/vaporizing services. Typically used in condensing and boiling services to reduce pressure drop and to enhance heat transfer duty. Basic Type E F Description Single Pass Two Pass Selection Consideration The most common shell design.

These components are shown in Section N of the TEMA Standard. Some of this nomenclature is used in this and later modules. For maintenance reasons. Typically. Not U W Selection Considerations for Rear Ends Figure 7 TEMA Component Nomenclature TEMA has established standard terminology for the individual components of shell-and-tube heat exchangers. recommended because of tendency of packed joints to leak. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 10 . with fixed tubesheet exchangers when the tubes can be N chemically cleaned. P S T Not recommended because of the tendency of packed joints to leak. The floating head in an S-type exchanger has a split backing ring that reduces shell diameter requirements and that maintains high thermal efficiency. and Removable bundle designs. if necessary. although a bonnet-type head can be used also. Used with U-tube bundle where tubeside does not need mechanical cleaning. and this nomenclature is discussed below. which allows the bundle to be more easily removed. M and Used. Type P heads should never be used with shellside hydrocarbons or toxic fluids. Saudi Aramco generally prefers the Type T head.Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. Basic Type L Selection Consideration Used with fixed tubesheet exchangers when the tubes must be cleaned mechanically. a formed head is used on the shell. Uses a packed joint to separate the tubeside and shellside fluids.

Double and triple segmental baffles are generally used when the shellside fluid is a gas.Baffles are installed on the shellside of heat exchangers to force the shellside fluid to flow across the tubes in a specific pattern. These baffle types are illustrated in Figure 8. the region where a particular baffle does not support the tubes). because a larger number of tubes are needed in order to achieve the necessary heat transfer. Single segmental baffles have one fluid passage cut through the baffle.e. The segmental transverse baffles can be single segmental. a no tube in the window baffle design is used.. In this manner. The modified flow improves heat transfer between the shellside and tubeside fluids. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 11 . In some cases. Basic Baffle Type . and the lowest mechanical natural frequency of the tube bundle is increased.e.e.Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. parallel to the axis of the heat exchanger). such as when tube vibration is a concern. In a no tube in the window design. every tube is supported by each baffle. Single segmental baffles are prevalent in heat exchangers in which the shellside fluid is a liquid. double segmental. or triple segmental. The no tube in the window design greatly increases the size of shell that is required. perpendicular to the axis of the heat exchanger) or longitudinally (i. Transverse baffles include segmental and "doughnut and disk" baffles. Segmental baffles can be cut horizontally or vertically. the bundle is laid out in such a way that there are no tubes located in the window of the baffle (i. Vertical cut baffles are illustrated in Figure 8. Double and triple segmental baffles have two and three passages. Baffles may be oriented either transversely (i. respectively...

Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. Basic Typical Baffle Configurations Figure 8 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 12 .

Bundle for a Straight-Tube. and spacers. exclusive of channels and bonnets. Basic Bundle (or Tube Bundle) . Floating Head Heat Exchanger Figure 9 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 13 . Split-Ring. baffles and/or supports. floating-head-type heat exchanger is shown in Figure 9. The bundle of a U-tube heat exchanger is shown in Figure 10. For fixed tubesheet exchangers. tubes. tie-rods. the bundle consists of the tubesheet (or tubesheets).In heat exchangers with removable bundles. the bundle refers to the part of the exchanger that extends from tubesheet to tubesheet. The bundle of a straight-tube. split-ring.Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts.

Typical pitch patterns are illustrated in Figure 11. Cleaning lanes are typically provided when the tubes are arranged on a square or rotated square pitch.The tube pitch pattern describes the arrangement or layout of tubes as the tubes pierce the tubesheets.Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. baffles.Tube cleaning lanes are the spaces that are between rows of tubes in a removable-bundle heat exchanger and that are large enough to permit entry of brushes and other cleaning devices. These patterns include: • • • • Square Rotated square Triangular with flow parallel to the base of an equilateral triangle Triangular with flow that enters at the apex of an equilateral triangle Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 14 . and supports. Basic Bundle of a U-Tube Heat Exchanger Figure 10 Tube Cleaning Lanes . such as hydroblast equipment. as shown in Figure 11. Tube Pitch Pattern .

Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. In heat exchangers that have more than a single tubeside pass. are located in the channel. which separate the individual groups of tubes. Each group of tubes in a pass receives the full flow from the inlet of the heat exchanger. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 15 . Basic Tube Pitch Patterns Figure 11 Tubeside Passes . a number of tubes are grouped together in the channel. Figure 12 illustrates two-pass and four-pass tubeside heat exchanger designs.Tubeside passes refer to the number of times that the fluid flows from one end of a bundle to the other end. Pass partition plates. depending on the number of tubeside passes that are required. Pass partition plates are also sometimes located in the floating head as well.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 16 .Split-ring floating head heat exchangers are standard units that were purchased by Saudi Aramco several years ago. the shell head. and the splitring backing device must be removed. the floating head cover.Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. To remove the tube bundle from this type of exchanger. These types include the following: • • • • • • • Split-Ring Floating Head Pull-Through Floating Head U-Tube Kettle-Type Fixed Tubesheet Special High Pressure Double Tubesheet Split-Ring Floating Head (Example: TEMA-Type AES) . Basic Two-Pass and Four-Pass Tubeside Flows Figure 12 TEMA Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers Used by Saudi Aramco This section discusses the primary types of shell-and-tube heat exchangers that are installed in Saudi Aramco facilities.

The BKU design is used when the tubeside fluid is clean (e. The entire bonnet channel can be insulated to conserve heat. Thus.. The shell is slightly larger and more expensive than the AES shell. TEMA-Type AET Heat Exchanger Figure 13 U-Tube Kettle Reboilers (Examples: TEMA-Type AKU and BKU) .) Pull-Through Floating Head (Example: TEMA-Type AET) .The AKU kettle reboiler has a removable channel cover. however.TEMA-Type AET heat exchangers have pull-through floating head tube bundles. (See the TEMA Standard in Course Handout 1.g. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 17 . Figure 13 illustrates the standard TEMA-Type AET heat exchanger.Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. The BKU kettle reboiler. it is not necessary to disassemble the shell cover and the floating head for purposes of removing the bundle from the shell. has an integral welded channel cover. the AET design reduces field maintenance and turnaround time. The BKU design is also specified when it is necessary to minimize heat loss to the atmosphere. and they are the current standard design that is used in most Saudi Aramco facilities. Basic A standard TEMA-Type AES exchanger is illustrated in Figure N-2 of the TEMA Standard. illustrated in Figure 14. steam applications).

If temperature differences between the tubes and the shell exceed 30°C (50°F).) Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 18 . Figure N-2 of the TEMA Standard illustrates a BEM-type exchanger with a modified conical rear head. This exchanger type is typically used in a single tube pass arrangement as a vertical thermosyphon reboiler. The AKT is normally used when excessive fouling on the tubeside requires mechanical cleaning inside the tube bundle.Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. The AKT heat exchanger is illustrated in Figure N-2 of the TEMA Standard. (See the TEMA Standard included in Course Handout 1. an expansion joint in the shell may be needed. Basic TEMA-Type BKU Heat Exchanger Figure 14 Pull-Through Kettle-Type (Example: TEMA-Type AKT) .) Fixed Tubesheet (Example: TEMA-Type BEM) . (See Figure N-2 in the TEMA Standard included in Course Handout 1. The tubesheets are integrally welded to the shell.The TEMA-type BEM exchanger has bonnet heads on both channels.These kettle-type reboilers have pull- through floating heads.

Many high-pressure closures incorporate proprietary designs of the manufacturers. This type of construction is sometimes used in applications that have very high tubeside pressures. The channel is usually made from a forged steel ring.Figure 15 illustrates a TEMA-type DFU exchanger. Double tubesheet configurations include a number of manufacturers' proprietary designs. and the tubesheet is usually welded to the channel.A double tubesheet design uses two tubesheets between the tubeside and shellside fluids rather than one tubesheet. usually by a key backing ring flange that is bolted to the channel. These closures are used when the tubeside pressure is approximately 10 340 kPa (1 500 psi) or higher. or where any leakage of one side's fluid into the other side's fluid is unacceptable. TEMA-Type DFU Heat Exchanger Figure 15 Double Tubesheet . The TEMA-type DFU exchanger has special high pressure closures on the channel (or tube) side. and the tubes must pass through both of these tubesheets. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 19 . The channel cover is designed with a shear-key ring that is held in place.Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. Basic Special High Pressure U-Tube (Example: TEMA-Type DFU) . The tubesheet also may be forged integrally with the channel through the use of a "cup" forging.

Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. air-cooled heat exchangers are recommended when a second process fluid of the right temperature is not available. The ultimate selection between a water-cooled or an aircooled heat exchanger is normally governed by economic considerations. Exchanging heat between two process streams is usually not practical when a second process fluid is not available at the temperature that is required to achieve useful heat transfer. Because it is uneconomical to use water for cooling purposes in many Saudi Aramco facilities. A typical forced-draft air-cooled heat exchanger is illustrated in Figure 16. In such cases. a shell-and-tube design would require water to cool the single process fluid. Basic Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers Air-cooled heat exchangers are used to cool process fluids that flow through tubes. which include both initial investment costs and long-term operating costs. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 20 . Typical Forced-Draft Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger Figure 16 Air-cooled heat exchangers are used when it is impractical to exchange heat between two process fluids. The tubes are fitted with external cooling fins in order to enhance the transfer of heat from the fluid to the ambient-temperature air.

A copy of 32SAMSS-011 is in Course Handout 2. Types of Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers Three principal types of air-cooled heat exchangers are used in Saudi Aramco: forced draft. and Saudi Aramco SAESs and SAMSSs. and humidified forced-draft. The fan pressurizes the entire bundle. API-661 augments the ASME Code in the areas of design. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code . is a Saudi Aramco Materials System Specification that is applicable to air-cooled heat exchangers. The air is pulled across the tube bundle and is exhausted through the hood. Air Cooled Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Service. Basic Design Standards Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards . A copy of API-661 is in Course Handout 1. API Standards . Induced Draft . forced-draft.In a forced draft heat exchanger. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 21 . air-cooled heat exchanger. Air Cooled Heat Exchangers. air-cooled heat exchanger. Air Cooled Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Service. induced-draft. The ASME Code is supplemented by the requirements of API-661. Figure 16 illustrates a horizontal tube.SAES-E-001.In an induced draft heat exchanger.API has developed API Standard 661. Forced Draft . and product reliability.The design and fabrication of air-cooled heat exchangers are subject to the requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. Division 1. 32-SAMSS-011. and it provides requirements for air-cooled exchangers in refinery and petrochemical service. This arrangement facilitates incorporation of the Saudi Aramco supplementary requirements into the design of air-cooled heat exchangers. induced draft. Figure 17 illustrates the horizontal tube. SAES-E-001 references the code and industrial standards that are listed below. the exchanger is similar to the forced-draft design. air is forced across the tube bundle by a fan that is located in an air plenum below the bundle. previously introduced. is a general design standard that also is applied to air-cooled heat exchangers. the fan is located above a hood that covers the tube bundle. Except for the fan location. manufacture. Section VIII. and it is written with paragraph numbers that correspond to the paragraph numbers of API-661.

The water that is sprayed into the air evaporates as it passes through the tube bundle. Induced-Draft. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 22 .The humidified forced-draft heat exchanger is illustrated in Figure 18. The evaporation process draws heat out of the air. The increased temperature differential between the humidified air and the process fluid enhances the cooling effectiveness of the heat exchanger. The tube bundle of the humidified exchanger is similar to the forced-draft and induceddraft exchangers. Basic Horizontal Tube. Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger Figure 17 Humidified Forced-Draft .Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. and it thereby cools the air to a temperature that is below the temperature of the process fluid that is in the tubes. except that the air is humidified before it is forced to flow across the rows of tubes.

The tube bundles for both forced-draft and induced-draft heat exchangers are rectangular. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 23 .4 of API-661.Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. A complete list of air-cooled heat exchanger component nomenclature is listed in Section 1. Tube Bundle (Coil Assembly) . side frames. and other components. and they contain many rows of tubes that are arranged in a triangular pitch. The tubeside fluid enters and leaves the tubes through nozzles that are welded to the header boxes. and they are defined below.661 that is included in Course Handout 1. Refer to the copy of API. Basic Humidified Forced-Draft Heat Exchanger Figure 18 Component Nomenclature Some of the major component parts of air-cooled heat exchangers are shown in Figures 16 through 18. header boxes. Figure 19 illustrates the tube bundle of an air-cooled heat exchanger.Tube bundle refers to an assembly of tubes. A rectangular pressurized header box usually is located at each end of the bundle.

and redistributes the flow between the multiple tube passes. with plug headers Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 24 . which means that the hot fluid enters the top of the bundle. Basic Typical Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger Tube Bundle Components Figure 19 Heat transfer in air-cooled heat exchangers is generally counter-current.The inlet header box is a rectangular pressurized box that is used to distribute the process fluid from the inlet nozzle equally to all of the tubes in the bundle. Inlet Header Box .In a multiple-pass bundle. the tubes are finned to increase heat transfer to the air.The outlet header box collects all of the process fluid from the exchanger tubes and directs the fluid to the outlet nozzle. Return Header Box .Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. Outlet Header Box . turns. The air flows over the tubes to cool the fluid that is within the tubes. Typically. and air enters from the bottom. the return header box collects. Header Box Options Typical tube bundle header box construction options are shown in API-661 as follows: Figure 3a Figure 3b Figure 5 With removable coverplate With removable bonnet headers Assembled.

1. Figure 20 illustrates a typical plug-type header box. threaded/gasketed plugs are in the header box end plates and that they are aligned with the tubes. Tube Bundle with Plug Headers Figure 20 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 25 . in this design.7. requires that plug-type headers be used for all process applications. These different types of header boxes are selected on the basis of the maintenance and cleaning requirements of the process service. Note that. Other types of headers may be used for lube oil and seal oil coolers. Paragraph 5. This arrangement permits individual inspection and cleaning of the tubes.5.Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. Basic Refer to the copy of API-661 in Course Handout 1. 32-SAMSS-011.

Typically. the inner tubes are made with bolted-on covers on the U-bend end of the shell to make it easier to clean the tubes. Sometimes. Basic Other Types of Heat Exchangers Double-Pipe Heat Exchangers Figure 21 illustrates a double-pipe heat exchanger. Typically. a doublepipe heat exchanger is used to cool lubricants and hydraulic fluids for large machines. the inner and outer tubes can be a single forging.Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. The packed or gasketed joints enable the inner tubes to be removed to be cleaned. In other services. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 26 . Double-pipe heat exchangers often are used when the required heat transfer surface is less than approximately 10 square meters (100 square feet). or the inner tube can be welded to the outer tube. and the other fluid flows in the annulus between the tubes. double-pipe heat exchangers are used to cool samples and liquids for process analyzers. and they may be U-shaped. which is a special type of shell-and-tube heat exchanger. In very clean services. the tubes can be made with packed or gasketed joints between the inner and outer tubes. For U-shaped tubes. Specifications for double-pipe heat exchangers are covered in SAES-E-006 and in 32SAMSS-028. Tubes in a doublepipe heat exchanger are occasionally long. A double-pipe heat exchanger consists of a tube-within-a-tube. the inner tube has external longitudinal fins. One of the fluids flows inside the inner tube.

respectively. plate-and-frame heat exchangers may be used as an alternative to shell-and-tube type heat exchangers when the operating pressures and temperatures do not exceed 1 380 kPa gage (200 psig) and 150°C (300°F). Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 27 .Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. Figure 22 is an illustration of a plate-and-frame heat exchanger. Plate-and-frame heat exchangers provide a large heat transfer surface area in a relatively compact package. and when a material other than carbon steel is required for contact with the fluid. rather than carbon steel. must be used for the heat transfer surface. Basic Double-Pipe Heat Exchanger Figure 21 Plate-and-Frame Heat Exchangers Plate-and-frame heat exchangers generally are used in applications in which a high overall heat transfer coefficient is required and where high-alloy materials. As specified in SAES-E-014.

A 15% excess thermal capacity is required when the exchanger is to be used in fouling services. or heavy hydrocarbon processing streams.Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. Single pass counter-flow arrangements are the preferred arrangement for plate-and-frame heat exchangers. Also. such as to cool crude oil. emulsions. SAES-E-014 indicates that plate-and-frame heat exchangers should be designed with 10% excess thermal capacity when they are used in clean services. Plate-and-Frame Heat Exchanger Figure 22 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 28 . the frames of plateand-frame heat exchangers should be designed to permit the addition of 20% more plates in order to permit a future increase in exchanger capacity. Basic Further.

Basic PRIMARY PROCESS FUNCTIONS OF HEAT EXCHANGERS The two main process functions of heat exchangers are as follows: • • To change the temperature of a fluid by the exchange of heat from a higher temperature fluid to a lower temperature fluid. In the case shown. as the hot fluid flows through the inner tube and heat is transferred from the fluid. To change the phase of a fluid from liquid to vapor or from vapor to liquid at constant temperature. the direction of heat transfer is from the outside to the inside of the tube. heat is transferred to the fluid. Change in Temperature Heat transfer in heat exchangers involves the combined mechanisms of conduction and convection. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 29 . as the colder fluid outside of the tube flows over the tube. heat flows by convection from the hotter fluid inside the tube to the inner surface of the tube. The heat then flows by conduction through the tube wall and by convection from the outer surface of the tube to the outside (colder) fluid. the temperature of the fluid inside the tube is lowered. Note that it is also possible for the hotter fluid to be on the outside of the tube and for the colder fluid to be on the inside of the tube. When the hotter fluid is on the outside of the tube. Similarly. As shown in the sample model of a heat exchanger tube in Figure 23. and its temperature is increased.Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts.

A liquid vaporizes in a heat exchanger when sufficient heat is transferred to the fluid such that it is heated to fluid saturation temperature (i. A vapor condenses in a heat exchanger when sufficient heat is transferred from the vapor such that it is cooled to its saturation temperature (i.Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts... condensation point). Basic Th Tc Ti To hi ho k = Inside Fluid Temperature = Outside Fluid Temperature = Inside Surface Temperature = Outside Surface Temperature = Inside Convection Coefficient = Outside Convection Coefficient = Thermal Conductivity of the Tube Material Simplified Heat Exchanger Model Figure 23 Change in Phase Some heat exchangers are designed to change the phase of a fluid that passes through the exchanger. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 30 .e. Note that the boiling point and condensation point are actually the same temperature for a pure fluid.e. boiling point). These exchangers can either vaporize a liquid or condense a vapor.

steam or another hot fluid. Cools a process stream. Evaporates a process fluid by use of a heating medium such as steam. Produces steam from boiler feedwater. Heats a liquid in a recirculating cycle to the boiling point. Cools a process stream by refrigerant to a temperature that is lower than the prevailing water temperature. Primary Process Functions of Heat Exchangers Figure 24 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 31 . usually by water. but can use air or other process fluid. Terminology Condenser Cooler Chiller Evaporator/ Vaporizer Reboiler Steam Generator Heater Waste-Heat Boiler Primary Function Condenses vapors in a process stream that enters the exchanger. Heats fluid but does not vaporize.Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. It is helpful if the mechanical design engineer is generally familiar with this terminology. Heating medium is usually Produces steam from condensate or boiler feedwater by removal of heat from high-temperature process or waste gas stream. Basic Figure 24 summarizes the terminology that is used by the process engineer to identify the primary process functions of heat exchangers.

1 m (240 in. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 32 . In general. Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers Principal Applications Air-cooled heat exchangers are used primarily to cool or condense a process stream to a temperature that is slightly higher than the ambient air temperature. and the preferred maximum tube length is 6. Shell-And-Tube Heat Exchangers Principal Applications The shell-and-tube heat exchanger is one of the most common types of heat exchanger that is used in refineries and chemical plants.).Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts.2 m (48 in.). air-cooled exchangers are selected for locations where water is not economically available in the quantity or quality that is required to support a water-cooled shell-and-tube heat exchanger. Shell-and-tube exchangers can either heat or cool a process fluid. Saudi Aramco has published preferred limits for exchanger sizes in SAES-E-004. Size Limitations The size of shell-and-tube heat exchangers is normally limited to the maximum size that can be transported and erected conveniently. Basic PRINCIPAL APPLICATIONS AND SIZE LIMITATIONS OF SHELL-AND-TUBE AND AIR-COOLED HEAT EXCHANGERS The following sections briefly summarize the principal applications and limitations of shelland-tube and air-cooled heat exchangers. The preferred maximum bundle size is 1. These limits are intended to simplify the logistics and the maintenance that is associated with Saudi Aramco heat exchangers.

air has only about one-fourth the heat capacity per kilogram (or pound) mass.). which is intended to simplify the logistics and the maintenance that is associated with Saudi Aramco heat exchangers.Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. Compared to water. SAES-A-012 provides the design dry-bulb temperatures for all Saudi Aramco plant locations and the design factors that apply to different types of air-cooled exchangers and services. and some of the principal limitations of each type. Both the initial investment in the exchanger installation and the long-term cost of its operation must be considered in order to decide whether to install an aircooled or a shell-and-tube heat exchanger. The choice between an air-cooled or a shell-and-tube heat exchanger is usually based on economic considerations. therefore. a very large cooling fin surface area is required to cool the process fluid to the desired temperature. Because the cost of an air-cooled heat exchanger is highly dependent on the size of the cooling surface area. The 10°C (18°F) cutoff differential above the dry-bulb temperature can be reduced to 10°C (18°F) above the wet-bulb temperature through the use of a humidified air-cooled exchanger. different design conditions are required for the various Saudi Aramco plant locations. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 33 . an air-cooled heat exchanger can be prohibitively expensive when the outlet process fluid/air temperature differential is less than 10°C (18°F). Because the maximum dry-bulb air temperature varies geographically. The maximum tube length is 12.2 m (40 ft. Basic Air-cooled exchangers operate efficiently when the condensing temperature and/or outlet temperature of the process fluid is at least 10°C (18°F) above the maximum dry-bulb temperature of the ambient air. unless otherwise approved. Size Limitations The size of air-cooled heat exchangers is normally limited to the maximum size that can be transported and erected conveniently. Heat Exchanger Applications and Limitations Summary Figure 25 summarizes some of the applications for which various exchanger designs are best suited. Saudi Aramco has published a table of preferred exchanger sizes in 32-SAMSS-011. if the temperature differential between the process fluid and the ambient air is too small.

Clean service on tubeside. Dirty fluids require that the shellside and tubeside be cleaned. Bends must be carefully made. Multipass tubeside. horizontal or vertical. gasgas. PRINCIPAL LIMITATIONS Internal gaskets create danger of leaks. initial cost is high. reboiling. Boiling of process fluid on shell side that is to be vaporized. Basic TYPE DESIGNATION Floating Head or Tubesheet (Removable and nonremovable bundles) U-Tube PRINCIPAL APPLICATIONS High temperature differential between tube and shell. can be improved with forced airflow across the tubes. Low heat transfer coefficient. Kettle Air-Cooled. Usually confined to horizontal units. Physically large in most applications. Corrosiveness of fluids on shellside parts that float. Fixed Tubesheet Condensers. High temperature differentials that can require provision for expansion in fixed-tube units. Tube-to-shell temperature difference over 27°C (50°F) usually requires an expansion joint in the shell. Very high tubeside velocities can cause erosion of bends. plain or finned tubes Principal Applications and Limitations of Heat Exchangers Figure 25 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 34 . Condensing or cooling a process fluid well above ambient air temperature when cooling water is either not available or its use is not cost effective due to the use of expensive ally materials. Multipass tubeside units. liquid-liquid. Single pass tubeside. Fluid should be free of suspended particles. cooling and heating. Limited to horizontal installation. gas-liquid. or mechanical damage and danger of rupture can result.Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts.

The rotated triangular layout has a slightly lower pressure drop. An exchanger with a triangular layout costs less and transfers more heat per measure of tube surface area (i. or heat transfer. Plant Engineering. Figure 11 illustrates these different tube layouts.2) than a square or a rotated square layout. Typically.e. The primary factors that affect heat transfer duty include: • • • • Flow arrangement Temperature distribution Heat transfer coefficient Effects of fouling Flow Arrangement Factors for Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers Flow arrangement factors that affect the heat transfer duty of shell-and-tube heat exchangers can be subdivided into shellside and tubeside factors. This section does not address the fundamentals of fluid flow..The process designer usually specifies the tube layout based on heat transfer and pressure drop considerations. and for applications in which the deposit can be chemically cleaned. The triangular layout is generally preferred for clean shellside service (i. or pertinent college courses for a review of these fundamentals. as necessary. and it highlights the importance of these factors in heat exchanger design. Basic PRIMARY FACTORS AFFECTING HEAT TRANSFER DUTY This section addresses the primary factors that affect heat transfer duty in heat exchangers. a square or rotated square tube pattern is specified for the following cases: • • For high shellside fouling factors When mechanical cleaning of the outside of the tubes is required Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 35 . but it is seldom used because the heat transfer characteristics are poor.e. m2 or ft.Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts.. Shellside Flow Arrangement Factors Tube Layout . thermodynamics. where the fouling factor is low). Participants are directed to ChE 101.

which would result in poor heat transfer. although the maximum practical cut for tube support is approximately 48%. but they result in lower pressure drop on the shell side. rotated square layouts are preferred to square layouts because of the higher heat transfer coefficient that is induced by the turbulence associated with the rotated square layout. Double segmental baffles typically cost more than single segmental baffles. the baffle pitch (i. the distance between baffles) usually does not exceed the shell inside diameter. The minimum allowable baffle pitch is the greater of 50 mm (2 in. Multiple tube passes are necessary to keep the tubeside fluid velocity high in order to achieve a high heat transfer rate and to reduce fouling. For double segmental baffles.) or 20% of the inside diameter of the shell.e. however. Single segmental baffles usually are cut at about 25% of the shell diameter.g. Cross Baffles . because the pressure drop is lower for the square layout. Tubeside Flow Arrangement Factors In general. With shellside condensation or vaporization. Baffle pitch is specified by the process engineer. the maximum pitch is limited by TEMA to ensure adequate tube support. the baffle pitch must be decreased to raise the tube's natural frequency. a close baffle pitch improves heat transfer. shell-and-tube heat exchangers have more than one tube pass. however. and improper spacing of the baffle can overstress tubes or cause the tubes to vibrate. In some cases. or if using vertical thermosyphon reboilers). otherwise. which reduces heat transfer. if only a small differential temperature is needed.. the fluid would tend to flow parallel with the tubes. only one tube pass is used (e.. the square layout is preferred to the rotated square. In exceptional cases. where tube vibration is a concern. and it is usually based on thermal performance and pressure drop considerations. but it increases shellside pressure drop. Baffle Pitch .Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts.If there is no phase change of the shellside fluid. for pressure-drop limited applications.The process designer usually specifies that the baffle cut or window area for flow be consistent with thermal and pressure drop considerations in the shell. there must be enough overlap so that at least one row of tubes is supported by adjacent baffles. the area for the central baffle and the area of the window between the two adjacent chordal baffles are both about 40% of the exchanger cross-sectional area. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 36 . Basic In most cases. A very tight baffle pitch tends to force the shellside fluid into leakage and bypass streams. In general. This percentage of baffle cut allows a baffle overlap of approximately 10% of the exchanger’s cross section. Care is required in the specification of baffle pitch because the baffles support the tubes. Figure 8 illustrates typical baffle configurations. Minimum baffle pitch is set by TEMA requirements.

separate header boxes (i. Flow Arrangement Factors in Multiple Exchangers If an excessively large surface area is required to achieve the desired heat transfer. Counter-current flow means that the direction of temperature change for the fluid is opposite to the direction of temperature change for the air. the other units continue to operate at reduced throughput. if the hot fluid enters at the top of the exchanger and the cooler fluid exits at the bottom. 1/8 in. When the temperature difference is above the 100°C range. shells in series are necessary when the exit temperature of the hotter fluid is lower than the exit temperature of the colder fluid. if the temperature difference between the inlet and outlet fluids is over 100°C (200°F). These inspection and maintenance considerations apply equally to both shelland-tube and air-cooled exchanger designs.Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. the pass partition plate is likely to distort.e. arranged in series and/or in parallel. However. large exchanger.. for example. per foot) to drain the condensate that collects in the tubes and in the header boxes. air-cooled heat exchanger tubes are usually sloped (typically 10 mm per meter. When one of the units in a multiple exchanger arrangement is out of service. Some header boxes include a pass partition plate to separate the inlet and outlet fluids. as necessary. Multiple small exchangers are easier to inspect and maintain than are large exchangers. In condensing service. Sometimes. Basic Flow Arrangement Factors for Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers Air-cooled heat exchangers normally feature two or four tube passes and counter-current flow. cool air enters the exchanger at the bottom and exits hotter at the top. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 37 . is preferable to the use of a single. Multiple exchanger configurations can be piped in parallel or in series so that individual units may be taken out of service for maintenance or for purposes of adjusting flow or heat duty. split headers) are used to prevent pass partition plate distortion. the use of multiple exchangers.

the direction of flow of either fluid is immaterial. the colder fluid can never reach the exit temperature of the hotter fluid in parallel flow. ÆT. The transfer of heat to or from a fluid changes the temperature of the fluid if there is no change in phase of the fluid. instead. less surface area is required than in a parallel flow arrangement. An additional advantage of the counter-flow arrangement is that. for a given rate of heat flow. between the two fluids. Figure 26c depicts a parallel-flow exchanger and Figure 26d depicts a counter-flow exchanger. Figure 26 illustrates the changes in temperature that may occur in either or both fluids in four types of shell-and-tube heat exchangers. and the constant-temperature fluid may also be at rest. Figure 26a illustrates the case of a vapor that condenses at a constant temperature as the other fluid is heated.Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. Basic Temperature Distribution The temperatures of fluids in a shell-and-tube heat exchanger are generally not constant. The distances between the solid lines are proportional to the temperature differences. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 38 . Figure 26b depicts a fluid that evaporates at constant temperature while heat flows from a warmer fluid whose temperature decreases as the fluid passes through the exchanger. For both of these cases. No phase change occurs in either case. they vary from point to point along the exchanger as heat flows from the hotter fluid to the colder fluid. the final temperature of the cooler fluid may exceed the outlet temperature of the hotter fluid because a favorable temperature gradient exists all along the heat exchanger. For counter-flow. No matter how long the exchanger of Figure 26c is constructed.

Basic Temperature Distributions in Four Types of Heat Exchanger Figure 26 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 39 .Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts.

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 40 . Q. The film coefficients and U are usually determined by the process engineer.Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. When the fluid temperatures on the inside and outside of the tube are known. Determination of these two items is outside the scope of this course. U. the overall amount of heat transferred. can be calculated through the use of the following equation: Q = UA o ( T h − T c ) Where: Q U Ao Th Tc = Overall amount of heat transferred = Overall heat transfer coefficient = Heat transfer area based on the outside area of the tube = Hot fluid temperature = Cold fluid temperature (1) The overall heat transfer coefficient. heat exchanger geometry. is a function of the individual inside and outside film coefficients. Basic Heat Transfer Coefficients Figure 27 is a repeat of the simplified heat exchanger model that was illustrated in Figure 23. and the material thermal conductivity (usually a known function of the material temperature).

which represents the more realistic case of two-dimensional heat flow. In a typical heat exchanger. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 41 . Basic Th Tc Ti To hi ho k = Inside Fluid Temperature = Outside Fluid Temperature = Inside Surface Temperature = Outside Surface Temperature = Inside Convection Coefficient = Outside Convection Coefficient = Thermal Conductivity of the Tube Material Simplified Heat Exchanger Model Figure 27 The heat flow calculation in an actual heat exchanger is more complicated than the simplified heat flow model that was illustrated previously. The temperature variation is illustrated in the double-pipe heat exchanger of Figure 28.Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. the temperature of the fluid sometimes varies from the inlet to the outlet of the exchanger.

h. Basic In Figure 28. also depends on temperature. The convection heat transfer coefficient.Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. which causes hi and ho to vary with the position along the exchanger length. The value of the (Th -Tc) term in Equation 1 varies with the length. an effective temperature differential that takes into account the variation in temperature along the length of the exchanger tube must be determined. These changes in the fluid temperatures produce a variable temperature difference between the inner and outer fluids. hot fluid enters the inner tube on the right. This temperature difference varies with the position along the length of the exchanger. As the two fluids flow through the exchanger. As a result. Two-Dimensional Heat Flow Model Figure 28 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 42 . This variation of h complicates the determination of U and makes it necessary to employ averaging techniques to calculate heat flow in actual heat exchangers. the hot fluid warms the cold fluid and becomes cooler while the cold fluid becomes warmer. and cold fluid enters the outer tube on the left.

is to increase the thermal resistance. The effect of these deposits. or any number of other substances. therefore. however. and an overall heat transfer coefficient. the direction of flow. cannot be predicted from a theoretical analysis alone. coke. these calculations are made after a corrected mean temperature differential. are not covered in this course. Basic Averaging techniques consider the temperature gradients of an actual exchanger to determine a corrected mean temperature difference.e. which are usually made by the process engineer. This deposit may be rust. the thermal resistance of the deposit (i. Effects of Fouling The performance of heat exchangers under service conditions. only the performance of clean exchangers can be guaranteed.Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. Some of the items that are considered in the averaging process include the exchanger geometry. If performance tests are made on a clean exchanger and repeated after the unit has been in service for some time. especially in the process industry. the fouling factor) can be determined from the relation: Rf = Where: U Uf Rf = = = Overall heat transfer coefficient of clean exchanger Overall heat transfer coefficient after fouling has occurred Unit thermal resistance (i. These averaging techniques are discussed in the Section 7. boiler scale..e. a dirt film gradually builds up on the heat-transfer surface during operation. Ætm. Ætm. fouling factor) of the scale 1 1 − Uf U (2) Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 43 . The manufacturer usually cannot predict the nature of the dirt deposit nor the rate of fouling. fluid properties.. Thermal Relations. have been found through the use of averaging techniques. U. The required calculations. of the TEMA Standard. which are referred to as fouling. Q. silt. Equation 1 can be used to calculate heat transfer. With most liquids and some gasses. and flow velocity. In general. the thermal resistance of the deposit can be obtained only from actual tests or from experience.

Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. U= 1  1 A  1 A   1  +r    +r +r  o  +  o    ho o   Ef  w i  Ai  hi  Ai     (3) Where: U ho hi ro ri rw = = = = = = Overall heat transfer coefficient (fouled) Film coefficient of shellside fluid Film coefficient of tubeside fluid Fouling resistance on outside surface of tubes Fouling resistance on inside surface of tubes Resistance of tube wall Ratio of outside tube surface to inside tube surface Fin efficiency (where applicable) Ao /Ai = Ef = Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 44 . and also in TEMA. resistances) for various applications are provided in SAES-E-001.. The fouling resistances are applied as indicated in Equation 3. Table 1. Basic Fouling factors (i.e. which gives the expression for the overall heat transfer coefficient.

are located between the front and rear tubesheets. Baffles. (2) In a fixed tubesheet exchanger. (1) In a removable-bundle heat exchanger. Basic GLOSSARY baffle. baffles and /or supports. or between the stationary tubesheet and the return end of a U-tube bundle. Space that is located between adjacent rows of tubes in removable-bundle heat exchangers and that is large enough to permit entry of cleaning devices. tubes. Expressed as a percent of the shell inside diameter. through which tubes pass. or gas). baffle cut baffle pitch baffle spacing bundle cleaning lane conduction conductivity Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 45 . liquid. tubes are arranged on a square pitch or on a rotated square pitch. A measure of the ability of a material to conduct heat. tie-rods. The baffles direct the flow of fluid in the shell and support the tubes. spacers. the assembly of tubesheet(s). or between different media that are in direct physical contact. Center-to-center distance between adjacent baffles or tube supports. A mode of heat transfer in which heat flows from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature within a medium (solid.Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. Distance between adjacent segmental baffles. and any other appurtenances that are not connected to the shell. the fraction of a segmental baffle that is cut off to allow passage of the shellside fluid. the part of the unit that extends between the outer tubesheet faces. transverse baffle One of a series of drilled or perforated plates that are slightly smaller in diameter than the shell inside diameter. The baffle spacing is equal to the baffle pitch minus one-half of the thickness of the baffles. To form cleaning lanes.

Basic convection A mode of heat transfer in which heat flows by means of the combined action of heat conduction. sludge. Floating tubesheet and its attached floating cover. and other deposits that form on the tube surfaces while the exchanger is in service. A numerical value that represents the resistance to heat flow that is caused by objects such as dirt. The center is the disk. The outer face of the outer tubesheet is exposed only to the tubeside fluid. (1) A group of tubes that are combined together in the tubesheet that receives the full flow from the inlet. Two tubesheets at the tube ends. double tubesheet double-segmental baffle dry bulb temperature floating head fouling factor horizontal cut longitudinal baffle pass Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 46 . The inner face of the inner tubesheet is exposed only to the shellside fluid. energy storage. doughnut and disk baffle Baffle system in which the center is removed from a full circle and located one baffle pitch away from the remaining annulus. Cross-flow baffle system that consists of alternate A-section and B-section segmental baffles. in order to direct shellside flow up and down over the tubes. Shellside pass partition. Segments that are cut off from cross-flow baffles alternately at the top of one baffle and at the bottom of the adjacent baffle. and the mixing motion of a fluid. The temperature of air as measured by a thermometer with a dry bulb.Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. the annulus is the doughnut. B-sections are sections of a circle that remain after opposite sections have been cut off. (2) One transit of fluid through the straight tube length in a tube pass. A-sections are opposite sectors of a circle.

Cross-flow baffles. and supports. Basic pitch pattern single-segmental baffle The arrangement of tubes that pierce the tubesheets. baffles. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 47 . Also known as tube layout.Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts.

" A plate into which a heat exchanger tube is connected at its end. Basic tie-rods Round bars that pierce the cross-flow baffles or tube supports.Engineering Encyclopedia Vessels Heat Exchangers Concepts. Segments that are cut off from cross-flow baffles alternately to the left of one baffle and to the right of the adjacent baffle in order to direct shellside flow side-to-side over the tubes. Tie-rods are attached to the stationary tubesheet at one end and to the last baffle or tube support at the other end. See "bundle. tube bundle tubesheet vertical cut wet-bulb temperature Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 48 . The temperature of air as measured with a wet-bulb thermometer. A wet-bulb thermometer has a bulb that is covered by a cotton wick that is saturated with water.