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Due to rapid advances in VLSI design technology, the complexity and size of circuits have been rapidly increasing as well as placing demand on industry for faster and more efficient CAD tool. Physical design is a process of converting the physical description into geometric description. Physical design process is subdivided into four problems a) Partitioning b) floor planning c) Placement d) Routing. In this process, placement phase determines the position of cells in the silicon wafer. Generally, the placement phase contains two types of problems like standard and macro cell placement problem. This project aims to develop an efficient,a low time complexity algorithm for placement. This can be achieved by use of Genetic algorithm(GA).GA is one of the popular optimization algorithm which will support the multi objective optimization and flexible for hybrid applications.In this project, the main objective is wirelength minimization in the macro cell placement

CHAPTER 2

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INTRODUCTION

The size of present-day computing systems demands the elimination of repetitive manual operations and computations in their design.This motivates the development of automatic design systems.To accomplish this task, a fundamental understanding of the design problem and full knowledge of the design process are essential.Only then could one hope to efficiently and automatically fill the gap between system specification and manufacturing . Automation of a given (design)process requires an algorithmic analysis of it.The availability of fast and easily implementable algorithms is essential to the discipline.In order to take full advantage of the resources in the very-large-scale integration (VLSI) environment, new procedures must be developed.The efficiency of these techniques must be evaluated against the inherent limitations of VLSI.Previous contributions are a valuable starting point for future improvements in design performance and evaluation. Physical design (or layout phase) is the process of determining the physical location of active devices and interconnecting them inside the boundary of a VLSI chip (i .e ., an integrated circuit).The measure of the quality of a given solution to the circuit layout problem is the efficiency with which the circuit (corresponding to a given problem) can be laid out according to the formal (design) rules dictated by the VLSI technology . Since the cost of fabricating a circuit is a function of the circuit area, circuit layout techniques aim to produce layouts with a small area. Also, a smaller area implies fewer defects, hence a higher yield . These layouts must have a special structure to guarantee their wirability (using a small number of planes in the third dimension).Other criteria of optimality, for example, wire length length minimization, delay minimization, power minimization, and via minimization also have to be taken into consideration.In present-day systems, delay minimization is becoming more crucial.The aim is to design circuits that are fast while having small area. Indeed,in "aggressive" designs, used for example in the medical electronics industry,speed and reliability are the main objectives. In the past two decades, research has been directed toward automation of layout process.Many invaluable techniques have been proposed.The early layout techniques, designed for printed circuit boards containing a small number of components, assumed a fixed position for the components.The earliest work along this line, proposed in [200], is a wiring algorithm based on the propagation of distance wave .Its simplicity and effectiveness have been the reasons for its success. As the number of components increased and with the

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advent of VLSI technology, efficient algorithms for placing the components and effective techniques for component (or cell) generation and wiring have been proposed. Because of the inherent complexity of the layout problem, it is generally partitioned into simpler subproblems, with the analysis of each of these parts providing new insights into the original problem as a whole.In this framework,the objective is to view the layout problem as a collection of subproblems;each subproblem should be efficiently solved, and the solutions of the subproblems should be effectively combined.Indeed, a circuit is typically designed in a hierarchical fashion.At the highest level of hierarchy, a set of ICs are interconnected. Within each IC, a set of modules, for example, memory units, ALUs, inputoutput ports,and random logic, are arranged.Each module consists of a set of gates, where each gate is formed by interconnecting a collection of transistors.Transistors and their interconnections are defined by the corresponding masks.

**CHAPTER 3 VLSI PHYSICAL DESIGN
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Vlsi physical design consist of following steps:1. Partitioning 2. Floorplanning 3. Placement 4. Routing 3.1 PARTITIONING Partitioning is the task of dividing a circuit into smaller parts.The objective is to partition the circuit into parts, so that the size of each component is within prescribed ranges and the number of connections between the components is minimized.Different ways to partition correspond to different circuit implementations.Therefore,a good partitioning can significantly improve circuit performance and reduce layout costs.A hypergraph and a partition of it is shown in Figure 3.1a. The cut (or general cuts) defines the partition . 3.2 FLOORPLANNING Floorplanning is the determination of the approximate location of each module in a rectangular chip area, given a circuit represented by a hypergraph,the shape of each module and the location of the pins on the boundary of each module may also be determined in this phase.The floorplanning problem in chip layout is analogous to floorplanning in building design, where we have a set of rooms (modules) and wish to decide the approximate location of each room based on some proximity criteria . An important step in floorplanning is to decide the relative location of each module.A good floorplanning algorithm should achieve many goals, such as making the subsequent routing phase easy, minimizing the total chip area, and reducing signal delays .The floorplan corresponding to the partitioning is shown in Figure 3.1b . Typically, each module has a set of implementations, each of which has a different area, aspect ratio, delay, and power consumption, and the best implementation for each module should be obtained.

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where each module has a fixed shape and area. has fixed shape and fixed terminals.1c. that is.4 ROUTING 5 .Although area is the major concern. The placement corresponding to the partitioning is shown in Figure 3. Thus. alternative cost functions are employed. 3. some modules have fixed positions (eg:1/O pads). when each module is fixed.3 PLACEMENT Placement.Fig 3.Usually.1: Hierarchial steps in vlsi physical design 3.There are two prevalent cost functions : wire-lengthbased and cut-based. it is hard to control it . is the determination of the best position for each module .

1e.1d is shown in fig 3.1d Detailed routing follows the global routing to effectively realize interconnections in VLSI circuits. Global routing 2. the unpreserved layer model has also been discussed. More recently.a contact (via) must be placed at the intersection points. A global routing based on the placement shown in Figure 3. and evenly distribute the congestion over the routing area .In order to interconnect a horizontal and vertical segment. where horizontal wires are routed on one layer and vertical wires are routed in the other layer.The traditional model of detailed routing is the two-layer Manhattan model with reserved layers.Routing may be of two types:1.A detailed routing corresponding to the global routing shown in Figure 3. CHAPTER 4 6 . manageable problems for detailed routing .This decomposition is carried out by finding a "rough" path(sequence of "subregions" it passes) for each net in order to reduce the chip size. shorten the wire length. where vertical and horizontal wires can run in both layers .For integrated circuits.1c is shown in Figure 3. the horizontal segments are typically realized in metal while the vertical segments are realized in polysilicon.The method first partitions the routing region into a collection of disjoint rectilinear subregions. Detailed routing Global routing decomposes a large routing problem into small. .

algorithms start with an initial placement and repeatedly modify it in search of a cost reduction. Iterative improvement algorithms typically produce good 7 .PLACEMENT PROBLEM In the literature the definition of the macro cell placement problem varies slightly. otherwise it is rejected. 4. a method is used to build up a placement from scratch. each with a number of terminals at fixed positions along the edges of the cell ii) a netlist specifying the interconnections of all terminals iii) an approximate horizontal length W of the cell to be constructed. The main reason for their use is their speed. If a modification results in a reduction in cost. the area needed for routing is estimated during the placement. These algorithms are now used for generating an initial placement for iterative improvement algorithms.The following definition is used in this paper. the modification is accepted. in iterative improvement. Such algorithms are generally very fast.It is to be determined so that the area is minimized subject to the following constraints: i) no pair of cells overlap each other ii) the space inside R not occupied by cells is sufficiently large to contain all routing necessary to realize all specified interconnections To meet the second constraint. As input we have i) a set of cells. Early constructive placement algorithms were generally based on primitive connectivity rules Then other modules are selected one at a time in order of their connectivity to the placed modules (most densely connected first) and are placed at a vacant location close to the placed modules. such that the wire length is minimized. but typically result in poor layouts. They take a negligible amount of computation time compared to iterative improvement algorithms and provide a good starting point for them. In constructive placement.1 PLACEMENT TYPES Placement algorithms can be divided into two major classes: constructive placement and iterative improvement. The macro cell placement problem is to find absolute coordinates for the lower left corner of each cell.

An improvement over this algorithm is repeated iterative improvement in which the iterative improvement process is repeated several times with different initial configurations in the hope of obtaining a good configuration in one of the trials. Constructive algorithms are usually deterministic. Other possible classifications for placement algorithms are deterministic algorithms and probabilistic algorithms.placements but require enormous amounts of computation time. work by randomly examining configurations and may produce a different result each time they are run. Probabilistic algorithms. The algorithm is terminated when there is no further improvement during a given large number of trials. Algorithms that function on the basis of fixed connectivity rules or formulas or determine the placement by solving simultaneous equations are deterministic and will always produce the same result. on the other hand. The simplest iterative improvement strategy interchanges randomly selected pairs of modules and accepts the interchange if it results in a reduction in cost . whereas iterative improvement algorithms are usually probabilistic CHAPTER 5 8 .

they do not always produce globally optimal solutions. and the solution is saved for other subproblems. In greedy algorithms the choice that results in a locally optimal solution is made . At each step. 9 .Certainly.Based upon this evaluation. have been designed.Each subproblem is solved once.In dynamic programming.Dynamic programming is applied when the subproblems are not independent. the subproblems are solved.The idea is to search the entire solution space by considering every possible solution and evaluating the cost of each solution.2 GREEDY APPROACH Algorithms for optimization problems go through a number of steps .a number of efficient algorithmic techniques have been proposed.However.SOLUTIONS TO PLACEMENT PROBLEM As a solution to placement problem many suboptimal algorithms. the value of an optimal solution is computed in a bottom-up fashion .1 EXHAUSTIVE SEARCH The most naive paradigm is exhaustive search. The following algorithmic paradigms have been employed in most subproblems arising in VLSI layout. 5. a choice. 5. and then the original problem is solved by combining the solutions. or a set of choices. The main problem is that such algorithms are very slow-"very slow" does not mean that they take a few hours or a few days to run .3 DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING A problem is partitioned into a collection of subproblems.those that are fast and produce good quality solutions. greedy algorithms are simpler than other classes of algorithms .Such algorithms are of practical importance.Alternatively. one of the best solutions is selected. 5.exhaustive search produces optimal solutions.first the structure of an optimal solution is characterized and the value of an optimal solution is recursively defined. is made .Typically.Finally. it means they take a lifetime to run.

a problem is also partitioned into a set of subproblems.The partition is usually done in a top-down fashion and the solution is constructed in a bottom-up fashion . 5. 5.The subproblems are independent and the partitions are recursive. It is generally hard to claim anything about the running time of such algorithms.The sizes of the subproblems are typically balanced.The objective function is a minimization (or maximization) problem subject to a set of constraints. the set of feasible solutions) of the problem in sequence . The algorithm evaluates the feasible solutions it encounters and moves from one solution to another .5 MATHEMATICAL PROGRAMMING In the mathematical programming approach.The aim is to avoid searching the entire space by stopping at nodes when an optimal solution cannot be obtained .6 SIMULATED ANNEALING Simulated annealing is a technique used to solve general optimization problems.The idea originated from observing crystal formation of physical materials. 5.5.7 BRANCH AND BOUND This is a general and usually inefficient method for solving optimization problems .This technique used is especially useful when the solution space of the problem is not well understood. 5.4 HIERARCHICAL APPROACH In this approach.A simulated annealing algorithm examines the configurations (ie.there is a set of constraints expressed as a collection of inequalities.When the objective function and all inequalities are expressed as a linear combination of the involved variables then the system is called a linear system.8 GENETIC ALGORITHMS 10 . There is a tree-structured configuration space .

be modified) through successive generations.The solutions to be selected in the next generation are probabilistically selected based on a fitness value.To create a new generation..e.a solution subspace)to the problem is stored and allowed to evolve(i. a population of solutions(i. new solutions are formed by merging previous solutions(called crossover) or by modifying previous solutions (called mutation). quality) of the solution .The fitness value is a measure of the competence (i .At each stage of a genetic algorithm.e..e .. CHAPTER 6 11 .

Holland’s theory has been further developed and now Genetic Algorithms (GAs) stand up as a powerful tool for solving search and optimization problems. GAs are used to resolve complicated optimization problems. a recombination of the good characteristics of each ancestor can produce “best fit” offspring whose fitness is greater than that of a parent. In nature.GENETIC ALGORITHM 6. The perfect shapes of the albatross wring the efficiency and the similarity between sharks and dolphins and so on. are best examples of achievement of random evolution over intelligence. In the traditional genetic algorithm. and the value stored in that position represents how that feature is expressed in the 12 . The power of mathematics lies in technology transfer: there exist certain models and methods. Each position in the string is assumed to represent a particular feature of an individual. the representation used is a fixedlength bit string. Over several generations. and search optimization problems. individuals compete to attract mates for reproduction. as a result it should be interesting to simulate natural evolution and to develop a method. which describe many different phenomena and solve wide variety of problems. The most popular technique in evolutionary computation research has been the genetic algorithm. After a few generations. which solves concrete. species evolve spontaneously to become more and more adapted to their environment. GAs are an example of mathematical technology transfer: by simulating evolution one can solve optimization problems from a variety of sources. Due to this selection. jobshop scheduling. an individual in population competes with each other for virtual resources like food.1 INTRODUCTION TO GENETIC ALGORITHM Charles Darwin stated the theory of natural evolution in the origin of species. it works so well in nature. poorly performing individuals have less chance to survive. In 1975. Also in the same species. timetabling. It can also be noted that during reproduction. games playing. shelter and so on. Holland developed this idea in his book “Adaptation in natural and artificial systems”.Thus. biological organisms evolve based on the principle of natural selection “survival of the fittest” to reach certain remarkable tasks.He described how to apply the principles of natural evolution to optimization problems and built the first Genetic Algorithms. and the most adapted or “fit” individuals produce a relatively large number of offspring’s. Today. like. Genetic algorithms are based on the principle of genetics and evolution.

For example. Fig. Crossover.but not combined based on their values.6. but are used less frequently (e. Fig. in which a single bit in the string is flipped to form a new offspring string (see Fig 6. for example. Each gene represents an entity that is structurally independent of other genes.1 Bit-string crossover of parents a & b to form offspring c & d The main reproduction operator used is bit-string crossover. the string is “evaluated as a collection of structural features of a solution that have little or no interactions”.solution. The analogy may be drawn directly to genes in biological organisms. 6. 13 .1). two genes at the same location on two strings may be swapped between parents. inversion.g. and the offspring that are created replace the parents.A primary distinction that may be made between the various operators is whether or not they introduce any new information into the population. For example.does not while mutation does.2 Bit-flipping mutation of parent a to form offspring b A variety of other operators have also been developed.2). individuals are selected to be parents probabilistically based upon their fitness values. in which two strings are used as parents and new individuals are formed by swapping a sub-sequence between the two strings (see Fig. Traditionally. in which a subsequence in the bit string is reversed). Usually. All operators are also constrained to manipulate the string in a manner consistent with the structural interpretation of genes. then N offspring are generated which replace the parents in the next generation. Another popular operator is bit-flipping mutation. 6.. if N parents are selected.

multimodal etc.Therefore it is instructive to notice that continuous methods are sometimes used to solve inherently discrete problems and vice versa. By a fitness function we can select the best solution candidates from the population and delete the not so good specimens. In terms of energy and entropy local search corresponds to entropy while global optimization depends essentially on the fitness i. The main criteria used to classify optimization algorithms are as follows: continuous / discrete.2 COMPARISON OF GENETIC ALGORITHM WITH OTHER OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES The principle of GAs is simple: imitate genetics and natural selection by a computer program: The parameters of the problem are coded most naturally as a DNA-like linear data structure. Typical population size is from few dozens to thousands. constrained / unconstrained and sequential / parallel. some cases in which it is more efficient to run several processors in parallel rather than sequentially.e.6. of these problem dependent parameter value vectors is processed by GA. a vector or a string. energy landscape. there are not any definite mathematical restrictions on the properties of the fitness function. It may be discrete.So. There is a clear difference between discrete and continuous problems. In addition optimization algorithms can be classified as local or global. Sometimes. the values of different parameters generated by a random number generator. Irrespective of the above classification. To do optimization we need a cost function or fitness function as it is usually called when genetic algorithms are used. when the problem is naturally two or threedimensional also corresponding array structures are used. The nice thing when comparing GAs to other optimization methods is that the fitness function can be nearly anything that can be evaluated by a computer or even something that cannot! In the latter case it might be a human judgement that cannot be stated as a crisp program. where a human being selects among the alternatives generated by GA. Genetic algorithm differs from conventional optimization techniques in following ways: 14 . like in the case of eyewitness. called population. Parallel algorithms are usually used to speed up processing. There are.A set. however. optimizationmethods can be further classified into deterministic and non-deterministic methods. in which there is high probability of each individual search run to get stuck into a local extreme. These cases include among others such. To start there is usually a totally random population.

Parallelism 2. GAs use probabilistic transition operates while conventional methods for continuous optimization apply deterministic transition operates i. GA works with the coding of solution set and not with the solution itself. Easy to discover global optimum 6. They require no knowledge or gradient information about the response surface 15 . 9. Handles noisy functions well. 6..e. As a result. they can be applied to any kind of continuous or discrete optimization problem. Handles large.1. 3..e. GAs operate with coded versions of the problem parameters rather than parameters themselves i. GA uses population of solutions rather than a single solution fro searching. 8. 13. GA uses fitness function for evaluation rather than derivatives. Good for multi-modal problems Returns a suite of solutions. 12. 4. The problem has multi objective function 7. Only uses function evaluations.3 ADVANTAGES OF GENETIC ALGORITHM The advantages of genetic algorithm includes. The key point to be performed here is to identify and specify a meaningful decoding function. 10. Very robust to difficulties in the evaluation of the objective function. 2. poorly understood search spaces easily 11. Solution space is wider 4. The fitness landscape is complex 5. Liability 3. 1.e.. GAs does not use deterministic rules. Easily modified for different problems. This plays a major role to the robustness of genetic algorithms. It improves the chance of reaching the global optimum and also helps in avoiding local stationary point. Almost all conventional optimization techniques search from a single point but GAs always operate on a whole population of points(strings) i.

A few applications of GA are as follows: 1. The problem of identifying fitness function 2. Strategy planning 5. Premature convergence occurs 4.14. They have been also used for some art. Not effective for smooth unimodal functions 10. The problem of choosing the various parameters like the size of the population. Cannot use gradients.5 APPLICATIONS OF GENETIC ALGORITHM Genetic algorithms have been used for difficult problems (such as NP-hard problems).mutation rate. 3. Needs to be coupled with a local search technique. 9. for machine learning and also for evolving simple programs. Discontinuities present on the response surface have little effect on overall optimization performance 15. Nonlinear dynamical systems–predicting. Finding shape of protein molecules 16 . Not good at identifying local optima 8. 6. for evolving pictures and music. They are resistant to becoming trapped in local optima 16. Can be employed for a wide variety of optimization problems 6. the selection method and its strength. Configuration is not straightforward 6. Definition of representation for the problem 3. Cannot easily incorporate problem specific information 7. cross over rate. Robot trajectory planning Evolving LISP programs (genetic programming) 4. 11. Have trouble finding the exact global optimum 12. They perform very well for large-scale optimization problems 17. No effective terminator. 5. data analysis 2.4 THE LIMITATIONS OF GENETIC ALGORITHM 1. Require large number of response (fitness) function evaluations 13.

Combinatorial Optimization–set covering. 10. Appropriate representation and reproduction operators are really something determinant. the one with the most payoffs. improving classification algorithms. Signal Processing–filter design 13. But. classifier systems 12. keyboard configuration. Machine Learning–Designing neural networks. A set of reproduction operators has to be determined. too. graph coloring and partitioning 6. the problem does not raise much difficulty. Each solution is represented through a chromosome. In this it’s needed to use a specific technique to find the optimal solution. which respects the 17 . an optimization problem looks really simple. both architecture and weights. i. Design–semiconductor communication networks layout. it can be extremely difficult to find a representation. Functions for creating images 8.6 ALGORITHM An algorithm is a series of steps for solving a problem. It’s a search technique to find approximate solutions to optimization and search problems. and are used to perform mutations and recombinations over solutions of the problem. enumeration is soon no longer feasible simply because it would take far too much time. traveling salesman (TSP).Basically. but certainly not the most straightforward one of a Genetic Algorithm. Control–gas pipeline. TSP and sequence scheduling 7. GA handles a population of possible solutions. bin packing. One knows the form of all possible solutions corresponding to a specific question. when the search space becomes large. Coding all the possible solutions into a chromosome is the first part. Practically they all work in a similar way. resource allocation 11. Reproduction operators are applied directly on the chromosomes.e. pole balancing. as the behavior of the GA is extremely dependant on it.Frequently. facility scheduling. A genetic algorithm is a problem solving method that uses genetics as its model of problem solving. The set of all the solutions that meet this form constitute the search space. If it’s possible to quickly enumerate all the solutions. The problem consists in finding out the solution that fits the best. aircraft design.6. Sequence scheduling. missile evasion. pursuit 9. Genetic Algorithms provides one of these methods. routing. which is just an abstract representation. from all the possible solutions. adapting the simple genetics to algorithmic mechanisms. Scheduling–manufacturing.

the adaptation is quite easy. The gene pool should be as large as possible so that any solution of the search space can be engendered. the genetic algorithm loops over an iteration process to make the population evolve. which maximizes the fitness function.This selection is done randomly with a probability depending on the relative fitness of the individuals so that best ones are often chosen for reproduction than poor ones. or the selection can be adapted in such way that they consider individuals with low evaluation functions as better. Genetic Algorithms deal with the problems that maximize the fitness function.Then. Selection is done by using a fitness function. EVALUATION Then the fitness of the new chromosomes is evaluated. Generally. 3. offspring are bred by the selected individuals. It starts by generating an initial population of chromosomes. if the problem consists in minimizing a cost function. a Genetic Algorithm is evolved according to the same basic structure. 2. Either the cost function can be transformed into a fitness function. Selection is supposed to be able to compare each individual in the population. which are coherent and relevant according to the properties of the problems. for example by inverting it. Each iteration consists of the following steps: 1. This first population must offer a wide diversity of genetic materials. The optimal solution is the one. Each chromosome has an associated value corresponding to the fitness of the solution it represents. SELECTION The first step consists in selecting individuals for reproduction. But. the initial population is generated randomly. REPRODUCTION In the second step. the algorithm can use both recombination and mutation.structure of the search space and reproduction operators. Once the reproduction and the fitness function have been properly defined. The fitness should correspond to an evaluation of how good the candidate solution is. For generating new chromosomes. 18 .

If there is any improvement in fitness function stop running program else goto step1. 5. 6. REPLACEMENT During the last step.The algorithmis stoppedwhen the population converges toward the optimal solution. With a mutation probability. the bigger chance to get selected). individuals from the old population are killed and replaced by the new ones. cross over the parents to form new offspring ( children).4. 6. Evaluate the fitness f(x) of each chromosome x in the population 3. With a crossover probability. mutate new offspring at each locus (position in chromosome) 8. Genetic random population of n chromosomes (suitable solutions for the problem) 2. 7. If there is any improvement in fitness function goto step 7 else goto step1. Create a new population by repeating following steps until the New population is complete 4.7 FLOWCHART START 19 . If no crossover was performed. select two parent chromosomes from a population according to their fitness ( the better fitness. offspring is the exact copy of parents. The basic genetic algorithm is as follows: 1.

CREATE INITIAL RANDOM POPULATION EVALUATE FITNESS FOR EACH POPULATION STORE BEST INDIVIDUAL CREATING MATING POOL CREATE NEXT GENERATION BY APPLYING CROSSOVER OPTIMAL OR GOOD SOLUTION ??/? ??FOUND? PERFORM MUTATION OPTIMAL OR GOOD SOLUTION FOUND? STOP CHAPTER 7 STEPS IN GENETIC ALGORIHM 20 .

. The selection pressure is defined as the degree to which the better individuals are favored. The purpose of selection is to emphasize fitter individuals in the population in hopes that their off springs have higher fitness. 3. The convergence rate of GA is largely determined by the magnitude of the selection pressure.The breeding cycle consists of three steps: 1. 7. The higher the fitness function. It is in this process. 2. the more the better individuals are favored. After deciding on an encoding. the search process creates new and hopefully fitter individuals.1 BREEDING The breeding process is the heart of the genetic algorithm.e. The Fig 7. Crossing the parents to create new individuals (offspring or children). the next step is to decide how to perform selection i. Selecting parents. 21 .1. This selection pressure drives the GA to improve the population fitness over the successive generations. The higher the selection pressured.1 shows the basic selection process. Chromosomes are selected from the initial population to be parents for reproduction. with higher selection pressures resulting in higher convergence rates.1 SELECTION Selection is the process of choosing two parents from the population for crossing.7. Replacing old individuals in the population with the new ones. The problem is how to select these chromosomes. how to choose individuals in the population that will create offspring for the next generation and how many offspring each will create.Selection is a method that randomly picks chromosomes out of the population according to their evaluation function. According to Darwin’s theory of evolution the best ones survive to create new offspring. the more chance an individual has to be selected.

and the GA will take unnecessarily longer time to find the optimal solution. Ordinal-based selection schemes selects individuals not upon their raw fitness. but upon their rank within the population. Too strong selection means sub optimal highly fit individuals will take over the population. selection schemes should also preserve population diversity.It is also possible to use a scaling function to redistribute the fitness range of the population in order to adapt the selection pressure. However.Fig 7. This requires that the selection pressure is independent of the fitness distribution of the population. there is an increased change of the GA prematurely converging to an incorrect (sub-optimal)solution. the probability of selecting good individual instead of bad one will be important. Proportionate-based selection picks out individuals based upon their fitness values relative to the fitness of the other individuals in the population. proportionate selection and ordinal-based selection. 1000]. the probability of selecting a better individual than any other using a proportionate-based method will not be important.1 Selection Genetic Algorithms should be able to identify optimal or nearly optimal solutions under a wise range of selection scheme pressure. 1] equitably. the convergence rate will be slow.Selection has to be balanced with variation form crossover and mutation.Typically we can distinguish two types of selection scheme. In addition to providing selection pressure. and is solely based upon the relative ordering (ranking) of the population. as this helps to avoid premature convergence. reducing the diversity needed for 22 . if the selection pressure is too low. if all the solutions have their fitness in the range [999. If the fitness in every individual is brought to the range [0. For example. If the selection pressure is too high.

the next chromosome in line has a chance. the individual under the wheel’s marker is selected to be in the pool of parents for the next generation. Roulette wheel selection is easier to implement but is noisy.change and progress. The above described Roulette process can also be explained as follows: The expected value of an individual is that fitness divided by the actual fitness of the population. On each spin. It is essential that the population not be sorted by fitness. Choose a random integer ‘r’ between o and T. The commonly used reproduction operator is the proportionate reproductive operator where a string is selected from the mating pool with a probability proportional to the fitness. ii. 2. The individual whose expected value puts the sum over this limit is the one selected.1. which is a random proportion of the sum of the fit nesses in the population.Each individual is assigned a slice of the roulette wheel. and it may be weak. 23 . The rate of evolution depends on the variance of fitness’s in the population. This is only a moderately strong selection technique.1 ROULETTEWHEEL SELECTION Roulette selection is one of the traditional GA selection techniques. The various selection methods are discussed as follows: 7. Let it be T. This method is implemented as follows: 1.until the sum is greater than or equal to ‘r’. where N is the number of individuals in the population. the size of the slice being proportional to the individual’s fitness. since this would dramatically bias the selection. The population is stepped through until the target value is reached. A fit individual will contribute more to the target value. Repeat N times: i. too weak selection will result in too slow evolution. but if it does not exceed it.1. A target value is set. summing the expected values. The principle of roulette selection is a linear search through a roulette wheel with the slots in the wheel weighted in proportion to the individual’s fitness values. The wheel is spun N times. Sum the total expected value of the individuals in the population. since fit individuals are not guaranteed to be selected for. but somewhat have a greater chance. Loop through the individuals in the population.

If the R>=r then use the second individual as the parent.In effect. 1.If the best chromosome fitness is 90%. between 0 and 1.2 RANDOM SELECTION This technique randomly selects a parent from the population.1. Repeat to find a second parent. Select a pair of individuals at random.The best individual from the tournament is the one with the highest fitness. Rank Selection ranks the population and every chromosome receives fitness from the ranking. It preserves diversity and hence leads to a successful search. R. its circumference occupies 90% of Roulette wheel. The tournament competition is repeated until the mating pool for generating new offspring is filled. It also keeps up selection pressure when the fitness variance is low. 2. The fitness difference provides the 24 . If R < r use the first individual as a parent. random selection is a little more disruptive. In terms of disruption of genetic codes. 7. potential parents are selected and a tournament is held to decide which of the individuals will be the parent. the tournament selection strategy provides selective pressure by holding a tournament competition among Nu individuals. The value of r is a parameter to this method.1. It results in slow convergence but prevents too quick convergence. The individual with the highest evaluation becomes the parent.7.3 RANK SELECTION The Roulette wheel will have a problem when the fitness values differ very much.1. Generate a random number.4 TOURNAMENT SELECTION An ideal selection strategy should be such that it is able to adjust its selective pressure and population diversity so as to fine-tune GA search performance. which is the winner of Nu. Select two individuals at random.1.1. Unlike. The mating pool comprising of the tournament winner has higher average population fitness. This is repeated to select the second parent. Tournament competitions and the winner are then inserted into the mating pool. and then other chromosomes have too few chances to be selected. on average.1. than roulette wheel selection.the Roulette wheel selection. The worst has fitness 1 and the best has fitness N. There are many ways this can be achieved and two suggestions are. 7.

The temperature is gradually lowered.After selection the mating population consists of the individuals. thereby allowing the GA to narrow in more closely to the best part of the search space while maintaining the appropriate degree of diversity. The individuals are mapped to contiguous segments of a line. which means the selection pressure is low. then the distance between the pointers are 1/NPointer and the position of the first pointer is given by a randomly generated number in the range [0. Controlling a temperature like parameter introduced with the concept of Boltzmann probability distribution simulates the cooling phenomenon. 4.2 shows the selection for the above example. as many as there are individuals to be selected.Figure 7. which drives GA to improve the fitness of the succeeding genes.6 STOCHASTIC UNIVERSAL SAMPLING Stochastic universal sampling provides zero bias and minimum spread. which is closer to what is deserved than roulette wheel selection.1. the distance between the pointers is 1/6=0. Stochastic universal sampling ensures a selection of offspring. 7. This method simulates the process of slow cooling of molten metal to achieve the minimum function value in a minimization problem.167]: 0. 6. Sample of 1 random number in the range [0. 0. The temperature starts out high.1. 8.1.This method is more efficient and leads to an optimal solution.In Boltzmann selection a continuously varying temperature controls the rate of selection according to a preset schedule. But to cool down the system to the equilibrium state takes time. which gradually increases the selection pressure. 2.5 BOLTZMANN SELECTION Simulation annealing is a method of function minimization or maximization. 1/NPointer].selection pressure. A logarithmically decreasing temperature is found useful for convergence without getting stuck to a local minima state. 7. such that each individual’s segment is equal in size to its fitness exactly as in roulette-wheel selection. 3. Here equally spaced pointers are placed over the line. 25 .167.1.1.1. Consider NPointer the number of individuals to be selected. For 6 individuals to be selected.

A cross site is selected at random along the string length. a cross-site or crossover point is selected randomly along the length of the mated strings and bits next to the cross-sites are exchanged.1 SINGLE POINT CROSSOVER The traditional genetic algorithm uses single point crossover.7. Crossover operator is applied to the mating pool with the hope that it creates a better offspring.2 CROSSOVER (RECOMBINATION) Crossover is the process of taking two parent solutions and producing from them a child. After the selection (reproduction) process.1. ii. better children can be obtained by combining good parents else it severely hampers string quality. The various crossover techniques are discussed as follows: 7.Crossover is a recombination operator that proceeds in three steps: i. Finally. the population is enriched with better individuals.2. If appropriate site is chosen.2: Stochastic universal sampling That is. iii. 26 . where the two mating chromosomes are cut once at corresponding points and the sections after the cuts exchanged. the position values are swapped between the two strings following the cross site. The reproduction operator selects at random a pair of two individual strings for the mating. Reproduction makes clones of good strings but does not create new ones.1. the simplest way how to do that is to choose randomly some crossover point and copy everything before this point from the first parent and then copy everything after the crossover point from the other parent. Here. Fig 7.

The crossover point can be chosen randomly. an advantage of having more crossover points is that the problem space may be searched more thoroughly.2 TWO POINT CROSSOVER Apart from single point crossover.4 the dotted lines indicate the crossover points.However.3 illustrates single point crossover and it can be observed that the bits next to the crossover point are exchanged to produce children.4 Two-point crossover In the above Fig 7. Fig 7. two crossover points are chosen and the contents between these points are exchanged between two mated parents. often involving more than one cut point.The Fig 5.1. The problem with adding additional crossover points is that building blocks are more likely to be disrupted.In two-point crossover. Fig 7. Thus the contents between these points are exchanged between the parents to produce new children for mating in the next generation.2. many different crossover algorithms have been devised.3 Single point crossover 7. 27 . It should be noted that adding further crossover points reduces the performance of the GA.

In Fig. 7.To avoid all the problem of genes locus. Consequently. In a genetic representation. If both the head and the tail of a chromosome contain good genetic information. the efficiency of a N-point crossover will depend on the position of the genes within the chromosome. is generally considered better than 1-point crossover. therefore contain a mixture of genes from each parent. On producing 28 . Where there is a 1 in the crossover mask. Offsprings. the gene is copied from the first parent. and where there is a 0 in the mask the gene is copied from the second parent. In the case of even number of cross-sites. that while producing child 1. when there is a 1 in the mask.1. The number of effective crossing point is not fixed. but will average L/2 (where L is the chromosome length).2. the head and the tail of one chromosome cannot be passed together to the offspring. Using a 2-point crossover avoids this drawback.Originally. the gene is copied from the parent 1 else from the parent 2. a different cross-point is always assumed at the string beginning. none of the offsprings obtained directly with one-point crossover will share the two good features.One is even number of cross-sites and the other odd number of cross-sites. and then. GAs were using one-point crossover which cuts two chromosomes in one point and splices the two halves to create new ones. genes that encode dependant characteristics of the solution should be close together.3 MULTI-POINT CROSSOVER (N-POINT CROSSOVER) There are two ways in this crossover.2. a good thing is to use a uniform crossover as recombination operator 7. In the case of odd number of crosssites. 7. But with this one-point crossover. Each gene in the offspring is created by copying the corresponding gene from one or the other parent chosen according to a random generated binary crossover mask of the same length as the chromosomes. cross-sites are selected randomly around a circle and information is exchanged. A new crossover mask is randomly generated for each pair of parents. new children are produced using uniform crossover approach. It leads to an unwanted correlation between genes next to each other. In fact this problem can be generalized to each gene position in a chromosome.4 UNIFORM CROSSOVER Uniform crossover is quite different from the N-point crossover.1.5. It can be noticed. Genes that are close on a chromosome have more chance to be passed together to the offspring obtained through a N-points crossover.

three parents are randomly chosen.5 THREE PARENT CROSSOVER In this crossover technique.2.1. Fig 7. A single crossover position (as in single-point crossover) is selected. This concept is illustrated in Fig. the bit from the third parent is taken for the offspring. fig 7. the bit is taken for the offspring otherwise.1.1. This is implemented by restricting the location of crossover points such that crossover points only occur where gene values differ.6 three parent crossover 7. This removes positional bias as the variables are randomly reassigned each time crossover is performed. the gene is copied from parent 2. 29 . they are randomly shuffled in both parents. 5.6 CROSSOVER WITH REDUCED SURROGATE The reduced surrogate operator constrains crossover to always produce new individuals wherever possible. when there is a 1 in the mask.2. If both are the same. Each bit of the first parent is compared with the bit of the second parent. But before the variables are exchanged.child 2. After recombination. the variables in the offspring are unshuffled. the gene is copied from the parent 1. 7.7 SHUFFLE CROSSOVER Shuffle crossover is related to uniform crossover. when there is a 0 in the mask.5 uniform crossover 7.2.6.

7.2. 4.1. is randomly filled with elements of the set {1.7.The operator passes on precedence relations of operations given in two parental permutations to one offspring at the same rate. (1996).PPX is illustrated in below. representing the number of operations involved in the problem.7. Example is shown in Fig. for which the operations ‘append’ and ‘delete’ are defined. Note that PPX does not work in a uniform-crossovermanner due to the ‘deletionappend’ scheme used.9 ORDERED CROSSOVER 30 .7 Precedence Preservative Crossover (PPX) 3. 2.2.7 7. A vector of length Sigma. The leftmost operation in one of the two parents is selected in accordance with the order of parents given in the vector. sub i=1to mi.while no new precedence relations are introduced. We can also consider the parent and offspring permutations as lists. Fig 7. 9. for a problem consisting of six operations A–F. First we start by initializing an empty offspring.1. Finally the selected operation is appended to the offspring. 5. This step is repeated until both parents are empty and the offspring contains all operations involved.The operator works as follows: 1. This vector defines the order in which the operations are successively drawn from parent 1 and parent 2. 8.8 PRECEDENCE PRESERVATIVE CROSSOVER (PPX) PPX was independently developed for vehicle routing problems by Blanton and Wainwright (1993) and for scheduling problems by Bierwirth et al. 6. 2}. After an operation is selected it is deleted in both parents.

defining a matching section 3.Ordered two-point crossover is used when the problem is of order based. 6.8 7. TSP chromosomes are simply sequences of integers.two random crossover points are selected partitioning them into a left. known as permutation encoding. The following illustrates how PMX works.9. Given two parent chromosomes. Where. the dots mark the selected cross points. 7. i. The matching section defines the position-wise exchanges that must take place in both parents to produce the offspring. A similar process is applied to determine child 2.e. It may be viewed as a crossover of permutations that guarantees that all positions are found exactly once in each offspring. 31 . where each integer represents a different city and the order represents the time at which a city is visited. 2.1. The two chromosomes are aligned.2. we are only interested in labels and not alleles. The matching section is used to effect a cross through position-by-position exchange operation 4.10 PARTIALLYMATCHED CROSSOVER (PMX) PMX can be applied usefully in the TSP. Alleles are moved to their new positions in the offspring 5. The exchanges are read from the matching section of one chromosome to that of the other. middle andright portion. Consider the two strings shown in Fig 7.PMX proceeds as follows: 1. 8. both offspring receive a full complement of genes. Two crossing sites are selected uniformly at random along the strings. This is shown in Fig 5.followed by the corresponding filling in of alleles from their parents. Fig 7. and its middle section is determined. for example in U-shaped assembly line balancing etc. Under this representation. The ordered two-point crossover behaves in the following way: child 1 inherits its left and right section from parent 1. Indeed.8 Ordered crossover Parent by the genes in the middle section of parent 1 in the order in which the values appear in parent 2.

offspring are exact copies of parents. it is good to leave some part of old population survive to next generation. 7. It is an insurance policy against the irreversible loss of genetic material. 32 . 6 and 3.10 Fig. Mutation is viewed as a background operator to maintain genetic diversity in the population. If there is crossover.If there is no crossover.10 Partially matched crossover 7. In the example. then all offspring are made by crossover. However.1. Mutation prevents the algorithm to be trapped in a local minimum. and 7 and 10.2. Mutation has traditionally considered as a simple search operator. 7. the numbers that exchange places are 5 and 2. If crossover probability is 100%. the strings are subjected to mutation.9 Strings given Fig 7. It introduces new genetic structures in the population by randomly modifying some of its building blocks. whole new generation is made from exact copies of chromosomes from old population (but this does not mean that the new generation is the same!). offspring are made from parts of both parent’s chromosome.Crossover probability is a parameter to describe how often crossover will be performed.9. If crossover is supposed to exploit the current solution to find better ones.3 MUTATION After crossover. mutation is supposed to help for the exploration of the whole search space. Mutation plays the role of recovering the lost genetic materials as well as for randomly disturbing genetic information.11 CROSSOVER PROBABILITY The basic parameter in crossover technique is the crossover probability (Pc).1. Crossover is made in hope that new chromosomes will contain good parts of old chromosomes and therefore the new chromosomes will be better. If it is 0%.The resulting offspring are as shown in Fig 7.

changing 0 to 1 and vice-versa.2 INTERCHANGING Fig 7.3.11 explains mutation-flipping concept. Fig 7. A search space is said to be ergodic if there is a non-zero probability of generating any solution from any population state. It also keeps the gene pool well stocked.3. there occurs 1 at 3 places of mutation chromosome. A parent is considered and a mutation chromosome is randomly generated.1. But care should be taken. Mutation of a bit involves flipping a bit. the corresponding bit in parent chromosome is flipped (0 to 1 and 1 to 0) and child chromosome is produced.11:flipping 7.12:Interchanging 33 .Mutation helps escape from local minima’s trap and maintains diversity in the population. For a 1 in mutation chromosome.For binary representation. a simple mutation can consist in inverting the value of each gene with a small probability.The Fig 5. the corresponding bits in parent chromosome are flipped and child is generated. and thus ensuring ergodicity.1 FLIPPING Flipping of a bit involves changing 0 to 1 and 1 to 0 based on a mutation chromosome generated.1. Such an operator can accelerate the search. because it might also reduce the diversity in the population and makes the algorithm converge toward some local optima. It is also possible to implement kind of hill-climbing mutation operators that do mutation only if it improves the quality of the solution.where L is the length of the chromosome.There are many different forms of mutation for the different kinds of representation. In the above case. 7. The probability is usually taken about 1/L.

but not all four can return to the population. one or more parts of a chromosome are changed. 34 . if it is 0%.1.3. This is shown in Fig.Two random positions of the string are chosen and the bits corresponding to those positions are interchanged.3 REVERSING A random position is chosen and the bits next to that position are reversed and child chromosome is produced. If there is no mutation.1.5.13 Fig 7. if any.e. Mutation should not occur very often.generational updates and steady state updates. whole chromosome is changed. Two parents are drawn from a fixed size population. offspring are generated immediately after crossover (or directly copied) without any change. so two must be replaced i. once off springs are produced. there are two kinds of methods for maintaining the population.13:Reversing 7. nothing is changed. Mutation generally prevents the GA from falling into local extremes.12 7. Basically. should be replaced by the new solutions. If mutation is performed. they breed two children. If mutation probability is 100%.1. The technique used to decide which individual stay in a population and which are replaced in on a par with the selection in influencing convergence.3. The mutation probability decides how often parts of chromosome will be mutated.. because then GA will in fact change to random search.4 REPLACEMENT Replacement is the last stage of any breeding cycle.7. a method must determine which of the current members of the population. This is shown in Fig.4 MUTATION PROBABILITY The important parameter in the mutation technique is the mutation probability (Pm). 7.

If the maximum number of generation has been reached before the specified time has elapsed.With the four individuals only the fittest two. The child replaces the parent. 2. Elapsed time–The genetic process will end when a specified time has elapsed.1. the process will end. 7.4. 7. 35 . 3. parent or child. the various stopping condition are listed as follows: 1. This can be useful for continuing the search in small populations.1 RANDOM REPLACEMENT The children replace two randomly chosen individuals in the population. but if weak individuals and discriminated against in selection the opportunity will never raise to replace them. the processwill end. 7.1. Maximum generations–The genetic algorithm stops when the specified number of generation’s have evolved.3 BOTH PARENTS Both parents replacement is simple.If the maximum number of generation has been reached before the specified number of generationwith no changes has been reached.7.2 WEAK PARENT REPLACEMENT In weak parent replacement.1. As a result. In this case.4. the population and genetic material moves around but leads to a problem when combined with a selection technique that strongly favors fit parents: the fit breed and then are disposed of. The parents are also candidates for selection. return to population.4. each individual only gets to breed once. No change in fitness–The genetic process will end if there is no change to the population’s best fitness for a specified number of generations.2 SEARCH TERMINATION (CONVERGENCE CRITERIA) In short. This process improves the overall fitness of the populationwhen paired with a selection technique that selects both fit and weak parents for crossing. a weaker parent is replaced by a strong child. since weak individuals can be introduced into the population.

otherwise a few unfit individuals in the population will blow out the fitness sum.2. 7.1 BEST INDIVIDUAL A best individual convergence criterion stops the search once the minimum fitness in the population drops below the convergence value. This guarantees the entire population to be of minimum standard.4 MEDIAN FITNESS Here at least half of the individuals will be better than or equal to the convergence value. Stall time limit–The algorithm stops if there is no improvement in the objective function during an interval of time in seconds equal to Stall time limit. The termination or convergence criterion finally brings the search to a halt. The population size has to be considered while setting the convergence value. 7.3 SUM OF FITNESS In this termination scheme. This brings the search to a faster conclusion guaranteeing at least one good solution. 36 . the search is considered to have satisfaction converged when the sum of the fitness in the entire population is less than or equal to the convergence value in the population record. in which case the search will terminate after the maximum has been exceeded. although it is better to pair this convergence criteria with weakest gene replacement. The following are the few methods of termination techniques. Stall generations–The algorithm stops if there is no improvement in the objective function for a sequence of consecutive generations of length Stall generations.2 WORST INDIVIDUAL Worst individual terminates the search when the least fit individuals in the population have fitness less than the convergence criteria. 5. which should give a good range of solutions to choose from.2. although the best individual may not be significantly better than the worst. This guarantees that virtually all individuals in the population will be within a particular fitness range. a stringent convergence value may never be met. 7.2. In this case.2.4. 7.

Unequal row lengths result in wasted space.i≠j where 0( i. it takes a large amount of computation time to remove overlap for every proposed move. with final row lengths within 3-5% of the desired value. LˆR is the desired row length. Although cell overlap is not allowed in the final placement and has to be removed by shifting the cells slightly. Experiments show that the function used provides good control. Critical nets are those that need to be optimized more than the rest. the module overlap penalty. and the row length control penalty. as shown in Figure la. where x(i) and y(i) are the vertical and horizontal spans of the net bounding rectangle. C2. It was observed that C2 converges to O for W2 = 1.CHAPTER 8 COST FUNCTION The cost function is the sum of three components: the wire length cost. CHAPTER 9 37 . with weighting of critical nets and independent weighting of horizontal and vertical wiring spans for each net: C1 = [x(i) WH(i) +y(i)WV(i)]. j)]2. j) is the overlap between the ith and jth cell. The row length control penalty C3 is a function of the difference between the actual row length and the desired row length. C2. and WH( i) and WV(i) are the weights of the horizontal and vertical wiring spans. It tends to equalize row lengths by increasing the cost if the rows are of unequal lengths. The penalty is given by: C3=W3∑│ LR-LˆR│ where LR is the actual row length. or that need to be limited to a certain maximum length due to propagation delay. The wire length cost C1 is estimated using the semiperirneter method. C3. The parabolic function causes large overlaps to be penalized and hence discouraged more than small ones. and W3 is the weight for this penalty for which the default value of 5 is used.The module overlap penalty. it would take too much computation to determine the change in wire length. and W 2 is the weight for this penalty. C1. If too many cells are shifted in an attempt to remove overlap.parabolic in the amount of overlap: C2 = W2∑ [O(i.

The current runtime is too extensive.CONCLUSION In this paper a genetic algorithm for the macro cell placemenl.In conclusion. problem has been presented. CHAPTER 10 REFERENCE 38 . E.g. but also here improvements can be made. trying alternative estimation of routing area. Since this work is a novel approach to macro cell placement. by trying different crossover operators. The layout quality obtained by the algorithm is comparable to the best published results. further improvements are most likely.etc. genetic algorithms is a promising approach to the macro cell placement problem.

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