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# CHAPTER 1 ABSTRACT

Due to rapid advances in VLSI design technology, the complexity and size of circuits have been rapidly increasing as well as placing demand on industry for faster and more efficient CAD tool. Physical design is a process of converting the physical description into geometric description. Physical design process is subdivided into four problems a) Partitioning b) floor planning c) Placement d) Routing. In this process, placement phase determines the position of cells in the silicon wafer. Generally, the placement phase contains two types of problems like standard and macro cell placement problem. This project aims to develop an efficient,a low time complexity algorithm for placement. This can be achieved by use of Genetic algorithm(GA).GA is one of the popular optimization algorithm which will support the multi objective optimization and flexible for hybrid applications.In this project, the main objective is wirelength minimization in the macro cell placement

CHAPTER 2

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INTRODUCTION

The size of present-day computing systems demands the elimination of repetitive manual operations and computations in their design.This motivates the development of automatic design systems.To accomplish this task, a fundamental understanding of the design problem and full knowledge of the design process are essential.Only then could one hope to efficiently and automatically fill the gap between system specification and manufacturing . Automation of a given (design)process requires an algorithmic analysis of it.The availability of fast and easily implementable algorithms is essential to the discipline.In order to take full advantage of the resources in the very-large-scale integration (VLSI) environment, new procedures must be developed.The efficiency of these techniques must be evaluated against the inherent limitations of VLSI.Previous contributions are a valuable starting point for future improvements in design performance and evaluation. Physical design (or layout phase) is the process of determining the physical location of active devices and interconnecting them inside the boundary of a VLSI chip (i .e ., an integrated circuit).The measure of the quality of a given solution to the circuit layout problem is the efficiency with which the circuit (corresponding to a given problem) can be laid out according to the formal (design) rules dictated by the VLSI technology . Since the cost of fabricating a circuit is a function of the circuit area, circuit layout techniques aim to produce layouts with a small area. Also, a smaller area implies fewer defects, hence a higher yield . These layouts must have a special structure to guarantee their wirability (using a small number of planes in the third dimension).Other criteria of optimality, for example, wire length length minimization, delay minimization, power minimization, and via minimization also have to be taken into consideration.In present-day systems, delay minimization is becoming more crucial.The aim is to design circuits that are fast while having small area. Indeed,in "aggressive" designs, used for example in the medical electronics industry,speed and reliability are the main objectives. In the past two decades, research has been directed toward automation of layout process.Many invaluable techniques have been proposed.The early layout techniques, designed for printed circuit boards containing a small number of components, assumed a fixed position for the components.The earliest work along this line, proposed in [200], is a wiring algorithm based on the propagation of distance wave .Its simplicity and effectiveness have been the reasons for its success. As the number of components increased and with the

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advent of VLSI technology, efficient algorithms for placing the components and effective techniques for component (or cell) generation and wiring have been proposed. Because of the inherent complexity of the layout problem, it is generally partitioned into simpler subproblems, with the analysis of each of these parts providing new insights into the original problem as a whole.In this framework,the objective is to view the layout problem as a collection of subproblems;each subproblem should be efficiently solved, and the solutions of the subproblems should be effectively combined.Indeed, a circuit is typically designed in a hierarchical fashion.At the highest level of hierarchy, a set of ICs are interconnected. Within each IC, a set of modules, for example, memory units, ALUs, inputoutput ports,and random logic, are arranged.Each module consists of a set of gates, where each gate is formed by interconnecting a collection of transistors.Transistors and their interconnections are defined by the corresponding masks.

**CHAPTER 3 VLSI PHYSICAL DESIGN
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Vlsi physical design consist of following steps:1. Partitioning 2. Floorplanning 3. Placement 4. Routing 3.1 PARTITIONING Partitioning is the task of dividing a circuit into smaller parts.The objective is to partition the circuit into parts, so that the size of each component is within prescribed ranges and the number of connections between the components is minimized.Different ways to partition correspond to different circuit implementations.Therefore,a good partitioning can significantly improve circuit performance and reduce layout costs.A hypergraph and a partition of it is shown in Figure 3.1a. The cut (or general cuts) defines the partition . 3.2 FLOORPLANNING Floorplanning is the determination of the approximate location of each module in a rectangular chip area, given a circuit represented by a hypergraph,the shape of each module and the location of the pins on the boundary of each module may also be determined in this phase.The floorplanning problem in chip layout is analogous to floorplanning in building design, where we have a set of rooms (modules) and wish to decide the approximate location of each room based on some proximity criteria . An important step in floorplanning is to decide the relative location of each module.A good floorplanning algorithm should achieve many goals, such as making the subsequent routing phase easy, minimizing the total chip area, and reducing signal delays .The floorplan corresponding to the partitioning is shown in Figure 3.1b . Typically, each module has a set of implementations, each of which has a different area, aspect ratio, delay, and power consumption, and the best implementation for each module should be obtained.

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Usually.Fig 3. alternative cost functions are employed. that is.4 ROUTING 5 . it is hard to control it . Thus. when each module is fixed.3 PLACEMENT Placement. is the determination of the best position for each module . where each module has a fixed shape and area.1c. has fixed shape and fixed terminals. The placement corresponding to the partitioning is shown in Figure 3.Although area is the major concern. 3.There are two prevalent cost functions : wire-lengthbased and cut-based. some modules have fixed positions (eg:1/O pads).1: Hierarchial steps in vlsi physical design 3.

where vertical and horizontal wires can run in both layers .In order to interconnect a horizontal and vertical segment. More recently. . A global routing based on the placement shown in Figure 3.This decomposition is carried out by finding a "rough" path(sequence of "subregions" it passes) for each net in order to reduce the chip size.1e. Global routing 2. CHAPTER 4 6 . the horizontal segments are typically realized in metal while the vertical segments are realized in polysilicon.1d is shown in fig 3. Detailed routing Global routing decomposes a large routing problem into small. and evenly distribute the congestion over the routing area .a contact (via) must be placed at the intersection points. manageable problems for detailed routing .1c is shown in Figure 3.The method first partitions the routing region into a collection of disjoint rectilinear subregions. where horizontal wires are routed on one layer and vertical wires are routed in the other layer. the unpreserved layer model has also been discussed. shorten the wire length.Routing may be of two types:1.For integrated circuits.A detailed routing corresponding to the global routing shown in Figure 3.1d Detailed routing follows the global routing to effectively realize interconnections in VLSI circuits.The traditional model of detailed routing is the two-layer Manhattan model with reserved layers.

1 PLACEMENT TYPES Placement algorithms can be divided into two major classes: constructive placement and iterative improvement. each with a number of terminals at fixed positions along the edges of the cell ii) a netlist specifying the interconnections of all terminals iii) an approximate horizontal length W of the cell to be constructed. The main reason for their use is their speed. As input we have i) a set of cells. Iterative improvement algorithms typically produce good 7 . but typically result in poor layouts. If a modification results in a reduction in cost. algorithms start with an initial placement and repeatedly modify it in search of a cost reduction. such that the wire length is minimized.It is to be determined so that the area is minimized subject to the following constraints: i) no pair of cells overlap each other ii) the space inside R not occupied by cells is sufficiently large to contain all routing necessary to realize all specified interconnections To meet the second constraint. the modification is accepted. in iterative improvement.The following definition is used in this paper. otherwise it is rejected. The macro cell placement problem is to find absolute coordinates for the lower left corner of each cell. In constructive placement. They take a negligible amount of computation time compared to iterative improvement algorithms and provide a good starting point for them.PLACEMENT PROBLEM In the literature the definition of the macro cell placement problem varies slightly. 4. a method is used to build up a placement from scratch. the area needed for routing is estimated during the placement. These algorithms are now used for generating an initial placement for iterative improvement algorithms. Early constructive placement algorithms were generally based on primitive connectivity rules Then other modules are selected one at a time in order of their connectivity to the placed modules (most densely connected first) and are placed at a vacant location close to the placed modules. Such algorithms are generally very fast.

The simplest iterative improvement strategy interchanges randomly selected pairs of modules and accepts the interchange if it results in a reduction in cost . An improvement over this algorithm is repeated iterative improvement in which the iterative improvement process is repeated several times with different initial configurations in the hope of obtaining a good configuration in one of the trials. on the other hand. The algorithm is terminated when there is no further improvement during a given large number of trials. Other possible classifications for placement algorithms are deterministic algorithms and probabilistic algorithms. Probabilistic algorithms. Constructive algorithms are usually deterministic. work by randomly examining configurations and may produce a different result each time they are run. Algorithms that function on the basis of fixed connectivity rules or formulas or determine the placement by solving simultaneous equations are deterministic and will always produce the same result.placements but require enormous amounts of computation time. whereas iterative improvement algorithms are usually probabilistic CHAPTER 5 8 .

The idea is to search the entire solution space by considering every possible solution and evaluating the cost of each solution.Finally. it means they take a lifetime to run. 9 .Such algorithms are of practical importance.SOLUTIONS TO PLACEMENT PROBLEM As a solution to placement problem many suboptimal algorithms.Based upon this evaluation. they do not always produce globally optimal solutions. The following algorithmic paradigms have been employed in most subproblems arising in VLSI layout. greedy algorithms are simpler than other classes of algorithms . the value of an optimal solution is computed in a bottom-up fashion .a number of efficient algorithmic techniques have been proposed. 5.Each subproblem is solved once.3 DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING A problem is partitioned into a collection of subproblems.2 GREEDY APPROACH Algorithms for optimization problems go through a number of steps . is made . or a set of choices.1 EXHAUSTIVE SEARCH The most naive paradigm is exhaustive search.first the structure of an optimal solution is characterized and the value of an optimal solution is recursively defined.those that are fast and produce good quality solutions.Dynamic programming is applied when the subproblems are not independent.exhaustive search produces optimal solutions. and then the original problem is solved by combining the solutions. In greedy algorithms the choice that results in a locally optimal solution is made . the subproblems are solved. one of the best solutions is selected.Certainly. At each step. The main problem is that such algorithms are very slow-"very slow" does not mean that they take a few hours or a few days to run . 5. have been designed.However. and the solution is saved for other subproblems. 5.Typically.Alternatively.In dynamic programming. a choice.

There is a tree-structured configuration space .5 MATHEMATICAL PROGRAMMING In the mathematical programming approach. a problem is also partitioned into a set of subproblems.8 GENETIC ALGORITHMS 10 .The partition is usually done in a top-down fashion and the solution is constructed in a bottom-up fashion . 5. 5.7 BRANCH AND BOUND This is a general and usually inefficient method for solving optimization problems .there is a set of constraints expressed as a collection of inequalities.5.When the objective function and all inequalities are expressed as a linear combination of the involved variables then the system is called a linear system.4 HIERARCHICAL APPROACH In this approach. 5. the set of feasible solutions) of the problem in sequence .This technique used is especially useful when the solution space of the problem is not well understood.The sizes of the subproblems are typically balanced. 5.The objective function is a minimization (or maximization) problem subject to a set of constraints. The algorithm evaluates the feasible solutions it encounters and moves from one solution to another .The subproblems are independent and the partitions are recursive.The aim is to avoid searching the entire space by stopping at nodes when an optimal solution cannot be obtained .The idea originated from observing crystal formation of physical materials.6 SIMULATED ANNEALING Simulated annealing is a technique used to solve general optimization problems.A simulated annealing algorithm examines the configurations (ie. It is generally hard to claim anything about the running time of such algorithms.

be modified) through successive generations.e ...e. a population of solutions(i. quality) of the solution .To create a new generation.The solutions to be selected in the next generation are probabilistically selected based on a fitness value..e. CHAPTER 6 11 .At each stage of a genetic algorithm.a solution subspace)to the problem is stored and allowed to evolve(i. new solutions are formed by merging previous solutions(called crossover) or by modifying previous solutions (called mutation).The fitness value is a measure of the competence (i .

a recombination of the good characteristics of each ancestor can produce “best fit” offspring whose fitness is greater than that of a parent. shelter and so on. and search optimization problems. species evolve spontaneously to become more and more adapted to their environment. After a few generations. The most popular technique in evolutionary computation research has been the genetic algorithm. games playing. which solves concrete. Holland developed this idea in his book “Adaptation in natural and artificial systems”. In nature. timetabling.He described how to apply the principles of natural evolution to optimization problems and built the first Genetic Algorithms. GAs are used to resolve complicated optimization problems. Holland’s theory has been further developed and now Genetic Algorithms (GAs) stand up as a powerful tool for solving search and optimization problems. In the traditional genetic algorithm. The perfect shapes of the albatross wring the efficiency and the similarity between sharks and dolphins and so on. Genetic algorithms are based on the principle of genetics and evolution. GAs are an example of mathematical technology transfer: by simulating evolution one can solve optimization problems from a variety of sources. which describe many different phenomena and solve wide variety of problems. poorly performing individuals have less chance to survive. individuals compete to attract mates for reproduction. Over several generations. an individual in population competes with each other for virtual resources like food. The power of mathematics lies in technology transfer: there exist certain models and methods. Each position in the string is assumed to represent a particular feature of an individual. Due to this selection. like. jobshop scheduling. and the most adapted or “fit” individuals produce a relatively large number of offspring’s. In 1975. the representation used is a fixedlength bit string. Also in the same species.GENETIC ALGORITHM 6. biological organisms evolve based on the principle of natural selection “survival of the fittest” to reach certain remarkable tasks.Thus. it works so well in nature. Today. It can also be noted that during reproduction. are best examples of achievement of random evolution over intelligence.1 INTRODUCTION TO GENETIC ALGORITHM Charles Darwin stated the theory of natural evolution in the origin of species. and the value stored in that position represents how that feature is expressed in the 12 . as a result it should be interesting to simulate natural evolution and to develop a method.

13 . for example. Crossover. Fig. if N parents are selected. The analogy may be drawn directly to genes in biological organisms. Fig.. For example. and the offspring that are created replace the parents. Usually.1 Bit-string crossover of parents a & b to form offspring c & d The main reproduction operator used is bit-string crossover. the string is “evaluated as a collection of structural features of a solution that have little or no interactions”. 6. individuals are selected to be parents probabilistically based upon their fitness values. in which a single bit in the string is flipped to form a new offspring string (see Fig 6. inversion. but are used less frequently (e. in which a subsequence in the bit string is reversed).A primary distinction that may be made between the various operators is whether or not they introduce any new information into the population.g.1). 6. Traditionally. then N offspring are generated which replace the parents in the next generation.does not while mutation does. All operators are also constrained to manipulate the string in a manner consistent with the structural interpretation of genes.2). in which two strings are used as parents and new individuals are formed by swapping a sub-sequence between the two strings (see Fig. For example.2 Bit-flipping mutation of parent a to form offspring b A variety of other operators have also been developed. two genes at the same location on two strings may be swapped between parents.6.but not combined based on their values.solution. Another popular operator is bit-flipping mutation. Each gene represents an entity that is structurally independent of other genes.

To start there is usually a totally random population. Irrespective of the above classification. Sometimes. energy landscape. Parallel algorithms are usually used to speed up processing. some cases in which it is more efficient to run several processors in parallel rather than sequentially. To do optimization we need a cost function or fitness function as it is usually called when genetic algorithms are used. These cases include among others such.e. In addition optimization algorithms can be classified as local or global.2 COMPARISON OF GENETIC ALGORITHM WITH OTHER OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES The principle of GAs is simple: imitate genetics and natural selection by a computer program: The parameters of the problem are coded most naturally as a DNA-like linear data structure. like in the case of eyewitness. however. called population. The main criteria used to classify optimization algorithms are as follows: continuous / discrete.6. of these problem dependent parameter value vectors is processed by GA. a vector or a string. By a fitness function we can select the best solution candidates from the population and delete the not so good specimens. multimodal etc.So. Typical population size is from few dozens to thousands. In terms of energy and entropy local search corresponds to entropy while global optimization depends essentially on the fitness i.Therefore it is instructive to notice that continuous methods are sometimes used to solve inherently discrete problems and vice versa. The nice thing when comparing GAs to other optimization methods is that the fitness function can be nearly anything that can be evaluated by a computer or even something that cannot! In the latter case it might be a human judgement that cannot be stated as a crisp program. There is a clear difference between discrete and continuous problems. constrained / unconstrained and sequential / parallel. Genetic algorithm differs from conventional optimization techniques in following ways: 14 . there are not any definite mathematical restrictions on the properties of the fitness function.A set. It may be discrete. There are. the values of different parameters generated by a random number generator. where a human being selects among the alternatives generated by GA. when the problem is naturally two or threedimensional also corresponding array structures are used. in which there is high probability of each individual search run to get stuck into a local extreme. optimizationmethods can be further classified into deterministic and non-deterministic methods.

Solution space is wider 4. 12. Very robust to difficulties in the evaluation of the objective function... 9. GA works with the coding of solution set and not with the solution itself. Easily modified for different problems. The key point to be performed here is to identify and specify a meaningful decoding function.. As a result. 8. Liability 3.e. They require no knowledge or gradient information about the response surface 15 . The problem has multi objective function 7. 1. GAs use probabilistic transition operates while conventional methods for continuous optimization apply deterministic transition operates i. poorly understood search spaces easily 11. 2. The fitness landscape is complex 5. Easy to discover global optimum 6. 3. 13.3 ADVANTAGES OF GENETIC ALGORITHM The advantages of genetic algorithm includes. Parallelism 2. GA uses fitness function for evaluation rather than derivatives. 6. Only uses function evaluations. This plays a major role to the robustness of genetic algorithms. Handles large.1. GAs does not use deterministic rules. 10. GA uses population of solutions rather than a single solution fro searching. It improves the chance of reaching the global optimum and also helps in avoiding local stationary point. 4. Good for multi-modal problems Returns a suite of solutions. they can be applied to any kind of continuous or discrete optimization problem. Handles noisy functions well. Almost all conventional optimization techniques search from a single point but GAs always operate on a whole population of points(strings) i. GAs operate with coded versions of the problem parameters rather than parameters themselves i.e.e.

Configuration is not straightforward 6. Not good at identifying local optima 8. Nonlinear dynamical systems–predicting. Finding shape of protein molecules 16 . the selection method and its strength. A few applications of GA are as follows: 1. 3. Discontinuities present on the response surface have little effect on overall optimization performance 15. Robot trajectory planning Evolving LISP programs (genetic programming) 4. Premature convergence occurs 4. No effective terminator. Definition of representation for the problem 3. for evolving pictures and music. 5. They perform very well for large-scale optimization problems 17. Not effective for smooth unimodal functions 10. They are resistant to becoming trapped in local optima 16. cross over rate. Cannot easily incorporate problem specific information 7.14. Strategy planning 5.4 THE LIMITATIONS OF GENETIC ALGORITHM 1.mutation rate. data analysis 2. 11. Require large number of response (fitness) function evaluations 13. Have trouble finding the exact global optimum 12. 9. Can be employed for a wide variety of optimization problems 6.5 APPLICATIONS OF GENETIC ALGORITHM Genetic algorithms have been used for difficult problems (such as NP-hard problems). The problem of identifying fitness function 2. 6. for machine learning and also for evolving simple programs. Needs to be coupled with a local search technique. The problem of choosing the various parameters like the size of the population. They have been also used for some art. Cannot use gradients.

6 ALGORITHM An algorithm is a series of steps for solving a problem. graph coloring and partitioning 6. pursuit 9. Appropriate representation and reproduction operators are really something determinant.Frequently. A genetic algorithm is a problem solving method that uses genetics as its model of problem solving. enumeration is soon no longer feasible simply because it would take far too much time. Practically they all work in a similar way. missile evasion. facility scheduling. Combinatorial Optimization–set covering.e. aircraft design. A set of reproduction operators has to be determined. Sequence scheduling. Functions for creating images 8. The problem consists in finding out the solution that fits the best. resource allocation 11. Control–gas pipeline. but certainly not the most straightforward one of a Genetic Algorithm. GA handles a population of possible solutions. and are used to perform mutations and recombinations over solutions of the problem. Design–semiconductor communication networks layout. Machine Learning–Designing neural networks. from all the possible solutions. the one with the most payoffs. If it’s possible to quickly enumerate all the solutions. But. an optimization problem looks really simple. Each solution is represented through a chromosome. It’s a search technique to find approximate solutions to optimization and search problems. One knows the form of all possible solutions corresponding to a specific question. when the search space becomes large. both architecture and weights. as the behavior of the GA is extremely dependant on it.Basically.6. improving classification algorithms. routing. Reproduction operators are applied directly on the chromosomes. it can be extremely difficult to find a representation. keyboard configuration. 10. too. TSP and sequence scheduling 7. classifier systems 12. The set of all the solutions that meet this form constitute the search space. i. Signal Processing–filter design 13. pole balancing. the problem does not raise much difficulty. Coding all the possible solutions into a chromosome is the first part. Genetic Algorithms provides one of these methods. Scheduling–manufacturing. which is just an abstract representation. adapting the simple genetics to algorithmic mechanisms. bin packing. In this it’s needed to use a specific technique to find the optimal solution. traveling salesman (TSP). which respects the 17 .

the adaptation is quite easy. if the problem consists in minimizing a cost function. For generating new chromosomes. Either the cost function can be transformed into a fitness function. the algorithm can use both recombination and mutation. REPRODUCTION In the second step. the genetic algorithm loops over an iteration process to make the population evolve. 2. which maximizes the fitness function. which are coherent and relevant according to the properties of the problems. or the selection can be adapted in such way that they consider individuals with low evaluation functions as better. the initial population is generated randomly. Selection is supposed to be able to compare each individual in the population. The fitness should correspond to an evaluation of how good the candidate solution is. SELECTION The first step consists in selecting individuals for reproduction. for example by inverting it. But. This first population must offer a wide diversity of genetic materials. Selection is done by using a fitness function. EVALUATION Then the fitness of the new chromosomes is evaluated.structure of the search space and reproduction operators. The optimal solution is the one. The gene pool should be as large as possible so that any solution of the search space can be engendered. Each chromosome has an associated value corresponding to the fitness of the solution it represents. Genetic Algorithms deal with the problems that maximize the fitness function.Then. Each iteration consists of the following steps: 1. 3. Generally. Once the reproduction and the fitness function have been properly defined.This selection is done randomly with a probability depending on the relative fitness of the individuals so that best ones are often chosen for reproduction than poor ones. It starts by generating an initial population of chromosomes. a Genetic Algorithm is evolved according to the same basic structure. offspring are bred by the selected individuals. 18 .

With a mutation probability.7 FLOWCHART START 19 . offspring is the exact copy of parents. cross over the parents to form new offspring ( children). 5. The basic genetic algorithm is as follows: 1. 7. individuals from the old population are killed and replaced by the new ones. Evaluate the fitness f(x) of each chromosome x in the population 3. If there is any improvement in fitness function stop running program else goto step1. the bigger chance to get selected). Create a new population by repeating following steps until the New population is complete 4. 6. mutate new offspring at each locus (position in chromosome) 8. REPLACEMENT During the last step. If no crossover was performed.4. If there is any improvement in fitness function goto step 7 else goto step1.The algorithmis stoppedwhen the population converges toward the optimal solution. With a crossover probability. Genetic random population of n chromosomes (suitable solutions for the problem) 2. select two parent chromosomes from a population according to their fitness ( the better fitness. 6.

CREATE INITIAL RANDOM POPULATION EVALUATE FITNESS FOR EACH POPULATION STORE BEST INDIVIDUAL CREATING MATING POOL CREATE NEXT GENERATION BY APPLYING CROSSOVER OPTIMAL OR GOOD SOLUTION ??/? ??FOUND? PERFORM MUTATION OPTIMAL OR GOOD SOLUTION FOUND? STOP CHAPTER 7 STEPS IN GENETIC ALGORIHM 20 .

The problem is how to select these chromosomes. Selecting parents.1.. 2. Chromosomes are selected from the initial population to be parents for reproduction. This selection pressure drives the GA to improve the population fitness over the successive generations. The Fig 7. It is in this process.Selection is a method that randomly picks chromosomes out of the population according to their evaluation function. The higher the fitness function. the more the better individuals are favored. 21 . 3.7. the next step is to decide how to perform selection i. how to choose individuals in the population that will create offspring for the next generation and how many offspring each will create. Replacing old individuals in the population with the new ones. the search process creates new and hopefully fitter individuals. The higher the selection pressured.1 BREEDING The breeding process is the heart of the genetic algorithm.1 shows the basic selection process. The purpose of selection is to emphasize fitter individuals in the population in hopes that their off springs have higher fitness. the more chance an individual has to be selected.1 SELECTION Selection is the process of choosing two parents from the population for crossing. The selection pressure is defined as the degree to which the better individuals are favored.The breeding cycle consists of three steps: 1. Crossing the parents to create new individuals (offspring or children). with higher selection pressures resulting in higher convergence rates. 7. The convergence rate of GA is largely determined by the magnitude of the selection pressure. According to Darwin’s theory of evolution the best ones survive to create new offspring.e. After deciding on an encoding.

and is solely based upon the relative ordering (ranking) of the population. If the selection pressure is too high.Selection has to be balanced with variation form crossover and mutation. the convergence rate will be slow. For example. However. Ordinal-based selection schemes selects individuals not upon their raw fitness. proportionate selection and ordinal-based selection. 1] equitably. In addition to providing selection pressure. the probability of selecting good individual instead of bad one will be important. and the GA will take unnecessarily longer time to find the optimal solution.It is also possible to use a scaling function to redistribute the fitness range of the population in order to adapt the selection pressure. if the selection pressure is too low. if all the solutions have their fitness in the range [999.1 Selection Genetic Algorithms should be able to identify optimal or nearly optimal solutions under a wise range of selection scheme pressure. 1000]. but upon their rank within the population.Typically we can distinguish two types of selection scheme. reducing the diversity needed for 22 . selection schemes should also preserve population diversity. as this helps to avoid premature convergence. Too strong selection means sub optimal highly fit individuals will take over the population. If the fitness in every individual is brought to the range [0. This requires that the selection pressure is independent of the fitness distribution of the population. there is an increased change of the GA prematurely converging to an incorrect (sub-optimal)solution. the probability of selecting a better individual than any other using a proportionate-based method will not be important.Fig 7. Proportionate-based selection picks out individuals based upon their fitness values relative to the fitness of the other individuals in the population.

23 . The wheel is spun N times.change and progress. the next chromosome in line has a chance.1. Sum the total expected value of the individuals in the population. The principle of roulette selection is a linear search through a roulette wheel with the slots in the wheel weighted in proportion to the individual’s fitness values. but if it does not exceed it. A target value is set. The commonly used reproduction operator is the proportionate reproductive operator where a string is selected from the mating pool with a probability proportional to the fitness.Each individual is assigned a slice of the roulette wheel. Repeat N times: i. The above described Roulette process can also be explained as follows: The expected value of an individual is that fitness divided by the actual fitness of the population. Choose a random integer ‘r’ between o and T.1 ROULETTEWHEEL SELECTION Roulette selection is one of the traditional GA selection techniques. where N is the number of individuals in the population. The population is stepped through until the target value is reached. but somewhat have a greater chance. This is only a moderately strong selection technique. since this would dramatically bias the selection. summing the expected values. The various selection methods are discussed as follows: 7. A fit individual will contribute more to the target value. Let it be T. 2. Roulette wheel selection is easier to implement but is noisy. since fit individuals are not guaranteed to be selected for. Loop through the individuals in the population. The individual whose expected value puts the sum over this limit is the one selected. ii. The rate of evolution depends on the variance of fitness’s in the population. This method is implemented as follows: 1.until the sum is greater than or equal to ‘r’. which is a random proportion of the sum of the fit nesses in the population. the size of the slice being proportional to the individual’s fitness. It is essential that the population not be sorted by fitness. too weak selection will result in too slow evolution.1. On each spin. and it may be weak. the individual under the wheel’s marker is selected to be in the pool of parents for the next generation.

The individual with the highest evaluation becomes the parent.1. If the R>=r then use the second individual as the parent. Generate a random number.the Roulette wheel selection.1. 7. Tournament competitions and the winner are then inserted into the mating pool.7.1.1. The value of r is a parameter to this method.4 TOURNAMENT SELECTION An ideal selection strategy should be such that it is able to adjust its selective pressure and population diversity so as to fine-tune GA search performance. It also keeps up selection pressure when the fitness variance is low. and then other chromosomes have too few chances to be selected. the tournament selection strategy provides selective pressure by holding a tournament competition among Nu individuals. between 0 and 1. random selection is a little more disruptive. 1.2 RANDOM SELECTION This technique randomly selects a parent from the population. Repeat to find a second parent.1.1. There are many ways this can be achieved and two suggestions are. 7. It preserves diversity and hence leads to a successful search. its circumference occupies 90% of Roulette wheel.3 RANK SELECTION The Roulette wheel will have a problem when the fitness values differ very much. The tournament competition is repeated until the mating pool for generating new offspring is filled. than roulette wheel selection.In effect.The best individual from the tournament is the one with the highest fitness. It results in slow convergence but prevents too quick convergence. 2. potential parents are selected and a tournament is held to decide which of the individuals will be the parent. on average. The worst has fitness 1 and the best has fitness N. Select a pair of individuals at random. This is repeated to select the second parent. Select two individuals at random. R. Rank Selection ranks the population and every chromosome receives fitness from the ranking. The fitness difference provides the 24 . The mating pool comprising of the tournament winner has higher average population fitness. Unlike. which is the winner of Nu. In terms of disruption of genetic codes. If R < r use the first individual as a parent.If the best chromosome fitness is 90%.

The individuals are mapped to contiguous segments of a line.In Boltzmann selection a continuously varying temperature controls the rate of selection according to a preset schedule. For 6 individuals to be selected. such that each individual’s segment is equal in size to its fitness exactly as in roulette-wheel selection. Stochastic universal sampling ensures a selection of offspring. thereby allowing the GA to narrow in more closely to the best part of the search space while maintaining the appropriate degree of diversity. then the distance between the pointers are 1/NPointer and the position of the first pointer is given by a randomly generated number in the range [0.Figure 7.167]: 0.6 STOCHASTIC UNIVERSAL SAMPLING Stochastic universal sampling provides zero bias and minimum spread. The temperature is gradually lowered.This method is more efficient and leads to an optimal solution. as many as there are individuals to be selected.2 shows the selection for the above example. 2. 0.After selection the mating population consists of the individuals.1.selection pressure. which is closer to what is deserved than roulette wheel selection. 7. A logarithmically decreasing temperature is found useful for convergence without getting stuck to a local minima state. 8. 6. the distance between the pointers is 1/6=0.1. Consider NPointer the number of individuals to be selected. Sample of 1 random number in the range [0.1. 25 . 7. which means the selection pressure is low.1. which gradually increases the selection pressure. 3.167. But to cool down the system to the equilibrium state takes time. which drives GA to improve the fitness of the succeeding genes.5 BOLTZMANN SELECTION Simulation annealing is a method of function minimization or maximization. 4.1. The temperature starts out high. This method simulates the process of slow cooling of molten metal to achieve the minimum function value in a minimization problem. Here equally spaced pointers are placed over the line. Controlling a temperature like parameter introduced with the concept of Boltzmann probability distribution simulates the cooling phenomenon.1. 1/NPointer].

2 CROSSOVER (RECOMBINATION) Crossover is the process of taking two parent solutions and producing from them a child. If appropriate site is chosen. Reproduction makes clones of good strings but does not create new ones. the simplest way how to do that is to choose randomly some crossover point and copy everything before this point from the first parent and then copy everything after the crossover point from the other parent.1. the population is enriched with better individuals. a cross-site or crossover point is selected randomly along the length of the mated strings and bits next to the cross-sites are exchanged. The various crossover techniques are discussed as follows: 7.7.1 SINGLE POINT CROSSOVER The traditional genetic algorithm uses single point crossover. where the two mating chromosomes are cut once at corresponding points and the sections after the cuts exchanged. ii. Crossover operator is applied to the mating pool with the hope that it creates a better offspring. Here. Finally.Crossover is a recombination operator that proceeds in three steps: i. 26 . The reproduction operator selects at random a pair of two individual strings for the mating.2: Stochastic universal sampling That is.1. iii. After the selection (reproduction) process. better children can be obtained by combining good parents else it severely hampers string quality. the position values are swapped between the two strings following the cross site. A cross site is selected at random along the string length. Fig 7.2.

The crossover point can be chosen randomly. 27 .1. an advantage of having more crossover points is that the problem space may be searched more thoroughly. often involving more than one cut point. Fig 7. It should be noted that adding further crossover points reduces the performance of the GA. many different crossover algorithms have been devised. Fig 7.4 Two-point crossover In the above Fig 7.2. The problem with adding additional crossover points is that building blocks are more likely to be disrupted. two crossover points are chosen and the contents between these points are exchanged between two mated parents.4 the dotted lines indicate the crossover points.2 TWO POINT CROSSOVER Apart from single point crossover.The Fig 5.3 illustrates single point crossover and it can be observed that the bits next to the crossover point are exchanged to produce children.However. Thus the contents between these points are exchanged between the parents to produce new children for mating in the next generation.3 Single point crossover 7.In two-point crossover.

7. Offsprings. In a genetic representation.In Fig. new children are produced using uniform crossover approach. It can be noticed. the gene is copied from the parent 1 else from the parent 2. therefore contain a mixture of genes from each parent. 7.2. Consequently. In the case of odd number of crosssites. In fact this problem can be generalized to each gene position in a chromosome. and then.3 MULTI-POINT CROSSOVER (N-POINT CROSSOVER) There are two ways in this crossover. Genes that are close on a chromosome have more chance to be passed together to the offspring obtained through a N-points crossover. the efficiency of a N-point crossover will depend on the position of the genes within the chromosome.1.1. that while producing child 1.Originally. In the case of even number of cross-sites. It leads to an unwanted correlation between genes next to each other. but will average L/2 (where L is the chromosome length).5. a good thing is to use a uniform crossover as recombination operator 7. is generally considered better than 1-point crossover.To avoid all the problem of genes locus. a different cross-point is always assumed at the string beginning. On producing 28 . But with this one-point crossover. none of the offsprings obtained directly with one-point crossover will share the two good features. Using a 2-point crossover avoids this drawback. when there is a 1 in the mask. A new crossover mask is randomly generated for each pair of parents. the gene is copied from the first parent. and where there is a 0 in the mask the gene is copied from the second parent.4 UNIFORM CROSSOVER Uniform crossover is quite different from the N-point crossover. GAs were using one-point crossover which cuts two chromosomes in one point and splices the two halves to create new ones.One is even number of cross-sites and the other odd number of cross-sites. If both the head and the tail of a chromosome contain good genetic information. The number of effective crossing point is not fixed. Where there is a 1 in the crossover mask.2. genes that encode dependant characteristics of the solution should be close together. the head and the tail of one chromosome cannot be passed together to the offspring. cross-sites are selected randomly around a circle and information is exchanged. Each gene in the offspring is created by copying the corresponding gene from one or the other parent chosen according to a random generated binary crossover mask of the same length as the chromosomes.

when there is a 1 in the mask. 7. If both are the same.1. This concept is illustrated in Fig.5 THREE PARENT CROSSOVER In this crossover technique. 5.6 CROSSOVER WITH REDUCED SURROGATE The reduced surrogate operator constrains crossover to always produce new individuals wherever possible. the bit from the third parent is taken for the offspring. the variables in the offspring are unshuffled.5 uniform crossover 7. fig 7. they are randomly shuffled in both parents.2. This removes positional bias as the variables are randomly reassigned each time crossover is performed.1. the gene is copied from the parent 1. three parents are randomly chosen. Fig 7.6.child 2. This is implemented by restricting the location of crossover points such that crossover points only occur where gene values differ. the gene is copied from parent 2. But before the variables are exchanged. A single crossover position (as in single-point crossover) is selected. the bit is taken for the offspring otherwise. when there is a 0 in the mask. 29 .2.7 SHUFFLE CROSSOVER Shuffle crossover is related to uniform crossover.1. Each bit of the first parent is compared with the bit of the second parent. After recombination.6 three parent crossover 7.2.

This step is repeated until both parents are empty and the offspring contains all operations involved. 2.The operator works as follows: 1.2. 7. First we start by initializing an empty offspring. 2}. Fig 7. for which the operations ‘append’ and ‘delete’ are defined.9 ORDERED CROSSOVER 30 . This vector defines the order in which the operations are successively drawn from parent 1 and parent 2. A vector of length Sigma. 6. for a problem consisting of six operations A–F.while no new precedence relations are introduced.7 Precedence Preservative Crossover (PPX) 3.PPX is illustrated in below. 8. 4. Example is shown in Fig. (1996). Note that PPX does not work in a uniform-crossovermanner due to the ‘deletionappend’ scheme used.7. 5. After an operation is selected it is deleted in both parents. We can also consider the parent and offspring permutations as lists. sub i=1to mi.1. 9.7 7.2.The operator passes on precedence relations of operations given in two parental permutations to one offspring at the same rate. The leftmost operation in one of the two parents is selected in accordance with the order of parents given in the vector.7. is randomly filled with elements of the set {1.1. Finally the selected operation is appended to the offspring.8 PRECEDENCE PRESERVATIVE CROSSOVER (PPX) PPX was independently developed for vehicle routing problems by Blanton and Wainwright (1993) and for scheduling problems by Bierwirth et al. representing the number of operations involved in the problem.

The matching section defines the position-wise exchanges that must take place in both parents to produce the offspring. Two crossing sites are selected uniformly at random along the strings. Under this representation. Alleles are moved to their new positions in the offspring 5. The two chromosomes are aligned. The exchanges are read from the matching section of one chromosome to that of the other. A similar process is applied to determine child 2. where each integer represents a different city and the order represents the time at which a city is visited. 2. middle andright portion. defining a matching section 3. It may be viewed as a crossover of permutations that guarantees that all positions are found exactly once in each offspring. the dots mark the selected cross points. for example in U-shaped assembly line balancing etc. both offspring receive a full complement of genes. Consider the two strings shown in Fig 7. Given two parent chromosomes.PMX proceeds as follows: 1. 7. i. and its middle section is determined.2.8 7.e. 6. 31 .1. known as permutation encoding. 8.10 PARTIALLYMATCHED CROSSOVER (PMX) PMX can be applied usefully in the TSP. This is shown in Fig 5. Fig 7. Indeed.followed by the corresponding filling in of alleles from their parents.Ordered two-point crossover is used when the problem is of order based. The matching section is used to effect a cross through position-by-position exchange operation 4. TSP chromosomes are simply sequences of integers. Where. The ordered two-point crossover behaves in the following way: child 1 inherits its left and right section from parent 1. The following illustrates how PMX works.two random crossover points are selected partitioning them into a left.9. we are only interested in labels and not alleles.8 Ordered crossover Parent by the genes in the middle section of parent 1 in the order in which the values appear in parent 2.

In the example.3 MUTATION After crossover.10 Partially matched crossover 7. Mutation has traditionally considered as a simple search operator. whole new generation is made from exact copies of chromosomes from old population (but this does not mean that the new generation is the same!).The resulting offspring are as shown in Fig 7.11 CROSSOVER PROBABILITY The basic parameter in crossover technique is the crossover probability (Pc).2. If it is 0%. However.If there is no crossover. 7.1.10 Fig. offspring are made from parts of both parent’s chromosome.Crossover probability is a parameter to describe how often crossover will be performed. 7. It introduces new genetic structures in the population by randomly modifying some of its building blocks. Mutation is viewed as a background operator to maintain genetic diversity in the population.9 Strings given Fig 7.9. it is good to leave some part of old population survive to next generation. 32 . then all offspring are made by crossover. and 7 and 10. mutation is supposed to help for the exploration of the whole search space. offspring are exact copies of parents. the numbers that exchange places are 5 and 2. It is an insurance policy against the irreversible loss of genetic material. the strings are subjected to mutation.1. If crossover probability is 100%. If there is crossover. 6 and 3. If crossover is supposed to exploit the current solution to find better ones. Crossover is made in hope that new chromosomes will contain good parts of old chromosomes and therefore the new chromosomes will be better. Mutation prevents the algorithm to be trapped in a local minimum. Mutation plays the role of recovering the lost genetic materials as well as for randomly disturbing genetic information.

12:Interchanging 33 .2 INTERCHANGING Fig 7. A search space is said to be ergodic if there is a non-zero probability of generating any solution from any population state. A parent is considered and a mutation chromosome is randomly generated.11 explains mutation-flipping concept.1. 7.3. there occurs 1 at 3 places of mutation chromosome.11:flipping 7.3. the corresponding bit in parent chromosome is flipped (0 to 1 and 1 to 0) and child chromosome is produced. In the above case. But care should be taken. For a 1 in mutation chromosome. and thus ensuring ergodicity.where L is the length of the chromosome.1 FLIPPING Flipping of a bit involves changing 0 to 1 and 1 to 0 based on a mutation chromosome generated. It is also possible to implement kind of hill-climbing mutation operators that do mutation only if it improves the quality of the solution. changing 0 to 1 and vice-versa. Mutation of a bit involves flipping a bit. Such an operator can accelerate the search. It also keeps the gene pool well stocked. Fig 7.Mutation helps escape from local minima’s trap and maintains diversity in the population.The Fig 5.1.There are many different forms of mutation for the different kinds of representation. the corresponding bits in parent chromosome are flipped and child is generated.For binary representation. The probability is usually taken about 1/L. a simple mutation can consist in inverting the value of each gene with a small probability. because it might also reduce the diversity in the population and makes the algorithm converge toward some local optima.

e. a method must determine which of the current members of the population.4 MUTATION PROBABILITY The important parameter in the mutation technique is the mutation probability (Pm). This is shown in Fig. 34 . should be replaced by the new solutions.. The technique used to decide which individual stay in a population and which are replaced in on a par with the selection in influencing convergence. whole chromosome is changed. Mutation should not occur very often. but not all four can return to the population. once off springs are produced.12 7.1. Basically.1. if it is 0%.7.3 REVERSING A random position is chosen and the bits next to that position are reversed and child chromosome is produced.1. one or more parts of a chromosome are changed. because then GA will in fact change to random search. If mutation is performed.generational updates and steady state updates. if any. they breed two children.13:Reversing 7.13 Fig 7. there are two kinds of methods for maintaining the population. The mutation probability decides how often parts of chromosome will be mutated.Two random positions of the string are chosen and the bits corresponding to those positions are interchanged. This is shown in Fig. nothing is changed.5.3.3. If there is no mutation. Two parents are drawn from a fixed size population. offspring are generated immediately after crossover (or directly copied) without any change. 7. If mutation probability is 100%. Mutation generally prevents the GA from falling into local extremes.4 REPLACEMENT Replacement is the last stage of any breeding cycle. so two must be replaced i.

7.4. Maximum generations–The genetic algorithm stops when the specified number of generation’s have evolved.7. the processwill end.4. the various stopping condition are listed as follows: 1. parent or child. The child replaces the parent.1 RANDOM REPLACEMENT The children replace two randomly chosen individuals in the population. each individual only gets to breed once.1. 35 .With the four individuals only the fittest two. 2.4. No change in fitness–The genetic process will end if there is no change to the population’s best fitness for a specified number of generations. 7.2 SEARCH TERMINATION (CONVERGENCE CRITERIA) In short.1. but if weak individuals and discriminated against in selection the opportunity will never raise to replace them. the population and genetic material moves around but leads to a problem when combined with a selection technique that strongly favors fit parents: the fit breed and then are disposed of.1. In this case. As a result.3 BOTH PARENTS Both parents replacement is simple. the process will end. Elapsed time–The genetic process will end when a specified time has elapsed. since weak individuals can be introduced into the population. This process improves the overall fitness of the populationwhen paired with a selection technique that selects both fit and weak parents for crossing.2 WEAK PARENT REPLACEMENT In weak parent replacement. 7.If the maximum number of generation has been reached before the specified number of generationwith no changes has been reached. 3. return to population. This can be useful for continuing the search in small populations. The parents are also candidates for selection.If the maximum number of generation has been reached before the specified time has elapsed. a weaker parent is replaced by a strong child.

although the best individual may not be significantly better than the worst. which should give a good range of solutions to choose from. This brings the search to a faster conclusion guaranteeing at least one good solution. This guarantees that virtually all individuals in the population will be within a particular fitness range. The termination or convergence criterion finally brings the search to a halt.2. Stall time limit–The algorithm stops if there is no improvement in the objective function during an interval of time in seconds equal to Stall time limit. otherwise a few unfit individuals in the population will blow out the fitness sum.3 SUM OF FITNESS In this termination scheme.4 MEDIAN FITNESS Here at least half of the individuals will be better than or equal to the convergence value. This guarantees the entire population to be of minimum standard.2. In this case.2. in which case the search will terminate after the maximum has been exceeded. Stall generations–The algorithm stops if there is no improvement in the objective function for a sequence of consecutive generations of length Stall generations. 7. The population size has to be considered while setting the convergence value. The following are the few methods of termination techniques. although it is better to pair this convergence criteria with weakest gene replacement. 7. the search is considered to have satisfaction converged when the sum of the fitness in the entire population is less than or equal to the convergence value in the population record.1 BEST INDIVIDUAL A best individual convergence criterion stops the search once the minimum fitness in the population drops below the convergence value.4. 5. a stringent convergence value may never be met. 36 . 7.2.2 WORST INDIVIDUAL Worst individual terminates the search when the least fit individuals in the population have fitness less than the convergence criteria. 7.

CHAPTER 9 37 . It was observed that C2 converges to O for W2 = 1. and W3 is the weight for this penalty for which the default value of 5 is used. The parabolic function causes large overlaps to be penalized and hence discouraged more than small ones. as shown in Figure la. j)]2.i≠j where 0( i. with weighting of critical nets and independent weighting of horizontal and vertical wiring spans for each net: C1 = [x(i) WH(i) +y(i)WV(i)]. LˆR is the desired row length.The module overlap penalty. it would take too much computation to determine the change in wire length. Although cell overlap is not allowed in the final placement and has to be removed by shifting the cells slightly. If too many cells are shifted in an attempt to remove overlap. The row length control penalty C3 is a function of the difference between the actual row length and the desired row length. Unequal row lengths result in wasted space. or that need to be limited to a certain maximum length due to propagation delay. it takes a large amount of computation time to remove overlap for every proposed move. Critical nets are those that need to be optimized more than the rest.CHAPTER 8 COST FUNCTION The cost function is the sum of three components: the wire length cost. C3. and the row length control penalty. The penalty is given by: C3=W3∑│ LR-LˆR│ where LR is the actual row length. The wire length cost C1 is estimated using the semiperirneter method. with final row lengths within 3-5% of the desired value. j) is the overlap between the ith and jth cell. C2.parabolic in the amount of overlap: C2 = W2∑ [O(i. C1. where x(i) and y(i) are the vertical and horizontal spans of the net bounding rectangle. Experiments show that the function used provides good control. the module overlap penalty. C2. and W 2 is the weight for this penalty. and WH( i) and WV(i) are the weights of the horizontal and vertical wiring spans. It tends to equalize row lengths by increasing the cost if the rows are of unequal lengths.

g. by trying different crossover operators. The layout quality obtained by the algorithm is comparable to the best published results.CONCLUSION In this paper a genetic algorithm for the macro cell placemenl. but also here improvements can be made. genetic algorithms is a promising approach to the macro cell placement problem. CHAPTER 10 REFERENCE 38 . E. trying alternative estimation of routing area. Since this work is a novel approach to macro cell placement. further improvements are most likely.In conclusion. problem has been presented. The current runtime is too extensive.etc.

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