CHAPTER 1 ABSTRACT

Due to rapid advances in VLSI design technology, the complexity and size of circuits have been rapidly increasing as well as placing demand on industry for faster and more efficient CAD tool. Physical design is a process of converting the physical description into geometric description. Physical design process is subdivided into four problems a) Partitioning b) floor planning c) Placement d) Routing. In this process, placement phase determines the position of cells in the silicon wafer. Generally, the placement phase contains two types of problems like standard and macro cell placement problem. This project aims to develop an efficient,a low time complexity algorithm for placement. This can be achieved by use of Genetic algorithm(GA).GA is one of the popular optimization algorithm which will support the multi objective optimization and flexible for hybrid applications.In this project, the main objective is wirelength minimization in the macro cell placement

CHAPTER 2

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INTRODUCTION
The size of present-day computing systems demands the elimination of repetitive manual operations and computations in their design.This motivates the development of automatic design systems.To accomplish this task, a fundamental understanding of the design problem and full knowledge of the design process are essential.Only then could one hope to efficiently and automatically fill the gap between system specification and manufacturing . Automation of a given (design)process requires an algorithmic analysis of it.The availability of fast and easily implementable algorithms is essential to the discipline.In order to take full advantage of the resources in the very-large-scale integration (VLSI) environment, new procedures must be developed.The efficiency of these techniques must be evaluated against the inherent limitations of VLSI.Previous contributions are a valuable starting point for future improvements in design performance and evaluation. Physical design (or layout phase) is the process of determining the physical location of active devices and interconnecting them inside the boundary of a VLSI chip (i .e ., an integrated circuit).The measure of the quality of a given solution to the circuit layout problem is the efficiency with which the circuit (corresponding to a given problem) can be laid out according to the formal (design) rules dictated by the VLSI technology . Since the cost of fabricating a circuit is a function of the circuit area, circuit layout techniques aim to produce layouts with a small area. Also, a smaller area implies fewer defects, hence a higher yield . These layouts must have a special structure to guarantee their wirability (using a small number of planes in the third dimension).Other criteria of optimality, for example, wire length length minimization, delay minimization, power minimization, and via minimization also have to be taken into consideration.In present-day systems, delay minimization is becoming more crucial.The aim is to design circuits that are fast while having small area. Indeed,in "aggressive" designs, used for example in the medical electronics industry,speed and reliability are the main objectives. In the past two decades, research has been directed toward automation of layout process.Many invaluable techniques have been proposed.The early layout techniques, designed for printed circuit boards containing a small number of components, assumed a fixed position for the components.The earliest work along this line, proposed in [200], is a wiring algorithm based on the propagation of distance wave .Its simplicity and effectiveness have been the reasons for its success. As the number of components increased and with the
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advent of VLSI technology, efficient algorithms for placing the components and effective techniques for component (or cell) generation and wiring have been proposed. Because of the inherent complexity of the layout problem, it is generally partitioned into simpler subproblems, with the analysis of each of these parts providing new insights into the original problem as a whole.In this framework,the objective is to view the layout problem as a collection of subproblems;each subproblem should be efficiently solved, and the solutions of the subproblems should be effectively combined.Indeed, a circuit is typically designed in a hierarchical fashion.At the highest level of hierarchy, a set of ICs are interconnected. Within each IC, a set of modules, for example, memory units, ALUs, inputoutput ports,and random logic, are arranged.Each module consists of a set of gates, where each gate is formed by interconnecting a collection of transistors.Transistors and their interconnections are defined by the corresponding masks.

CHAPTER 3 VLSI PHYSICAL DESIGN
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Vlsi physical design consist of following steps:1. Partitioning 2. Floorplanning 3. Placement 4. Routing 3.1 PARTITIONING Partitioning is the task of dividing a circuit into smaller parts.The objective is to partition the circuit into parts, so that the size of each component is within prescribed ranges and the number of connections between the components is minimized.Different ways to partition correspond to different circuit implementations.Therefore,a good partitioning can significantly improve circuit performance and reduce layout costs.A hypergraph and a partition of it is shown in Figure 3.1a. The cut (or general cuts) defines the partition . 3.2 FLOORPLANNING Floorplanning is the determination of the approximate location of each module in a rectangular chip area, given a circuit represented by a hypergraph,the shape of each module and the location of the pins on the boundary of each module may also be determined in this phase.The floorplanning problem in chip layout is analogous to floorplanning in building design, where we have a set of rooms (modules) and wish to decide the approximate location of each room based on some proximity criteria . An important step in floorplanning is to decide the relative location of each module.A good floorplanning algorithm should achieve many goals, such as making the subsequent routing phase easy, minimizing the total chip area, and reducing signal delays .The floorplan corresponding to the partitioning is shown in Figure 3.1b . Typically, each module has a set of implementations, each of which has a different area, aspect ratio, delay, and power consumption, and the best implementation for each module should be obtained.

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where each module has a fixed shape and area.1: Hierarchial steps in vlsi physical design 3. 3.Fig 3.4 ROUTING 5 .Usually.3 PLACEMENT Placement. when each module is fixed. it is hard to control it . is the determination of the best position for each module . some modules have fixed positions (eg:1/O pads). Thus. alternative cost functions are employed.Although area is the major concern. has fixed shape and fixed terminals.There are two prevalent cost functions : wire-lengthbased and cut-based. that is.1c. The placement corresponding to the partitioning is shown in Figure 3.

Global routing 2. A global routing based on the placement shown in Figure 3.Routing may be of two types:1. the unpreserved layer model has also been discussed.A detailed routing corresponding to the global routing shown in Figure 3. Detailed routing Global routing decomposes a large routing problem into small.For integrated circuits. More recently.a contact (via) must be placed at the intersection points.In order to interconnect a horizontal and vertical segment. CHAPTER 4 6 .The method first partitions the routing region into a collection of disjoint rectilinear subregions.This decomposition is carried out by finding a "rough" path(sequence of "subregions" it passes) for each net in order to reduce the chip size.1d Detailed routing follows the global routing to effectively realize interconnections in VLSI circuits.1c is shown in Figure 3. manageable problems for detailed routing . where vertical and horizontal wires can run in both layers . the horizontal segments are typically realized in metal while the vertical segments are realized in polysilicon. shorten the wire length.1e.1d is shown in fig 3. . where horizontal wires are routed on one layer and vertical wires are routed in the other layer. and evenly distribute the congestion over the routing area .The traditional model of detailed routing is the two-layer Manhattan model with reserved layers.

but typically result in poor layouts. These algorithms are now used for generating an initial placement for iterative improvement algorithms. each with a number of terminals at fixed positions along the edges of the cell ii) a netlist specifying the interconnections of all terminals iii) an approximate horizontal length W of the cell to be constructed. the area needed for routing is estimated during the placement. a method is used to build up a placement from scratch. As input we have i) a set of cells. Early constructive placement algorithms were generally based on primitive connectivity rules Then other modules are selected one at a time in order of their connectivity to the placed modules (most densely connected first) and are placed at a vacant location close to the placed modules. The macro cell placement problem is to find absolute coordinates for the lower left corner of each cell. If a modification results in a reduction in cost. otherwise it is rejected. In constructive placement.The following definition is used in this paper. They take a negligible amount of computation time compared to iterative improvement algorithms and provide a good starting point for them. Iterative improvement algorithms typically produce good 7 . algorithms start with an initial placement and repeatedly modify it in search of a cost reduction. The main reason for their use is their speed.1 PLACEMENT TYPES Placement algorithms can be divided into two major classes: constructive placement and iterative improvement.PLACEMENT PROBLEM In the literature the definition of the macro cell placement problem varies slightly. the modification is accepted. 4. such that the wire length is minimized.It is to be determined so that the area is minimized subject to the following constraints: i) no pair of cells overlap each other ii) the space inside R not occupied by cells is sufficiently large to contain all routing necessary to realize all specified interconnections To meet the second constraint. Such algorithms are generally very fast. in iterative improvement.

The simplest iterative improvement strategy interchanges randomly selected pairs of modules and accepts the interchange if it results in a reduction in cost . whereas iterative improvement algorithms are usually probabilistic CHAPTER 5 8 .placements but require enormous amounts of computation time. An improvement over this algorithm is repeated iterative improvement in which the iterative improvement process is repeated several times with different initial configurations in the hope of obtaining a good configuration in one of the trials. Constructive algorithms are usually deterministic. Other possible classifications for placement algorithms are deterministic algorithms and probabilistic algorithms. on the other hand. Algorithms that function on the basis of fixed connectivity rules or formulas or determine the placement by solving simultaneous equations are deterministic and will always produce the same result. The algorithm is terminated when there is no further improvement during a given large number of trials. work by randomly examining configurations and may produce a different result each time they are run. Probabilistic algorithms.

the subproblems are solved.The idea is to search the entire solution space by considering every possible solution and evaluating the cost of each solution. 5. and then the original problem is solved by combining the solutions. 5. they do not always produce globally optimal solutions.Based upon this evaluation.those that are fast and produce good quality solutions. The main problem is that such algorithms are very slow-"very slow" does not mean that they take a few hours or a few days to run .In dynamic programming. it means they take a lifetime to run.SOLUTIONS TO PLACEMENT PROBLEM As a solution to placement problem many suboptimal algorithms. a choice.Certainly. is made . The following algorithmic paradigms have been employed in most subproblems arising in VLSI layout.1 EXHAUSTIVE SEARCH The most naive paradigm is exhaustive search.Typically. or a set of choices.Finally.Dynamic programming is applied when the subproblems are not independent.Such algorithms are of practical importance.exhaustive search produces optimal solutions. 9 .a number of efficient algorithmic techniques have been proposed.first the structure of an optimal solution is characterized and the value of an optimal solution is recursively defined. 5.3 DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING A problem is partitioned into a collection of subproblems. the value of an optimal solution is computed in a bottom-up fashion . At each step.2 GREEDY APPROACH Algorithms for optimization problems go through a number of steps .Each subproblem is solved once. have been designed.Alternatively. greedy algorithms are simpler than other classes of algorithms . one of the best solutions is selected.However. and the solution is saved for other subproblems. In greedy algorithms the choice that results in a locally optimal solution is made .

The algorithm evaluates the feasible solutions it encounters and moves from one solution to another . It is generally hard to claim anything about the running time of such algorithms.The aim is to avoid searching the entire space by stopping at nodes when an optimal solution cannot be obtained .5.7 BRANCH AND BOUND This is a general and usually inefficient method for solving optimization problems . 5.5 MATHEMATICAL PROGRAMMING In the mathematical programming approach.A simulated annealing algorithm examines the configurations (ie. 5. 5. a problem is also partitioned into a set of subproblems.When the objective function and all inequalities are expressed as a linear combination of the involved variables then the system is called a linear system.This technique used is especially useful when the solution space of the problem is not well understood.The partition is usually done in a top-down fashion and the solution is constructed in a bottom-up fashion .6 SIMULATED ANNEALING Simulated annealing is a technique used to solve general optimization problems. the set of feasible solutions) of the problem in sequence .there is a set of constraints expressed as a collection of inequalities.The subproblems are independent and the partitions are recursive.The idea originated from observing crystal formation of physical materials.4 HIERARCHICAL APPROACH In this approach.8 GENETIC ALGORITHMS 10 . 5. There is a tree-structured configuration space .The sizes of the subproblems are typically balanced.The objective function is a minimization (or maximization) problem subject to a set of constraints.

To create a new generation..The solutions to be selected in the next generation are probabilistically selected based on a fitness value.At each stage of a genetic algorithm.e.e . quality) of the solution .. CHAPTER 6 11 .The fitness value is a measure of the competence (i .. a population of solutions(i. be modified) through successive generations.e.a solution subspace)to the problem is stored and allowed to evolve(i. new solutions are formed by merging previous solutions(called crossover) or by modifying previous solutions (called mutation).

the representation used is a fixedlength bit string. timetabling. After a few generations. and the value stored in that position represents how that feature is expressed in the 12 . shelter and so on. Each position in the string is assumed to represent a particular feature of an individual.GENETIC ALGORITHM 6. as a result it should be interesting to simulate natural evolution and to develop a method. which solves concrete.He described how to apply the principles of natural evolution to optimization problems and built the first Genetic Algorithms. In the traditional genetic algorithm. The perfect shapes of the albatross wring the efficiency and the similarity between sharks and dolphins and so on. individuals compete to attract mates for reproduction. Holland developed this idea in his book “Adaptation in natural and artificial systems”. jobshop scheduling. an individual in population competes with each other for virtual resources like food. which describe many different phenomena and solve wide variety of problems. poorly performing individuals have less chance to survive. a recombination of the good characteristics of each ancestor can produce “best fit” offspring whose fitness is greater than that of a parent. Also in the same species.1 INTRODUCTION TO GENETIC ALGORITHM Charles Darwin stated the theory of natural evolution in the origin of species. games playing. and the most adapted or “fit” individuals produce a relatively large number of offspring’s. In nature. The most popular technique in evolutionary computation research has been the genetic algorithm. like. species evolve spontaneously to become more and more adapted to their environment. GAs are used to resolve complicated optimization problems. Today. it works so well in nature.Thus. In 1975. The power of mathematics lies in technology transfer: there exist certain models and methods. and search optimization problems. Holland’s theory has been further developed and now Genetic Algorithms (GAs) stand up as a powerful tool for solving search and optimization problems. are best examples of achievement of random evolution over intelligence. GAs are an example of mathematical technology transfer: by simulating evolution one can solve optimization problems from a variety of sources. Genetic algorithms are based on the principle of genetics and evolution. Due to this selection. It can also be noted that during reproduction. Over several generations. biological organisms evolve based on the principle of natural selection “survival of the fittest” to reach certain remarkable tasks.

For example. 13 ..A primary distinction that may be made between the various operators is whether or not they introduce any new information into the population. and the offspring that are created replace the parents.g.solution. Each gene represents an entity that is structurally independent of other genes. for example. two genes at the same location on two strings may be swapped between parents. Usually.2). Fig. in which a single bit in the string is flipped to form a new offspring string (see Fig 6.1). then N offspring are generated which replace the parents in the next generation. Crossover.2 Bit-flipping mutation of parent a to form offspring b A variety of other operators have also been developed.6. in which two strings are used as parents and new individuals are formed by swapping a sub-sequence between the two strings (see Fig.but not combined based on their values.does not while mutation does. All operators are also constrained to manipulate the string in a manner consistent with the structural interpretation of genes. but are used less frequently (e. in which a subsequence in the bit string is reversed). individuals are selected to be parents probabilistically based upon their fitness values. the string is “evaluated as a collection of structural features of a solution that have little or no interactions”. if N parents are selected. Fig. The analogy may be drawn directly to genes in biological organisms.1 Bit-string crossover of parents a & b to form offspring c & d The main reproduction operator used is bit-string crossover. For example. Traditionally. inversion. 6. Another popular operator is bit-flipping mutation. 6.

a vector or a string. there are not any definite mathematical restrictions on the properties of the fitness function. Irrespective of the above classification. These cases include among others such. It may be discrete. To do optimization we need a cost function or fitness function as it is usually called when genetic algorithms are used. In addition optimization algorithms can be classified as local or global. when the problem is naturally two or threedimensional also corresponding array structures are used. where a human being selects among the alternatives generated by GA. some cases in which it is more efficient to run several processors in parallel rather than sequentially.6. Parallel algorithms are usually used to speed up processing. in which there is high probability of each individual search run to get stuck into a local extreme.e. optimizationmethods can be further classified into deterministic and non-deterministic methods. There is a clear difference between discrete and continuous problems. energy landscape. of these problem dependent parameter value vectors is processed by GA. To start there is usually a totally random population. the values of different parameters generated by a random number generator. Typical population size is from few dozens to thousands.A set. however. By a fitness function we can select the best solution candidates from the population and delete the not so good specimens.Therefore it is instructive to notice that continuous methods are sometimes used to solve inherently discrete problems and vice versa. Genetic algorithm differs from conventional optimization techniques in following ways: 14 . called population. In terms of energy and entropy local search corresponds to entropy while global optimization depends essentially on the fitness i. like in the case of eyewitness. The nice thing when comparing GAs to other optimization methods is that the fitness function can be nearly anything that can be evaluated by a computer or even something that cannot! In the latter case it might be a human judgement that cannot be stated as a crisp program.2 COMPARISON OF GENETIC ALGORITHM WITH OTHER OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES The principle of GAs is simple: imitate genetics and natural selection by a computer program: The parameters of the problem are coded most naturally as a DNA-like linear data structure. multimodal etc. Sometimes. constrained / unconstrained and sequential / parallel.So. The main criteria used to classify optimization algorithms are as follows: continuous / discrete. There are.

Liability 3. As a result. Good for multi-modal problems Returns a suite of solutions. 3. GAs operate with coded versions of the problem parameters rather than parameters themselves i. GA uses fitness function for evaluation rather than derivatives. This plays a major role to the robustness of genetic algorithms.e.. 12.1. poorly understood search spaces easily 11. 6. Easily modified for different problems. Easy to discover global optimum 6. The fitness landscape is complex 5. 4. The problem has multi objective function 7.3 ADVANTAGES OF GENETIC ALGORITHM The advantages of genetic algorithm includes. GAs does not use deterministic rules. GA works with the coding of solution set and not with the solution itself. 2. 1. Handles noisy functions well. 13. 8. they can be applied to any kind of continuous or discrete optimization problem. Parallelism 2. 9. Solution space is wider 4. 10. Very robust to difficulties in the evaluation of the objective function. Only uses function evaluations. Handles large. It improves the chance of reaching the global optimum and also helps in avoiding local stationary point. GA uses population of solutions rather than a single solution fro searching.e..e. GAs use probabilistic transition operates while conventional methods for continuous optimization apply deterministic transition operates i. They require no knowledge or gradient information about the response surface 15 . Almost all conventional optimization techniques search from a single point but GAs always operate on a whole population of points(strings) i. The key point to be performed here is to identify and specify a meaningful decoding function..

Finding shape of protein molecules 16 . Definition of representation for the problem 3. Configuration is not straightforward 6.5 APPLICATIONS OF GENETIC ALGORITHM Genetic algorithms have been used for difficult problems (such as NP-hard problems). 3. 5. for evolving pictures and music. 9. Can be employed for a wide variety of optimization problems 6. 11. Strategy planning 5. Nonlinear dynamical systems–predicting. They are resistant to becoming trapped in local optima 16. Require large number of response (fitness) function evaluations 13. data analysis 2.4 THE LIMITATIONS OF GENETIC ALGORITHM 1. Have trouble finding the exact global optimum 12. The problem of identifying fitness function 2. No effective terminator. Discontinuities present on the response surface have little effect on overall optimization performance 15. They have been also used for some art. Cannot use gradients.mutation rate. Cannot easily incorporate problem specific information 7. A few applications of GA are as follows: 1. Needs to be coupled with a local search technique. Robot trajectory planning Evolving LISP programs (genetic programming) 4. for machine learning and also for evolving simple programs. The problem of choosing the various parameters like the size of the population. 6. cross over rate. the selection method and its strength. They perform very well for large-scale optimization problems 17. Not good at identifying local optima 8. Not effective for smooth unimodal functions 10. Premature convergence occurs 4.14.

too. A genetic algorithm is a problem solving method that uses genetics as its model of problem solving. enumeration is soon no longer feasible simply because it would take far too much time. If it’s possible to quickly enumerate all the solutions. The problem consists in finding out the solution that fits the best. as the behavior of the GA is extremely dependant on it. Combinatorial Optimization–set covering. bin packing. facility scheduling. pursuit 9. adapting the simple genetics to algorithmic mechanisms. Machine Learning–Designing neural networks. classifier systems 12. i. which respects the 17 . A set of reproduction operators has to be determined. but certainly not the most straightforward one of a Genetic Algorithm. One knows the form of all possible solutions corresponding to a specific question. Practically they all work in a similar way. Functions for creating images 8. from all the possible solutions. aircraft design. Scheduling–manufacturing. Each solution is represented through a chromosome. keyboard configuration. Sequence scheduling. an optimization problem looks really simple. Signal Processing–filter design 13. improving classification algorithms.6 ALGORITHM An algorithm is a series of steps for solving a problem. The set of all the solutions that meet this form constitute the search space. and are used to perform mutations and recombinations over solutions of the problem. Genetic Algorithms provides one of these methods.Basically. pole balancing. It’s a search technique to find approximate solutions to optimization and search problems. the one with the most payoffs. it can be extremely difficult to find a representation. resource allocation 11.Frequently. graph coloring and partitioning 6. Appropriate representation and reproduction operators are really something determinant. when the search space becomes large. 10. In this it’s needed to use a specific technique to find the optimal solution. But. Coding all the possible solutions into a chromosome is the first part. TSP and sequence scheduling 7. missile evasion. both architecture and weights. Reproduction operators are applied directly on the chromosomes. the problem does not raise much difficulty. traveling salesman (TSP). which is just an abstract representation. Control–gas pipeline. GA handles a population of possible solutions.e. routing. Design–semiconductor communication networks layout.6.

The fitness should correspond to an evaluation of how good the candidate solution is. if the problem consists in minimizing a cost function. the initial population is generated randomly. 18 . the adaptation is quite easy. Selection is supposed to be able to compare each individual in the population. The optimal solution is the one. REPRODUCTION In the second step. It starts by generating an initial population of chromosomes. But.structure of the search space and reproduction operators. which are coherent and relevant according to the properties of the problems. Genetic Algorithms deal with the problems that maximize the fitness function.Then. Each iteration consists of the following steps: 1. This first population must offer a wide diversity of genetic materials. EVALUATION Then the fitness of the new chromosomes is evaluated. the algorithm can use both recombination and mutation. SELECTION The first step consists in selecting individuals for reproduction. Once the reproduction and the fitness function have been properly defined. Either the cost function can be transformed into a fitness function. a Genetic Algorithm is evolved according to the same basic structure. for example by inverting it. 2.This selection is done randomly with a probability depending on the relative fitness of the individuals so that best ones are often chosen for reproduction than poor ones. Selection is done by using a fitness function. or the selection can be adapted in such way that they consider individuals with low evaluation functions as better. For generating new chromosomes. which maximizes the fitness function. Generally. Each chromosome has an associated value corresponding to the fitness of the solution it represents. offspring are bred by the selected individuals. 3. the genetic algorithm loops over an iteration process to make the population evolve. The gene pool should be as large as possible so that any solution of the search space can be engendered.

REPLACEMENT During the last step. 6. If no crossover was performed. mutate new offspring at each locus (position in chromosome) 8. the bigger chance to get selected). The basic genetic algorithm is as follows: 1. 5. Genetic random population of n chromosomes (suitable solutions for the problem) 2.The algorithmis stoppedwhen the population converges toward the optimal solution. Evaluate the fitness f(x) of each chromosome x in the population 3. If there is any improvement in fitness function stop running program else goto step1. 7. With a mutation probability.4. individuals from the old population are killed and replaced by the new ones. If there is any improvement in fitness function goto step 7 else goto step1. offspring is the exact copy of parents. With a crossover probability.7 FLOWCHART START 19 . Create a new population by repeating following steps until the New population is complete 4. select two parent chromosomes from a population according to their fitness ( the better fitness. 6. cross over the parents to form new offspring ( children).

CREATE INITIAL RANDOM POPULATION EVALUATE FITNESS FOR EACH POPULATION STORE BEST INDIVIDUAL CREATING MATING POOL CREATE NEXT GENERATION BY APPLYING CROSSOVER OPTIMAL OR GOOD SOLUTION ??/? ??FOUND? PERFORM MUTATION OPTIMAL OR GOOD SOLUTION FOUND? STOP CHAPTER 7 STEPS IN GENETIC ALGORIHM 20 .

The breeding cycle consists of three steps: 1. The higher the selection pressured.1 SELECTION Selection is the process of choosing two parents from the population for crossing. The higher the fitness function. the next step is to decide how to perform selection i. the search process creates new and hopefully fitter individuals.7.1 shows the basic selection process. The problem is how to select these chromosomes.. The convergence rate of GA is largely determined by the magnitude of the selection pressure. It is in this process. After deciding on an encoding.1. The Fig 7.Selection is a method that randomly picks chromosomes out of the population according to their evaluation function.e. 3. 7. Crossing the parents to create new individuals (offspring or children). According to Darwin’s theory of evolution the best ones survive to create new offspring. Chromosomes are selected from the initial population to be parents for reproduction. how to choose individuals in the population that will create offspring for the next generation and how many offspring each will create. Selecting parents. with higher selection pressures resulting in higher convergence rates. 2. Replacing old individuals in the population with the new ones. The purpose of selection is to emphasize fitter individuals in the population in hopes that their off springs have higher fitness. the more chance an individual has to be selected.1 BREEDING The breeding process is the heart of the genetic algorithm. The selection pressure is defined as the degree to which the better individuals are favored. This selection pressure drives the GA to improve the population fitness over the successive generations. the more the better individuals are favored. 21 .

the probability of selecting a better individual than any other using a proportionate-based method will not be important. if all the solutions have their fitness in the range [999. as this helps to avoid premature convergence. if the selection pressure is too low.Selection has to be balanced with variation form crossover and mutation.It is also possible to use a scaling function to redistribute the fitness range of the population in order to adapt the selection pressure. selection schemes should also preserve population diversity. In addition to providing selection pressure.1 Selection Genetic Algorithms should be able to identify optimal or nearly optimal solutions under a wise range of selection scheme pressure. If the fitness in every individual is brought to the range [0.Typically we can distinguish two types of selection scheme. reducing the diversity needed for 22 . This requires that the selection pressure is independent of the fitness distribution of the population.Fig 7. For example. Ordinal-based selection schemes selects individuals not upon their raw fitness. 1] equitably. However. proportionate selection and ordinal-based selection. 1000]. the convergence rate will be slow. but upon their rank within the population. Too strong selection means sub optimal highly fit individuals will take over the population. the probability of selecting good individual instead of bad one will be important. Proportionate-based selection picks out individuals based upon their fitness values relative to the fitness of the other individuals in the population. there is an increased change of the GA prematurely converging to an incorrect (sub-optimal)solution. and is solely based upon the relative ordering (ranking) of the population. and the GA will take unnecessarily longer time to find the optimal solution. If the selection pressure is too high.

ii. The wheel is spun N times. where N is the number of individuals in the population. 23 . Repeat N times: i.1. since fit individuals are not guaranteed to be selected for. A fit individual will contribute more to the target value. Choose a random integer ‘r’ between o and T. It is essential that the population not be sorted by fitness. Loop through the individuals in the population. On each spin.1 ROULETTEWHEEL SELECTION Roulette selection is one of the traditional GA selection techniques. This is only a moderately strong selection technique. The principle of roulette selection is a linear search through a roulette wheel with the slots in the wheel weighted in proportion to the individual’s fitness values. too weak selection will result in too slow evolution. and it may be weak. 2.change and progress.Each individual is assigned a slice of the roulette wheel. Let it be T. The above described Roulette process can also be explained as follows: The expected value of an individual is that fitness divided by the actual fitness of the population. This method is implemented as follows: 1. which is a random proportion of the sum of the fit nesses in the population. summing the expected values. Roulette wheel selection is easier to implement but is noisy. The various selection methods are discussed as follows: 7. A target value is set. The rate of evolution depends on the variance of fitness’s in the population.1. but somewhat have a greater chance. The population is stepped through until the target value is reached. the next chromosome in line has a chance. The individual whose expected value puts the sum over this limit is the one selected. the size of the slice being proportional to the individual’s fitness. The commonly used reproduction operator is the proportionate reproductive operator where a string is selected from the mating pool with a probability proportional to the fitness. but if it does not exceed it. the individual under the wheel’s marker is selected to be in the pool of parents for the next generation. Sum the total expected value of the individuals in the population.until the sum is greater than or equal to ‘r’. since this would dramatically bias the selection.

between 0 and 1. potential parents are selected and a tournament is held to decide which of the individuals will be the parent. on average. There are many ways this can be achieved and two suggestions are.1. It results in slow convergence but prevents too quick convergence. its circumference occupies 90% of Roulette wheel. If R < r use the first individual as a parent. The fitness difference provides the 24 . which is the winner of Nu.4 TOURNAMENT SELECTION An ideal selection strategy should be such that it is able to adjust its selective pressure and population diversity so as to fine-tune GA search performance. 7.3 RANK SELECTION The Roulette wheel will have a problem when the fitness values differ very much. the tournament selection strategy provides selective pressure by holding a tournament competition among Nu individuals. The mating pool comprising of the tournament winner has higher average population fitness. If the R>=r then use the second individual as the parent. This is repeated to select the second parent. Repeat to find a second parent. 1. In terms of disruption of genetic codes. The worst has fitness 1 and the best has fitness N. Generate a random number. Tournament competitions and the winner are then inserted into the mating pool. 7.the Roulette wheel selection.2 RANDOM SELECTION This technique randomly selects a parent from the population. Select a pair of individuals at random.1.7. Select two individuals at random. 2. The value of r is a parameter to this method. R.If the best chromosome fitness is 90%. The individual with the highest evaluation becomes the parent. It also keeps up selection pressure when the fitness variance is low.1.1. It preserves diversity and hence leads to a successful search.The best individual from the tournament is the one with the highest fitness. and then other chromosomes have too few chances to be selected. The tournament competition is repeated until the mating pool for generating new offspring is filled. Unlike.1. Rank Selection ranks the population and every chromosome receives fitness from the ranking.In effect. random selection is a little more disruptive. than roulette wheel selection.1.

Sample of 1 random number in the range [0. 7. For 6 individuals to be selected. 1/NPointer]. Here equally spaced pointers are placed over the line. 7. 4. which gradually increases the selection pressure.1. The individuals are mapped to contiguous segments of a line.After selection the mating population consists of the individuals. 0. Stochastic universal sampling ensures a selection of offspring.167.6 STOCHASTIC UNIVERSAL SAMPLING Stochastic universal sampling provides zero bias and minimum spread.5 BOLTZMANN SELECTION Simulation annealing is a method of function minimization or maximization. the distance between the pointers is 1/6=0.1. 2. thereby allowing the GA to narrow in more closely to the best part of the search space while maintaining the appropriate degree of diversity. which is closer to what is deserved than roulette wheel selection.1.selection pressure.Figure 7. Controlling a temperature like parameter introduced with the concept of Boltzmann probability distribution simulates the cooling phenomenon. then the distance between the pointers are 1/NPointer and the position of the first pointer is given by a randomly generated number in the range [0. as many as there are individuals to be selected.1. 8. such that each individual’s segment is equal in size to its fitness exactly as in roulette-wheel selection. 3. 25 . The temperature starts out high. The temperature is gradually lowered. Consider NPointer the number of individuals to be selected. 6.This method is more efficient and leads to an optimal solution. which drives GA to improve the fitness of the succeeding genes. But to cool down the system to the equilibrium state takes time. This method simulates the process of slow cooling of molten metal to achieve the minimum function value in a minimization problem. A logarithmically decreasing temperature is found useful for convergence without getting stuck to a local minima state.167]: 0.2 shows the selection for the above example. which means the selection pressure is low.In Boltzmann selection a continuously varying temperature controls the rate of selection according to a preset schedule.1.1.

the population is enriched with better individuals. The various crossover techniques are discussed as follows: 7.1.1. 26 .1 SINGLE POINT CROSSOVER The traditional genetic algorithm uses single point crossover. ii. Here. better children can be obtained by combining good parents else it severely hampers string quality. A cross site is selected at random along the string length. a cross-site or crossover point is selected randomly along the length of the mated strings and bits next to the cross-sites are exchanged. where the two mating chromosomes are cut once at corresponding points and the sections after the cuts exchanged. If appropriate site is chosen. Finally.Crossover is a recombination operator that proceeds in three steps: i.2: Stochastic universal sampling That is.2. Fig 7. The reproduction operator selects at random a pair of two individual strings for the mating. Reproduction makes clones of good strings but does not create new ones. After the selection (reproduction) process.7. the position values are swapped between the two strings following the cross site.2 CROSSOVER (RECOMBINATION) Crossover is the process of taking two parent solutions and producing from them a child. iii. the simplest way how to do that is to choose randomly some crossover point and copy everything before this point from the first parent and then copy everything after the crossover point from the other parent. Crossover operator is applied to the mating pool with the hope that it creates a better offspring.

many different crossover algorithms have been devised.3 Single point crossover 7.4 Two-point crossover In the above Fig 7.3 illustrates single point crossover and it can be observed that the bits next to the crossover point are exchanged to produce children. Fig 7. often involving more than one cut point.1. 27 .2.The Fig 5.4 the dotted lines indicate the crossover points. an advantage of having more crossover points is that the problem space may be searched more thoroughly. two crossover points are chosen and the contents between these points are exchanged between two mated parents.In two-point crossover. Fig 7.2 TWO POINT CROSSOVER Apart from single point crossover. Thus the contents between these points are exchanged between the parents to produce new children for mating in the next generation. The problem with adding additional crossover points is that building blocks are more likely to be disrupted. The crossover point can be chosen randomly. It should be noted that adding further crossover points reduces the performance of the GA.However.

5. the gene is copied from the parent 1 else from the parent 2. The number of effective crossing point is not fixed. GAs were using one-point crossover which cuts two chromosomes in one point and splices the two halves to create new ones.2.One is even number of cross-sites and the other odd number of cross-sites.Originally. Consequently. Each gene in the offspring is created by copying the corresponding gene from one or the other parent chosen according to a random generated binary crossover mask of the same length as the chromosomes. A new crossover mask is randomly generated for each pair of parents. new children are produced using uniform crossover approach. the head and the tail of one chromosome cannot be passed together to the offspring.4 UNIFORM CROSSOVER Uniform crossover is quite different from the N-point crossover. In the case of odd number of crosssites.To avoid all the problem of genes locus. In the case of even number of cross-sites. 7. In a genetic representation. On producing 28 . Genes that are close on a chromosome have more chance to be passed together to the offspring obtained through a N-points crossover. the efficiency of a N-point crossover will depend on the position of the genes within the chromosome. therefore contain a mixture of genes from each parent. is generally considered better than 1-point crossover.2.1. Where there is a 1 in the crossover mask. the gene is copied from the first parent. that while producing child 1. 7.1. and then. genes that encode dependant characteristics of the solution should be close together. when there is a 1 in the mask. a different cross-point is always assumed at the string beginning. It leads to an unwanted correlation between genes next to each other. Offsprings. If both the head and the tail of a chromosome contain good genetic information.In Fig. and where there is a 0 in the mask the gene is copied from the second parent. cross-sites are selected randomly around a circle and information is exchanged. but will average L/2 (where L is the chromosome length). But with this one-point crossover. In fact this problem can be generalized to each gene position in a chromosome. a good thing is to use a uniform crossover as recombination operator 7. none of the offsprings obtained directly with one-point crossover will share the two good features. It can be noticed. Using a 2-point crossover avoids this drawback.3 MULTI-POINT CROSSOVER (N-POINT CROSSOVER) There are two ways in this crossover.

This concept is illustrated in Fig. when there is a 0 in the mask.6 CROSSOVER WITH REDUCED SURROGATE The reduced surrogate operator constrains crossover to always produce new individuals wherever possible.2. they are randomly shuffled in both parents.5 uniform crossover 7.2. the bit is taken for the offspring otherwise.child 2. After recombination. the gene is copied from parent 2. Each bit of the first parent is compared with the bit of the second parent. But before the variables are exchanged.2. when there is a 1 in the mask.1. Fig 7.7 SHUFFLE CROSSOVER Shuffle crossover is related to uniform crossover. If both are the same. 5. the gene is copied from the parent 1.1. the variables in the offspring are unshuffled.6 three parent crossover 7. This is implemented by restricting the location of crossover points such that crossover points only occur where gene values differ. This removes positional bias as the variables are randomly reassigned each time crossover is performed.5 THREE PARENT CROSSOVER In this crossover technique. three parents are randomly chosen. A single crossover position (as in single-point crossover) is selected.1. the bit from the third parent is taken for the offspring. fig 7.6. 7. 29 .

representing the number of operations involved in the problem. A vector of length Sigma.9 ORDERED CROSSOVER 30 . 7.1.while no new precedence relations are introduced. 9. for a problem consisting of six operations A–F.8 PRECEDENCE PRESERVATIVE CROSSOVER (PPX) PPX was independently developed for vehicle routing problems by Blanton and Wainwright (1993) and for scheduling problems by Bierwirth et al. Note that PPX does not work in a uniform-crossovermanner due to the ‘deletionappend’ scheme used.PPX is illustrated in below. 8. sub i=1to mi. We can also consider the parent and offspring permutations as lists.The operator works as follows: 1.The operator passes on precedence relations of operations given in two parental permutations to one offspring at the same rate. Fig 7. Example is shown in Fig. The leftmost operation in one of the two parents is selected in accordance with the order of parents given in the vector. 2. (1996). First we start by initializing an empty offspring. 4.2.2. Finally the selected operation is appended to the offspring. is randomly filled with elements of the set {1. This step is repeated until both parents are empty and the offspring contains all operations involved.7 7.7. After an operation is selected it is deleted in both parents. This vector defines the order in which the operations are successively drawn from parent 1 and parent 2.7. 6.7 Precedence Preservative Crossover (PPX) 3. 5. 2}.1. for which the operations ‘append’ and ‘delete’ are defined.

The ordered two-point crossover behaves in the following way: child 1 inherits its left and right section from parent 1. both offspring receive a full complement of genes. This is shown in Fig 5.2.10 PARTIALLYMATCHED CROSSOVER (PMX) PMX can be applied usefully in the TSP. 31 . 7. and its middle section is determined. Given two parent chromosomes. Where.followed by the corresponding filling in of alleles from their parents. Alleles are moved to their new positions in the offspring 5.e. Under this representation.1. Indeed. we are only interested in labels and not alleles.9. known as permutation encoding. Two crossing sites are selected uniformly at random along the strings. where each integer represents a different city and the order represents the time at which a city is visited. 2. the dots mark the selected cross points. i. for example in U-shaped assembly line balancing etc. 8. The exchanges are read from the matching section of one chromosome to that of the other.8 Ordered crossover Parent by the genes in the middle section of parent 1 in the order in which the values appear in parent 2.PMX proceeds as follows: 1. TSP chromosomes are simply sequences of integers.two random crossover points are selected partitioning them into a left. A similar process is applied to determine child 2. Fig 7. Consider the two strings shown in Fig 7. The two chromosomes are aligned. defining a matching section 3.Ordered two-point crossover is used when the problem is of order based. The matching section is used to effect a cross through position-by-position exchange operation 4. middle andright portion. The following illustrates how PMX works. 6. It may be viewed as a crossover of permutations that guarantees that all positions are found exactly once in each offspring. The matching section defines the position-wise exchanges that must take place in both parents to produce the offspring.8 7.

mutation is supposed to help for the exploration of the whole search space. 6 and 3. Mutation is viewed as a background operator to maintain genetic diversity in the population. the strings are subjected to mutation. 7. It is an insurance policy against the irreversible loss of genetic material. It introduces new genetic structures in the population by randomly modifying some of its building blocks.10 Partially matched crossover 7.10 Fig. However.3 MUTATION After crossover.The resulting offspring are as shown in Fig 7.If there is no crossover. Mutation plays the role of recovering the lost genetic materials as well as for randomly disturbing genetic information. Mutation has traditionally considered as a simple search operator. In the example.9. If crossover probability is 100%.1. If crossover is supposed to exploit the current solution to find better ones. If there is crossover. Crossover is made in hope that new chromosomes will contain good parts of old chromosomes and therefore the new chromosomes will be better. If it is 0%.Crossover probability is a parameter to describe how often crossover will be performed.11 CROSSOVER PROBABILITY The basic parameter in crossover technique is the crossover probability (Pc). the numbers that exchange places are 5 and 2. offspring are exact copies of parents. Mutation prevents the algorithm to be trapped in a local minimum.2. it is good to leave some part of old population survive to next generation. whole new generation is made from exact copies of chromosomes from old population (but this does not mean that the new generation is the same!). 7. 32 . then all offspring are made by crossover.9 Strings given Fig 7. offspring are made from parts of both parent’s chromosome.1. and 7 and 10.

But care should be taken.3. Such an operator can accelerate the search.1.1.12:Interchanging 33 . the corresponding bit in parent chromosome is flipped (0 to 1 and 1 to 0) and child chromosome is produced. A parent is considered and a mutation chromosome is randomly generated.There are many different forms of mutation for the different kinds of representation. a simple mutation can consist in inverting the value of each gene with a small probability. For a 1 in mutation chromosome. there occurs 1 at 3 places of mutation chromosome.2 INTERCHANGING Fig 7.11 explains mutation-flipping concept. the corresponding bits in parent chromosome are flipped and child is generated.3. It is also possible to implement kind of hill-climbing mutation operators that do mutation only if it improves the quality of the solution.Mutation helps escape from local minima’s trap and maintains diversity in the population. 7. Mutation of a bit involves flipping a bit.where L is the length of the chromosome. In the above case. changing 0 to 1 and vice-versa.For binary representation. Fig 7. because it might also reduce the diversity in the population and makes the algorithm converge toward some local optima.The Fig 5. The probability is usually taken about 1/L.1 FLIPPING Flipping of a bit involves changing 0 to 1 and 1 to 0 based on a mutation chromosome generated. It also keeps the gene pool well stocked. and thus ensuring ergodicity. A search space is said to be ergodic if there is a non-zero probability of generating any solution from any population state.11:flipping 7.

13:Reversing 7. 7.Two random positions of the string are chosen and the bits corresponding to those positions are interchanged.1. so two must be replaced i. a method must determine which of the current members of the population. 34 . This is shown in Fig. if any.7. but not all four can return to the population.1.generational updates and steady state updates. The mutation probability decides how often parts of chromosome will be mutated.3. Basically.1. because then GA will in fact change to random search. they breed two children. If mutation is performed. if it is 0%.. should be replaced by the new solutions. If there is no mutation. Two parents are drawn from a fixed size population. If mutation probability is 100%. one or more parts of a chromosome are changed.13 Fig 7. This is shown in Fig.e. once off springs are produced.3 REVERSING A random position is chosen and the bits next to that position are reversed and child chromosome is produced. nothing is changed.5.4 MUTATION PROBABILITY The important parameter in the mutation technique is the mutation probability (Pm). The technique used to decide which individual stay in a population and which are replaced in on a par with the selection in influencing convergence. Mutation should not occur very often. offspring are generated immediately after crossover (or directly copied) without any change. whole chromosome is changed.4 REPLACEMENT Replacement is the last stage of any breeding cycle. Mutation generally prevents the GA from falling into local extremes.12 7.3. there are two kinds of methods for maintaining the population.

parent or child.If the maximum number of generation has been reached before the specified time has elapsed.2 WEAK PARENT REPLACEMENT In weak parent replacement. a weaker parent is replaced by a strong child. each individual only gets to breed once.If the maximum number of generation has been reached before the specified number of generationwith no changes has been reached. the population and genetic material moves around but leads to a problem when combined with a selection technique that strongly favors fit parents: the fit breed and then are disposed of. the process will end.3 BOTH PARENTS Both parents replacement is simple.2 SEARCH TERMINATION (CONVERGENCE CRITERIA) In short. but if weak individuals and discriminated against in selection the opportunity will never raise to replace them. The child replaces the parent. 3.1.4.1 RANDOM REPLACEMENT The children replace two randomly chosen individuals in the population. This can be useful for continuing the search in small populations. As a result. the processwill end. In this case. Maximum generations–The genetic algorithm stops when the specified number of generation’s have evolved.1. 7. 35 . the various stopping condition are listed as follows: 1. The parents are also candidates for selection.1. This process improves the overall fitness of the populationwhen paired with a selection technique that selects both fit and weak parents for crossing.4. 7. 2. since weak individuals can be introduced into the population.With the four individuals only the fittest two. Elapsed time–The genetic process will end when a specified time has elapsed. return to population. 7. No change in fitness–The genetic process will end if there is no change to the population’s best fitness for a specified number of generations.7.4.

which should give a good range of solutions to choose from.1 BEST INDIVIDUAL A best individual convergence criterion stops the search once the minimum fitness in the population drops below the convergence value. a stringent convergence value may never be met. In this case. Stall time limit–The algorithm stops if there is no improvement in the objective function during an interval of time in seconds equal to Stall time limit.4. 7. 7. otherwise a few unfit individuals in the population will blow out the fitness sum. 36 . Stall generations–The algorithm stops if there is no improvement in the objective function for a sequence of consecutive generations of length Stall generations.2.2 WORST INDIVIDUAL Worst individual terminates the search when the least fit individuals in the population have fitness less than the convergence criteria. although the best individual may not be significantly better than the worst. This brings the search to a faster conclusion guaranteeing at least one good solution.2. The population size has to be considered while setting the convergence value. This guarantees that virtually all individuals in the population will be within a particular fitness range. This guarantees the entire population to be of minimum standard. in which case the search will terminate after the maximum has been exceeded. the search is considered to have satisfaction converged when the sum of the fitness in the entire population is less than or equal to the convergence value in the population record.2.2. The termination or convergence criterion finally brings the search to a halt. 7.4 MEDIAN FITNESS Here at least half of the individuals will be better than or equal to the convergence value. 7. The following are the few methods of termination techniques.3 SUM OF FITNESS In this termination scheme. 5. although it is better to pair this convergence criteria with weakest gene replacement.

Although cell overlap is not allowed in the final placement and has to be removed by shifting the cells slightly. C2. Critical nets are those that need to be optimized more than the rest. C2. The penalty is given by: C3=W3∑│ LR-LˆR│ where LR is the actual row length. CHAPTER 9 37 .CHAPTER 8 COST FUNCTION The cost function is the sum of three components: the wire length cost. Unequal row lengths result in wasted space. The wire length cost C1 is estimated using the semiperirneter method. and WH( i) and WV(i) are the weights of the horizontal and vertical wiring spans.parabolic in the amount of overlap: C2 = W2∑ [O(i. as shown in Figure la. If too many cells are shifted in an attempt to remove overlap.i≠j where 0( i. the module overlap penalty. it takes a large amount of computation time to remove overlap for every proposed move. j)]2. Experiments show that the function used provides good control. It was observed that C2 converges to O for W2 = 1. and W3 is the weight for this penalty for which the default value of 5 is used. it would take too much computation to determine the change in wire length. with weighting of critical nets and independent weighting of horizontal and vertical wiring spans for each net: C1 = [x(i) WH(i) +y(i)WV(i)]. and the row length control penalty. j) is the overlap between the ith and jth cell. with final row lengths within 3-5% of the desired value. The parabolic function causes large overlaps to be penalized and hence discouraged more than small ones. LˆR is the desired row length. It tends to equalize row lengths by increasing the cost if the rows are of unequal lengths. and W 2 is the weight for this penalty. where x(i) and y(i) are the vertical and horizontal spans of the net bounding rectangle. or that need to be limited to a certain maximum length due to propagation delay. C3.The module overlap penalty. The row length control penalty C3 is a function of the difference between the actual row length and the desired row length. C1.

by trying different crossover operators. problem has been presented. The layout quality obtained by the algorithm is comparable to the best published results. further improvements are most likely.CONCLUSION In this paper a genetic algorithm for the macro cell placemenl.In conclusion.g. trying alternative estimation of routing area. The current runtime is too extensive. E. but also here improvements can be made.etc. genetic algorithms is a promising approach to the macro cell placement problem. Since this work is a novel approach to macro cell placement. CHAPTER 10 REFERENCE 38 .

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