Methodology and Historiography 09:04:00

17/08/2007

I. Western History of the Orient. Medieval -> 16th C A. Marco Polo’s The Travels. Description of the world. Allegedly dictated to a man named Rustacello while Polo was in jail. Polo’s travels in Asia. Lived and worked in China as an agent for Kublai Kahn. Coolridge (poet) writes about Kuhblai Khan. As such the two great stereotypes about the orient are power and sensuality and sexuality. Had verifiable fact, random facts acting as statistics, fiction, and things made up. First work by westerner to look at China from inside. B. William of Rubrick. First real westerner. Sent by Louis of France to get Kahn to join Christian crusade against Islam. 1. Cataians. Mythical name for Chinese. Syris from Romans. Silk people. “Small race who, when speak, speak and breathe heavily through the nose.” Westerners imagine the slants of eyes. Excellent craftsmen in every skills. Can use herbs and diagnose from pulse, but don’t use urine samples and know nothing about urine. All fathers’ sons take up craft. Everyday currency is paper. Obsession with paper money and with the ornate written language. Description of “Orientals” were not unbiased. 2. Legend of the Far East begins with stereotypes. Good craftsmen, but dark hidden side that recurs through history. B. Historical Marco Polo. What was he writing about? In theory, the far east, but perhaps not. Current text comes from over 80 ancient manuscripts, none of which are the original. Don’t know the original language in which the travels were recorded, but we think maybe Lombardi or Venetian. Possibly translated into an Italianate French, and then into Latin. French and Italians didn’t begin speaking French and Italian until the late 19th C. We only know Polo really existed because of his last will and testament.

1. Tatars. Peter the Tartar was referenced in Polo’s will. This is how we know he was real, but we don’t necessarily know if his travels are real. Have to read the text itself to see if it’s real. Text is written in the 3rd person. Rustacello wrote Authurian romances and was in theory in prison with Polo. Both people’s home city-states were at war in Genoa where they were imprisoned. 2. Catapults and Chinese Source. Polo talks about manganles and trebuchets and weapons of China. Chinese sources seem to validate an attack on this city on the South bank of the Huan river. using said weapons. The Chinese sources say that Kahn sent to the west for engineers to hurl stones. Problem is that Chinese sources record the end of the siege a year before Polo could’ve reached said city. 3. Columbus and Polo. Most famous reader of Marco Polo is Christopher Columbus. From the same geographical area. Not much world history floating about in Europe, so Polo’s account, despite how fantastic, were depended on. Columbus was not just looking for India, but unicorns and hippogriffs, which could be found in Cathay. II. China and West 15-16 Century A. Shakespeare. Writes of China, but is condescending. A Midsummer’s Night’s Dream has an entry about a Chinese garden very different from Western gardens. The Chinese garden is an invention of the English imagination. English gardens are square with white picket fences with a rotunda in the center and very ordered. Anything different was considered a “Chinese garden.” The idea, in Shakespeare’s imagination, was exotic (mentions birds and trees). Chinese lovers sing a duet to each other. Six monkeys come out of the woods to do a dance. There are lots of references to six. Pedestals, porcelain vases. Shakespeare reconciles odds between East and West. People were fascinated, but unwilling to judge it. Took between 4 and 5 years to reach China from the West. Distance was another world. Only historiography could judge China. III.The Orient with the 17th C

A. Jesuit Missionaries. First significant contact with the West. Heavy emphasis on schooling. Almost argue that anything important is recorded somewhere by the Jesuits. Franciscans want to destroy pagan idolatry. Jesuit approach to missionary evangelism was to find associations between G-d and cultural aspects. B. Matteo Ricci & Mandarins. Made a global map that he tried to convert with. World map with China in the middle to show superior map skills of the West. Wrote a book of friendship to show the Chinese how moral Westerners are. Translated introductory chapters to Euclid’s Geometry. While Europe was splitting itself over Catholicism and Protestantism and religious orders. China, however, was united under one system of thought: Confucianism. Praised foot binding to keep women in their place. Suggested that learning Mandarin was calming of people. Excellent bureaucracy ran the country. Introduces hierarchy. China being better 1. Christianity and Confucianism. Confucianism was twisted by the Jesuits to fit with Christianity. Mao talked used the twisted Confucianism. Mandarins were akin to the Jesuits (pursuit of education). 2. Buddhism. The reason that the Chinese didn’t accept Christianity. “A mass of superstitions.” Judgment of China by siding with minority – the mandarins – and ignoring the majority’s Buddhism. C. Robato Nobili and the Brahmans. Next great missionary to the East, but focused on India. Like Richi identifies with a group of people: the Brahmans. Intellectually top. Serves as an ideal by which European society can be critiqued. IV. Enlightenment. 17th C-French Revolution.

A. China is superior to the West. We find this idea in the thought of Voltaire. Probably greatest man of letters in the end of 17th C. Anti-clerical but very humane and tolerant thinker. Leibnitz was probably greatest intellectual thinker. Genius. Both thought that natural religion of China was superior to anything that people had. Confucianism lacked the superstitious pieces of Catholicism. Buddhism was denounced. Thought ideograms were superior to Latin alphabet and lead for greater cognition. In the I Ching calculus and the spoken language of creation from Eden had been discovered. B. China is inferior to the West. DeFoe said their buildings didn’t compare to the West, neither did their art. Infinite variety is a big deal to the people who put down the East. Very critical of military skill of Asians. Very much thought that people of the West were more skilled. C. During this period for the first time the first great maps of China are made. 17th and 18th C. Good to know where China is and where Chinese are not. Comparison depends on the existence of distance. Polo and Richi blurred lines between East and West. Maps allowed for very clear differences. Spiritual difference was replaced with mathematical distance of space. Different space. th V. 19 Century A. People from the East came to reside often in the European culture to study. Chinese and Indians came to Oxford and Cambridge, and were among the Europeans. Herder proposed that peoples, like animals were different species. The essence of a people was not to be found in persons, but in artifacts. This, instead of breaking down stereotypes, continued them. The definition of languages as changing cultures reinforced said stereotypes. They speak differently, so they are different. B. Academic Far East

1. Philology/Languages. Herder argued that instead of the elite determining a culture, it was the language because languages are shared by all. One person doesn’t create language, not even a genius. Strange democracy in looking at the language as the archetype for a culture. Chance participation of all. Great era of creation of myths and folktales. The Grim Brothers were philologists. Greatest of those were best at writing myth. Perrot, Andersen, etc. Languages, like plants, unfold in time showing the riches of language and culture. 2. Sanskrit v. Chinese. Scholars studied these as origins of eastern languages and cultures. Sanskrit marked the height of ancient, if not all world culture. Before Voltaire Hebrew culture, via Christianity, had been the height of Western culture. Sanskirt had amazing grammar, and there were not prefixes or suffixes, entirely different words. This makes it hard to learn, but the being of the word had to change. Chinese was lowest point because of stacking ideograms. Thought to be unsophisticated and accounted for reason China was so “backward” in eyes of British. 3. Species. To Gobineau species was flesh and blood. The blood of Chinese made them a different species. They didn’t just not speak English, but were also a “yellow” people and Indians were “brown” people. The 19th C is much harsher on the Far East than everyone else. In the 18th C they are white. C. Birth of History. Drew upon all different currents that had come before. Drew on hierarchy, evolution, and destiny. Richi tried to find similarities between cultures. History didn’t pay much attention to religion. All peoples can be compared on three points. Comparing suggests you have something in common. 1. Labor. Where are people in labor terms? Capitalists? On their way to socialism? 2. Life. Abstract biological concept. Chinese defined selves in terms of religion. Unfavorable comparison between us (living beings) and Chinese (metaphysical) way of thinking.

3. Language. See above. Enabled one to express oneself. Chinese failed to express abstract concepts but Sanskrit could. Modern Academic Historiography. Continued to look. 95% of books on Far East elaborate three Ls. All three have to be spoken in terms of geopgraphy; break down into countries to talk about life, labor, and language. Divisions from colonialism are used to break down, too. Biological definition of race defines people. These (western) ideas are bad. Battles of 20th C are always fought in Western terms, without regard for the culture of the East. Culturally look at three 3 Ls. Look at continuity, not division.

China

17/08/2007 09:04:00

I. Neolithic Period A. Fu Xsi (fist of Chinese kings and sons of heaven). Sage and scholar, instituted marriage among Chinese. Created the Chinese language from lines in cracked bones that were used to tell the future. Argument that there is some overlap with Taoism and its usage of cracking bones for the same purpose. Mystical connection between language and fortune telling. B. Approx 5K BCE rice becomes the staple South of the Yellow River. In the East, jade is the principal artifact, and jade has mystical features, too. II. Zia Dynasty 2200-1750 A. Perhaps a myth (like Fu Xsi). Existed in small area around the Yellow River. No real evidence III.Shang Period A. First period for which we have documentations. More linked with Egyptian and Babylonian versions of kingship than Western Europe. The leader was a priest, as opposed to the trichotomy between kings, warriors, and priests. King was master who prepared bones for fortune telling. B. Cicada was important. The concept was death and rebirth as a cycle. C. In artwork there are always images that oppose one another – light and dark, snake and eagle, etc. suggests that opposites aren’t actually opposites but are intertwined and related. D. Social structure. Everything was clan based. In theory every was related. There was human sacrifice, as in most early cultures. Chief god was Shang Ti – Lord on High. Controlled crops, could send sickness. Impersonal and links Chinese culture to Babylon and Egypt. IV. Zhou Period. A. In 1028 BCE the last of the Shang were killed. First writtend documents of Chinese history come from this period. I Ching, which is a series of lines that can be used to predict basically anything. The Golden Compass.

B. This is the first period that takes on the title “Son of Heaven” as king. This title grants right and authority to control all of Chine. First book of songs from this period, relatively sexist. Disorder is attributed to women. C. Western Zhou – 1122-771 and Eastern 770-256. Period of Warring States. What distinguishes time period is size of standing armies. Many states had standing armies of 600K+, which is huge for the period. Sun Tzu’s The Art of War is the art of avoiding war. Adopt horse warfare, iron swords, and create the cross bow. D. King comes to lose mythical or religious quality from Shang period. The Chinese have no cosmogony – how the gods come about. The closest is a story in the I Ching. There’s a cosmology, but there isn’t much cosmogony. Idea that for creation to take place, death must occur is a theme with the East. Confucius. ~500 BCE. Plato and Aristotle are relatively near this time, too. Wandered through all the states looking for rulers who would listen to his advice. Stayed around people of the court to get near kings. Supported taking care of people and reverence to gods, but not really a religion. Big respect for mother and father. Almost supports social actiism 1. Biggest student was Mentius who thought man’s nature was to tend toward goodness. 2. Xun Zi was opposite and though that inborn tendencies were bad and had to be curbed through education. Not all people liked to be educated, so states had to be forceful and educate. Taoism. Emphasis on private life. Tao Te Ching by Lao Tzu. This is a more mystical tradition. Thought state and government should leave people alone. Legalism. Legalist philosophers believe that the best way was strong government. Lord Chang – abolished aristocracy and got a military hierarchy. External, objective standards for doing things. State alone should determine value of people. Heaped scorn on religious beliefs. Unity came from the belief that there was only one ruler, the Son of Heaven.

E.

F.

G.

H.

I. Ideas that distinguish Chinese thought from Western thought 1. The cosmos came into being without a creator. Where stuff came from doesn’t matter to Chinese. Aristotle, however, argues that the earth is eternal. Interconnectivity is more important than causes and first cause. The cosmos were an integrated whole, not opposites that fight. 2. Thought in terms of processes instead of distinct things. Des Cartes tried to analyze things in a vacuum. Chinese philosophy doesn’t ever try to do this. Again, relationalism. 3. Chinese are pragmatist, unlike Indians. Chinese unlike Greeks, think the family is very important.

Indo Europeans? Vedic Religion 09:04:00

17/08/2007

I. Aryans A. First Indo-Europeans to make their way into the Indus Valley. IndoEuropean has more to do with language than people. Suggests that many cultures – eastern and western – came from a common language and people. Maybe the language of Eden. II. Indo-European Religions. Don’t know much about Indo-European cultures except for language and religion A. Deiwos – God of sky. Indo-Europeans gods and languages have similarities. B. Arjas. Tribal chiefs of different varna. Varna is Sanskrit means color. Some historians argue that the people the Aryans originally encountered were vassus which just means dark. Varna is replaced with castes later in history. III.Indus Culture 2500-1750 BCE A. Harappa – where Aryans encountered the darker people. Almost hieroglyphic language but has yet to be deciphered. 1. Phallic Stones. Found in abundance. Used to indicate boundaries. 2. Bull seals. Most frequent on walls. Symbols of fertility, power, and sexuality. Many full figures, half man, half bull, dancing. 3. Shakti. Power – sexuality and earth. 4. Clay figures of women with large breasts and sexual organs. Mother Goddess and earth relationship starts early. IV. Aryan Age 1500-1000 BCE. Aryan means noble or high born. Aryan people thought themselves better than dark people. V. Vedas. Rig Vedas weren’t written down until 600 BCE because the knowledge was secret and couldn’t be written down, even in the holy language of Sanskrit. A. F. Max Moller B. Divisions of Vish – common people – were called “Jana” C. “Dasas” D. “Bharata” (Mahabharata). Great Barahata. Aryan epic, one of the first epics in Western history. Greatest source of information about ancient Indian age; combines myth and history.

E. “Brahmins” Priests and sages who presided over religious sacrifices. Aryans did eat meat. F. Vedic Cosmology 1. Prusha-Sukta 2. The Vanna. Should not be taken for granted. Existed, but were intensified under English colonialism

a. Brahmans b. Kshatriyas c. Vaishyas d. Shundras – lowest caste system 3. The Gods a. Indra – God of war, thunderbolts, fierce weather. b. Varuna and Mitra – gods of universal order. After Indra creates the universe, these two preside over the c. Agni – god of fire d. Soma – a god, but also frequently drunk before battle. God of imortality e. Shiva – Shiva as lord of the dance VI.Vedic Religion A. 4 Vedas: Rig (veda of verses), Sama (veda of melodies), Yajur (veda of rituals), Atharva (veda of magic and letters). Sruti or revelation. Divine beings are responsible for the creation and that have no author. Most weren’t written down until the 5th or 6th C BCE. The Brahmins were secret-keepers of knowledge and wisdom. 1. Rig Vada – principle veda. Talks about the one. Everything comes from the one. Defined early vedic religion. Gave the early Indians their gods. The powers of the Indian gods tend to overlap, and gender becomes ambiguous. a. Varuna and Mitra are in charge of order, but become replaced with balance b. Cosmology i. Talks about being an nonbeing. One of the early songs talks about how the world comes out of nonbeing. Uninspired breathing creates heat (tapas). Kama – desire – comes from tapas, and from kama comes consciousness. Hindus work from the ground up (breathing) rather than from the top (God/Christianity). Tapas also means asceticism, restrain, hold one’s breath. It creates a boiling – leads to consciousness.

ii. Ends with strange question. He who oversees this world in the firmament knows it unless he does not know it. c. Specifies the Castes: Brahmin, Kshatriya (warrior), Vaishya (merchants), Sudra (servants), and later develop the untouchables B. Brahmana 1. Builds upon elementary vedic principles. Adds the importance of the sacrifice. A Brahmin is he who communicates the word of the veda. 2. Sacrifice of Prajapati. Horse sacrifice. This is appeasing to the gods and brings us into harmony with them. Begins with a tremendous number of animals to be sacrificed. The four queens would then walk around the body of the dead horse or ox. The principle wife would lie down beside the horse, be covered with a cloak, and simulate a sexual act with the horse. Afterward the horse is eaten. The horse is a symbol of the cosmos, and the act of sexing it is an act of continuing creation. 3. Atman. The act of sacrifice brings it about. It is often translated as soul or a state of peace. In German it still means the act of breathing. After this sacrifice has been performed one can breathe again. Kama is desire. Kama Sutra is directions of desire. 4. One has to sacrifice one’s desire in order to create. Desire gives us illusions of the world, and the way to get past that is to sacrifice desire. After we accomplish this, we start the whole process over again. Tapas means heat and refers to the creation of boiling. For the person who restraints him/herself tapas is created. It’s an ascetic heeding. Purpose is to allow oneself to be repository of images of the world around us. VII.Hindu Texts

A. The Upanishads. From this text comes the concept of karma. Actions that I do allow or prohibit my self – soul – to leave the body. In the Vedas sacrifice is a good thing. In the Upanishads, it generates action. Moksha is an awakening and becoming free. Samsara is the idea associated with reincarnation (how Westerners speak of it). Periods of interaction with the world are not directed toward something. Cycle of death and rebirth, although we never actually experience death directly. Doesn’t mean a soul goes from one body to the next but rather we go through radical orientation changes in life. B. The Bhagavad Gita 1. Hindu text. Became popular in the 19th C. One of many Hindu texts. Became popular in the 19th C because of imperialism. Indian nationalist like this Krishna because of his talks on yoga of action (as opposed to contemplation). 2. What is eternal? “It” is. Don’t worry about killing a body because it will go on to another body. The body is just a vessel. C. How do the Hindus decide on the gods? Indra as opposed to Jesus Christ. The Hindus can worship Jesus. One’s relationship with the visible cosmos is always changing. The principal gods are standard, but conceivably anything could become a god, including a God of another religion. Another key transition from the vedic to Hinduism is maya. Maya is that everything is illusion and created by desire. Sacrifice is a form of may, as is belief in the idea of the atman. 500 BCE – 500 CE is the period of the great practice of yoga. Yoga is about breathing and manipulating our breaths to change what our minds thinks of the world. Focusing on one word to learn that words are arbitrary and shouldn’t give cause for discomfort.

Buddhism and Chinese Thought 09:04:00

17/08/2007

I. Buddhism. Prince who enjoyed women. Went outside palace and saw suffering. Ran away during a dream. Practiced yoga for a month and then tried mortification. Sat under a fig tree until moksha. A. Four Noble Truths 1. All life consists of suffering. Birth, death, decay, sickness. 2. All suffering originates from desire. Parallel to Hinduism. 3. The suppression of desire entails the suppression of suffering. 4. The revelation of the 8-fold path. B. Eightfold Path 1. The atman itself is another form of illusion. Hinduism gives us a foundation of breathing as primordial and is always accompanying the world. C. Nirvana. It’s a state that we can achieve through presumably wisdom. Acting correctly in a way free from our desire. It’s a state rather than an actual place. Mahayanas see it as almost a place like heaven. D. Buddhism is a negative philosophy. Everything is an unraveling, there is not a One. Paradoxical. E. Mahayana – the Greater Vehicle. Practiced mostly in China and SE Asia. Can achieve bodhisativa, something on which to hang one’s hat. Has something of an evangelical aspect. Those who have achieved bodhisativa are here on earth to help people achieve enlightenment. More personal. Hinayana – older Buddhism. Most attractive to lapsed protestants. Acts of negation never stop. II. Chinese Thought A. Taoism, Confucicianism, Buddhism B. Yin-Yang: Balance. Everything is made not of stuff but of yin and yang. Yin is associated with femininity, yang the other. It’s a micro and macro cosmic way of looking at the world. The way the two come together is reality or tao. C. Tao is Truth (from a western perspective). A famous translation of tao is “the way” or “the path.” This path is not really a spatial way in which we’re supposed to go. This path is strange. Finding tao has to do with what is particular to you at that exact time. Chinese medicine has to do with lack of balance.

1. Confucius. Latin name. Tao to him is closer to Western view of Truth. To act according to the will of heaven. Misinterpreted by the Jesuits. Represents customs in given society. Heaven is often associated with customs. Jen should be brought into harmony with the li. Chuntzu – gentleman. Anyone can become a gentleman regardless of class. 2. Lao Tzu. Lots of myth. Very mysterious. Only three sentences believed to be true. Wu-wei method. Not clearly defined. Method of nonaction. Feng-shung (bedroom act) that doen’t make a lot of sense. Successful if you can hold your breath for 1000 breaths. Talks about retention of semen in bedroom method, but not talking about physical sense, but rather desire. Act of retention makes desire more powerful and makes it circulate through body, causes brain to be revitalized. Holding breath is not giving in to desire that seeks to get out. When one retains ones breath, the immortal embryo grows in one’s body. The business of immortality. Someone who controls desires is not human. Self-control takes a lot of power. Cultural memory – who do we remember longer for what? JFK or Bill Clinton? Vampires. Bloodsucking persons who come out at night. Chinese. First great vampires were followers of Lao Tsu and the Wu-Wei Method. Instead of sucking blood sucked energy or interest. Emotional or psychic energy being pulled from oneself. By making oneself appear to be intelligent by not participating in debate. This is a form of vampirism. To get rid of this is to force them to indulge. Their indulgence takes away from immortality.

Chinese Language

17/08/2007 09:04:00

I. Background. A. The seven strokes of the Yung compose the universe, which is reflected in Chinese painting. The line comes before the idea in Chinese philosophy. In painting we should look at the 7 lines of the yung before we look and say that nature isn’t real. We’re not looking at objects that exist outside, but rather an expression of Being. B. First lines were on burnt bones. Lines of burns formed basis of written language. Language forms the basis Chinese art, culture, literature, and science. English is 26 letters of circles, curves, straight, and inclined lines. Chinese characters are always constructed on an imaginary square. The negative is just as much a part of it. The earliest ideograms were very well centered. Chinese decorate shops with calligraphy not pictures or paintings. C. Personality is expressed through calligraphy. What’s most important is not the intellectual content, but the way that the ideas are conveyed, which is what calligraphy is all about. Calligraphy became important in the Han Dynasty. To get in you had to take a Confucian exam – based on important Chinese texts and your ability to convey your ideas in proper calligraphy. (extended into the 19th C in France). Beauty is based upon the line. D. Straight lines are solidity. Curved lines are delicacy and the effeminate. Westerners are confined to those types. There are no straight lines in Chinese. A horizontal line has a take on it by the calligrapher. E. Monosyllabic and ideographic. Ideograms are not alphabetic but are pictograms. Chinese is one of the few pure languages. Don’t have to know another language to learn it, but hard to learn on its own. No accents or grammatical inflection. No difference in number, gender, mood, etc. No suffixes and prefixes. These are ways that we make things easier. II. Origins of Chinese.

A. Fu Hsi. Emperor under the sun. Wanted to make everything easy. Yin and Yang (see notes). Everything that is positive is solid line, broken line is negative. Wanted to extend broken line to most elementary things around him. Pa Kua is a model of the cosmos. See notes. This binary code interested European mathematicians. Language of God had to be simple, elementary, and represent all the universe. Uniformity enforced by requiring mastery to get into the kings bureaucracy. Has kept culture intact but really has perpetuated Confucian. If you over interpret yin and yang you’re usually not wrong. B. In 213 BCE an emperor had all the characters collected and put into an index, almost a dictionary. 3K characters. Europeans wanted to collect their languages in the 17th C. By 200 CE it had reached 10K. Now it’s over 1M. Streamlining language doesn’t occur in West until much later. Chinese come to grips very quickly because it’s difficult. If the government is going to get its interest there had to be streamlining. C. Chinese Characters. 1. Single figures – represent the world itself 2. Double figures 3. Combined figures 4. Complex Figures 5. Indicative symbols 6. Phonetic compounds refers to the world or a sound 7. Logical D. Pa Kua. Everything is opposites. Although they are opposites, they are interrelated at their earliest. Heaven, the opposite of earth, was related to earth and each was responsible to the other. In Chinese thought, heaven and earth, dragon and mare complement each other instead of sharply contrasted. Dragons and mares mating in early artwork. E. As Chinese culture advanced, the language became more simplified and centralized. Small seal, large seal, Li Shu, Kai Shu, Grass style. Last three are greatest and must be mastered before one can start doing one’s own thing. Grass is most expressive. Li Shu and Kai Shu are for writing faster but very regimented.

F. Began to combine calligraphy with images of the world to create. Language does not imitate the world, but rather gives birth to the world. G. The Yung. Seven strokes (mysteries) necessary to make Chinese ideograms. http://www.eternism.com/images/LogoYungSeal.jpg. Creates language and painting/representations of the world. All ideograms are written on an imaginary square. Sometimes there are two squares side by side. The more complex the drawing the figures become off center from the square. The non-space is usually yin space, and the ideogram itself is yang space. The combination of the two creates beauty and balance. III.The I Ching A. Only one real translation of the I Ching from the 1930s. Lots of chance involved. Three coins, shake them, drop them. Tails are yin2. Heads are yang 3. In 1949 I Ching classes stopped because of Mao. It was superstition. B. No state of being. Assumes that everything is always in flux. We assume we are one step removed from all our actions. Chin or heaven is not a space infinitely distant from us but rather the top of the world. The consultations in the I Ching are an exhaustive account of anything that might happen in the world in a given moment. C. “I could do something different” is not eastern. Limited but exhaustive set of possibilities. Garden of the forking paths. Infinite v. limited number of possibilities. D. In set theory, all sets of objects are limited by the nature of the set itself. All beings or entities within a finite set posses qualities of that set. If the I Ching is a limited set, everything that takes place within it must bear the properties of that set. Because the I Ching governs us, we are a part of it. E. Freedom is based on infinite possibilities. We call asian cultures deterministic. Because they don’t have infinity they aren’t “free.” Not compelled to do stuff, but only have so many different choices. IV. The Pillow Book Invented by the Japanese. Ideograms are very similar to Chinese. Written in 1000 BCE. Collection of notebooks or

notes that go under pillow.

Hindu Language

17/08/2007 09:04:00

I. The Garden of Eden A. Because of European Christianity, people assumed European culture came from middle east. Language of Hebrew was “simpler” than Latin or Greek (according to Augustine) and it was closer to the “Truth” II. Language and History. Herder and Renan. Nation is defined not by geography or politics, but language itself. Languages are never fully opaque or transparent. Connotations are taken for granted by native speakers. A language is almost like a pair of classes; we put it on and experience nature in a very nuanced way. Language is an archive of unspoken or unconscious aspects of a given culture. As no one person was responsible for creating a language, so the collective unconscious archives humanity. Reveals impulses of humanity to express itself. III.End of Hebrew Culture A. Voltaire. Anti-Semitic. Dismissed that Hebrew was at the origin of Latin, in part because of his hatred of Christianity. Dismissed Hebrew as a common bound. B. William Jones. First to suggest Indo-European hypothesis. Claimed that oldest language was not Hebrew but Sanskrit. C. Franz Bopp. 1833-1849. First complete Sanskrit grammar. All part of getting rid of Christianity’s influence and superiority. Looking East. Looking for languages that underlay European languages. D. F. Max Muller. Most translated most Sanskrit classics. Not only had the Sanskrit language been widely disseminated, but Aryan ideas had also been disseminated. Thought that divided continent could be unified by the other languages. Strange parallel between what the Europeans were doing and what the Brahmins were doing IV. Brahmins & Philologists. Hegel thought the Vedas were given by the gods. The European elite thought Sanskrit was close to perfect. Because Sanskrit was older, the people who’d used it were at the origin of what nature had revealed to people. V. Birth of Aryan & Semite. “Science v. Religion” A. Now that we’ve found a new people, we need something to call them. Semite originally referred to those who inhabited Mesopotamia and had a monotheism. . B. Aryan was focused on time, space, manipulation of nature.

C. In the 19th C everything could be reduced to scientific or religious (Christian/Hebrew). Schlegel begins to teach and advocate for the learning of Sanskrit, not Latin because of Latin’s association with the Roman Church. It became the primordial mystical language because Europeans demanded one. VI.Schlegel on Indian Language and Philosophy A. Cognates. There are several Sanskrit words and cognates in European languages. In order to establish a scientific relation (“science” made everything possible), a concept was needed to bind Sanskrit to the European languages B. Declension. All the worlds’ languages are divided into two great extremes: Sanskrit and Chinese. 1. Sanskrit v. Chinese. Chinese has infinite roots but no real grammar and is formed by the addition of particles. Agglutinative language, sign of inferiority. Sanskrit had an interior grammar. Perhaps the obsession with calligraphy prevented the Chinese from transforming. The rigorous, logical grammar of Sanskrit affected how it turned out. Most languages with declensions don’t have prepositions. Sanskrit can hear the root and get the verb, so an entire sentence is quickly transparent 2. This is the concept that some languages are superior to others, and that was taken for granted in the 19th C. What is key for distinguishing is expressions based on sound v. those ruled by grammar. In the later, all inflection is in the grammar, not the voice. Schlegel felt that this grammar’s development was evidence that an intelligence guided it. Language is not mimicking nature, but is a force controlled by the mind.

3. The root & Atman. Schlegel’s writing disconnects to talk about myth. Primitive people were thought to be stupid, but Schlegel points out that all primitive peoples had myths that are immensely complex. He then goes to pantheism and suggests that that concept is bad for morals (because all actions are ultimately good with some perspective). Dislikes it also because nature running amuck in the language – emanation. Believes that language is not something that describes the world but something that comes from a higher being. When Sanskrit is spoken even in more advanced forms, the root is audible. God is something that is everywhere, including in us. 4. The doctrine of the two principles. Talks about Sanskrit and the I Ching, but talks about a third look. Trying to define the world as a constant struggle between two different things. The doctrine of the two principles refers to the conflict between the two different types of languages – those governed by grammar and those with onomatopoeia. Leaves room for classic, scholarly nerds. Doesn’t say which is the better, but says that the demi-urge leads us to constantly attempt to reconcile matter with the absolute and true.

Hindu Art

17/08/2007 09:04:00

I. Hinduism (3rd and 4th C). Things changed, India began to unify. A. Bhakti – Hinduism where images become central to the various cults. Relationship between images and idea of atman? Sensory component of Hinduism. Images are of gods, but the gods come to inhabit them. Any image can come to be a god. The gods themselves were supposed to be beautiful. Gods had to be enticed to come and enter the image. Fusion between believer and god now in the image. 1. For male gods it’s a stupa supposed to look kind of like a mountain. Shiva related to phalluses - linga. Asceticism/heat/tapas. Broad shoulders and chests 2. Female gods – lots of jewelry, good posture, heavy breasts. 3. Explicit sexuality angered the missionaries. B. No concept of geography in terms of space. Sacred sites give birth to space. A Mandala is an outline of a stupa from above. Stupas and mandalas are layouts/diagrams of the worked. C. Way to distinguish gods in avatars is what they’re holding II. Art A. Not about expression. The artist is an instrument through which things higher and greater express themselves. What unites northern India is art. Organization of communities necessary to produce art. All cities/towns revolve around a stupa. B. Artisans were organized into guilds to create and maintain stupa. Brahmins told them how to do so. Intellectual component to the stupia. They performed purifications on the materials. Solicited and helped pay for stupas. C. 4-7 C stupas are not only most prominent architectural figures but also become very wealthy in villages. Had huge payrolls and usually paid their people in land. Center of intellectual, social, and artistic life. Turns into a school for astrology, grammar, and mathematics. Temple was supposed to provoke moksha (release or liberation from maya – illusions – that cover our eyes) D. Priests would perform rituals of purification, as would worshipers. Everything done at stupa is done for good of community at large, not for personal benefit. No formal introduction or lecture from priest.

Four worship times. First is the opening of the door to the sanctuary. Certain powers are said to guard the doors to the stupas. Guarding images VERY erotic, bordering on pornographic. Sexuality for the Hindus is a form of power – pleasure and violence. Asceticism breeds power.

Mongol and Nomads
I. Nature of the Nomad A. Earth B. History C. State D. Surplus value v. information II. Ghangis Khan A. 1215 Caotured Beijing B. 1219 Afghanistan C. 1221 Indus D. III.1231-79 A. X B. 1241 V 1511 Babar

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Mughal Empire
I. Legend of Timur – unified India II. Babur 1483-1530 A. 1526 Defeat of Looi B. 1st battle of Panipat III.Humayun A. Sher Khan IV. Akbar the Great A. Mansabs B. Taxation C. Tolerance D. 2nd Battle of Panipat

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E. Court and Law F. Policy of Toleration G. The Arts 1. Tomb of Hugayaum 2. Fate Pur Sikry 3. Emergence of Sikhism V. Jahangir 1569-1627 A. Shalimar Gardens VI.Shah Jahan A. Taj Mahal B. Old vision of Timur that Mughal empire should encompass all of what is becoming known as India. VII.Auran Jeb A. Policy of purity/end of tolerance B. Came to power in a coup. C. Taxed non muslims VIII.End of Empire A. Rise of British East India Company B. French take over Pondicherry and use local lords to rule British establish base in Calcutta. Have impossibly too few troops to ever control India, but scheme with local rajas and their militaries for rights of trade

Jesuits in India

17/08/2007 09:04:00

I. Jesuits were part of the counter-reformation, and were founded by Ignatious of Loyola. Re-conquering souls for the catholic church to reconvert protestants and reach people in far away lands. Not just missionaries but also scholars. Missionaries have best anthropology of foreign cultures.

A. Roberto Nobili and “Accommodatio.” Unlike the Franciscans, the Jesuits didn’t destroy temples and culture. The Jesuits believed that since God had created all cultures, vestiges of God was in all cultures. They saw a culture as a puzzle and that if you put it together correctly, you found the elements that lead the culture back to Christianity. B. Arrived in Goa in 1605 and traveled to Maduri. Quickly realized that Indian strategy had a certain stratification. His logic was to convert the elite and the lower people will follow. Saw himself as something along the lines of St. Paul, who used the Unknown God. Before Nobili Jesuits had tried to turn people into Portugese. Ignatius says to find God in things. C. In order to convert people he had to read the Vedic texts and get back to their roots. Very intellectual approach as that Indian cultures springs from the Vedas. Believed that the Brahmins believed in one supreme deity, but “popular” Hinduism was sexual and he saw it as a corruption of the religion. He experienced some success and his name became well known in Rome. D. People thought he had been converted rather than converting people to Christianity. He had become a Brahmin rather than turning Brahmin into Christians. Acted like an Indian. There were clothing and general signs or actions by Gonçalo Fernandez. A cardinal had to determine if this was religious or political. This is the first time that political, cultural, and religious actions are strictly defined. 1. Nobili wears the thread, but changes its meaning. 2. Bathe and wear a sanda on their head. Never says Mass without having bathed. 3. Bathing excessively and using sandal paste, and didn’t eat meat or fish. E. Rome tried to create a taxonomy between being Indian and European Christianity. Instead of learning the words that the Indians used. They should be taught Latin since it was unique to the relationship of Christianity. Early Jesuits in New France was not to give food, but to teach Latin. Way world is experiences comes through language, and Latin leads to the kingdom of heaven.

F. Nobili’s response was to disappear behind the natives and appear as an apostolic saint (ie Paul). Went to natives and prepared questionnaire to get a deposition. Questions had to do with nature things (the thread, bathing, etc.) and whether they were religious or historic. Brahmin scholars attested (108 of them) that they weren’t religious but were Indian cultures. How many Brahmin scholars’ counted as one Jesuit opinion? All the Brahmins were outside the church and not Christian. They were all unbiased, or so he claimed. Key to getting them to respond had to do with way questions were formulated. Presupposed a distinction between the sacred and profane, the religious and political. The inquisitor in the Vatican found that the clothing was originally intellectual, but became over time to be associated with pagan worshipping. Creates Indian history. Anything pertaining to Indian intellectual culture could be exempted from superstition. The Brahmins in their distance past before superstitions corroded them were similar to the Greek and Roman sages. Nobili wishes to restore the golden age before adding the crown of Christianity. The pope permitted signs of nobility so long as all superstition was removed.

China

17/08/2007 09:04:00

I. Qin and Han Period A. Great Wall, Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism 1. Great wall begun in approximately 200 BCE. Property was divided equally between all the sons in Chinese families. This didn’t bring greater prosperity because the tracts of land got smaller and smaller with each successive generation. 2. Mastery of Confucian classics affords one the right to be in Mandarin dynasty. Analect, I Ching, Book of Documents, Book of Songs, Spring and Autumn Annals. Doesn’t embrace an aristocracy of blood. 3. Mahayana Buddhism is very optimistic. Bodhisatva. Enlightened spirits who continue to live among us. Missionary philosophy not present in other forms of Chinese thought. Addressed questions of life and death B. N. China. Government positions became highest prestige job and Confucianism took root. Leaders expected to learn classics. C. S. China. Taoism, Buddhism take hold. Homogenous ethnicity. Leaders expected to be excellent calligraphers. II. Tang Period (581-90). A. Ghost stories. Mahayana deals with life and death. Zin Buddhism comes about, too. It’s very devoid of rituals. Mind can acquire Truth. III.Mongol Period A. Chinggis B. Khubilai IV. Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) A. Taizu. Poor peasant who founded empire. Grew up an orphan. Parents killed when Yellow River flooded. So poor that couldn’t afford coffins. Tried to take up a career as a Buddhist monk. Joined rebel group called the Red Turbans. White Lotus Society was branch. Lead group and then started taking over cities in the South. B. 1369 Beijing/Capitol Forbidden City. For the first time Chinese were in control of entire empire. Wanted to establish a central authority. Built a palace in order to start operations as leader. In 1370 he sent troops to Mongolia and surrounded Mongolians.

C. 1387 Unification of China. Effective military leadership and other things enabled the unification of China. D. Social/Economic Politics. Saw the world in simple moral terms. Evil people should be beaten, good people should be supported. 13701398 Chinese became aware of central government by dyking and damming the great rivers. Didn’t like plains and made people plant trees. In one province each family was required to plant 600 trees (or die). 184 M fruit trees were planted in one year. E. Administration “Confucian Bureaucracy.” Mandarins wore very distinct robes so people became aware of the government visits as dams were built. Orders are given but get lost in bureaucracy. Helped rule, but not everything worked perfectly like one would hope. What happened out side of Beijing was a cutting of a deal between the emperor and local lords who had responsibilities that should’ve been in the hands of administration. Taxation was given to local lords for example. F. “Chinese Absolutionism.” Developed a secret police force. Narrowed examination to four books. G. Rise of the Eunuchs. They ran the forbidden city. Were castrated to keep them from interfering with concubines and offspring. Loyalty to the emperor. Absolute troops to be loyal. 10K in the forbidden city. Males were generally not permitted other than the emperor and the eunuchs. Became their own private caste. Emperor was nominally in charge. Effectively ran the kingdom. Dominated the empire because they were masters of gossip and scandal. Chu Wan Ching was successor to Taizu and declared that they had to be illiterate and not deal with politics. What this did was make politics completely illiterate and scandalous. They could only talk about sex lives. H. Military Power. Because of emperor’s inability to rule kingdom because of eunuchs, was unable to make a good military. Mongols and Manchus were enemies. Decides to finish great wall (most of wall was constructed in Ming dynasty). Huge conscription (3/10 men) to finish the wall. Generals – because they couldn’t communicate with their emperor – decided it might be good if Manchus – people from the north – took over.

Collapse of Ming

Jesuits and Creation of Far East pt. 2 09:04:00

17/08/2007

I. Jesuits and Reformation A. The Mission and Ignatius of Loyola. Out of the counter reformation. Mission was not part of Catholicism because sin stayed with people. Didn’t seek converts. Shift from belief that all people are cursed to all can be brought to Christ. Started with friends. Nobilli, Ignatius, and Xavier were first and divided the world. Nobili got India, Ignatius got Europe, Xavier got Cathay. B. Francis Xavier. Sent to idolatrous land. All cultures other than European Christian were idolatry. Tried to suppress other religious. Didn’t see Christianity as an intellectual body but thought it was all about ritual. Found in some denominations today. Xavier opened the far east to the Jesuits. 1. Confucius and Confucianism. Drew philosophy of Confucianism into the debate of Truth. Became a Western philosopher. New philosopher was created in image of a Jesuit that the Chinese embraced. II. Confucianism before Confucius A. “Ru,” “Dao,” and “Fo” Had to be Confucian, Buddhist, or Taoist. Ru is the family. All overlap and the idea that they were distinct was not a Chinese notion. They started when Westerners did it in the 19th C. B. Confucianism and “The Ru” Confucius is a Latin name. It was the West’s attempt to turn Confucianism into a social order or ethic that the Chinese wouldn’t subscribe to. Richi tried to bring together three Chinese words to make Confucianism. 1. Rujaic - teaching 2. Ruxue - learning 3. Ruzhe – those people who participate in the ru/family C. The history of Confucius 1. Kongzi = Chinese name for Confucius. Very different from philosopher introduced in Penguin edition. Founder of cult of self-help in Western world. Fabrication of late 16th C by a small and very reverent band of accomodationists. Didn’t call it idolatrous, but that there was a divine kernel.

2. Began translating western stuff into Chinese and Chinese genius into Italian. Person they thought most moral possibly of divine inspiration was Kongzi, which is a name given to someone revered. It appears in temples. Could be seen as a Janus or two-faced god. Associated with body behavior or excess. Indigenous Chinese sage but associated with unsundry things. Looked for ways to evangelize and get into Chinese culture. 3. Confucius not from Chinese elites but more a tool of narration. Closest narration in Sir John Falstaff – literary device or comic relief. Most frequent references are not erudite or wise, but comic in other texts. Protagonist in satires and pornographic texts. Often portrayed as a bodhissatva. In Jesuit hands he was resurrected from symbolic hands to someone real. Not a laughing matter, but a Chinese Jesuit who had preached the ancient gospel of monotheism. Saw themselves as more Chinese than the Chinese because of their relationship wit Confucius and making themselves the ru. 4. Jesuits has almost no success preaching. Mandarins treated them with contempt. China refers to the central kingdom. Chinese have tremendous cultural pride. III.Mateo Ricci and the Jesuits A. China Centric Maps. First Ricci map. Went over well. Because China is in the center Europe is in the far west. By this map China is termed the Far East. B. Tried to come in through Buddhism but it failed; practiced by lower classes. Mandarins didn’t practice it and already thought of the Jesuits as barbarians. After that they called themselves Ru or Daorin. During this time Ricci gives first ethnological account of the Chinese. C. Trigault and Rome

1. Ricci Translation. Ricci wrote about the people, but the pope couldn’t read Chinese so Trigault translated it. Ricci is doing his own thing, but Trigault is interested in selling the method of evangelizing to the pope. Trigault makes editorical changes. 2. The Jesuits as “Ru.” Instead of talking about “Chinese” or “Chineseness.” By doing this it is exclusionary. It removes the Buddhists, i.e. the lower classes, from who is Chinese. Only the upper class are Confucian. All distinctions are made in Ricci’s imaginiation. 3. “Shangdi.” Heaven or the Emperor on high. Our heavenly master is shangdi that Kongzhi wrote. Lots about the ru. Attempts to prove that Chinese is formed on a form of Christianity. 4. “Tianzhu” Heaven the sky or the sky above us. First came to Ricci’s attention when early convert was going on a mission. What he did before they went out was create a small tablet put above an altar with incense. Had to appease a local god to get the locals to convert. Evidence that Christianity preceded Jesuit experience. How the Chinese Became Confucian – Trigault. Wrote about Confucius and spurred them on to virtue through writings. Never venerated with religious rites the way they venerated a god. Confucianism is stripped away from religious connotations for pope to allow Christianity in. Descendents held in highest esteem by all. Takes on role of a Brahmin who only studies Vedas. Confucianism is all about intellect.

Manchu Invasion & Qing Dynasty 09:04:00

17/08/2007

I. Manchus. Overthrow the Ming Dynasty. First dynasty that was completely Chinese-ruled. Lasted until 1912 with Pu Yei. Manchu was not their original name, but were from Manchuria. They’d had traditionally good relations with the Chinese. A. Nurhaci. Leader who invaded. Had good relationships with China, but he let the Chinese know that he wasn’t someone with whom to be trifled. They taunted border states. Nurhaci died and was succeed by someone who decided to create a new dynasty for the take over of the Manchus. B. Manchu Accomplishments. Goal was to unite and bring stability to the area that we now consider China. Were able to create a sense of identity that the Ming had never done. The rulers were unable to keep track of what was going on in the provinces. Most of the generals of Ming society and simply went over to the Manchu side. When the Manchus invaded, he had Ming military dynasty so there wasn’t much resistance C. New leader wasn’t educated and forced Manchu culture on the Han (who are the culturally Chinese). If you didn’t keep a que you were killed. Practical reason was that after conquering Beijing there was resistance in the south. The que made it easier to tell who was for and who was against. The Han were originally treated like a second class citizenship. Beijing divided, they couldn’t go to Manchu, couldn’t intermarry, and everything official had to be in the Manchu language, not Chinese. Manchus took over Tibet. As empire becomes more powerful the leader become increasingly paranoid. II. “Enlightened Despots” All were scholars in addition to being kings and marshals. A. Kang-hsi 1661-1722. Morning was Chinese classics: reading and memorizing. Most important accomplishment and problem was how to unify china.

1. “The Great Clearance” Defeat of remaining Ming generals. Principally done with force and had to move about populations. Moved the coastal people to Central China. He segregated the population from Ming leaders. Had great military success. Mings were either defeated or joined the Qing army. Added Formosa to the Chinese kingdom. It’s Taiwan now. 2. “Accommodation” of the Chinese. Confucianism had been associated with the former Ming dynasty. a. “the Sacred Edicts.” Instated Confucianism as the basis of his own government. Said that the Ming and failed because there was too much focus on the jin as opposed to the li. Too subjective. “We must associate Confucianism with the practice of reason.” Made salaries high for government workers. Displayed Chinese art. Co-opting Chinese much more effective than military power. b. “Confucian Ideology” Being a good Confucian required following the government. c. Jesuits. Kang-hsi didn’t like foreigners. Russians in the north were expelled. He let the Jesuits stay because of their gift of a lion. He was interested in their knowledge of science. Wanted Euclid’s Geometry and some works of astronomy translated. He lets Jesuits stay but requires that ancestor worship and homage to old people as civil and not religious devices. Pope thought this was inappropriate. Kang-hsi expelled the Jesuits when they had to stop. 3. Failures was creating a huge bureaucracy through the whole country. On the one hand everyone knew their government existed, but was never able to get the taxes from local lords and warlords. 4. First person who had a dictionary made.

B. Yongzheng 1723-1736. Would read history from 4 a.m. to 7 a.m. Had all brothers killed when he took over the empire. Tolerated the Jesuits. Wasn’t a big fan, but the Jesuits came for culture so could tolerate them. 1. Centralization. Kept Confucianism as central. Twice monthly reading in all government institutions and cities. 2. Bureaucracy 3. Published illustrations and writings from China since the earliest of times. Was an encyclopedia. One of largest books published in the world. 800K pages, 1M in the 4. Opium smoking starts to take root and imposes strong penalties on the dealers. They have to wear a strong wooden college for a month and then were banished to the Russian frontier. He saw it was a corruption of Chinese virtues. C. Qianlong 1736-1796. Most powerful of Manchu rulers. Could be comparable to Arhan Jeb. Paranoia comes to show itself during Qianlong and precipitates the Manchu decline. 1. First Chinese nationalist. Father and grandfather had maintained their Manchu heritage, but he was a big fan of separating China from the rest of the world. Fantastic attitude toward the rest of the world. Sorcerers claimed to be stealing stoles by clipping tips of ques. Many 10s of Ks were executed for this. China became largest that it ever was in 1759. Sent armies into Vietnam, and installed a new Dali Llama to help rule Tibet. Middle of 18th C Chinese population expanded rapidly. Decreased taxes and China had an agricultural boom, which generated more taxes long-term for the central government 2. “Porcelain and Chinsoirerie” White and blue porcelain was developed now. Real European China craze during 18th C. He wants to have a specific Chinese type of porcelain. Buy up all the Chinese things but don’t like them for being Chinese. A la Chinese garden. Anything with what Europeans think of exotic.

3. “Chinese Exclusiveness.” Paranoia to the outside world. Wants to create Chineseness and export Chinese stuff, but he tries to shield China from a serious engagement with the world. Because of this there wasn’t prosperity despite rapid population of growth that usually brings prosperity. Was impressed by Jesuits, specifically Jesuit painters. 4. “The Central Kingdom.” Had all Chinese literary works combined. 68 volumes, 10 years to make. Saw himself as a Confucian ruler. Attempted to embody this over control of the Chinese state. Believed that heaven had created the principle of the Li, and this is what guided human conduct. Saw with Confucianism and Taoism that there’s an ethical. Homosexuality was banned, drama and fiction were subversive. Obsession with purity of women was raised. Kao Zheing is how one came to a vision or the idea of Li. Confucian scholars came up with it. Kao Xua Chin – writer about the decadence of Ming emperors Dream of the Red Chamber. Talks about strictness that is being enforced Refused to have anything akin to a foreign ministry, so there was no way to deal with the increasing European presence. Refused to meet with trade ambassadors. Finally got an audience and had an edict on a stool in front of an empty stool. “The Chinese have no need to deal with barbarians like you.” The emperor believed that the British emissaries were below him. They still had to bow before the empty dragon throne.

Treason by the Book

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I. Narrative but not societialy II. Characters A. The general – rose quickly through ranks. Long line of ambition. Related to Ming dynasty. Rumored that he will join a supposed rebel cause. An accusation that he’s leading has happened before. He is immensely loyal to the emperor and doesn’t hide anything. He is Chinese/Han. Does whatever he can to get information and pass it to the emperor. Helps him later and they are going to execute him, but the emperor spares him because of the way he handles the affair. B. Emperor – obsessed with sedition and people’s trying to kill him. Worried that general might try to overthrow (and there’s a rumor from peasants that the general will). C. Zheng Jing Author of potentially seditious texts. Delivers letter and undergoes torture. Motivation for attempting the overthrow of all of Chinese society. Emperor responds to this at length. He hear some rumors and doesn’t want to have to move his family in the hills because land is expensive. If China reverts to collectivism he won’t have to move. D. Zhang Xi is just a student and doesn’t really strike one as being a part of a conspiracy. E. Lü Liang. Terrible renegade. Real culprit, not Jing. Philosophical writing that emperor thinks have pervaded the entire society. Commentary on Mentius, a follower of Confucious. What makes the writing seditious is that it changes people’s minds. The entire country in rebellion isn’t because of two people alive now, but rather the writing of Liang are the causality of an upwrising.

F. Yongzhen tries to show the people that he’s honest. Instead of cutting off heads he has propaganda written. Wants people to ignore the rumors. He really imagines himself as being a great virtuous Confucian leaders. Effect of publishing refutation of rumors doesn’t work. People would rather just believe the rumors that they hear; what Spence is getting at is that it’s impossible to refute rumors in China because it’s too big. By the time the emperor give an order and it arrives it’s gone through so many permutations and fallen into possession of people who are suspicious. That makes what they’re carrying suspicious. Says he doesn’t like sex and never has. 1-150 191-239 256-322 404-444 475-508

Chinese Art

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I. Han Dynasty A. Calligraphy & Art. Seal script, Li, and grass style. Image is conceived as partly in imagination. “One should learn from nature and paint the image in one’s mind.” “Good paintings should achieve the united of the objective and the subjective.” Empty space around rocks or trees are important. Paintings are about balance between empty space and representation of whatever. B. Buddhist Art 1. Stupa and pagoda. Most well known architectural form in China, Japan, and Korea. Comes from the Hindu stupa. The Chinese add levels or stories to make it distinct. Pagoda is the name of the transformation to Taoist or Confucian uses. Originally made of red stone, but as the buildings move north, the red rock isn’t available so they’re made of wood. 2. Buddhist cave art. Individuality of person being painted. World of mythical and world of nature are always intertwined. Very rare to have sculpted figures except in tombs. Greatest site of art in china, but is not Chinese art. 3. Dun Huang cave complex. First place we find bodhisattva stuff. Huge cave carvings of Buddhas. Still occupied by Buddhist monks. Buddhist art has color, which Chinese are very careful with. C. Painting 1. Hsleh Ho’s 6 points a. Bone method – using a brush b. Suitablity to type – proper washes so that single base color exists c. Division and planning – what goes where d. Accuracy in transmission by copying II. Tang and Song Painting A. State sponsored. Allegorical of emperor. Court painting benefits the country. Pictures of the concubines, too. Made public aware of representations of power. Very carefully regulated and controls how it is you can paint the emperor and people around him.

B. Literati. People who are educated-mandarins. Mysterious quality without transparency that allegorical painting does of court. Most famous painter of the 9th and 10th C. Painter of Kublai Khan. Argued that calligraphy and painting are the same. C. Song Dynasty. 10-12th C. Most of Chinese painting developed during this time. Mountains, birds, and plum blossoms. Writing a part of painting or not, depending. Calligraphy lends itself to a way that we see visuals. D. Zhou Mengfu was a painter during the time of the Mongols in Kublai Khan’s court. Did landscapes, birds. Always a text with it. Somewhat expressionist. Similar to Kandinski’s early works. E. Zhen Zhou. Ode to Pomegranite. Emphasis on calligraphy. Portraits far earlier than the West. F. Wu Chang. Expressionist. Heavy dark brush stroke. Influenced Kandinki’s friends. G. Wu Change Shou. Post-impressionist. Pears (but look like water lilies). H. Landscape paintings started 3-4 C BCE. Painting other than landscapes could’ve been politically dangerous. There is no singular perspective. Adopt a jumble because no one way. It’s a way of exploring nature, which is an interaction between the soul and the environment.

I. Li Cheng Buddhist Tempe in Mountain. Massive stone edifice. Buddhist temple’s shadow. Little bridge. Human creations aren’t important. Branches and twists/spikes are better. Trees are always thorny. Have a heavy brown was that links it all together; can give a melancholy texture. J. Fan Kuan – pupil of Li Cheng. More akin to the romantics. K. Wang Ximen deviated from brown wash with blue and green in landscapes. Very exceptional and not the norm. Tremendous scandal. Highlights fact not trying to imitate the real world. L. Dong Yuan (Southern Style). Weird, moonlike structure to rocks. Southern Chinese painting can be identified with rocks. M. Guo Xi has thorny trees. Very fantastic and imaginatative. N. Ma Lin is actually melancholy. Darker brown. Trees aren’t as sharp. Sunset. O. Huang Gong Wang. P. Wang Meng – early Ming painter. Almost chaddy landscape. Lots of things going on. Kuang Lu was another early Ming painter. Mysterious. Q. Gong Kai was one of few who painted animals. Very hungry horse R. Yan Hui was an early Ming painter. One of the few painters of the Chinese gods. Taoist figures. Look like humans or evil spirits. S. Wu Zhen incorporates grass style into caligprahy. T. Zu Zhen: Fisherman, rock. Grass style that fits with leaves. Of pictures. Student was Wang Chang Ming. U. Gong Xian was a painter just before the Qing takeover. Used the word “raped” to describe Qing takeover. His paintings affect how he felt about the Manchu takeover. Li fang Yuong also hated the Manchues. V. Shitao. More of an impressionist quality. Fantastic feeling from early Chinese landscapes is replaced by impressionist approach to landscapes. Really weird. Nature is important important than humans. Birds eye perspective of totality nature is lost. III.Changes A. Li Chang got rid of multiple perspective intentionally. All landscapes have to be expressed in the concept of totality. Can’t see everything from one area.

B. Literati express hatred of Manchus through landscape. Only someone painting nature was free of control of Ming Dynasty’s control of the academy. Ming emperors themselves were very afraid of revolts against their regimes. One painter had a painting commission to paint a dragon. He had a jellyfish on the back of the dragon and offended the emperor. He, his family, and school were executed. First female in the Ming period and the women hated the Manchus, too. This is expressed in their painting of landscapes, too.

Origins of the Raj

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I. End of the Mughals A. Local Division. Northeast was Bengal, NW was Punjab (Sheiks), Rajastan, and the Decan. India emancipated itself from the Mughal empire, but that made it ripe for a take over. B. In 1739 Delhi was taken over by Persians. It was occupied for years. The taker took the peacock throne back to Persia. When he left the people around Delhi developed more small groupings. These fragments enabled them to fight with one another, which caused them a lot of debt. This enabled the British East India company to come in. II. Rise of British East India Company 1740-1787 A. Economic Ideology. 1. Birth of Economics. Rooted in Christian Protestantism. 2. Adam Smith. Idea that when studying a givens society you could study economic life separately from everything else. This contrasts sharply with the Indian village and community as they related to their local temple. The economic sphere of society in India was subordinate to the religious sphere. Before this, though everything was relational to other people: feudalism. 3. Political economy and mercantilism. Before Smith economics was called mercantilism or political economy – the idea that economy is productive because politics are good. Referes to remaining holistic, religious way that people refer to themselves. Smith says Wealth is not found in nature but something that is created. (Discovering silver in Peru bankrupted Spain because of wars and pirates. Hyper inflation in Spanish empire). Created not by use but in the value of exchange. Not the product of the blessings from God but interaction between people and nature. Labor and nature. 4. Birth of “individualism.” Individual person is responsible for his labor. Before Smith it was all people to those higher up from them. Now it’s people in nature. Now there can be economics that is separated from the power structure and s/he is the origin of value with his/her labor.

5. Hierarchy & power. Castes aren’t just in the way people relate to one another. Any idea of hierarchy implies submission. This is the first time that Europeans think in terms of hierarchy and power. Locke says that God gives people the power to make their wealth. This all goes back to God. B. Doctrine of Free Trade 1. Comparative advantage. Most important thing that comes from Smith. Whoever can produce goods most cheaply should do so. Those who can produce computers more cheaply should, but those who can produce widgets cheaply should. In the end they’re both richer because each can’t produce the other’s item. In a vacuum and in theory this works greatly. 2. Industrial revolution and England. Factories are in England, so they make finished goods. This leaves China and India good for raw materials. England has a vested interest in China and India never developing factories. China and India would actually be better off if they can develop their own stuff. 3. Problem of overproduction. What made imbalance between India/China and England necessary. Causes price of widgets to go down. Prices go down, cause salaries to go down, no one has money, lots of widgets that no one can buy because they don’t have money. Colonies are important because when you overproduce you can dump excess into colonies. 4. In a vacuum you can forget about problems that exist. Economics attempts to abstract itself from everything else. By doing this it can call itself a science which is great. This relationship defines relationship between England, India, and China C. French and English in India

1. Dupleix and India. Principle Rivals of British East India Company were French and Dutch. French were in the South, Dutch were in the East, and some Portuguese were in the Southwest. One of their key stratageies was to own land so that they could tax the locals. Principle rival was Dupleix. French were in the South and were very strong in the entire country until the Seige of Arcot. 2. Siege of Arcot. Arcot was a large fort. Very small number of British didn’t stand down. French in Paris were not very pleased. French were involved in the US War of Independence. Dupleix’s goals for India were put down by Paris. Treaty of Paris (1763) prevented French from indulging in politics. After 1763 the French were prevented from fortifying their bases. No direct military confrontation with the British. In 1789 there was the French Revolution and “Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity” affects how the French looks at Idia. 3. Bengal & the British a. Alivardi Khan. BEIC centered in Calcutta. City’s population was 4x England. Three great powers in Bengal – BEIC, Alivardi Khan, and local sleazy business men who kept Khan in power. Company had limited rights over land in Bengal. Eventually there would be conflict and there was. Khan finally came to force and ordered attack of British seapoys. This played directly into their hands. He had violated the idea of free trade. The idea that British seapoys could be attacked by natives didn’t go over well with London. b. Attack of Calcutta. Retaking the capital back from Khan was was bloody. People were required to lick blood and eat animals that their religion forbid them to eat. After that they were hung. This was the first time that an Indian military group successfully attacked the British. D. Robert Clive. Commoner, gambler. Ruthless capitalist.

India Continued

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I. England and India A. The Nabob and Sir Matthew Mite. A nabob is someone who went to India to made all their money there. Then they try to come back to London and fit in society there. Most famous recent use was Agnew. Mite was a fictional character in the play “The Nabob.” Mite wanted to purchase a seat in the British House of Commons. Mite had a harem “guarded by three blacks from Bengal.” He’d been seduced by the morals of India and is brining the corruption of India with him. Sacrificed honor for money. Many nabobs were able to work their way into the House of Commons. 45 was the max that made it in, though. Couldn’t run the show, but had a voice. B. British Moralists and India. Caused by influence of Nabobs in House of Commons 1. Judicature Act 1773. House of Commons work to control India. Established a British supreme court in India. Judges were English jurists. 2. Regulating Act 1773. Gave British government right to oversee and regulate all affairs in India or at least the British East India Company. Going against free trade to control morals of English. Calcutta became head city. 3. (1774 Death of Clive). Committed suicide, perhaps because of public pressure of British East India Company. C. Further Control 1. Warren Hastings. 1772 HoC called for Hastings to resign. Governor general of British East India Company. People accused Hastings of trying to turn India into a colony for his ruler. Whigs demanded a Magna Carta for India to check the power of the company. Hastings was acquitted of accusations. 2. 1784 India Act. Placed British East India Company under control of government. D. British Culture & Indian Culture. How did people in England view India? These two opposed Clive. Saw BEIC as little more than despotism.

1. James Mill. Dismissed products of gothic and Indian art as inferior. Indians are people and should be treated as such, but they’re clearly not on the same level as English. The biggest defenders of India were pornographers. 2. John Milton. Defended Anglicanism. Icons and adoration of the BVM were equated to the worship of many Hindu gods. E. An Ethical Basis for Empire. Free trade wasn’t sufficient to justify connection between Indian and England. 1. John Short. Member of special council established in Calcutta. Should let people be good subjects if they are. Image British of government was the benign raj actively promoting ethics. New negative image of Indians by adding positive view of Raj. British government never promotes conversion of souls in India. Need to perform purification that which is in the public sphere 2. “Ethics & Hierarchy” 3. “Belief v. public culture” Same division that Fr. Nobili made. II. Conquest of India 1784-1856 A. 1803-1805 Madatha B. 1814-16 Nepal C. 1840-60 Sikh wars D. “The Great Game” and Conquestion 1. Russia. British certain Russians were about to invade just like Alexander the Great did. History had to repeat itself. 2. Napoleon. French took Egypt and the Suez Canal. Just over 17K troops in India. 1K were unfit for battle and just as many were invalids. England imagined this confrontation between Russia and India. Russians would invade like a bolt. 3. The Afghan Invasion

4. The Secret Agent. Performs duties necessary to the state that the public would not approve of. Ideal Englishman, but kills people and bed hops. Laurence of Arabia. Experiment of secret politics made by men. Utmost devotion to duty. Kipling created the myth of imperial duty. They’re an island people and hence a seafaring people. Win the world and no one will care how they did it. The world should proceed according to the plans of the British without the world knowing it’s the British pulling the strings. “White Man’s Burden.”

China in the 19th C

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I. Britain, China, & India A. British East India Company and China. Problems with “free trade” B. Conflict with the British – penal problems C. Opium 1. Lin Zexu & banning opium 2. “Opium wars” 3. quishan – attack on nanjing 4. Treaty of Nanjing