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Mughals created an empire and accomplished what had hitherto seemed possible for only short periods. each ruler getting a picture made of Timur & himself. From their mother¶s side they were descendants of Genghis Khan. Iraq & Modern-day Turkey. Ruling as large a territory as the Indian subcontinent with such a diversity of people & cultures was a difficult task for a ruler to accomplish in Middle Ages. They celebrated their genealogy pictorially. They expanded their kingdom from Agra to Delhi The Mughal family line . the ruler of Iran.MUGHAL EMPIRE WHO WERE THE MUGHALS? The Mughals were descendants of two great lineages of rulers. From their father¶s side they were the successors of Timur. ruler of the Mongol tribes. China & Central Asia.

Humayun died unexpectedly at the age of 48 when he fell down the steps of his library in his haste to obey the muezzin's call to prayer. Bahadur Shah II. the most sophisticated Mughal commander and leader.1627 1628 . Prince Khurram was 35 years old when he ascended the throne as Shah Jahan (King of the World). the last Mughal emperor. The end of the Mughal Empire. The rise of the great Mughal dynasty in India 1530 .1530 Babur's victory at Panipat in 1526 established the Mughal Empire and ended the reign of the Delhi Sultanate. . In 1540. Jahangir succeeded his father . After a bitter struggle with his three brothers. Aurangzeb held a coronation durbar in the Red Fort where he assumed the title of Alamgir (World Conqueror). Akbar.1605 1605 . who assumed the regional name of Shir Shah Sur.MUGHAL EMPIRE The Dynasty of the great Mughals in India 1526 . Aurangzeb was the victor who took the throne.1658 1659 . Farid Khan Sur. was only 14 years of age when he succeeded his father Humayun. 1556 . India was brought under the direct rule of the British Crown. In the summer of 1659.1707 1857 Akbar. the Mughal domain came under the control of one of those nobles.1556 Humayun succeeded his father Babur and became an emperor in India. Humayun was defeated and dislodged by insurrections of nobles from the old Lodi regime. was deposed in 1858.

Mughal rulers created a powerful empire in which military might and artistic culture flourished. when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi. . The empire was founded by the Mongol leader Babur in 1526.MUGHAL EMPIRE The Great Mughal Emperors Babur: 1526-1530 Humayun: 1530-1556 Akbar: 1556-1605 Jahangir: 1605-1627 Shah Jahan: 1627-1658 Aurangazeb: 1658-1707 The Mughal Empire The Mughal Empire) was an empire that at its greatest territorial extent ruled most of the Indian subcontinent between 1526 and 1857. the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat.

which was an eclectic mix of Hinduism. Aurangzeb imposed Sharia law. destroyed temples in order to build mosques. dancers. Under Akbar. The Mughal Emperors persecuted several of the Sikh Gurus. and it was proclaimed the state religion until his death. he stopped the production of representational artwork. but rather his Mongol heritage. and Jehangir executed the fifth Guru. known for his zealotry. Even the Taj Mahal is reputedly built on a sacred Hindu site. Under Aurangzeb. Further. although many of the su jects of the empire were Hindu and also Si h. One of Akbar's most unusual ideas regarding religion was Din-iIlahi (³Godism´ in English). and abandoned use of the lunar Muslim calendar in favor of a solar calendar more useful for agriculture. According to his interpretation. and as had Babur. He is known to have treated non-Muslims harshly. Mughal court life changed dramatically. re-imposed the jizya. Islam did not allow music. and Christianity. he did not emphasi e his religion. When Babur first founded the empire. which he codified. including the miniature paintings for which the Mughals are renowned. and singers. the court abolished the jizya. Islam. Many Sufi shrines are still visited by Hindus as well as Muslims.MUGHAL EMPIRE RELIGION A pi tu from t i i of t Mug l palace Khas Mahal The Mughal ruli g class was Muslim. so he banished court musicians. although this is disputed. These actions were later retracted byAurang eb. based on Muslim precepts forbidding images. . At times. popular Sufi teachers such as attracted Hindu and Muslim disciples while some Hindu gurus were also popular among Muslims. the tax on non-Muslims. He enjoyed good relations with the emerging Sikh community.

they did not afford religious scholars much authority. especially as they shared a similar pedigree. Although they recognized the Ottoman claim to the title of caliph. Whether the earlier policies of harmonizing religions were merely pragmatic or stemmed from a more inclusive understanding of Islam is debatable. Certainly. Thus.MUGHAL EMPIRE  The Mughals tended to regard themselves as rulers by divine right. . such Sufi teachers as Kabir (1414-1518) who flourished at an earlier period had represented a 'peace to all' type of Islam that was attractive to many people in the subcontinent. they saw the Ottomans as just another Muslim empire like themselves. rather than as subject to Islamic law.

The mausoleums are octagonal in plan and have verandahs around them. 5. gardens and cities. The main characteristic features of Mughal architecture are the bulbous domes. The Mughal buildings show a uniform pattern both in structure and character. With the coming of the Mughals. The monuments of Sher Shah are a continuation of the Lodi style. The Mughals constructed excellent mausoleums. large halls. Jharokha Chhatri Chhajja Jali Charbagh Symmetry . the slender minarets with cupolas at the four corners. 4. 3. Characteristic elements of Mughal architecture 1. Indian architecture was greatly influenced by Persian styles. surmounted by huge domes. mosques. 6. He built several forts. The few mosques and palaces built by Babar and Humayun are not of much architectural significance Sher Shah of the Sur Dynasty who ruled over the Kingdom of the Mughals after driving Humayun out of the country was not only a great administrator but a lover of art also. The verandahs have three smaller domes on each side. massive vaulted gateways and delicate ornamentation. forts.MUGHAL EMPIRE MUGHAL ARCHITECTURE All the early Mughal Rulers except Aurangzeb were great bui1ders. 2. tombs and mosques.

Extensive use was made of the low arches and bulbous do mes that characterize the Mughal style during his period. with features of Persian art and architecture. taking into consideration the hot weather. Islamic and Persian style of art. mosques. Under the orthodox Aurangzeb. This influence can be greatly seen in the construction of the famous Golden Temple of Amritsar. of putting up buildings entirely of marble and decorating the walls with floral designs made of semiprecious stones was established. the Mughal architecture reached its zenith. which had been introduced to India during days of Sultanate of Delhi. . Akbar was the first Mughal ruler who undertook constructions on a large scale and the first great Mughal monume nt was the mausoleum to Humayun. The Mughal Gardens introduced by Babur to India was used extensively used to decorate the surrounding of these buildings. This new style combined elements of Islamic art and architecture. Most notable of Akbar's buildings was the palace -cum-fort complex at Fatehpuri Sikri. The crowning glory of Mughal architecture is the Taj Mahal built by Shah Jahan. gates. With the firm establishment of the Mughal Empire. The Mughals built magnificent forts. Pearl Mosque in Delhi is his lone contribution. had flowing water streams. The buildings were also built in a manner to take advantage of the breeze. The gardens. It was a combination of Indo.MUGHAL EMPIRE The Mughal architecture flourished in the Indian subcontinent during the Mughal rule (1526-1857). water tanks and many more buildings. due to the religious tolerant nature of some Mughal emperors like Akbar. At the end of Jaha ngir¶s reign. The use of this style of decoration was called µpietra dura¶. the practice. The temple is built on the arch and dome principle and incorporated many features of the Mughal traditions of architecture. palaces. Native red sandstone was inlaid with white marble and all the surfaces were ornately carved on the outside and sumptuously painted inside. Red Fort in Delhi is another great achievement. publ ic buildings. The Mughal architecture incorporated many Indian styles. Another major influence in the architecture style was the construction of palaces and forts keeping in mind the hot climate of North India. built by the Mughals. Soon this style of architecture was used extensively by the nobles and common people. The Mughal architectural style. The use of running water in their palaces and pleasure resorts was a special feature of the Mughals. the Mughal Architecture saw its decline. greatly influenc ed the forts and palaces belonging to other kingdoms and provinces.

who is often considered the true founder of the Mughal Empire. laid the grounds for the significant economic growth and the fabulous art and building activities of his successors. .MUGHAL EMPIRE Akbar.

Built on the banks of the river Jumna. vaulted recess with smaller arched recesses in two storeys on either side make up the facade of the building on all sides. The vaulted ceiling is crowned in the centre by a large bulbous dome which tapers off into a foliated crest.MUGHAL EMPIRE Taj Mahal The Taj Mahal in Agra. a dream in white marble was built by Shah Jehan as a memorial to his beloved wife Mumtaz Begum. Situated in a large enclosed rectangular garden with fountains. A Mosque on the west and a corresponding structure on the east in red sand stone complete the effect of symmetry. The main structure is a square. floral and geometrical designs. a Persian architect it is a masterpiece of architecture. ornamental pools and water -courses. The minarets are crowned with domes. The surface of the walls ± exterior and interior and the cenotaphs are beautifully decorated with pietra dura. Planned by Isa. Marble from Makrana and precious stones from different parts of the world were used in its construction. A huge. and took 22 years to complete. entrance to the Taj is by a majestic gateway. Borders of inscriptions decorate the main archways. The Taj is situated in the centre of a high marble terrace. A marble minaret of four storeys stands on each of the four corners of the terrace.D. Around the dome are four cupolas. it was started in 1632 A. . An octagonal hall with an exquisite perforated marble screen contains the cenotaphs of Mumtaz and Shah Jehan.

 Instead they followed the Mughal and Timurid custom of coparcenary inheritance amongst all sons. the uzbegs.MUGHAL EMPIRE MILITARY  Babur. Ibrahim lodi. succeeded to the throne of ferghana in 1494 when he was only 12 years old. at Panipat & captured Delhi & Agra  The Mughals did not believe in the rule of primogeniture where the eldest son inherited his father¶s estate.  He was forced to leave his ancestral throne due to invasion of Mongol group. . the first Mughal emperor. In 1526 he defeated the sultan of Delhi.

he later became the first Mughal ruler (1526 -30). moveable artillery. Babur achieved a resounding victory. ‡ Then led a short-lived empire based in Samarkand (in modern-day Uzbekistan) that united Persian-based Mongols (Babur's maternal ancestors) and other West Asian people. and superior cavalry t actics.MUGHAL EMPIRE BABUR ‡ Babur was the great-grandson of Timur Lenk (Timur the Lame. Employing gun carts. ‡ Babur was driven from Samarkand and initially established his rule in Kabul in 1504. who had invaded India and plundered Delhi in 1398.000 men ‡ Babur defeated the Lodi sultan decisively at Panipat (in modern -day Haryana. . about ninety kilometers north of Delhi).000 to meet the sultan's huge but unwieldy and disunited force of more than 100. from which the Western name Tamerlane is derived). entered India in 1526 with his well-trained veteran army of 12. ‡ Babur.


his son Humayun (1530 -56). In 1529 Babur routed the joint forces of Afghans and the sultan of Bengal but died in 1530 before he could consolidate his military gains. He left behind as legacies his memoirs (Babur Namah ). and by the Afghan Rajput march into Delhi in 1540. inherited a difficult task.MUGHAL EMPIRE A year later. by disputes over his own succession. also a soldier. . he decisively defeated a Rajput confederacy led by Rana Sangha. When Babur died. Humayun was pressed from all sides by a reassertion of Afghan claims to the Delhi throne.

Jalal-ud-Din Akbar (r.MUGHAL EMPIRE HUMAYUN Humayun inherited one of the largest empires in the world at the time and nearly ruined it. ‡ He ended up eventually regaining all the lands back but is looked upon as one of the worst Mughal emperors. 1556-1605). ‡ Humayun's untimely death in 1556 left the task of further imperial conquest and consolidation to his thirteen-year-old son. . where he spent nearly ten years as an embarrassed guest at the Safavid court. Humayun fled to Persia. Between 1530 and 1540 he managed to lose all the land that his father worked so hard to get through rebellions from Afghanistan and India. ‡ At the end of his conquests he fell down a flight of stairs and broke his neck. defeated Sher Khan Sur. Humayun gained a foothold in Kabul. reasserted his Indian claim. and took control of Delhi in 1555. the most powerful Afghan ruler. ‡ In 1545.

‡ Following a decisive military victory at the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556. ‡ Most done by grandson. warrior. court factions. inventor. . armorer. starting in 1571. technologist and theologian. artist. animal trainer (reputedly keeping thousands of hunting cheetahs during his reign and training many himself). the regent Bayram Khan pursued a vigorous policy ‡ As soon as Akbar came of age. Akbar the Great. task of organizing what he conquered fell to descendants. and harem intrigues. which could lead to breakdown of empire. carpenter. ‡ Realized India had diverse population. Expanding Rule ‡ Akbar married daughter of local noble to win noble¶s support. general.MUGHAL EMPIRE AKBAR ² The Great (Babur¶s Grandson) Babur died shortly after conquest of India. Akbar relocated the capital to Lahore and in 1599 to Agra. and demonstrated his own capacity for judgment and leadership. did everything he could to win people¶s loyalty. ‡ In 1585. ‡ Akbar built a walled capital called Fatehpur Sikri (Fatehpur means Fortress of Victory) near Agra. ‡ Akbar was an artisan. ‡ Brought sons of other nobles to live at court. emperor. blacksmith. Diverse Population ‡ Akbar took throne at age 13. but became greatest of all Mughal rulers. Bayram Khan began to free himself from the influences of overbearing ministers. lace maker.

much of interior. ‡ Revenue demands. Mughals ruled most of north India. Akbar obtained local revenue statistics for the previous decade in order to understand details of productivity and price fluctuation of different crops. ‡ In 1580. Firm Grip on Finances ‡ Established centralized government that gave him supreme civil. ‡ Akbar adopted two distinct but effective approaches in administering a large territory and incorporating various et hnic groups into the service of his realm. keeping a portion in return for services rendered. discriminate against anyone for their beliefs. Akbar·s Achievements Religious Tolerance ‡ Akbar worked to unify diverse empire by promoting religi ous tolerance. Christians. ‡ Appointed Hindus to several influential positions in government . debates among Muslims. ranged from one-third to one-half of the crop and were paid in cash. people of other religions. a Rajput king. ‡ Encouraged discussions. Akbar died. appointed officials to oversee it . ‡ Akbar relied heavily on land-holding zamindars. Akbar issued a revenue schedule that the peasantry could tolerate while providing maximum profit for the state. ‡ Majority of officials from outside Mughal Empire . ‡ Reformed tax system. ‡ Aided by Todar Mal. . at time.MUGHAL EMPIRE ‡ Did not hesitate to fight to prevent rebellion . Hindus. m ilitary authority over his empire. They used their considerable local knowledge and influence to collect revenue and to transfer it to the treasury. fixed according to local conventions of cultivation and quality of soil. ‡ 1605. ‡ Held that no one religion could provide all answers to life¶s problems ‡ Did not want to discourage people from practicing any religion. Reforms ‡ Abolished taxes placed on non-Muslims by earlier rulers.

outlawed the practice of sati. ¡  Mughal rule under Jahangir (1605-27) and Shah Jahan (1628-58) was noted for political stability. in the northeast.MUGHAL EMPIRE ‡ Within his administrative system. incorporating the princi ple of acceptance of all religions and sects. the warrior aristocracy ( mansabdars) held ranks (mansabs) expressed in numbers of troops. the festival of lights. and obligations. who otherwise were secluded at home . and monumental buildings. . which paid tribute to the Mughals. and abolished the ji a (poll tax) imposed on non-Muslims. Height of the Mughal Empire. ‡ The warrior aristocracy was generally paid from revenues of nonhereditary and transferrable jagirs (revenue villages). beautiful paintings.  He encouraged widow marriage. or Diwali. The exceptions were Gondwana in central India. and persuaded Delhi merchants to set up special market days for women. brisk economic activity. armed contingents. and indicating pay. By the end of Akbar's reign. the Mughal Empire extended throughout most of India north of the Godavari River.  Akbar came up with his own theory of "ruler ship as a divine illumination. and Assam." enshrined in his new religion Din-i-Ilahi (Divine Faith). discoura ged child marriage.  He personally participated in celebrating Hindu festivals such as Dipavali.

MUGHAL EMPIRE He gh o the Mugha Emp e .

± Unlike Muslims. Hinduism. who created world. found asylum in India.  The number of unproductive. believe in one God. Jahangir came into conflict with religious group. while the excessive Persian representation upset the . ± Believe goal of existence to be fr eed from cycle of rebirth. time-serving officers mushroomed.  As a result. blended elements of Islam. ± Do not practice rituals like pilgrimage. artists. and officers--including her own family members--lured by the Mughal court's brilliance and luxury. from the earlier religions. yoga.MUGHAL EMPIRE JAHANGIR During reign. who has no physical form. believe in reincarnation.  Jahangir married the Persian princess whom he renamed Nur Jahan (Light of the World). attain unity with God. as did corruption. who emerged as the most powerful individual in the court besides the emperor. who believe in afterlife. Sikhs ‡ Some Sikhs had supported rebellion against Jahangir. Persian poets. ‡ Sikhism. ± Like Muslims. scholars.

an event that struck a serious blow to Mughal prestige. so did its demands for more revenue from the peasantry. the Persians took over Kandahar in southern Afghanistan. y Political unification and maintenance of law and order over wide areas encouraged the emergence of large centers of commerce and crafts--such as Lahore. As the state became a huge military machine. whose nobles and their contingents multiplied almost fourfold. the Persians demonstrated Mughal military strength. Delhi. . Agra.  Jahangir persecuted the followers of Jainism and even executed Guru Arjun Das. Shah Jahan sent Mughal armies to conquer the Deccan and the northwest beyond the Khyber Pass. these campaigns consumed the imperial treasury. the fifth saint-teacher of the Sikhs . Even though.MUGHAL EMPIRE delicate balance of impartiality at the court.  Nur Jahan's abortive schemes to secure the throne for the prince of her choice led Shah Jahan to rebel in 1622. Between 1636 and 1646. In that same year. and Ahmadabad-linked by roads and waterways to distant places and ports. Jahangir liked Hindu festivals but promoted mass conversion to Islam.

‡ At heart.MUGHAL EMPIRE Shah Jahan ‡ Jahangir¶s son and successor. ‡ Flanked by two sculpted peacocks. ‡ Many wars fought in name of Islam against Christians. ‡ Led to hardship. Symbol of Mughal Majesty ‡ Shah Jahan also built new capital for India at Delhi . other gems.  TAJ MAHAL ‡ Greatest example of Mughal architecture. Persian. famine for many. Shah Jahan shared his father¶s love of literature and art. chamber that held magnificent Peacock Throne . Shah Jahan was Muslim who did not practice religious tolerance. he had all rivals murdered. ‡ Shah Jahan imposed heavy taxes on people. diamonds.  Wars ‡ Series of wars against India¶s neighbors also added to Shah Jahan¶s need for money. . ‡ Demanded half of all crops grown in the country. Taj Mahal built during his reign. ‡ Built as tomb for Shah Jahan¶s wife. In order to secure hold on power. encrusted with gold. Hindus. During his reign the Mughal Empire experienced a cultural golden age. ‡ Unlike father. Muslim architectural styles. ‡ Designed by Persian architects. emeralds.  Taxes ‡ Needed funds to pay for monuments. grandfather. displays elements of Indian.

killed all rivals . . then declared himself the emperor. Aurangzeb was driven to extend Mughal rule over most of South Asia and to reestablish Islamic orthodoxy by adopting a reactionary attitude toward those Muslims whom he had suspected of compromising their faith. Awe-inspiring but lacking in the charisma needed to attract outstanding lieutenants. the empire reached its utmost physical limit but also witnessed the unmistakable symptoms of decline. Shah Jahan grew terribly ill ‡ Sons began to maneuver to take throne ‡ Soon war broke out between them Succession ‡ Shah Jahan unexpectedly recovered but son Aurangzeb captured him ‡ After locking father in prison. Aurangzeb turned more to domestic affairs During his fifty-year reign. The bureaucracy had grown bloated and excessively corrupt. Aurangzeb was not the ruler to restore the dynasty's declining fortunes or glory. and the huge and unwieldy army demonstrated outdated weaponry and tactics. Reign ‡ Early in reign. concerned with expanding India¶s borders ‡ Empire reached greatest size at this time ‡ Later. ‡ Brought head of brother in box to show father .MUGHAL EMPIRE Aurangzeb Power Struggle ‡ 1657.

the sultans of Bijapur and Golkonda in the Deccan. Aurangzeb forbade the building of new temples. destroyed a number of them. A puritan and a censor of morals. and reimposed the ji a. These measures alienated so many that even before he died challenges for power had already begun to escalate. and Persian and Afghan armies invaded Delhi. Peasant uprisings and revolts by local leaders became all too common. The increasing association of his government with Islam further drove a wedge between the ruler and his Hindu subjects. and the short lived reigns of Aurangzeb's successors were strife-filled. carrying away many treasures.MUGHAL EMPIRE Aurangzeb was involved in a series of protracted wars--against the Pathans in Afghanistan. and the Marathas in Maharashtra. The Mughals had to make peace with Maratha rebels. Contenders for the Mughal throne fought each other. he banned music at court. £¢ The Mughal Empire experienced dramatic reverses as regional governors broke away and founded independent kingdoms. . including the Peacock Throne in 1739. as did the conniving of the nobles to preserve their own status at the expense of a steadily weakening empire. abolished ceremonies. and persecuted the Sikhs in Punjab.


. They had become ease loving and cowardly. Although the policy did lead to weakening of the empire but the major cause of decline was the lack of worthy and competent successors after him.MUGHAL EMPIRE Fall of Mughal Empire The Mughal Empire reached its greatest extent in the time of Aurangzeb Alamgir. The successive rulers after Aurangzeb were weak and lacked the character. motivation and commitment to rule the empire strongly. The character of Mughal kings had deteriorated over a period of time. The Mughal Empire owes its decline and ultimate downfall to a combination of factors. firstly Aurangzeb religious policy is regarded as a cause for the decline of the Mughal Empire as it led to disunity among the people. but it collapsed with dramatic suddenness within a few decades after his death. They totally disregarded their state d uties and were unable to detain the declining empire from its fall.


whose greatness derives form the meeting of two worlds.MUGHAL EMPIRE Many features of the Mughal administrati e system were adopted by Great Britain in ruling India. During the fabled Mughal age. in addition to being of the most outstanding technical refinement. gilt copper and the Deccani alloy known as bidri . silver. painting and music. . bronze. beauty. The finest of these are among the most striking and poetic utilitarian wares ever made. Such mingling of Hindu and Muslim sensibilities gave Mughal art the strength to endure. restraint and sensuousness describe the essence of these works of art. just as religious tolerance gave political strength to the Mughal emperor. brass. richness. the craftsmen of the Sultans and Rajahs of India produced an astonishing variety of objects in gold and gold enamel. Order. but the most lasting achievements of the Mughals were in the field of architecture.


in/images?hl=en&rlz=1G1SNNTCENZZ362&q=mug hal+empire&um http://www.html http://www.MUGHAL EMPIRE REFRENCES y y y y y Wikipedia -country/medieval-india/ -dynasty .