TEMS Investigation 12.

0
Technical Product Description

Prepared by: Ascom Network Testing

Date: 2 September 2010

Document: TPD-8901-0005 Rev A

© Ascom (2010) TEMS is a trademark of Ascom. All other trademarks are the property of their respective holders. No part of this document may be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the copyright holder. The contents of this document are subject to revision without notice due to continued progress in methodology, design and manufacturing. Ascom shall have no liability for any error or damage of any kind resulting from the use of this document.

Contents
1
1.1 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4 1.3.5 1.3.6 1.3.7 1.3.8 1.3.9 1.4 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 1.4.4 1.4.5 1.4.6 1.4.7 1.4.8 1.4.9 1.4.10 1.5 1.5.1 1.5.2 1.5.3 1.5.4 1.6

Introduction ................................................................ 1
Building Blocks of TEMS Investigation ...................................1 Connectable Equipment ...........................................................1 Phones and Data Cards..............................................................1 Scanning ....................................................................................2 Positioning ..................................................................................2 What’s New in TEMS Investigation 12.0 ..................................3 Enhanced Service Testing: Service Control Tool ........................3 Voice-over-IP (VoIP) Testing ......................................................4 Mobile TV Quality Index – MTQI .................................................4 Technology Enhancements ........................................................4 Streamlined Device Management ...............................................5 Status Control Monitor ................................................................6 Other User Interface Enhancements ...........................................6 New Terminals and Equipment ...................................................6 Reorganization of TEMS Product Functionality ...........................7 What Was New in TEMS Investigation 11.0 .............................7 LTE User Equipment Support .....................................................7 WCDMA/HSPA Enhancements ..................................................8 TD-SCDMA Enhancements ........................................................8 CDMA Enhancements ................................................................9 Windows 7 Support.....................................................................9 Diagnostics Utility for Optimizing PC Settings .............................9 Software-based Licensing: HASP SL ..........................................9 Improved AQM Solution ............................................................10 TEMS Portfolio Compatibility ....................................................10 Route Analysis Module Replaced by TEMS Discovery .............10 Supported Cellular System Versions ....................................11 3GPP ........................................................................................11 CDMA .......................................................................................12 TD-SCDMA...............................................................................12 WiMAX .....................................................................................12 Where to Find Out More .........................................................12

2 3
3.1 3.2 3.3

The TEMS Investigation Concept ........................... 13 Data Handled in TEMS Investigation ..................... 14
Information Elements .............................................................14 Events ......................................................................................14 Cell Data ..................................................................................15

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4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6

Vehicles of Presentation in TEMS Investigation ............................................................. 16
Message Windows ..................................................................16 Line Charts ..............................................................................17 Bar Charts ...............................................................................18 Map Windows ..........................................................................18 Status Windows ......................................................................21 Event Counter Window...........................................................22

5
5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.1.4 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.4 5.5 5.5.1 5.5.2 5.5.3 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12

Collecting Data with TEMS Investigation .............. 23
Technologies ..........................................................................23 UMTS and CDMA .....................................................................23 LTE ...........................................................................................23 TD-SCDMA...............................................................................23 WiMAX .....................................................................................23 Logfile Recording and Transfer .............................................24 Recording Indoor Measurement Routes: Pinpointing ................24 Automated Logfile Transfer .......................................................24 Service Control: Automation of Testing................................25 Testable Services and Protocols...............................................25 Key Features of the Service Control User Interface ..................26 UDP Testing .............................................................................26 Obtaining PESQ and Other Audio Quality Measurements ........................................................................27 Control Functionality for Phones ..........................................28 Control Functions for Sony Ericsson Phones ............................28 Control Functions for Nokia GSM Phones and UEs ..................29 Control Functions for Qualcomm Chipset Based Devices .........29 Scanning: LTE ........................................................................29 Scanning: WCDMA .................................................................29 Scanning: GSM .......................................................................30 Scanning: CDMA.....................................................................30 Scanning: TD-SCDMA ............................................................31 Scanning: WiMAX ...................................................................31 Loading Cell Site Data ............................................................31

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6.1 6.1.1 6.1.2 6.1.3 6.1.4 6.1.5 6.1.6
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Analyzing Data with TEMS Investigation ............... 32
Monitoring Data Services .......................................................33 LTE ...........................................................................................33 HSDPA .....................................................................................34 TD-SCDMA...............................................................................35 EV-DO ......................................................................................37 Video Streaming with VSQI and IP Analysis .............................38 Some Data Service Status Windows.........................................39
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6.2 6.3 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.3.3 6.4 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.5 6.5.1 6.6 6.6.1 6.6.2 6.6.3 6.6.4 6.6.5 6.6.6 6.6.7 6.7 6.7.1 6.7.2 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.10.1 6.10.2

Monitoring Handovers ............................................................40 Monitoring Voice in UMTS .....................................................42 Serving/Active Set + Neighbors WCDMA..................................42 Serving + Neighbors GSM ........................................................42 C/A, C/I (GSM) .........................................................................42 Monitoring Voice in CDMA .....................................................43 Coverage Analysis ....................................................................43 Active/Candidate/Neighbor Sets ...............................................44 Scanning: LTE ........................................................................44 LTE Reference Signal Scan ......................................................44 Scanning: WCDMA .................................................................45 CPICH and SCH Scanning .......................................................45 CW Scanning ............................................................................48 Spectrum Analysis ....................................................................48 BCH Scanning ..........................................................................49 Network Scanning.....................................................................50 Loading Logfiles from Anritsu Scanner .....................................50 Exporting Scan Data to TEMS CellPlanner ...............................50 Scanning: GSM .......................................................................51 Strongest Channels Scan .........................................................51 Adjacent Channels Scan...........................................................51 Role of Cell Data in Presentations .........................................52 Monitoring of Events and Signaling ......................................53 Seeing the Big Picture: Uplink Data (GSM) ...........................54 Example 1: Handover ...............................................................54 Example 2: Handover and Power Control .................................55

7 8
8.1 8.2

Logfile Reading Capabilities ................................... 56 Logfile Export and Logfile Report Generation ...... 57
Export of Logfiles ...................................................................57 Logfile Reports .......................................................................57

9
9.1 9.1.1 9.1.2 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5

Connectable Equipment .......................................... 58
Phones, Data Cards, and Scanners Offered with TEMS Investigation 12.0....................................................................58 Phones and Data Cards............................................................58 Scanners ..................................................................................58 Selected Capabilities of Devices Offered with TEMS Investigation 12.0....................................................................60 Scanning Support by Device (WCDMA) ................................61 GPS Devices ...........................................................................61 Accessories ............................................................................62

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10.1 10.1.1 10.1.2 10.1.3 10.2 10.3

Hardware and Software Requirements .................. 63
Hardware and Software Requirements for TEMS Investigation Application .......................................................63 Other Hardware Requirements .................................................63 Software Requirements ............................................................63 Supported Operating Systems ..................................................63 Hardware and Software Requirements for Call Generator ................................................................................64 Requirements for TEMS UDP Server Software .....................64

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Introduction
GSM/GPRS/EGPRS WCDMA/HSPA/HSPA+ LTE TD-SCDMA cdmaOne/cdma2000/EV-DO Rev 0/EV-DO Rev A iDEN.

TEMS Investigation 12.0 is an air interface test tool for cellular networks, supporting all of the following technologies:

The product is also capable of scanning WiMAX carriers. TEMS Investigation enables monitoring of voice and video telephony as well as a variety of data services over packet-switched and circuit-switched connections. The software application runs under Windows® 7, Windows Vista, or Windows XP.

1.1

Building Blocks of TEMS Investigation

TEMS Investigation is primarily a tool for data collection and real-time analysis. It interfaces with phones, data cards, scanners, and other measurement devices; it collects data and records it in logfiles. TEMS Investigation also allows presentation and analysis of one logfile at a time. It is possible to purchase TEMS Investigation without the data collection capability. Customers who dispense with TEMS Investigation data collection are still able to use the non-realtime functions of the application (single-logfile replay, logfile reports, logfile export). Powerful post-processing facilities are provided by the new product TEMS Discovery, which comes bundled with TEMS Investigation whenever the data collection feature has been purchased. Cellular technologies (GSM, WCDMA, TD-SCDMA, LTE, CDMA, iDEN, WiMAX) can be freely selected and combined, except that WCDMA always comes with GSM support included. Audio quality measurement (AQM), including PESQ, is available as an option for both GSM/WCDMA and CDMA.

1.2

Connectable Equipment

See chapter 9 for further details.

1.2.1

Phones and Data Cards

TEMS Investigation supports a wide variety of user terminals, including ones from Sony Ericsson, LG, Nokia, Qualcomm, Novatel, Sierra Wireless, Option, Samsung, and Datang. They allow comprehensive monitoring of

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GSM/WCDMA, LTE, TD-SCDMA, and CDMA networks and of GSM– UTRAN as well as cdmaOne–cdma2000–EV-DO interaction.

1.2.2
 

Scanning

LTE scanning is conducted with DRT or PCTel SeeGull EX LTE scanners. WCDMA scanning can be done with Sony Ericsson phones, with Ascom Scanning Receiver Units (SRUs), or with PCTel SeeGull EX/LX or certain Anritsu scanners. All of these devices are capable of scanning multiple frequencies simultaneously. For GSM scanning, a range of Sony Ericsson GSM phones as well as SRUs and certain PCTel SeeGull EX/LX scanners can be used. TD-SCDMA scanning is conducted with PCTel SeeGull TD-SCDMA scanners. For CDMA scanning, PCTel SeeGull CDMA scanners are available. WiMAX scanning is done with DRT scanners.

   

1.2.3

Positioning

GPS units, either standalone or built into scanners, can be used for geographical positioning. Manual positioning (“pinpointing”) is likewise supported, with indoor measurements in mind.

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1.3
1.3.1

What’s New in TEMS Investigation 12.0
Enhanced Service Testing: Service Control Tool

A new scripting tool called Service Control replaces the Command Sequence. With the new tool you build scripts in the form of flowcharts, which makes it very easy to create, adapt, and reuse building blocks of a script. A highly intuitive drag-and-drop user interface is provided.  You can structure your script using a toolbox of control logic (loops, branching, if–else conditions, and more). Synchronization of devices is implicitly done wherever workflow branches converge. Configuration details regarding servers, call recipients, etc. are encapsulated in separate configuration sets which can be reused across scripts. You can save a script with or without the configs – the latter being handy if you want to distribute the script for use elsewhere. Predefined scripts (“snippets”) are provided for all supported services. Multiple concurrent data service sessions can be run on the same device.

 

Service Control script for CS voice dial. Caller in left-hand branch, callee in right-hand branch.

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Configuration set for network connect.

See also section 5.3.

1.3.2

Voice-over-IP (VoIP) Testing

The new Service Control tool includes facilities for testing voice calls over IP (VoIP). The voice quality obtained over the IP connection is measured with the PESQ algorithm. See section 5.3 for an example of a voice-over-IP script.

1.3.3

Mobile TV Quality Index – MTQI

TEMS Investigation 12.0 introduces a new video streaming quality measure called MTQI (Mobile TV Quality Index). This is a refinement of the VSQI model: MTQI distinguishes buffering with and without frame skipping and furthermore takes corruption duration into account. As the name indicates, the MTQI measure can also be applied to Mobile TV.

1.3.4

Technology Enhancements

LTE: Support for additional LTE devices: o LG devices o Samsung devices o Qualcomm based devices (chipsets MSM9200, MSM9600)

CDMA: AQM (PESQ) computation improved for Samsung devices SPH-M320 and SPH-M330

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1.3.5

Streamlined Device Management

A new Navigator tab (“Equipment”) has been created for managing your measurement devices. From here you do all of the following:      Activation/Deactivation of connected equipment Viewing of identity and capabilities Initiation of manual service testing Manual application of control functions (e.g. RAT and band lock) Scanning

Navigator Equipment tab showing device information and applicable control activities

Navigator Equipment tab being used to dial a voice call

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1.3.6

Status Control Monitor

The Status Control Monitor is a new window providing at-a-glance information on device status, service execution, PC performance, and logfile recording. The window gives a compact overview of the status of the TEMS Investigation application and the connected devices.

1.3.7
 

Other User Interface Enhancements

Copy worksheet function added; device identity can be changed in the copy Shortcut for reassigning “MS”/“EQ” device labels

1.3.8

New Terminals and Equipment

1.3.8.1 UMTS  Nokia C5 o WCDMA/HSPA 900/2100 MHz o GSM/GPRS/EDGE 850/900/1800/1900 MHz o HSDPA Category 9 (10.2 Mbit/s), HSUPA Category 5 (2.0 Mbit/s) o Band and channel lock; cell barring control; RAT lock + sector lock o External antenna solution can be provided  HTC Touch Pro 2 “TILT / AT&T”

1.3.8.2 CDMA/EV-DO  LG enV Touch

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 

Samsung Omnia i910 Pantech UM175 USB modem

1.3.8.3 Scanners     PCTel SeeGull EX LTE Lower 700-A/B/C + Upper 700-C/2100 AWS (LTE scanner for US) PCTel SeeGull EX LTE 2600/800 (UL/DL) Scanner PCTel PCT 520 WCDMA 2100 + GSM 900/1800 Scanner PCTel EX mini CDMA 1x 1900/2100 AWS

1.3.9
  

Reorganization of TEMS Product Functionality

The AQM UL/DL data merge function has been removed from the Converter tool and transformed into an export function. The cell file conversion function has been removed from the Converter tool and transferred to TEMS Discovery. KPIs are no longer explicitly handled in TEMS Investigation. All data required for KPIs are always recorded in logfiles, but KPI reports are now produced using TEMS Discovery (or TEMS Automatic).

1.4
1.4.1

What Was New in TEMS Investigation 11.0
LTE User Equipment Support

TEMS Investigation 11.0 was the first TEMS Investigation release to support LTE UEs: specifically, Samsung LTE USB modems. This enables data service testing in LTE networks: FTP upload and download, HTTP, Ping, and UDP. Samsung USB modems for the following LTE frequency bands were tested and verified with TEMS Investigation:     LTE Band 4 (2100 MHz AWS) LTE Band 7 (2600 MHz) LTE Band 13 (700 MHz) LTE Band 17 (700 MHz)

More than 75 new information elements holding LTE UE data were created. This data includes:   Serving cell parameters, including Cell Identity, MNC, MCC, and TAC (Tracking Area Code) Serving cell measurements, including RSRP and RSRQ differentiated with respect to transmitting (Tx1, Tx2) and receiving (Rx1, Rx2)

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antennas; also channel RSSI, downlink pathloss, and Reference Signal CINR      Neighbor cell parameters and measurements CQI (Channel Quality Indicator) for antennas 1 and 2 separately PDSCH/PUSCH parameters and measurements, including modulation coding scheme, number of resource blocks, and throughput EPS bearer properties: guaranteed bit rate, maximum bit rate, QoS Class Indicator (QCI), and more PDN connection properties: number of PDN connections; APN, EPS Default Bearer ID, and aggregate maximum bit rate on each connection

A collection of new presentation windows was set up for displaying LTE UE data. See examples in section 6.1.1.

1.4.2

WCDMA/HSPA Enhancements

TEMS Investigation 11.0 added support for dual-carrier HSDPA measurements with the Qualcomm TD8220. Dual-carrier HSDPA operation with simultaneous downlink transmission on two adjacent 5 MHz carriers is standardized in 3GPP Release 8. Aggregating the radio resources of multiple carriers in this way increases peak data rates and capacity. New information elements were provided in TEMS Investigation for dualcarrier related data. Information per carrier is available. Further enhancements in the WCDMA/HSPA field were:    Sony Ericsson W995 firmware upgrade supporting HSUPA Category 6 (support for both 2 ms and 10 ms TTI; HSUPA 5.76 Mbit/s) Support for new WCDMA AWS capable device: HTC Touch Pro 2 (AWS 1700/2100 MHz) Support for Nokia 6720 EU: WCDMA/HSPA 900/1900/2100 MHz, GSM quad-band; HSDPA 10.2 Mbit/s (Category 9), HSUPA 2.0 Mbit/s (Category 5); external antenna solution available Enhanced AQM solution: see section 1.4.8

1.4.3

TD-SCDMA Enhancements

The TD-SCDMA support in TEMS Investigation was strengthened on several fronts, with particular effort expended on improving the HSDPA analysis. More than 30 new information elements were added, notably the following:   DPCH measurements: C/I, ISCP, RSCP (average/best/worst); number of timeslots in use on DPCH HS-PDSCH measurements: C/I, ISCP, RSCP (average/best/worst), and SIR; number of channelization codes used; number of timeslots used

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     

Measurements for non-HS DPCH associated with HS session: C/I, ISCP, RSCP, SIR HS MAC PDU average size; HS MAC PDU discard rate HSDPA Category reported by UE Transmit power control (TPC) indicator (DL/UL); power control step size DCH SIR target C-RNTI, U-RNTI; TMSI, P-TMSI

See section 6.1.3 for some examples of presentation windows exhibiting this and other TD-SCDMA data. Several new TD-SCDMA events were added. These report on baton handover, hard handover, and channel switching between R4 (Release 99) and R5 (HSPA).

1.4.4
 

CDMA Enhancements

Support was added for a number of new CDMA devices, including: HTC Touch Pro 2 (CDMA and CDMA/UMTS versions) Ubiquam U-300 (CDMA 450 MHz)

1.4.5

Windows 7 Support

TEMS Investigation 11.0 runs on Windows 7, in addition to Windows Vista and Windows XP.

1.4.6

Diagnostics Utility for Optimizing PC Settings

For TEMS Investigation to run properly and efficiently, your PC must be appropriately configured in a variety of respects. A utility called Computer Diagnostics was introduced which evaluates the current status of the PC and determines how well it is prepared for running TEMS Investigation:  The utility checks a variety of PC settings that have a significant impact on TEMS Investigation performance, particularly with regard to data collection. Feedback in plain text is given on these settings, complete with recommendations for changes. The utility also examines the PC’s hardware capabilities (processor and RAM) and matches them against the requirements posed by TEMS Investigation.

1.4.7

Software-based Licensing: HASP SL

In pre-11.0 TEMS Investigation versions, licensing was handled using the hardware key (dongle) based HASP HL solution. TEMS Investigation 11.0 offered the use of HASP HL just as before, but with this version customers were also able to purchase software-based HASP SL licenses.

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HASP SL uses a license server to distribute network software licenses electronically to end users. The users can check out (“detach”) and return (“attach”) licenses over an internet connection. Licenses are time-limited, meaning that they expire after a predetermined time period and are then returned to the pool of available licenses. From there they can be checked out again. Software-based licensing has many advantages over the hardware-based solution, notably the following:     No need to manage hardware keys. No USB ports required. Licenses can be distributed electronically. With network licenses, the user does not need to be constantly hooked up to the license server. After checking out a network license, the user can go offline. Even the license check-out and check-in procedures can in fact be handled offline, that is, manually and asynchronously by email.

1.4.8

Improved AQM Solution

The AQM module and cabling were redesigned to improve RF shielding. This removes the external antenna requirements that were previously imposed. New AQM capable devices for UMTS: Sony Ericsson W995 handsets. MRU (Mobile Receiving Unit) implemented on Sony Ericsson W995 handsets (standalone; UMTS). optional feature on Sony Ericsson W995 handsets. The MRU functionality is activated from TEMS Investigation.

 

 MRU functionality can be added to TEMS Investigation UEs. This is an

1.4.9

TEMS Portfolio Compatibility

TEMS Investigation 11.0 is capable of reading logfiles originating from TEMS Automatic 8.1 as well as from TEMS Pocket 8.1 (GSM/WCDMA + CDMA) and TEMS Pocket 7.3 (GSM/WCDMA). Please note that TEMS Pocket 8.1 logfiles must first be converted using a PC utility that is delivered with the product.

1.4.10 Route Analysis Module Replaced by TEMS Discovery
In the field of post-processing of TEMS Investigation data, the Route Analysis module (including the RAN Tuning tool) was removed and replaced by the new post-processing product TEMS Discovery. Most of the data presentations in Route Analysis have their counterparts in TEMS Discovery, and many more are available in the new product. TEMS Discovery can also generate reports similar to those obtained from RAN Tuning.

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TEMS Discovery comes bundled with TEMS Investigation whenever the latter has been purchased with data collection capability. TEMS Discovery is thus available to all customers using TEMS Investigation for data collection. For more information on TEMS Discovery, please consult the Technical Product Description for this product.

1.5

Supported Cellular System Versions

For information on the capabilities of individual connectable devices, see chapter 9, page 58.

1.5.1

3GPP

TEMS Investigation is 3GPP Release 7 compliant. Within 3GPP, TEMS Investigation 12.0 supports:  GSM/GPRS/EGPRS: o GSM 850 MHz o GSM E-900 MHz o GSM 1800 MHz o GSM 1900 MHz  WCDMA/HSPA: o Band 1 (2100 MHz) o Band 2 (1900 MHz) o Band 3 (1800 MHz) o Band 4 (2100 MHz) o Band 5 (850 MHz) o Band 6 (800 MHz) o Band 8 (900 MHz)  LTE: (S = supported by scanner, M = supported by USB modem) o LTE Band 1 (2100 MHz) S o LTE Band 2 (1900 MHz) S o LTE Band 3 (1800 MHz) S o LTE Band 4 (2100 MHz AWS) S M o LTE Band 5 (850 MHz) S o LTE Band 7 (2600 MHz) S M o LTE Band 8 (900 MHz) S o LTE Band 12 (700 MHz) S o LTE Band 13 (700 MHz) S M

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o LTE Band 14 (700 MHz) S o LTE Band 17 (700 MHz) M o LTE Band 20 (800 MHz) S

1.5.2

CDMA

CDMA standards are supported by TEMS Investigation 12.0 as follows: cdmaOne (IS-95) / cdma2000 (IS-2000) / EV-DO (IS-856) Rev 0/Rev A on the 450, 800, and 1900 MHz bands.

1.5.3

TD-SCDMA

The TD-SCDMA 2010–2025 MHz band is supported.

1.5.4

WiMAX

WiMAX (802.16e) scanning can be done on the 2.3, 2.5, and 3.5 GHz bands.

1.6

Where to Find Out More

For additional information on TEMS Investigation, on other TEMS products, or on TEMS product training, please visit us on the Web at www.ascom.com/networktesting. To sign up for the TEMS on-line subscription service, please go to the same website and click the link “TEMS Subscription Service”. This free service includes e-mail notification of TEMS product launches, version upgrades and patches, as well as our online customer magazine.

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2
Slide title 40 pt Slide subtitle 24 pt

The TEMS Investigation Concept

What is TEMS Investigation?
Overview

TEMS Investigation offers operators the capabilities of data collection with real-time presentation, on-screen post-processing, and report generation – all packed into one tool.

Top right corner fo field-mark customer partner lo See Best for examp

Text 24 pt Bullets level 2-5 20 pt

Data collection and real-time troubleshooting

On-screen post-processing

Reporting

© Ericsson AB 2008

3

Scanning in TEMS Investigation

2009-05-06

Note again that thanks to the introduction of TEMS Discovery, Ascom now provides an even stronger offering in the post-processing and reporting area. Comprehensive information about TEMS Discovery is found in the Technical Product Description for this product.

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       

Data Handled in TEMS Investigation
Terminals: GSM, WCDMA, LTE, TD-SCDMA, and CDMA air interface measurements AQM modules (PESQ and other audio quality measurements) Scanners (GSM, WCDMA, LTE, TD-SCDMA, CDMA, WiMAX) Data service testing software, integrated into TEMS Investigation GPS units (standalone or built into scanners) Cell files (GSM, WCDMA, LTE, TD-SCDMA, CDMA, WiMAX, Wi-Fi) Logfiles from TEMS Investigation and a range of other sources MTR files

These are the sources of the data presentable in TEMS Investigation 12.0:

3.1

Information Elements

Information elements are the building blocks of all quantitative presentations in TEMS Investigation. They are gleaned from reports delivered by phones, scanners, and GPS units. Being derived from these sources, they contain      Air interface measurements (GSM, WCDMA, LTE, TD-SCDMA, CDMA, WiMAX) Data service measurements Network configuration parameters Cell data Positioning data

The total number of information elements is well above 1,000.

3.2

Events

Events signify interesting occurrences relating to the operation of the connected equipment. Events are generated by the TEMS Investigation software based on data received from these devices. Some examples of predefined events are:       Blocked Call, Dropped Call (UMTS, CDMA) PDP Context Activation Failure (UMTS) Radio Link Addition Failure (UMTS) Baton Handover (TD-SCDMA) Hard Handoff (CDMA) Traffic Handoff to EV-DO (CDMA)

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Events are a vital part of TEMS Investigation presentations and are often instrumental in directing the workflow of the network engineer. They can save a lot of time in the troubleshooting and optimization process, allowing quick identification of problem areas – whether during drive testing or during post-processing. The user can also define customized events by composing logical expressions, which may contain the following types of trigger conditions:     Occurrence of other event Appearance of Layer 3 message Value change of information element Value of information element meeting threshold condition (>, =, or <).

Allowed logical operators are AND, OR, XOR, and NOT. Below are some examples of user-defined events (for WCDMA). Their names tell what they are designed to indicate.

3.3

Cell Data

TEMS Investigation can present data on the cell sites of the measurement area: location, power settings, antenna configurations, etc. Cell data can be provided in several ways:   in a file with a TEMS Investigation specific format in an XML file whose format is common to multiple TEMS products

In either case the files are stored as plain text for maximum flexibility. Cell files used in TEMS Investigation CDMA (file extension .csv) can be converted to the XML format using TEMS Discovery. Supplying cell data enables a multitude of useful functions in the application. See section 6.8, page 52. The XML format also supports definition of Wi-Fi access points, which can then be presented in TEMS Investigation in the same way as cells in cellular networks. This is useful when working with GAN-capable equipment.

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Vehicles of Presentation in TEMS Investigation
Message windows Line charts Bar charts Map windows Status windows (text-format, tabular) Event Counter window

TEMS Investigation is equipped with the following means of presentation:      

A large set of predefined windows of the above types are supplied, all of which can be freely modified by the user. There are also blank line chart and status window templates which the user customizes from scratch. Status windows are constantly refreshed, showing the situation at one instant in time, whereas maps and line charts accumulate information and display the whole history of the testing session. All windows are synchronized: When the user selects an arbitrary time instant in a map or line chart, the status windows are automatically updated to show the parameter values current at this point in time.

4.1

Message Windows

Message windows are used to list Layer 3 messages, Layer 2 messages, mode reports, and error reports from external devices, as well as events generated in TEMS Investigation (see section 3.2). Below is the Layer 3 Messages window:

The window displays the name and direction (uplink/downlink) of each message as well as which protocol the message originates from. A filtering function lets the user select precisely which Layer 3 messages to show.

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Message windows have a number of useful interactive features. Clicking a message freezes the window, so that the details of the message and its context can be studied at leisure. If a new message window is opened while a replay is in progress, the window will catch up and load all data from the beginning of the logfile. A special window is dedicated to the presentation of events; it displays the same event symbols as in maps and line charts and supplies any extra information that may be associated with the events:

4.2

Line Charts

The line chart visualizes how numerical information elements evolve over time, also displaying at what points events have occurred. The Line Chart window is sub-divided into a number of synchronized panes. See the cdma2000 example below.
Active set membership count (bars), with active set Ec/Io drawn on top Scales used in chart

Transmit power, active set Ec/Io sum

Receive power, FER

Values at highlighted time instant for selected line chart

Radio link events

Additional user-selected information (not graphed)

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4.3

Bar Charts

The bar chart is primarily intended for presenting frequency scans (see sections 6.5 and 6.7, pages 44 and 51), but is by no means limited to that application: any numerical information element can be presented.

Bar chart showing Ec/Io for each member of the active set in cdma2000.

4.4

Map Windows

Drive test routes can be presented graphically on a map of the investigated area. Measurement data and events are plotted in symbolic form. The positions of cell sites can also be drawn, with the added possibility of indicating the serving cell/active set throughout the test drive by means of successive connecting lines. A separate pane on the right enables the presentation of auxiliary information, such as a map legend. See the screenshot below.

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The default settings for route markers (showing, among other things, signal strength) can of course be freely modified by the user. Each route marker can code up to three information element values (marker size, color, and shape). Several markers can be drawn in parallel in order to show more data. Clicking a map symbol displays the data it represents in the right-hand pane. Selecting an area enables presentation of statistics for this area, as exemplified on the next page. A multi-layer structure is used for the presentation data, just as for the elements of the map image itself. The visibility of each layer can be controlled separately. Other map features include: panning; zooming; labeling of map elements; choice between different projections (using GeoSet file). Maps can be in MapInfo, uncompressed TIFF, or bitmap format. Note that map plotting requires access to GPS data.

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Map window with area selected for statistics computation (dashed gray rectangle). Statistics on information elements and events are shown in the top two boxes on the right. The third box holds cell information.

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4.5

Status Windows

The status windows present information elements in tabular form. There are a number of ready-made windows designed for presenting particular categories of information (such as signal strength or speech quality). In addition, there is a blank template which can be used to compose status windows of the user’s choice.

WCDMA radio parameters (left); HSDPA information (center); HSUPA information (right).

Note that any pieces of information available in TEMS Investigation may be viewed together in status windows. A complete list of TEMS Investigation information elements is available separately. The blank status window template permits users to design their own status windows bottom up:

Two UMTS networks, A and B, are compared. A uses the AMR speech codec, whereas B uses the EFR codec. The speech quality, as might be expected, is superior for A at the time instant shown. Also, A uses frequency hopping while B does not (B has no “2nd Worst” C/I, as only a single channel is used). Two phones are used for the measurements, one for each network.

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4.6

Event Counter Window

The Event Counter window keeps track of the number of times various events have occurred. The set of events to show is completely userconfigurable; a number of default tabs have been set up grouping predefined events into categories (“Voice”, “Packet Switched”, etc. – see image below). Tabs can be freely substituted and renamed; for example, a CDMA user might want to remove the GSM/WCDMA tabs.

Counters can be reset by the user at any time. In both recording and replay mode, counters are reset automatically when a new logfile is opened. In replay mode, a reset is also performed when the logfile is rewound.

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5
5.1
5.1.1

Collecting Data with TEMS Investigation
Technologies
UMTS and CDMA

TEMS Investigation covers the whole of UMTS and CDMA. For UMTS, most of the supported phones can make calls on both WCDMA and GSM networks and perform handover back and forth between the two types of network. When in WCDMA mode, the phone also monitors GSM neighbors in order to enable handover to the GSM network whenever justified. In GSM mode, WCDMA neighbors are monitored in the same manner. With GAN-capable GSM phones it is possible to study the interaction between a GSM network and a GAN and to gauge WLAN signal quality. On the CDMA side, EV-DO capable phones also have cdma2000 support. When in EV-DO mode, the EV-DO log mask is applied to the handset, and when the phone switches from EV-DO to cdma2000, the cdma2000 log mask is applied. In both UMTS and CDMA, events are generated in connection with all handovers/handoffs. These include:   WCDMA inter-frequency as well as inter-system handovers (in the latter case, compressed mode usage is also indicated). CDMA hard handoffs as well as handoffs between cdma2000, EV-DO, and cdmaOne.

5.1.2

LTE

Data service testing can be done with an LTE UE. Scanning of LTE carriers can be performed using a DRT or a PCTel SeeGull EX scanner.

5.1.3

TD-SCDMA

Voice and data service testing is performed with a dual mode TDSCDMA/GSM phone. TD-SCDMA scanning is done with a PCTel SeeGull EX scanner.

5.1.4

WiMAX

WiMAX (802.16e) carriers can be scanned with a DRT scanner.

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5.2

Logfile Recording and Transfer

Data is logged in a manner that minimizes the risk of data loss in case of hardware malfunctions, such as power failure in the PC. Options for logfile recording include the following:     Filemarks can be inserted to tag interesting segments. Pause/Resume: The recording can be paused and on resumption continued to the same logfile. Logfile swapping: The logfile is closed after reaching a specified number of messages, and the logging continues automatically to a new file. User comments can be entered after concluding a recording.

5.2.1

Recording Indoor Measurement Routes: Pinpointing

In indoor environments, where there is normally no line-of-sight to GPS satellites, data must be positioned manually. With TEMS Investigation this is achieved by a procedure called pinpointing. While performing a walk-around measurement, users indicate their route by regularly tapping the stylus at their current position on the screen, creating waypoints. TEMS Investigation reconstructs the route by joining consecutive waypoints with straight lines, and the measurement data received by the phones is then automatically distributed evenly along each such linear route segment.

Testing route with waypoints (black). Quality indicated by marker colors.

To optimize data positioning, it is wise to mark a new waypoint whenever the walking direction or speed changes. Bitmaps (obtained for example from scanning office blueprints) can easily be positioned and scaled by entering the coordinates of some selected points and the distance between two points.

5.2.2

Automated Logfile Transfer

You can set up TEMS Investigation to automatically transfer recorded logfiles to a designated FTP server, over the air or via an Ethernet connection. This mechanism serves to simplify ways of working and reduce lead times, always providing quick access to the latest logfiles throughout the organization.

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In setting up the FTP transfer, the user enters FTP server and login details and configures a number of parameters. The file transfer can be either manual (initiated by the user on each occasion) or automatic (triggered when the recording of a logfile ends). Logfiles are automatically compressed prior to transfer so as to minimize the amount of data to upload.

5.3

Service Control: Automation of Testing

The Service Control tool is used to automate all kinds of service testing – PS as well as CS. In the Service Control Designer window you compose scripts which you then assign to and run on one or several connected devices. The Service Control Designer visualizes each script in flowchart format, as shown below:

Service Control script for voice-over-IP testing (calling party). A similar script (with Dial replaced by Answer) is assigned to the called party.

5.3.1

Testable Services and Protocols
E-mail WAP MMS

Voice and video calls over CS Voice over IP (VoIP) FTP download/upload

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HTTP download Video streaming (live or on-demand) Ping

SMS UDP (see section 5.3.3)

  

Multiple concurrent data service sessions can be run on the same device. Special script activities are provided for network connect/disconnect, PS attach/detach, and IP sniffing. The execution of a script can be monitored, step by step, in the separate “Service Control Monitor” window.

5.3.2

Key Features of the Service Control User Interface

Scripts can be structured using control logic: loops, branching, if–else conditions, sequences, and more. Synchronization of devices is implicitly done wherever workflow branches converge. Details on servers, call recipients, and other entities to interact with are encapsulated in separate configuration sets which can be reused across scripts. Scripts can be saved with or without the configs – the latter being handy if you want to distribute the script for use on a different PC, with different devices, in different environments. Predefined scripts (“snippets”) are provided for all supported services, speeding up script building. Snippets can of course be freely modified to suit your individual needs, just like any other components of a script.

5.3.3

UDP Testing

The Service Control tool includes an activity for UDP testing. UDP is a transport layer protocol designed to be used with IP as underlying network layer protocol. The transmission model in UDP is a simple one without implicit handshaking dialogs. This makes communication highly efficient, but it does not provide a reliable service, as packets may arrive out of order, be duplicated, or go missing without notice. UDP is therefore often used by time-sensitive applications which can tolerate some data loss but cannot afford to wait for delayed packets. One example of such an application is video streaming. (For applications that do require reliable message delivery, UDP is not an option; such applications use TCP instead.) TEMS Investigation tests UDP performance using an integrated UDP client that supports the send, receive, and full duplex modes. Running the UDP testing activity creates a Windows service which interacts with the target UDP server. The throughput rate can be set by the user, or the best throughput rate can be determined empirically by the software for the current radio environment. The UDP testing function is radio access technology independent. UDP measurements can be performed over either RAS or NDIS.

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Regarding the Service Control tool in general, see also section 1.3.1.

5.4

Obtaining PESQ and Other Audio Quality Measurements

PESQ and its accompanying other audio quality measurements (AQMs) are collected by TEMS Investigation during mobile-originated voice calls. The call may be received   by a stationary component known as the Call Generator, connected to the fixed telephone network, or by a Mobile Receiving Unit (MRU) housed in a mobile phone.

This section describes the AQM setup where a Call Generator receives the calls. Audio quality measurement using an MRU is broadly similar, except that only downlink quality is measured in the MRU configuration. The computation of AQM scores is done in dedicated hardware units called AQM modules: one connected to the phone and to the PC, handling the downlink; and one housed in the Call Generator, taking care of the uplink. These modules contain DSP hardware. The downlink AQM module can optionally be mounted along with the phone in an equipment case. The actual computation is done in dedicated hardware units called AQM modules: one connected to the phone and to the PC, handling the downlink; and one housed in the Call Generator, taking care of the uplink. These modules contain DSP hardware. The downlink AQM module can optionally be mounted along with the test terminal in an equipment case.

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The speech segments to be used as references are loaded into the AQM modules and into the test terminal. The phone calls the Call Generator and plays the reference sentences. The Call Generator responds by playing the same reference sentences. The received (degraded) signals at either end are forwarded to the respective AQM modules, where the signals are compared with the originals, yielding uplink and downlink AQM data. The downlink AQM data is written to regular TEMS Investigation logfiles. The uplink AQM data is stored in XML files. To merge the uplink AQM data into the logfiles, a special export function is used.

5.5

Control Functionality for Phones

From TEMS Investigation many aspects of phone behavior can be customized. The available settings vary from one phone to another. For any phone, all customizable properties are collected on a multi-tab property page.

5.5.1

Control Functions for Sony Ericsson Phones

5.5.1.1 Idle Mode    Lock on RAT Cell selection control (GSM, WCDMA) Control of phone interaction with barred and reserved cells (GSM, WCDMA)

5.5.1.2 Dedicated Mode       Forcing of handover to a channel Restriction of handover to a set of channels Prevention of handover to specified channels Disabling of handover Redialing of calls (last, dropped, blocked) Automatic answering of incoming calls

5.5.1.3 Miscellaneous     Access class control, PLMN control Forcing use of frequency band Disabling of HSPA capability in HSPA-capable phones Disabling of EDGE capability in EDGE-capable phones

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   

Selection of speech coders to be enabled in phone Overriding of network-allocated Tx Power levels (band-specific) Discarding of specified Layer 3 messages Modification of BLER target set by network

5.5.2

Control Functions for Nokia GSM Phones and UEs

Nokia GSM phones and UEs connected to a GSM network can be locked to a specific control channel in idle mode, or to a frequency band. The GSM-mode cell barring behavior of the Nokia devices can be set to “normal”, “ignored”, or “reversed”. The last option means that the phone will camp only on barred cells. In WCDMA mode, Nokia UEs can be locked to one RAT and/or to one sector.

5.5.3

Control Functions for Qualcomm Chipset Based Devices

For Option data cards and Sierra Wireless UMTS data cards, RAT lock and band lock functions are available. Furthermore, settings in any Qualcomm chipset based UMTS device can be inspected and modified by sending queries and commands over the Qualcomm NV interface.

5.6

Scanning: LTE

Supported devices for LTE scanning are the DRT4301A+ scanner and a range of PCTel SeeGull EX LTE scanners (for particulars, see section 9.1.2).      Top N Sync Signal scan: Detects P-SCH and S-SCH synch signal presence. Top N Reference Signal scan: Detects sector-specific reference signals. RSSI scan: Measures narrowband or wideband channel aggregate power. Enhanced power scan: Higher-performance scan providing selective time/frequency power measurements. Spectrum analysis: Measures power with user-selectable resolution bandwidths.

5.7

Scanning: WCDMA

WCDMA scanning can be done with certain Sony Ericsson phones, with SRUs, and with PCTel SeeGull and Anritsu scanners. The following scanning methods exist:

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CPICH scanning (coverage verification, pilot pollution detection), also including primary and secondary synchronization channels (P-SCH, SSCH) o Strongest scrambling codes (“Top N”; up to 32) o User-defined set of scrambling codes o Decoding of System Information blocks

    

SCH timeslot scanning Continuous Wave scanning Spectrum analysis BCH scanning Network scanning

Several types of scan can be running concurrently; only the measurement capacity of the scanner limits the possibilities of doing multiple scans in parallel. TEMS Investigation supports simultaneous scanning of up to 12 UMTS frequencies with one scanner. This is useful for multi-frequency network configurations as well as for operator benchmarking. For further details and data presentation, see section 6.5, page 44. Regarding the capabilities of individual scanning devices, see sections 9.1.2 and 9.3.

5.8

Scanning: GSM

GSM carriers can be scanned with PCTel SeeGull scanners, with SRUs, and with many Sony Ericsson phones including Sony Ericsson W995/W995a/W995 EDGE. With PCTel scanners it is also possible to do a CW scan of a carrier with no GSM signal present. The set of carriers to scan can be either all channels (as many as the scanning device can manage) or a preselected set of channels (this can be an entire GSM band). Decoding of BSIC is supported by both Sony Ericsson phones and PCTel scanners. Decoding of System Information messages is supported by PCTel scanners. Regarding the presentation of GSM scanning, see section 6.7, page 51.

5.9

Scanning: CDMA

CDMA pilot scanning can be done with CDMA-capable versions of PCTel SeeGull LX, supporting all of IS-2000, IS-856, and IS-95. As for WCDMA, several options exist for setting the scope of the scan:  All pilots

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 

User-specified pilot list Top N, up to N = 32

A maximum of 12 RF channels can be scanned at a time. CDMA scanners also have these modes:    RSSI (CW) mode Narrowband interference mode Follow phone mode: The scanner always scans the same RF channel and PN offset that a CDMA phone is using.

5.10

Scanning: TD-SCDMA

Scanning of TD-SCDMA networks is undertaken with PCTel SeeGull EX scanners. The scan modes supported are:    Midamble Top N: Scanning of Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH) SyncDL Top N: Scanning of Downlink Pilot Timeslot (DwPTS) RSSI: Narrowband or wideband channel aggregate power scan

5.11

Scanning: WiMAX

WiMAX (802.16e) scanning is done with the DRT4301A+ scanner. Available scan modes in TEMS Investigation are:    Preamble scan RSSI scan Spectrum scan

5.12

Loading Cell Site Data

TEMS Investigation can load data on the cell sites of the measurement area. All of the following technologies are supported: GSM, WCDMA, LTE, TD-SCDMA, cdma2000, EV-DO, WiMAX, and Wi-Fi (access points). Cell files follow a tab-separated plain-text format or an XML format. The latter is shared with TEMS CellPlanner and spans all of the supported cellular technologies. All cell site information is merged into a single XML file. The tab-separated format used by TEMS Investigation CDMA (file extension .csv) can be converted to the XML format and can thus be read by TEMS Investigation.

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6

Analyzing Data with TEMS Investigation

This chapter spans a large number of data presentations offered by TEMS Investigation. Together they exhibit the power of the TEMS Investigation concept, where simple building blocks – information elements and events – can be freely selected and combined into almost every conceivable kind of presentation. The windows that display the data can be reconfigured at every step to suit the purpose at hand. Note once again that logfile data from TEMS Automatic and TEMS Pocket can also be loaded into the application. Regarding the far-ranging data presentation and analysis capabilities of TEMS Discovery, please consult the Technical Product Description dealing with that product.

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6.1
6.1.1

Monitoring Data Services
LTE

LTE throughput line chart. The green line tracks the application throughput, while the red bars represent PDSCH/PUSCH physical throughput.

LTE serving + neighbors line chart showing serving cell RSSI, serving and neighbor RSRP, and serving cell RS CINR.

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6.1.2

HSDPA
Throughput on downlink: magenta = application level (user-perceived); cyan = application level, time average; green = throughput on HS-DSCH

Throughput on uplink HSDPA CQI

Spreading factors on uplink and downlink

Data line chart depicting FTP data transfer over WCDMA with HSDPA. The userperceived downlink throughput approaches 1 Mbit/s toward the end of the download (top subchart). An upload follows (middle subchart). Short-time maximum, median, and minimum values of the HSDPA Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) governing the radio link adaptation are plotted in the bottom subchart. The spreading factors are 4 on the uplink and 256 on the downlink.

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6.1.3

TD-SCDMA

FTP download session over a TD-SCDMA network. The P-CCPCH is the Primary Common Control Physical Channel, functioning as the preferred reference channel in TD-SCDMA.

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HSDPA parameters in a TD-SCDMA network.

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6.1.4

EV-DO

Throughput on downlink: red = RLP throughput, green = average RLP throughput, cyan = average application throughput (user-perceived); magenta = application-level throughput

Throughput on uplink

Current mode, band, channel and Active Set size

Data line chart depicting FTP data transfer over CDMA EV-DO. The user-perceived downlink throughput approaches 500 kbit/s (top subchart). The uplink is used for TCP Acks and FTP control (middle subchart). Instantaneous values of the short-time and average throughputs are shown (left-hand text pane), as are relevant RF parameters (right-hand text pane).

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6.1.5

Video Streaming with VSQI and IP Analysis

The following example shows how to evaluate the performance of video streaming with TEMS Investigation. Note that the IP Analysis window is a highly versatile tool that reveals the traffic over a large number of protocols (see listing below) and is thus useful for studying and troubleshooting any service in minute detail. The full set of protocols supported by the IP Analysis window is as follows:     Application layer: BOOTP, DNS, FTP, FTP-DATA, HTTP, NBDS, NBNS, RTCP, RTP, RTSP, SNMP Transport layer: TCP, UDP Network layer: ICMP, IPv4, IPv6 Data link layer: PPP CC, PPP CHAP, PPP IPCP, PPP LCP, PPP PAP

The streamed video clip is replayed in the Video Monitor (top). The WCDMA Data Line Chart (bottom) tracks the application throughput (blue curve) and evaluates the streaming quality in terms of the VSQI quality measure (green bars). Note how the VSQI score drops; this is because the initial buffering takes slightly too long to complete. During the replay, VSQI stays high as long as the throughput is sufficient. Halfway through the segment, VSQI slumps disastrously, indicating that the streaming client has been forced into rebuffering mode and has halted the replay. – In the IP Analysis window (right) we monitor the message traffic over the RTP, RTCP, and RTSP protocols that are used for streaming. The IP Analysis window also supports a large array of further protocols, as listed above.

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6.1.6

Some Data Service Status Windows

6.1.6.1 HSDPA Analysis MIMO This window shows vital parameters for a HSDPA session making use of MIMO. The first column applies to the case where only one transport block is transmitted at a time (CQI Type B or single-block Type A). The second column applies in case of simultaneous transmission of two transport blocks (CQI Type A).

6.1.6.2 HSUPA Analysis This window shows HSUPA performance. The presented data includes: average E-TFCI (E-DCH Transport Format Combination Indicator, each value corresponding to a data transfer rate); average serving grant; UE happy rate; HARQ block error rate; how often the transmission was limited by the current serving grant; how often the transmission was limited by the available Tx power.

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6.1.6.3 GPRS: Data Timeslots Window – PDCH Utilization With a Sony Ericsson phone connected, TEMS Investigation is capable of measuring GPRS parameters at the timeslot level. In the Data Timeslot window, the C/I ratio, bit error rate, and block error rate are given separately for each timeslot in use, enabling the user to pin down the extent and also the causes of interference problems with greater precision. The utilization of the timeslot is broken down into own data, other users’ data, and control signaling. These statistics shed light on throughput figures; for example, if the throughput is low, one can see whether this is due to frequent retransmissions or to strong competition for network resources. The statistics on the uplink are the same, except that no distinction is made between unused blocks and blocks occupied by other users. At the bottom of the window, coding scheme usage is presented.

Data Timeslots window monitoring a GPRS connection. The performance of timeslots TS5 and TS7 is good, with excellent C/I readings of 20 and 17 dB and consequently a zero bit error rate. However, things are not as rosy on TS6, where a shaky C/I of 2.6 dB announces a problematic interference situation. Here, the bit error rate is much higher, as expected (6.3%), forcing some retransmissions (nonzero BLER). Lines 6–8 show what each timeslot is used for. Together with the retransmissions (BLER figure), these numbers add up to 100%. Lines 9–12 show GPRS coding scheme usage. If an EGPRS phone had been used, the corresponding MCS (modulation coding scheme) distribution would have been shown instead (only the first two MCS lines appear in the above screenshot).

6.2

Monitoring Handovers

TEMS Investigation enables monitoring of all kinds of handover occurring in UMTS:     GSM handover WCDMA intra-frequency handover WCDMA inter-frequency (“hard”) handover Inter-RAT handover (GSM–WCDMA; GSM–GAN)

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Similarly, TEMS Investigation keeps track of the various types of handoff employed in CDMA networks, including:   Hard handoff (to another frequency, a different band, a different pilot set, or another frame offset, or a combination of these) Handoff between cdma2000, cdmaOne, and EV-DO

WCDMA Handover Analysis window. This window shows in minute detail how the WCDMA active set evolves over time and specifically in the course of soft handover procedures. In the Intra-freq Cells column is displayed the neighbor list of the currently strongest cell. This list is obtained from System Information blocks (SIBs).

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6.3

Monitoring Voice in UMTS

Below is shown a small selection from the range of presentation windows available for studying GSM and WCDMA voice calls.

6.3.1

Serving/Active Set + Neighbors WCDMA

The Serving/Active Set + Neighbors WCDMA window lists all members of the active set as well as monitored (“MN”) and detected (“DN”) neighbors. The strength of each scrambling code is presented in terms of CPICH Ec/No and CPICH RSCP.

6.3.2

Serving + Neighbors GSM

The Serving + Neighbors GSM window presents the BSIC and ARFCN of the serving cell and of up to 32 of the strongest neighboring base stations. The window also presents the path loss and cell reselection criteria (C1 and C2) as well as the GPRS signal strength threshold and cell ranking criteria (C31 and C32). A second version of this window is also provided where cells are sorted by frequency band.

Serving cell

Neighbors

6.3.3

C/A, C/I (GSM)

These windows show the results of adjacent channel and carrier-tointerference ratio measurements.

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Serving cell ARFCN

Adjacent channels

6.4
6.4.1

Monitoring Voice in CDMA
Coverage Analysis

In a heavily loaded CDMA system, coverage testing is essential to ensure that voice quality is not being sacrificed for system capacity. The pilot strength or Ec/Io and frame error rate are measured to analyze coverage area. The pilot channel is a good indication of the coverage area because it always broadcasts with a consistent energy. TEMS Investigation can present this indicator as plain text or in a line chart.

Line chart showing CDMA active set member count and Ec/Io for each member (top subchart), pilot set Ec/Io for each pilot set member (middle subchart), and frame error rate (bottom subchart).

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6.4.2

Active/Candidate/Neighbor Sets

The CDMA Active + Cand + Neigh Set window lists all members of the active, candidate and neighbor sets. The strength of each pilot is presented in terms of Ec/Io.

6.5
6.5.1

Scanning: LTE
LTE Reference Signal Scan

Reference Signals (RSs) in LTE are used for channel estimation. The line chart that follows tracks measurements of Reference Signals. The following quantities are plotted:   RSRP: Reference Signal Received Power RSRQ: Reference Signal Receive Quality. Defined as N × RSRP / RSSI, where N is the number of resource blocks across which RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator) was measured.

Comparing with WCDMA, RSRP is similar to RSCP (Received Signal Code Power) measured on the WCDMA common pilot, while RSRQ is similar to WCDMA Ec/N0. Therefore (although the details differ slightly between the technologies) it can be said generally that RSRP measurements tell whether the cell is interference or coverage limited, while RSRQ measurements give indications of excess interference in unloaded or loaded cells.

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LTE Reference Signal scanning. Charts 1 and 2 show RSRQ and RSRP respectively, summed over all Tx ports. Chart no. 3 shows RSRQ for each Tx port.

The Map window presentation of LTE cell data includes serving cell indication. Cell names and the distance to each cell are given in analysis windows:

6.6
6.6.1

Scanning: WCDMA
CPICH and SCH Scanning

6.6.1.1 Presentation in Bar Charts: CPICH Scan CPICH scan data is presented in the CPICH Scanner bar charts. One predefined bar chart is provided for each UMTS frequency scanned. The

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bar chart can also be configured to show all scrambling codes scanned, independently of frequency. The bar chart by default presents peak Ec/Io for each scrambling code found. It can be sorted by scrambling code (with bars either drawn at fixed code index positions or simply sorted in order of increasing index) or by code power (increasing or decreasing). An accompanying status window shows code power parameters and some other parameters associated with these:

6.6.1.2 Presentation in Line Chart: CPICH Pilot Pollution The CPICH Scanner line charts (again, one chart is provided for each UMTS frequency) are completely user-configurable, like other line charts. If desired, scrambling codes from all scanned frequencies can be presented in the same line chart. The default configuration, however, is as follows:

Line chart depicting CPICH pilot pollution.

The charts present the five strongest scrambling codes on one UMTS frequency: aggregate Ec (top) and aggregate Ec/Io (bottom). The text pane on the left glosses one of the charts at a time. The text pane on the right shows the CPICH pilot pollution situation.

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6.6.1.3 Presentation of Synchronization Channels The Synch Channel Data window presents Ec and Ec/Io for code words on the synchronization channels P-SCH and S-SCH.

6.6.1.4 Missing Neighbor Detection: Optimizing Neighbor Relations1 If one WCDMA cell which is not defined as a neighbor is found to cause interference with the active connection, it may be a good idea to include that cell in the neighbor cell list. Then, if the cell in question enters into the active set, instead of acting as an interferer it will contribute a useful signal (i.e. add to the soft handover gain). Spotting cells with such properties is referred to as “missing neighbor detection”. An event (based on scanner data) indicating this situation in WCDMA is provided in TEMS Investigation.

Along this route, there are repeated indications of a missing neighbor (the events represented by the “bars” symbol). Event details are shown for the highlighted event.

1

Requires either SIB decoding with scanner or loading of a cell file.

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While potentially very useful, addition of neighbors must still be done with caution, since a high number of soft handovers will strain system resources. Also, the distance between the cells must be considered. Cells too far removed from each other should not have a neighbor relation, since terminals far away from a cell site may cause severe uplink interference.

6.6.2

CW Scanning

This method scans specified UMTS frequencies (UARFCNs) for a continuous wave (CW) signal, sent for example by a TEMS Transmitter. CW measurements are appropriate for tuning of propagation models and for site acquisition (in conjunction with a test transmitter). A bar chart displays RSSI for each UARFCN scanned.

6.6.3

Spectrum Analysis

This method scans the whole of the 3GPP frequency spectrum, or a userspecified segment of it, and presents RSSI as a function of frequency in the chosen band. The spectrum analyzer is particularly useful for spotting external narrowband interferers, and for verifying the characteristics of the wideband signal. The scan resolution is adjusted by the user, the maximum being a sample spacing of 5 kHz.

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Spectrum Analyzer bar chart showing the WCDMA frequency bands used by two different operators.

6.6.4

BCH Scanning

Output from BCH scanning. System Information Messages are continuously scanned and decoded. These messages are listed in the Layer 3 Messages window; one has been opened to reveal the contents of System Information Block 7 (Message Details window). In the WCDMA Finger Info window (see below) are given the RSCP, Ec/No and timing (slot position) of each Rake finger.

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6.6.5

Network Scanning

This method searches one or several WCDMA frequency bands for WCDMA carriers (UARFCNs). On each band the search range can be freely customized. The user also sets Ec/No and RSSI thresholds for WCDMA cell detection.

6.6.6

Loading Logfiles from Anritsu Scanner

The Anritsu ML8720 scanner, connectable in TEMS Investigation, is also capable of logging data in logfiles of its own. This logfile format can be read by TEMS Investigation.

6.6.7

Exporting Scan Data to TEMS CellPlanner

CPICH and CW scan data (sections 6.6.1, 6.6.2) can be exported to TEMS CellPlanner (version 6.2.2), where the data can be used for propagation model tuning or presented in map and status windows.

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6.7
6.7.1

Scanning: GSM
Strongest Channels Scan

GSM frequency scans are presented in a bar chart, the basic layout being similar to that of the line chart window. The bar chart itself is generic and can be configured to show any data, but a predefined GSM scanning chart is supplied where the appropriate information elements are already in place.
Strongest channels sorted by decreasing signal strength All channels scanned Min/max indicators

Scanned ARFCNs

For the selected channel it is possible to display real-time min/max indicators keeping track of the range of signal strength variation for that channel. The two panes at the bottom provide room for a legend (left) and for user-selected additional data (right), just as in the line chart.

6.7.2

Adjacent Channels Scan

The image that follows shows an adjacent channel scan where channels are scanned in groups of five, each group consisting of one C0 frequency surrounded by two adjacent channels on each side.

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Bar chart showing adjacent channel scan.

6.8
     

Role of Cell Data in Presentations

Cell data enables the following functions in TEMS Investigation: Drawing of site locations, sector orientations, and neighbor relations in the Map window Serving cell/active set indication (WCDMA: “Best cell” in active set in Cell_DCH mode) Best server indication on the map In logfile reports: association of statistics with individual cells; computation of cell ranking based on these statistics Sorting of scrambling codes by the neighbor list in the CPICH Scanner bar chart 2 Generation of “missing neighbor” event in WCDMA (see section 6.6.1, “Missing Neighbor Detection: Optimizing Neighbor Relations”) and GSM 2 Presentation of cell names in status windows and line charts Presentation of distance to cell in status windows (LTE, TD-SCDMA)

 

2

Requires scanner; on the other hand, if the scanner decodes System Information, no cell file is needed.

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6.9

Monitoring of Events and Signaling

Layer 3 messages sent and received by the phone are listed in a message window. Individual messages can be inspected in unabridged, plain-text format.

Layer 3 Messages window with plain-text decoding of an event.

All of the phone’s internal reports, used by TEMS Investigation to generate views, graphs, statistical summaries, and events, are presented in the Mode Reports browser. Double-clicking a report will launch an associated decode window, showing the parameters in plain English.

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Mode Reports window with plain-text decoding of a message.

6.10

Seeing the Big Picture: Uplink Data (GSM)

TEMS Investigation logfiles contain downlink data only. If the cellular network uses Ericsson infrastructure, however, they can be augmented with Mobile Traffic Recordings (MTR files). MTR revision R10 as well as MTR 2005 in binary format are supported. The benefit of studying uplink data is that it yields a clearer picture of what is going on in the network and thus permits the network analyst to draw more informed conclusions.

6.10.1 Example 1: Handover
Decisions about handovers are made for the phone by the network (normally in the BSC), and not by the phone itself. The phone contributes in the decision-making process by reporting the signal strength of neighboring cells, but the network bases the neighbor ranking and the resulting handover decisions on other information as well (independent measurements of signal strength, and also estimates of radio quality and timing advance).

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Neighbor ranking

The TEMS Investigation logfile contains only the phone’s own “advisory” measurements, whereas the uplink data includes the final decision arrived at by the BSC (expressed as ranking of neighbors). Therefore, the uplink data shows more clearly how the phone interacts with the network.

6.10.2 Example 2: Handover and Power Control
The following chart illustrates interaction between the phone and the cellular system.

Downlink RxLev

Uplink RxLev

MS transmit power attenuation

BTS transmit power attenuation

Uplink Line Chart. The top chart shows uplink and downlink signal strength (RxLev), and the bottom chart shows the transmit power of the base station and phone respectively. Several handovers take place in this segment, each indicated by a hand symbol. After each handover, in its new cell, the phone starts transmitting at maximum transmit power (as it always does). This causes the uplink RxLev to rise sharply. The dynamic power control algorithm finds that this power level is excessive and promptly lowers it again. In the present example, receiving conditions are fairly uniform across all cells involved, as evidenced by the stable downlink RxLev.

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7

Logfile Reading Capabilities

TEMS Investigation is capable of loading logfiles from previous versions of the product as well as a range of other sources. It is worth underlining that all these files can be opened and played back on-the-fly in TEMS Investigation, without the need for any awkward import or conversion procedure. The TEMS Investigation application can load logfiles from the following TEMS products:               TEMS Investigation 12.0, 11.x, 10.x, 9.x, 8.x, 7.x, 6.x TEMS Investigation GSM 5.x, 4.x, 3.x TEMS Investigation EDGE 1.x TEMS Investigation WCDMA 3.x, 2.x TEMS DriveTester GSM–TDMA 1.x (GSM logfiles) TEMS Pocket 8.x3, 7.x, 6.x, 5.x TEMS Automatic 8.x, 7.x, 6.x (any MTU and TEMS Pocket Remote logfiles) TEMS Automatic 5.x (any MTU logfiles) TEMS Automatic 4.x (MTU logfiles recorded with GSM-only MTUs) TEMS Automatic 3.x, 2.5

TEMS Investigation can also replay EFEM logfiles from Motorola phones MDM logfiles logfiles from Anritsu ML8720 scanners (i.e. files logged by the scanner itself) MTR files (GSM)

3

Please note that TEMS Pocket 8.x logfiles must first be converted using a PC utility that is delivered with TEMS Pocket 8.x.

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8

Logfile Export and Logfile Report Generation

TEMS Investigation offers a wide range of analysis and post-processing functions. This chapter deals with functions not covered in chapter 6: logfile export and logfile reporting. Still more advanced and elaborate post-processing can be undertaken with TEMS Discovery; for the full story on this product, see the TEMS Discovery Technical Product Description. Note in particular that KPI reports are now produced with TEMS Discovery.

8.1

Export of Logfiles

Logfiles can be converted to plain-text (ASCII) files with tab-separated columns, conveniently viewed with a spreadsheet program. Logfiles can also be exported in formats that are compatible with MapInfo, ArcView, or Planet.

8.2

Logfile Reports

From one or several logfiles the user can generate a report in HTML format which summarizes the data in the logfiles. When the report is ready it is opened in the default web browser (Internet Explorer® 6.0 or later). A large set of parameters can be thresholded and graphed. The logfile report has the following main sections:      Header: Date and time of report generation Logfile information: File names and used equipment Thresholds: Detailed statistics on crossing of thresholds (by cell) Events: Event statistics Quality parameters: Distribution bar charts of quality parameter measurements, and statistics on these measurements

The output involving cell data naturally requires a cell file in order to be generated.

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9
9.1

Connectable Equipment
Phones, Data Cards, and Scanners Offered with TEMS Investigation 12.0
Phones and Data Cards

9.1.1
    

Phones supporting PESQ are tagged as such. Sony Ericsson W995 PESQ, W995a PESQ, W995 EDGE PESQ Nokia C5 Nokia N96 US Sierra Wireless AC 503 HTC Touch Pro 2

9.1.2

Scanners

9.1.2.1 UMTS TEMS scanners:    SRU WCDMA 900/1900/2100 + GSM 850/900/1800/1900 SRU WCDMA 850/1900/2100 + GSM 850/900/1800/1900 Scanner Sony Ericsson W995 EDGE, GSM 850/900/1800/1900

In addition, scanning functionality is offered as an option with the following phones:  Sony Ericsson W995, W995a, W995 EDGE (EDGE version: GSM scanning only)

SRUs:   SRU WCDMA 900/1900/2100 + GSM 850/900/1800/1900 SRU WCDMA 850/1900/2100 + GSM 850/900/1800/1900

PCTel scanners:        PCTel SeeGull LX GSM 850/1900 PCTel SeeGull LX GSM 900/1800 PCTel SeeGull LX WCDMA 850/2100 PCTel SeeGull EX WCDMA 2100 AWS (Band IV) + GSM 1900 PCTel SeeGull EX WCDMA 2100 AWS (Band IV) + GSM 850/1900 PCTel SeeGull EX WCDMA 2100 + GSM 900/1800 PCTel SeeGull EX WCDMA 850/1900 + GSM 850/1900

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    

PCTel SeeGull EX WCDMA 900/2100 + GSM 900/1800 PCTel SeeGull EX mini WCDMA 2100 PCTel SeeGull EX mini WCDMA 2100 AWS (Band IV) PCTel SeeGull EX mini WCDMA 900/2100 PCTel SeeGull EX mini WCDMA 850/1900

Notes on PCTel scanners: BSIC scanning is included in all GSM scanner licenses. GSM C/I scanning requires the purchase of an additional option. Bands given are downlink bands. 9.1.2.2 LTE          DRT4301A+ LTE 700/850/1900/2100 AWS DRT4301A+ LTE 900/1800/2100 AWS/2600 PCTel SeeGull EX LTE Lower 700-B/C / 2100 AWS (DL) PCTel SeeGull EX LTE Upper 700-C/Lower 700-A/B/C (UL/DL) PCTel SeeGull EX LTE 2600/800 (UL/DL) PCTel SeeGull EX LTE 2600/1800 (DL) PCTel SeeGull EX mini LTE Lower 700-A/B/C (UL/DL) PCTel SeeGull EX mini LTE Upper 700-C / 2100 AWS (DL) PCTel SeeGull EX mini LTE 2600 (DL)

9.1.2.3 TD-SCDMA   PCTel SeeGull EX mini TD-SCDMA 2000 MHz (Band 34) PCTel SeeGull EX TD-SCDMA 2000 MHz (Band 34) and GSM 900/1800

9.1.2.4 CDMA      PCTel SeeGull LX 1x 450 PCTel SeeGull LX EV-DO 450 PCTel SeeGull EX 1x 850/1900 + EV-DO 850/1900 PCTel SeeGull EX 1x 2100 AWS + EV-DO 2100 AWS PCTel SeeGull EX mini 1x 1900/2100 AWS

9.1.2.5 WiMAX   DRT4301A+ WiMAX (802.16e) 2.5/3.5 GHz DRT4301A+ WiMAX (802.16e) 2.3/2.5 GHz

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9.2

Selected Capabilities of Devices Offered with TEMS Investigation 12.0

The devices sold with TEMS Investigation 12.0 are entered in boldface in the table.
Feature/Device SE W995 SE W995a SE W995 EDGE Nokia C5 Nokia N96 US HTC TP2 Sierra Wireless AC503

WCDMA 800 WCDMA 850 WCDMA 900 WCDMA 1700 WCDMA 1900 WCDMA 2100 WCDMA 2100 AWS GSM 850 GSM 900 GSM 1800 GSM1900 External antenna4 AQM capable HSDPA Category HSUPA Category GPRS Class EDGE Class GSM scanning WCDMA scanning TEMS Pocket Control functionality
5

         
8 5 10 10

         
9 5 10 10 32 32 32 32 5/6 7/8 5 12 12

          

      
8 5 10 10

    

    

   

14 6 12 10

  
A

  
A

  
A B B

4 5

I.e. external antenna solution offered as option by TEMS. A = Advanced; B = Basic

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9.3

Scanning Support by Device (WCDMA)

The following table shows what WCDMA scanning methods are supported with each of the listed device types connected to TEMS Investigation.6
Scanning Capability/Device Pilot scanning, static SC set Pilot scanning, Top N Pilot: SIB decoding (continuous) Pilot: SIB decoding (snapshot) Pilot: High Speed/High Dynamic Pilot: P-SCH + S-SCH Pilot: No. of UARFCNs SCH scanning RSSI scanning Spectrum analysis Network scanning 12 1 or 2 7 4 12 Sony Ericsson Anritsu PCTel SeeGull LX PCTel SeeGull EX

The situation is simpler for the other technologies; see sections 5.6, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, and 5.11.

9.4

GPS Devices

TEMS Investigation supports the NMEA-0183 GPS protocol. Some other GPS units using a different protocol are also compatible with TEMS Investigation, including the GPS built into the supported PCTel scanners. This is the full list of recommended GPS units:       Bosch/Blaupunkt TravelPilot Garmin 10 Mobile Bluetooth (NMEA-0183) Garmin 12XL (NMEA-0183) Garmin 18 USB Garmin 18x USB Garmin 35 (NMEA-0183)

6

The devices themselves may possess further scanning capabilities currently not made use of by TEMS Investigation. 7 Depending on physical configuration.

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         

Garmin 60 CSx USB GlobalSat BT-359 (NMEA-0183) GlobalSat BT-368 (NMEA-0183) GlobalSat BU-303 (NMEA-0183) GlobalSat BU-353 (NMEA-0183) Holux GPSlim 236 (NMEA-HS; Bluetooth or USB) Magnetti Marelli RoutePlanner NAV200 Nokia LD-3W Bluetooth (NMEA-0183) Sanav GM-44 (NMEA-0183) Sanav GM-158 (NMEA-0183)

9.5

Accessories

In addition to the standard packages, the following optional items can be delivered:      Equipment cases GPS units TEMS Pocket-enabled Sony Ericsson and Nokia phones Laptops tested with TEMS Investigation 12.0 Indoor backpack including battery solution

The indoor backpack contains everything (including battery pack and serial converter) needed to operate a scanner in indoor and pedestrian environments. It accommodates any of the PCTel models as well as a DRT scanner and one standalone downlink AQM module. Please contact Ascom for further information on the available accessories.

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10
10.1

Hardware and Software Requirements
Hardware and Software Requirements for TEMS Investigation Application

TEMS Investigation is designed to run on a standard PC and interfaces with the connected devices mainly through USB or serial ports. Administrator rights are not needed to run the application (only to install it). Processor and RAM requirements are strongly dependent on what external devices are connected and what tasks they perform. The recommended minimum configuration is: Pentium T7200 or AMD TL-58 class CPU, preferably with dedicated graphics card from ATI or nVidia; 1 GB RAM. Please note that it is not advisable to collect data with more than one device, or to collect data in an LTE or HSPA network, using this configuration.

10.1.1 Other Hardware Requirements
       One USB port for each phone One USB port for each standalone AQM module One USB port for each USB scanner USB port, Bluetooth port, or serial port for GPS ExpressCard/34 slot or PC Card slot for any data card user terminals Sound card and loudspeakers for event audio indications Graphics: 1024  768 (SVGA) with at least 16 bit colors (High Color)

10.1.2 Software Requirements
    .NET Framework version 3.5 Internet Explorer 6.0 or higher required for Report Generator and online help Microsoft® Core XML Services (MSXML) 6.0 required for support of XML-format cell files (not included in Windows XP) Microsoft DirectX 9.0c required for video streaming measurements

10.1.3 Supported Operating Systems
    Windows 7, Professional Edition Windows Vista with Service Pack 1, Enterprise Edition Windows XP Professional with Service Pack 3 Windows XP Tablet PC Edition with Service Pack 3

All the latest Windows updates should always be installed.
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Supported OS languages are English (U.S.), Chinese (simplified characters), and Japanese.

10.2

Hardware and Software Requirements for Call Generator

Audio quality measurements (AQM) require the use of either an MRU or a Call Generator: see section 5.4. Requirements on the machine hosting a Call Generator are as follows:    1.6 GHz processor, 1 GB RAM 2.7 GB free space on disk Free full-length PCI Express or PCI slot for installing the Dialogic card. For PCI, an adjacent PCI slot must also be free (otherwise there is not enough room for the circuitry on the card). Windows Server 2008 (64-bit version) or Windows Server 2003 (32-bit version)

10.3

Requirements for TEMS UDP Server Software

UDP testing makes use of TEMS software installed on the PC that functions as UDP server. This PC needs to have one of the following operating systems installed: Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2003, Windows 7, Windows Vista, or Windows XP.

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