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On “ROLE OF KILN IN CEMENT MANUFACTURING PROCESS”
For the Partial fulfillment of
B-TECH MECH ENGG. 3rd year During Session 2009
MAHARISHI ARVIND INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, JAIPUR
Guided By: Mr. R. P. Singh G M -RTC & HRD
Submitted By : MAYANK AGRAWAL B-TECH MECH EN. 3rd year
As per the requirement of ………course J K Cement WORKS has been kind enough to permit me to complete my project on “………………………
The objective of this project is to study the cement manufacturing process of JK cement Ltd. This report prepared during the practical training which is student’s first and greatest treasure as it full of experience,observation and knowledge. The summer training was very interesting and gainful as it close to real what have been studied is all the years through was seen implemented in a modified and practical form. The only fault was that the time available was short and there was much to learn ,yet the things learned shall never be oblivion and are of great aid in the near future.
MAYANK AGRAWAL B-TECH MECH ENGG. 3rd year ring the practical training. Which is student’s first and greatest treasure as it is full of experience, observation and knowledge. The summer training was very interesting and gainful as it is close to real what have been studied is all the years through was seen implemented in a
It gives to me tremendous pleasure in acknowledge the invaluable assistance to me by various personalities in successful completion of this report. I express my gratitude towards Mr.D.Ravishankar, President and the entire management of JK cement works for giving me a chance to work as a management trainee in their esteemed organisation. I wish to acknowledge my profound gratitude towards my training department head Mr R.P SINGH, GM-HRD & RTC, Mr SHAILENDAR SHARMA, ASST. MGRRTC for giving me opportunity in this field. I would be a thankless child if I don’t maintian the name of continous source of energy and inspiration that is my parents who always encourage and support me at right step in my life.
MAYANK AGRAWAL B-TECH MECH ENGG. 3rd year )
It gives to me tremendous ple
asure in acknowledge the
In d c n tro u tio
North 5.3 Crushing of Limestone.5 Pyro-processing 6. Stacker and Reclaimers 6. Organisational Chart.4 Grinding of Raw Material 6. Regional Training Centre .4 Types and Uses of Cement 6.7 Packing Plant 220.127.116.11 Cement Grinding 6.5 Types of Processes 6.1 History & Milestones 1. 4.6 Process Overview 6.up.2 Introduction of Cement 6. WORKS C O N T E N T S Overview of J K Cement 1. Corporate Social Responsibility 6.8 Quality Characteristics of Cement 7.1.2 Mining 6.1.1. ROLE OF KILN IN CEMENT MANUFACTURING PROCESS 1 . 3.3 Hydration 18.104.22.168 Production Capacity and Financial Performance 2. Management Set.1. Process Flow Chart 6. Cement Manufacturing Process : 6. 1 History of Cement 6.
J. cement plant is having its own diesel generator sets. organization started in the year 1884 at Calcutta. Trading Supplier of cotton belts and manufacturer of small machinery parts like ‘V' belts. which is generating 15 M. established its own Thermal Power Plant at village Bamania. J K Cement also has a plant of 400TPD installed capacity of White Cement at Gotan. which was earlier 1350 tonne per day. at Kota and Tyre Cord.-2003 after modification in Preheater and installation of Mechanical elevator its capacity increased to 2200 TPD. Nagour (Raj). Acrylic fiber. Expansion of this plant took place in the year 1979. for limestone we have our own open cast mines adjoining to the plant. Besides. J. They established few small cotton textile industries also. Chemical and Pesticides at Jhalawar.K. In the year 1934 J." stands for a father.1 HISTORY BEHIND J K CEMENT The initial "J. In Aug.K. Cement Plant. etc. 2001 with the capacity of 1400 tonne per day at village Mangrol.K.K. OVERVIEW OF J K CEMENT WORKS 1. Lohia Mach. 1 .K. Again in the third phase. when 2nd kiln was commissioned with a capacity of 1200 tonne per day and 7 lakh tonne per year. They established various big plants of Nylon. near Shambhupura. In Nov. which is consumed by J. which raised the capacity of this plant to 3400 tonne per day.son team. Besides we have developed few more mines at Maliakhera. Synthetics Ltd. organization started one more division. cotton Mills.W.K. After modification in Preheater its present capacity is 1800 TPD.K. After modification in Preheater. Pulp and Raymond’s Woolen.K. In the year 1974 under the same division one more unit was started for manufacturing of Grey Cement at Nimbahera. In the year 1988 a new technology was introduced in this 3rd Kiln that consisted of precalcination process. started their business as a Financier. power every day. Straw product Co. Investor. Karoonda and Tilakhera for producing 10. The present cement factory was commissioned in the year 1974. J . The plant started its production from 27th Dec 1974. etc. Cement erected one more plant from Jan.000 tonnes limestone per day as needed.K.-2003 after again some modification in Preheater and Folex cooler its capacity is increased to 5000 TPD. as J. producing power to meet the power energy requirements.K. etc. J . Main raw material forcement is LIMESTONE. In the year 1914 they shifted their business from Calcutta to Kanpur where they established many big industries like J. Due to power shortage as imposed by Ajmer electricity supply board J. a kiln was erected in the year 1982 and production of this kiln was 1350 tonne per day.1.K. Ist plant / kiln was commissioned in 1974 and the capacity of this plant was 900 tonne per day and 3 lakh tonne per year. namely: JuggilalKamlapathSinghania J . its present capacity is 1200 TPD.
2. Thermal Power Plant at Nimbahera of 22 MW. enjoys good brand image and a price premium. Cement has started the following projects: ✔ J K Cement Project at Fuzairah. Waste Heat Recovery Plant at Nimbahera of 15 MW capacity. J.1 CLINKER PRODUCTION – Nimbahera and Mangrol Plant Ist Plant / Kiln IInd Plant / Kiln IIIrd Plant / Kiln IVth Plant at Mangrol Total Capacity 1200 Tonne Per Day (TPD) 1800 TPD 5000 TPD 2200 TPD 10200 TPD 1.2. (a) Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) (b) PortlandPozzolana Cement (PPC) (c) Super Silicate Cement (SSC) (d) Masonry Cement (MC) J.2. Cement manufactures and markets cement and clinker for both domestic as well as exports markets.K. UAE J. The company’s cement is sold under the J. cement is one of the most productive.K. SarveShaktiman brand name. 1 . a company. integrity and fairness. believing in corporate responsibility to society. cost efficient cement producing plant in the country.3 FINANCIAL ANALYSIS: IN Million . K.K.2 PRESENT CAPACITY AND PERFORMANCE 1. The following types of cements are produced by J K Cement Works.2 PRODUCTION ANALYSIS TABLE: IN TONS – Nimbahera and Mangrol Plant Year 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Clinker 3170268 2907196 2917045 3024091 3096463 Cement 3511022 3638786 3690726 3646220 3594387 1. 1.J K Cement Ltd.• • • Cement Plant at Karnataka of over 5500 TPD and Thermal Power Plant of capacity 30 MW.
Year 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 Turnover 11087 15297 18128 18765 PBT 522 2720 3466 2340 2 .
Karnataka Plants J K Cement.3 Other Services: President President President 2.North White Cement Marketing .UP 2.MANAGEMENT SET.Dr Gaur HariSinghania .White and Grey Plants at Gotan Management & Technical Services & Marketing –South Grey Cement Marketing . Mangrol and Mudhol.Kanpur Chairman Managing Director Group Executive President 2.2.Shri R G Bagla 1 . Nimbahera.1 Corporate Level.2 Unit Heads: President President 2.4 J K Organizations: J K Organization Shri D Ravisankar Shri B K Arora Shri M P Rawal Shri R C Shukla Shri V P Singh J K Cement.Shri Y P Singhania .
Pune Jindal Steel & Power Ltd.. Raigarh. Bamania (Raj. Oman Star Cement. INDIA: J & K Cement. Dubai Hama Cement.North is a premier training centre of North India promoted with assistance from World Bank. Mudhol. The centre has conducted many tailor-made in-house programs for cement and other industries: ABROAD: • • • Oman Cement. Iran. It has trained over 8000 technical and managerial personnel during the last 14 years.J K Cement Ltd. Mangrol (Raj. Syria / EHDASSE Sanat Corp.) Grey Cement– 2200TPD J K Thermal Power.NORTH SECOND DECADE OF COMPETENCY ENHANCEMENT AND SKILL DEVELOPMENT IN CEMENT INDUSTRY The Regional Training Centre . It is equipped with modern training aids and caters to the skill enhancement and competency developmental needs of more than 20 cement and other plants.) CPP – 15MW J K Cement.) White Cement –1000 TPD Grey Cement – 1200TPD CPP – 7.5MW JK Wall Putty Project J K Cement Fuzairah . Production & Location J K Cement Works.) Grey Cement– 8000TPD C P P–22MW W H R – 15 MW J K Cement Works. REGIONAL TRAINING CENTRE. UAE 4 . Srinagar Thermax Ltd. of India as a unique HRD project in Cement Industry. Karnataka Grey Cement – 3500 TPD CPP– 30MW J K White. etc. 1 . Nimbahera (Raj. DANIDA and Govt.. Gotan (Raj.
CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY J K Cement has contributed significantly to the development of various services in and around its offices and plants. Running JK Institute of Technology.Maintenance disciplines likeOperation & Maintenance of HEMM / Gear-boxes / Pumps / Compressors / Electrical & Electronics Equipments / Energy Conservation / Environment Management and Machinery Alignment. OEM’s and management experts of national repute are invited for various technical and management programs to make them effective and gainful experience for the participants. NITTTR. NCCBM. Some of such activities can be enumerated as under : Education Schools and University: • • • • • • Dr Gaur HariSinghania Institute of Management & Research. etc. Bhopal and Chennai. NITTTR. Besides. Kanpur Sir PadampatSinghania Technical University at Bhatewar. Various constructions in nearby govt.RTC has specialized packages / modules in Mining. Gotan Construction of rooms in Govt. VEC.College at Nimbahera. More than 100 senior line mangers from ten plants have been trained at Denmark. Educational services: ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ 2 . J K Institute of Technology – JKIT at Nimbahera PadamVidyaVihar – Primary School at Nimbahera KailashVidyaVihar – Sr Secondary School at Nimbahera Sr Secondary School. Schools of Chittorgarh district. etc. TATA Interactive Systems. Udaipur. designed and developed by renowned International / National agencies like FLS Denmark. 5. ITI in five trades affiliated to NCVT. who act as resource persons for these programs. Process. Running 10+2 CBSE affiliated school Running Regional Training Centre for Cement technocrat’s aided by WB & DANIDA.
Financial helps to NGOS. Digging of tube wells. colony and nearby villages. and cricket ground.➢ We are involved in girls school (under construction) and committed reasonable financial contribution for above Medical services ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ Rs. Free facility of pathological laboratory for the persons of surrounding area. table tennis court. Financial contribution to various NGOS for medical camps in the district. ➢ Sponsoring inter-district tournaments. volley ball and badminton tournaments. ➢ Sponsoring all India youth football. ➢ prayer hall in hanuman temple in Nimbahera. 36 lacks contribution for the construction of govt. Construction of water tanks. ➢ Bheemkeshwar temple in staff colony.). Sports services ➢ Sports infrastructure like wooden badminton court. The Calcarious and Argillaceous 1 . Cement clinker is produced on large scale by heating finely pulverised Calcareous and Argillaceous materials at very high temperature upto 1450oC in rotary kilns. ➢ Dharmashala at Bhanwarmata (tourist/ religious place). 6. ➢ Arranging summer camps for various sports. Free Homeopathic consultancy/medicines for the patients of nearby area. Religious services ➢ Radhakrishna temple at colony premises.P. Regular plantation in plant. Ambulance to govt. Direct and indirect employment to thousands of persons of surrounding area. Supply of drinking water in tankers in nearby needy places during summer. Other social services ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ Construction of approach roads in and around villages of mining area. ➢ 8 rooms for Dharamshala at PashupatiNath temple in Mandsaur (M. Financial aid to organize religious festivals by municipal board. Supply of tube well pumps. ➢ Various temples in number of nearby villages.Hospital at Nimbahera. CEMENT MANUFACTURING: Ordinary Portland cement is produced by grinding cement clinker in association with gypsum (35%) to specified fineness depending on the requirements of the cement consumers. billiard room. volleyball ground in colony campus.Hospital. Financial contribution for construction of dispensary & health centre in nearby villages.
Therefore cement units are necessarily located near the cement grade limestone deposit. It is said that the use of cement is form the period of use of fire. Grinding and Final Blending of raw materials for preparation of kiln feed. Modern cement is the outcome of the combined research and development efforts of chemists. as used in construction industries. Pre-homogenisation. The major steps or unit operations involved in cement manufacturing process include: • • • • • • • Mining. is a 2 .1 HISTORY OF CEMENT The history of cement is the story of civilization from primitive caves of pre-historic times to the skyscrapers of the modern age. technology. However. sixty-eighty years after the discovery of hydraulic properties of lime Joseph Aspdin patented his product. Sodium. mineral oil or natural gas. Potassium. Pyroprocessing of kiln feed in presence of combustion gas/ flame generated from combustion of pulverized coal. The interest that is evoked in the technology o f cement resulted in the development of Rotary kilns in 1886. which can join unite two or more pieces of some other substance together to from a unit mass. The cement technology is an offshoot of the overall development in other industries. which was called "Portland Cement" The plants manufacturing portland cement outside England were commissioned in Belgium and Germany in 1855..1.1. Crushing. Silica (SiO2). may also be present in the raw materials upto limited extent which do not adversely affect either the manufacturing process or the quality of cement produced. 6. Grinding of cement clinker along with Gypsum for production of OPC Gypsum and other additive / blending components for production of cement other than OPC. constructional activities and knowledge and the availability of raw material. Limestone is the major raw material used for manufacture of cement and about 35% of raw materials are lost in the atmosphere in the form of gaseous compounds of which carbon dioxide is the major one. technologists and architects. Alumina (Al2O3) and Iron (Fe2O3) present in the mixture. Cement. minor constituents like Magnesia (MgO). The various unit operations from mining of raw materials to cement dispatch are discussed as under.2 INTRODUCTION OF CEMENT Cement can be defined as any substance. It was in 1824. Packing and dispatch of cement. 6. Chlorine compounds etc. Sulphur.materials obtained from the earth are properly proportioned to get a suitable ratio of lime (CaO). As the raw materials are obtained directly from limestone and clay mines. Egyptians utilized gypsum plaster as cementing material as early as 3000 BC building their monuments.
1. tricalcium aluminate (C3A). The phase compositions in Portland Cement are shown below and they are denoted as tricalcium silicate (C3S). Our country has enough reserve of raw material needed in the cement industry.1. More industrial activity and greater purchasing power means more asset formation and construction and thus more consumption of cement. dicalciumsilicate (C2S).2 COMPOSITION OF ORDINARY PORTLAND CEMENT: Ordinary Portland Cement is the basic cement and it has three grades namely 33. Cement consumption growth is highly correlated to the GDP growth and serves as a leading indicator.2.1 Components of Portland Cement Description Formula % Composition Tricalcium Silicate (C3S) Dicalcium Silicate (C2S) Tricalcium Aluminate (C3A) TetracalciumAluminoferrite (C4AF) 3CaO SiO2 2CaO SiO2 3CaO Al2O3 4CaO Al2O3 Fe2O3 49 25 12 8 6. which is prepared by igniting a mixture of raw materials mainly composed of calcium carbonate or aluminum silicates.1. Limestone is the principal raw material for the manufacturing of cement. According to ASTM standard specification C 150.fine powder which when mixed with water and allowed to set and harden can join different components or members together to give a mechanically storng structure. and tetracalciumaluminoferrite (C4AF). Portland cement is defined as “a hydraulic cement produced by pulverizing clinker consisting essentially of hydraulic calcium silicates. usually containing one or more of the forms of calcium sulfate as an interground addition” .1 Ordinary Portland Cement The most common type of cement used by concrete manufacturers is Portland cement. 6. Thus cement can be used as bonding material for bricks or for bonding solid particles of different sizes (rubber masonry) to form a monolith.1. 43 and 53 respectively.2. 6.2.0 .1-3.2-1.0 1-3 0. Ingredient lime Silica Alumina Calcium sulphate Iron Oxide Magnesia Sulphur Alkalise 1 Percentage 64 22 5 4 3 2 1 1 Range 64-68 17-25 3-6 3-5 3-4 0.
1. Application Low Heat Portland Cement Super Sulphated Cement High Alumina Cement 6. Mainly as refractory cement and as structural material giving high early strength development in cold regions.5 TYPES OF PROCESSES: 1 . In a varity of aggressive conditions like marine works. When the tri.4 TYPES AND USES OF CEMENT: (a) Type of Cement: Grey Cement White Cement (b) Uses of Cement: Types of Cement Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) Portland Slag Cement PortlandPozzolona Cement (PPC) White Portland Cement Oil Well Cement General construction General construction and marine works. decorative work and in manufacturing of titles.6.calcium silicates react with water a calcium-silicate-hydrate gel is formed. All compounds present in Portland cement clinker are anhydrous.2SiO2 –3H2O + Ca (OH)2 Tricalcium Aluminate (C3A) 3CaO-A12O3 + 6H2O→ 3CaO – A12O3 –6H2O TetracalciumAluminoferrite (C4AF) 4CaO-A12 O3 – Fe2O3 + 2Ca(OH)2 + 10H2O →3CaO – A12O3 –6H2O+3CaO-Fe2O3-6H2O 6. General construction.2SiO2 –3H2O + 3Ca (OH)2 Dicalcium Silicate (C2S) 2(2CaO-SiO2 ) + 4H2O→ 3CaO .3 HYDRATION In this experiment. This calcium-silicatehydrate (C-S-H) is the principal hydration product and primary binding phase in Portland cement. concrete sewers carrying industrial effluents. Connecting the steel casing to the walls of gas oil wells at high temperature and to seal porous formations in petroleum industry. the hydration rate for each type of tricalcium silicate component was measured. forming hydrated compounds. Where low heat on hydration is required as in mass concrete for dams. The chemical reaction that take place during hydration are summarized below:Tricalcium Silicate (C3S) 2(3CaO-SiO2 ) + 6H2O→3CaO .1. Architectural purposes. but when brought into contact with water. hydraulic construction & marine. they are all attacked or decomposed. Hydration is the reaction that takes place between cement and water that leads to setting and hardening.1.or di.
However. newly developed Eco-friendly Surface Miners also find use in limestone mines today in J K Cement plants. (Approximate boulder size: 1. Planning and executing drilling and blasting programme in normal course at site to take optimum output from blasting as well as achieving economy in explosive consumption. How to carry out survey and perform drilling activities for exploration purpose. Establish system for computerized mine-planning in order to ensure supply of limestone with consistent quality. (a) (b) Planning and executing a systematic exploration programme.The methods of mining are discussed as under. Implementing statutory requirement for safety and environment Explosives Equipment: Drilling Machines Excavators / Shovels Dumpers Dozers Loaders Resources: (C) Operations: 1 Drilling and Blasting . 6. Draw scope of drilling campaign.2 MINING OF LIMESTONE The major quantity of limestone is obtained from the captive limestone mines.2.Basically there are two types of process for cement manufacturing that is Hydro Processing (Wet Process) Pyro Processing (Dry Process) We are using Pyro Process in JK Cement Works at all our plants. PROCESS OVERVIEW : 6.1M) Loading and transportation of lime stone boulders to crusher site.0 M * 1.1 MINING METHODS Limestone mining operation traditionally is carried out generally as Opencast mining in India.4 M * 1.
The drum can be lowered or lifted by hydraulic system with powerful hydraulic motors thereby varying the depth of cut. Sequential Timer Blasting Machines are used for blasting operations.2 DRILLING / BLASTING METHODS OF MINING Out of the eight cement plants of J K Cements Limited. This timer machine reduces the problem of noise. Hindustan and Beml loaders. Equipments used in this method of Open cast Mining includes HM-25 dumpers. blasting. Therefore before taking the limestone to grinding machines boulder crushing in one or two stages is required for reducing the size of limestone for preparing suitable feed size to grinding mills.3 CRUSHING OF LIMESTONE The big boulders produced during drilling and blasting methods of limestone mining are crushed in suitable type of crushers. The surface miner is a track-mounted machine with a powerful diesel engine and hydraulic pumps for delivering the power to the cutting drum. crushing & loading and the complaints associated with their activities.3 MINING WITH SURFACE MINER Surface miners were firstly developed for road making and are now used for limestone mining operation also. ground vibrations and improves fragmentation by introducing inter row delays. The crushing is carried out either in single or double stages by using Primary crusher and Secondary crusher. Whenever.5 meter to small fragment size upto few millimeters. 6. Jaw crushers as well as impact crushers / hammer crushers of different capacities are employed in J K Cements 1 . there is an interstitial reject band encountered. Surface Miners eliminate the problems associated with drilling. The cutting drum is made up of a special alloy steel with replaceable Tungsten Carbide cutting tools (spikes). Loading and transportation 6. As the cut materials are of uniform size and the impact on the crusher while crushing is reduced. Instruments used for noise and surveys include Noise Dosimeter and Gravimetric Dust Sampler respectively. Poclain&Demag shovels. The capacity of each machine is 200 tonnes per hour limestone. The limestone produced by this method are in the form of big boulders having their physical dimensions may be from 1. There are three surface miner machines working in Adanakurichi Limestone Mine of ICL’s Dalavoi works. Beml dozers etc. dust and illumination surveys are conducted at regular intervals in our mines to keep the same under control. seven plants are raising the limestone from their captive limestone mines by using drilling and blasting techniques. or in a single stage crushing machine depending upon the size of the boulder produced while mining. Dust is suppressed at the source itself by water spraying on to the milling drum thereby making it an environment friendly machine. Noise. Being ecofriendly machine. the same is eliminated by loading and dumping it separately in the specified dump thereby facilitating Selective Mining with this machine. This also depends on the type of grinding mills used for grinding of raw materials for preparation of finally pulverized raw meal.2. which can be quickly detached or fixed.2. 6.
The full fledge stack pile ready for reclaiming and feeding to raw mill hoppers can be seen in the above figure. In some mines the crushers are installed at mine site and crushed limestone is transported to plant stackpile with the help of Belt conveyor / Ropeway. which moves to and fro along the side of stacking yard.. The limestone produced in the mine is transported to crusher site with the help of dumpers and tippers of different capacities.3 Purpose: Size reduction from 1. Fig. Common type of Crushers: Double Toggle Jaw Crusher (Capacity : 400 TPH): Used as primary crusher. The crushers are mainly installed at the plant site. Swing Hammer Crusher (Capacity : 200 TPH) used as secondary crusher. Finally the crushed limestone is pre-blended with the help of stacker and reclaimer systems.Ltd. Compound Impactor (Capacity : 800 TPH) combined unit of primary and secondary crusher.1 PREHOMOGENISATION The crushed limestone is then transported to stacker reclaimer site with the help of belt conveyor / rope ways installed at different plant site.3. for reduction of size of limestone boulders to a suitable feed size acceptable to the different types of grinding machines installed in plants. STACKER & RECLAIMER AT J K CEMENT WORKS Purpose: Homogenization of crushed limestone.1M boulder to 25mm size limestone pieces.3 below illustrates the raw limestone mining and crushing at a limestone mine of a cement plant. Stacker: 11 .0M * 1. The stacked materials is then cut in slices with the help of a reclaiming machine which mixes the layers of stacked limestone which reduces the variation in quality of limestone as compared to the large variations obtained in the limestone obtained from mines. 6. The crushed limestone travelling on the belt conveyors is stacked in layers with the help of stacker machine. Figure 6.4M * 1. 6.
Rated Capacity : 600 tonnes per hour It will vary from plant to plant depending on the production requirement(in TPD). It varies from plant to plant depending upon the production requirement.Shifting material (limestone) to belt with the help of scrapper.00 meters. Details of Piles: 20000 – 30000 tonnes per pile. Working Principle: Cuts Stack Pile in slice from parallel to face of pile. Type of Pile: Longitudinal.4 GRINDING OF RAW MATERIALS The pre-blended limestone from stack pile is transported to raw mill hoppers. there is separate arrangement to grind coal) Cement: 33 Grade – 2600 To 2800 Blaine 43 Grade – 2850 To 3000 Blaine 53 Grade – 3200 To 3400 Blaine Feed size of incoming materials • • • • • • • Fineness of output materials 11 . 6. Vertical Roller Mill and Tube Mill Grinding machines are used for production of pulverized raw meal at J K Cements Plants. Rated capacity: 1000 tonnes per hour. Materials used for grinding • • • • Limestone and additives (Raw Mix) Coal and other fuels Clinker Limestone 25mm Size for Ball Mills 35mm Size for VRM (Segregated) (Secondary Crusher is used to feed Ball Mills) Coal – 25mm size Clinker – 25 to 35 mm size.2 % Residue On 200 # Coal Powder: 15 – 17% Residue On 90 # 18-22 % Residue On 90 # (For use in Pre-Calciner.8 – 2. Presently Raw mill hoppers are provided with continuous weighing machines known as weigh feeders in order to produce a suitable raw meal proportioned appropriately for production of desired good quality of cement clinker. Raw Mix: 15 – 17 % Residue On 90 # 1. vertical roller mill alongwith dust collecting arrangement can be seen. The stacker moves on longitudinal rails. More than one hoppers are used for proportioning of raw mix incase the limestone is obtained from more than one sources or purchased sweetner or additive materials are required to be mixed with captive mines limestone. Reclaimer Type: Bridge Scrapper Type. Figure presented below is a typical representation of raw mill grinding section in a cement plant where raw mill hoppers. Height of pile upto 11.
000-15. In closed circuit systems.4.1 HOMOGENISATION The raw meal ground in the raw mill is thoroughly blended in vertically tall blending silos of capacity upto 10. The blending is performed pneumatically by introducing the compressed air in the bed of fine raw meal fed to the blending silo or mechanically by distributing the raw meal at different cross section of the silo with the help of airslides.) Coal and fuel: Ball Mill Vertical Roller Mill (Closed circuit used) • • Clinker Grinding: Ball Mill Combination of Roller Press and Ball Mill (Open circuit and closed circuit used. 11 . The properly blended raw meal is now ready for burning the same to produce cement clinker in cement rotary kiln.) Materials used for grinding • • • Limestone and additives (Raw Mix) Coal and other fuels Clinker 6. In closed circuit systems. The moisture content of raw meal powder is less than 1%. The characteristics of blending raw meal should satisfy the requirement of standard deviation variation in the range of (+/-) 0.000 tonnes or more. which is continuously aerated for accomplishing final blending of raw materials. fixed and dynamic separators are used. fixed and dynamic separators are used. The blended raw meal is taken out of the silo with the help of air slides and fed in a central discharge bin.2% CaO of raw meal.Grinding Systems • Raw Mix: – Ball Mill – Vertical Roller Mill – Combination of Roller Press and Ball Mill (Generally open circuit is used in wet process and closed circuit is used in dry process.
The riser ducts of top stage cyclones are connected with powerful induced draft fan also known as preheater fan. it is required to heat raw meal to a temperature 11 . The rotary kiln is a long cylindrical shell provided with refractory bricks from inside which prevents the heat loss from the kiln and protects the steel shell from any damage due to persistent high temperature maintained inside the kiln. Sections of a Typical Kiln System: KILN feed system. The dry and properly blended raw meal is lifted either by Air lift or mechanically by Bucket Elevator from the bottom of raw meal blending / storage silo to the top of the preheater. Pre-heater (Four stage to Six stage) Pre-Calciner (ILC. The kiln is inclined at an angle of about 3-5o from horizontal from preheating to the cooling end.5 PYROPROCESSING The modern pyroprocessing system comprises of three important sections namely preheating and precalcining. and fed at the top stage of cyclone inlet duct with the help of screw conveyor and rotary air lock. smoke gas fan etc.5-4 rpm. The clinkerisation reaction is carried out in a rotary kiln. clinkerisation and cooling. The modern preheaters are comprising of 5-6 stage of low pressure cyclone as compared to conventional 4 stages of cyclone preheaters. Precalcining of raw meal is carried out in separate vessel vertically held and placed in between preheating and clinkerisation section. The kilns are mounted on tyres and rotated at a speed of 2. To transform Raw Mix into CLINKER through PYRO-PROCRESSING. Raw meal weigh-feeders are installed for continuous weighment of raw meal for feeding the same to preheater at a constant rate.6. The preheating section is 90-100 meters tall and comprises of battery of cyclones arranged one over the other in series. SLC) Kiln Cooler (including Clinker Hammer) ➢ Planetary Cooler ➢ Grate Cooler In order to manufacture cement from the raw mix.
11 . C12A7 and others. as in the opposite case a clinker of brown colour (contrary to the normal greenish –gray) will be formed and the resulting cement will be quicker setting and with lower strength.. CHEMICAL TRANSFORMATIONS During heating of the raw meal to the burning temperature 1450oC (clinkerization or sintering) certain physio–chemical processes take place. These processes are influenced by chemical factors in the raw meal (such as its chemical composition).of 1450OC. thus carrying out SINTERING OR CLINKERISATION. In per-heater kiln. liquid fuel oil. Quartz and clay will have started decomposing slightly before that to liberate free reactive Al2O3 and SiO2 The CaO being formed at this stage. the first five transformations shows in figure 4. The major part of C2S is then transformed to C3S in the liquid phase and the final content of C2S in the clinker is less than the content of C3S. homogeneity and other factors. which will decompose at higher temperature at later stage. 1300OC which is a point where liquid phase appears. coal. now reacts with SiO2 to form C2S and later with more CaO to form C3S. by physical factors (fineness or particle size in the raw meal).5. or natural gas are used for providing heat for converting raw meal into clinker. The decomposition of limestone and other carbonates will primarily take place in the calciner vessel where the calcination temperature is maintained by injection of fuel. C2S content is seen to grow steadily during the heating and reach maximum content at approx.1 COAL GRINDING SYSTEM Combustible fuels eg. The carbonate Ca CO3 decomposes between 600 – 800OC to form CaO.1 will take place in pre-heater tower. decomposition of the carbonates (decarbonisation or expulsion of CO2 commonly known as calcination). by mineralogical factors (its mineralogical composition). The last two transformations will take place in the rotary kiln. Some CaO will also react with Al2O3 and Fe2O3 to form various intermediate components such as CA. The burning process requires an oxidising atmosphere in the kiln. The complete course of these endothermic reactions plays a decisive role in quality of the resulting cement. 6. reactions in solid phase and reactions with the participation of one liquid phase and crystallizations. These include: Dehydration of the argillaceous minerals.
the high temperature combustion gas transfer its heat to the finally derived raw meal which is fed to the inlet duct of 1st stage twin cyclone and falls towards the bottom end of preheater after passing through all stages of cyclones under the influence of hot gases flowing in the circuit. the part of which is transformed into liquid after achieving appropriate melting temperature of some of the raw meal components and powdery form of raw meal gets converted into nodulized clinker form. Most of the Kilns in J K Cements Ltd are provided with modern folax grate coolers except in Sankari wet process plant where planetary coolers are provided for performing clinker cooling operation.5. Thus burning zone in rotary kiln receives complete decarbonated material. Conversion of raw meal into cement clinker is accomplished in steps in various zones of kiln circuit. The coal obtained in the form of lump containing upto 10% moisture is ground to suitable fineness in vertical roller mills or closed circuit tube mills at different cement manufacturing facilities.Australia and Indonesia. While flowing from burning zone towards the inlet of fan after passing through Kiln Precalciner–Preheater circuit. The high temperature clinker nodules varying in size then fall out of the kiln and enter the cooler.1 Indian cement plants use coal obtained from Indian Coalmines or imported from South Africa. The pulverized fuel (about 35-40% of total fuel to be fed to kiln system) is pushed into the burning zone of rotary kiln through a specially designed burner pipe along with the carrier air known as Primary air. The combustion gases generated from burning of purlverized coal in clinkerisation zone of the kiln flow towards the inlet of PH fan under the influence of the induced draft created in the kiln circuit. The final clinkerisation of raw meal is achieved between the temperature range of 1250-1450oC depending upon the raw meal characteristics. 6.Fig. The moisture and other volatile contents present are completely driven away and thus raw meal attains a precalcination of about 35-40% before reaching the precalcining vessel installed in between preheater and kiln.1 represents a typical pyroprocessing and coal preparation section in a dry process 4-stage suspension preheater kiln equipped with folax cooler. The figure above 6. 11 . The high temperature persisting in burning zone makes the fine coal to burn near the tip of burner pipe and helps in flame propogation. The remaining 8-10% degree of calcinations of raw meal is performed in the kiln before the meal enters in to the burning zone. The precalciner is fired with 40-55% of total pulverized fuel for increasing the precalcination degree of raw meal upto 90-92% before the same is fed to kiln for accomplishing the clinkerisation reaction.5. china. The cooler exhaust/ part of preheater gases are used for driving away the moisture from coal while grinding the same in the airswept VRM or tube mills.
The pressurized air flows through the holes provided in the grate plates and cools the clinker which is travelling in the form of granules on the grate plates. the clinker produced in rotary kiln cooled in cooler is usually stored for few days before it is ground in cement grinding mills along with appropriate quantity of gypsum and other additive materials for production of finely pulverized cement with desired fineness.6 shown. 6. The clinker is cooled down to a temperature of 100-150oC while leaving the outlet end of the cooler. On the other hand. Roll Presses / Roller Presses in combination with Ball Mill / Closed Circuit Ball Mills. Horro Mills etc. However. The quality of final cement product depends on operational mode and parameters of cement grinding plant. larger the specific surface and faster the hydration. Particles coarser than 30–50 microns hydrate very slowly and will only affect late strengths.6 CEMENT GRINDING In a modern cement plant. Below the grate are provided number of air chambers which receive atmospheric cold air with the help of number of high pressure discharge fans in different compartments. The Ball / Tube mills (in open circuit or closed circuit mode) are used for clinker grinding in cement plant worldwide. As it takes quite long time to determine especially the late strength. the total power consumption is about 100 Kwh / tonne whereas cement grinding process accounts about 40%. superfine particle with 2-3 micron size may hydrate before the concrete has been cast and will have limited influence on strength development. the energy requirement of Ball Mills . the hour –to-hour and day –to-day control of cement grinding has to be based on cement fineness. Smaller the particles. Strength development of concrete is the result of hydration of the particles.. In order to achieve the objectives of energy conservation. cement storage silo and the dispatch section are illustrated in the figure 6. Most of the plants in J K cements Limited are using tube mill grinding machines for cement grinding. The cold clinker is crushed continuously in a suitable clinker crusher provided at the outlet end of the cooler before the same is discharged on the clinker transportation system for transporting the same to clinker storage Silo stock/ Pile. Cement has to be ground fine enough to meet the requirements for strength properties specified in current standards.The modern Folax grate coolers are provided with fixed and moving grate plates. The cement grinding unit along with dust collector. are now being used for grinding cement clinker. 11 . Being comparatively higher towards reducing energy consumption in cement grinding newer types of energy efficient equipments like Vertical Roller Mills.
6.7 CEMENT STORAGE PACKING & DESPATCH The pulverized different types of cements are stored in different silos installed with different capacities.6. Purpose: To pack cement in appropriate packages suitable for consumption at site. bulk-handling project near Mumbai by ACC.Fig. Depending upon the market requirements the cement is loaded in bulk or packed in 50KG bags with the help of conventional rotary packers or electronic packers. loaded on to trucks and finally dispatched to the required destinations.g. Common packs available: Grey Cement: ➢ 50 Kg bags ➢ Bulk handling of cement has started at selected places e. 6. White Cement: ➢ 50 Kg and small size packs as per market demand Packers: ➢ Mechanical Packers ➢ Electronic Packers 11 .
) with emphasis on quality defined as “totality of features and characteristics of product / services that bears on its ability to satisfy the stated and implied needs”. The concept of quality has undergone a sea change from mere quality control of the product to total quality management (T.8 A IT H R C E IS IC F CMN E ET The survival and well being of the cement plants / companies in the market depends upon the quality of product and its cost.Q. The broad quality parameters of cement relate to chemical and physical properties as per IS Code are as mentioned below: CHEMICAL PROPERTIES: • • • Loss on ignition [LOI] Insoluble residue [IR] Sulphur trioxide [SO3] Magnesium oxide [MgO] Total chloride [Cl] Lime saturation factor [LSF] Alumina modulus [AM] • • • • PHYSICAL PROPERTIES • • • • • • 12 Fineness Consistency Setting time – initial and final Soundness Compressive strengths (3 days. The quality of the product depends on variety of factors such as technology.6 Q U L YC A A T R T SO . quality of raw materials and fuels.e. 7 days and 28 days) Heat of hydration . Quality and cost together define the value of the product (i. operation and quality control procedures to produced consistent product. cement in this case).M.
6. rollers and drive gear Cement kilns are used for the pyroprocessing stage of manufacture of Portland and other types of hydraulic cement.6.2Dust7. As the main energy-consuming and greenhouse-gas–emitting stage of cement manufacture.6.6.4Kiln fuels7. showing tyres. toluene. Contents 7.6. and cement kilns are the heart of this production process: their capacity usually define the capacity of the cement plant.5Kiln control7.6.1 The manufacture of cement clinker7.• Drying shrinkage [for PPC] 7 Cement kiln Hot end of medium sized modern cement kiln.6.5Carbon monoxide (CO) and total carbon7. improvement of their efficiency has been the central concern of cement manufacturing technology.6.7Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)7.2Early history7. Over a billion tonnes of cement are made per year.9Benzene.3Nitrogen oxides (NOx)7.6Cement kiln emissions 7. xylene (BTEX)7.1Carbon dioxide7.3The rotary kiln7.6. ethylbenzene.6.6Dioxins and furans (PCDD/F)7. in which calcium carbonate reacts with silica-bearing minerals to form a mixture of calcium silicates.8Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)7.4Sulfur dioxide (SO2)7.10Gaseous inorganic chlorine compounds (HCl) .
rawmix silo and exhaust stack. Bottom left: rawmill. A typical process of manufacture consists of three stages: .7. The U-shaped duct leading from the kiln inlet is an "alkali bleed".1 The manufacture of cement clinker A precalciner tower. Bottom right: rotary kiln with tertiary air duct above.
principally SiO2 and Al2O3. typically of diameter 1–10 mm. 650 to 900 °C . In the second stage. and belite reacts with calcium oxide to form alite (Ca3O·SiO4). The hot clinker next falls into a cooler . the rawmix is fed into the kiln and gradually heated by contact with the hot gases from combustion of the kiln fuel. 900 to 1050 °C . heating the rawmix to sintering temperature (up to 1450 °C) in a cement kiln. This is called clinker. The partial melting causes the material to aggregate into lumps or nodules. grinding the resulting clinker to make cement (see Cement mill).the remaining calcium carbonate decomposes to calcium oxide and CO2. Typically.• • • grinding a mixture of limestone and clay or shale to make a fine "rawmix" (see Rawmill). 1300 to 1450 °C . Dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) decomposes to calcium carbonate.partial (20–30%) melting takes place.clay-like minerals are decomposed into their constituent oxides. Successive chemical reactions take place as the temperature of the rawmix rises: • • 70 to 110 °C .calcium carbonate reacts with SiO2 to form belite (Ca2SiO4).Free water is evaporated. a peak temperature of 1400–1450 °C is required to complete the reaction. MgO and CO2. • • • Typical clinker nodules Alite is the characteristic constituent of Portland cement. 400 to 600 °C .
would be quite a prominent landmark. the kiln would be extinguished. Early designs tended to be updraft kilns. the opening at the top of the hovel also acted as a flue. 7. Due to the fact that the one foot thick crown wall would expand and contract during firing. which were often built as a straight sided cone into which the flame was introduced at.which recovers most of its heat. or below. and cools the clinker to around 100 °C. a kiln would produce about 1500 tonnes per year. egg-cup shaped lime kiln was provided with a conical or beehive shaped extension to increase draught and thus obtain the higher temperature needed to make cement clinker. known as the ‘hovel’. A batch took one week to turn around: a day to fill the kiln. floor level. and minor modifications. to remove the smoke and exhaust gases that were produced during the production process. three days to burn off. were also the central feature of any cement works. it was strengthened with a number of iron bands. The development of downdraft kilns in the early 20th Century proved to be much more fuel efficient and were designed to force the heated air to circulate more around the kiln. The design incorporated a gentle curve at the 'shoulders' of the kiln.2 Early history Portland cement clinker was first made (in 1842) in a modified form of the traditional static lime kiln. several quite distinctive designs have been used over the years. The smoke and . For nearly half a century. The kiln was restricted in size by the strength of the chunks of rawmix: if the charge in the kiln collapsed under its own weight. Thus. The basic. known as ‘bonts’. Reaching heights of up to 70 ft. remained the only method of manufacture. As well as protecting the inner kiln or ‘crown’. the dome or bottle shape of the kiln. both ‘Bottle’ and their very close relatives ‘Beehive’ kilns. two days to cool. Although perhaps more normally associated with pottery making. at which temperature it can be conveniently conveyed to storage. For this reason. and a day to unload. and although the term is generic. beehive kilns never made more than 30 tonnes of clinker per batch. A kiln is basically an industrial oven. this design. There was a three to four foot gap between the outer wall of the hovel and inner shell of the crown. which served to reflect the rising heat from the fire at the bottom of the kiln. These were set twelve inches apart and ran right around the circular oven. The cement kiln system is designed to accomplish these processes efficiently. back down again over the material.
Several thousand such kilns were constructed in China. a kiln was required that could run almost continuously. to funnel the hot air through to the second chamber to pre-heat the material. . This particular kiln comprised a number of individual chambers. as the third chamber was being filled and so on. but also added to the expense of the finished product. coal was added through the roof holes of the chamber and was then set alight. before they were drawn up the chimney. Although such chamber kilns were still being installed as late as 1900. In order to save money on fuel. the problem with any batch kiln was that it was intermittent and once the product had been produced. The shaft kiln had a brief period of use before it was eclipsed by the rotary kiln. A typical shaft kiln produces 100-200 tonnes per day. and although the above methods were successful. similar in design to a blast furnace. low-tech plants in rural areas away from transport routes. when it was used for small-scale. which was connected to a nearby chimney. Once the first chamber had been filled with raw material. so that by the time the last chamber had been fired. Rawmix in the form of lumps and fuel were continuously added at the top. Air was blown through under pressure from the base to combust the fuel. The rotary kiln was a major advancement for the industry as it provided the continuous production of a much more uniform product in larger quantities. At the same time. Around 1885.exhaust was then sucked out through holes at the bottom of the kiln via a flue. It was this scenario that lead to the development of the ‘Chamber’ kiln in the late 1850s. which were arranged so that the hot flue gases from one chamber. experiments began on design of continuous kilns. One design was the shaft kiln. but it had a limited renaissance from 1970 onward in China and elsewhere. using a number of dampers. were drawn off and used to pre-heat the material in the following chambers. the second chamber was being filled with raw material. More coal was then poured into the second chamber and ignited. This process continued along the length of the kiln. The airflow from the first chamber was then adjusted. the fire had to be extinguished and the contents allowed to cool. and clinker was continually withdrawn at the bottom. the development of the rotary kiln was already starting to have a major impact. The chimney would also serve a number of neighbouring kilns as well. The kiln would be fired for several days to achieve the high temperatures required to produce cement clinker. This not only wasted a lot of the heat. whilst the raw material was somehow fed through it. the first chamber had already been cleared and re-filled with more raw material so that the process could start again.
the capacity of kilns has increased steadily. It was particularly easy to get a good flame with this fuel. in the form of gas. so that it may be 400 to 800 °C before it enters the kiln. Within the next 10 years. producing a large concentric flame in the lower part of the kiln tube. In the cooler the air is heated by the cooling clinker. and were about 1. thus causing intense and rapid combustion of the fuel. trials began on the development of the rotary kiln. and made 190 tonnes per day. it reaches its peak temperature. and . As material moves under the flame.7 x 60 m in size. or pulverized solid fuel. At that date.5 m in diameter and 15 m in length. and lined with firebrick. The tube slopes slightly (1–4°) and slowly rotates on its axis at between 30 and 250 revolutions per hour. Air is drawn first through the cooler and then through the kiln for combustion of the fuel. initially. At the other end fuel. oil.3 The rotary kiln General layout of a rotary kiln The rotary kiln consists of a tube made from steel plate. after only 15 years of development.From 1885. The earliest successful rotary kilns were developed in Pennsylvania around 1890. allowing the use of the cheapest available fuel. is blown in through the "burner pipe". the largest kilns were 2. Such a kiln made about 20 tonnes of clinker per day. was oil. which was readily available in Pennsylvania at the time. and the rotation of the kiln causes it gradually to move downhill to the other end of the kiln. The fuel. 7. which today accounts for more than 95% of world production. By 1905. before dropping out of the kiln tube into the cooler. Since then. rotary kilns accounted for half of world production. Rawmix is fed in at the upper end. the technique of firing by blowing in pulverized coal was developed.
into which the hot clinker dropped. the material passes through quickly: it takes from 3 hours (in some old wet process kilns) to as little as 10 minutes (in short precalciner kilns). and require no separate drive. because heating up and cooling down are long. In the 1920s. Nigeria Sysy Early systems used rotary coolers. They have the advantage that they are sealed to the kiln.the largest kilns today produce around 10. Uninterrupted runs as long as 18 months have been achieved. Ancillary equipment Essential equipment in addition to the kiln tube and the preheater are: • • • • Cooler Fuel mills Fans Exhaust gas cleaning equipment. Coolers A pair of kilns with satellite coolers in Ashaka. wasteful and damaging processes. and are typically stopped only for a few days once or twice a year for essential maintenance. From about 1930. which were rotating cylinders similar to the kiln. cascading through the air stream. The combustion air was drawn up through the cooler as the clinker moved down. . satellite coolers became common and remained in use until recently. These consist of a set (typically 7–9) of tubes attached to the kiln tube. Rotary kilns run 24 hours a day. This is an important discipline. the grate cooler was developed.000 tonnes per day. In contrast to static kilns.
so it tends to result in lower kiln output.7. various combustible waste materials have been fed to kilns. because of: .4 Kiln fuels Used tires being fed mid-kiln to a pair of long kilns Fuels that have been used for primary firing include coal. Natural gas can only produce a flame of. In favorable circumstances. high-rank bituminous coal can produce a flame at 2050 °C. notably used tires. high emissivity) and hot flame is essential for this.e. cement kilns are an attractive way of disposing of hazardous materials. at best 1950 °C. In theory. landfill off-gas and oil refinery flare gas. heavy fuel oil.High carbon fuels such as coal are preferred for kiln firing. In addition to these primary fuels. petroleum coke. which are very difficult to dispose of by other means. because they yield a luminous flame. and a bright (i. The clinker is brought to its peak temperature mainly by radiant heat transfer. natural gas. and this is also less luminous.
in which form they can be injected into a precalciner combustion chamber. or by dropping them through a slot midway along a long wet kiln. of dioxins) it is necessary to control the kiln system in a manner that is non-optimal for efficiency and output. Alternatively. When using waste materials. A very high level of monitoring of both the fuel and its combustion products is necessary to maintain safe operation. the alkaline conditions in the kiln. 7. incinerators). tires are chopped into 5–10 mm chips.• • • the temperatures in the kiln. high quality conventional fuels are the best choice.For maximum kiln efficiency. and coarse combustibles such as tires can cause major product quality problems. the high gas temperatures (1000–1200 °C) cause almost instantaneous. afforded by the high-calcium rawmix. the ability of the clinker to absorb heavy metals into its structure.Other wastes have included solvents and clinical wastes. which are much higher than in other combustion systems (e. which can absorb acidic combustion products. The steel and zinc in the tires become chemically incorporated into the clinker. Whole tires are commonly introduced in the kiln.g. in order to avoid prohibited emissions (e. complete and smokeless combustion of the tire. by rolling them into the upper end of a preheater kiln.5 Kiln control .g. In either case.
under the flame. may be 10 minutes "out of date". Regular measurement of the free CaO content is used as a means of tracking the clinker quality. If the reaction is incomplete.Online X-ray diffraction with automatic sample feed for free calcium oxide measurement The objective of kiln operation is to make clinker with the required chemical and physical properties. Formation of the desired clinker minerals involves heating the rawmix through the temperature stages mentioned above. . even with fast automated sampling and analysis. As a parameter in kiln control. at the lowest possible operating cost. the data. is the reaction of belite (Ca2SiO4) with calcium oxide to form alite (Ca3O·SiO4): Ca2SiO4 + CaO → Ca3SiO5 Also abbreviated in the cement chemist notation (CCN) as: C2S + C → C3S Tricalcium silicate is thermodynamically unstable below 1250°C. The finishing transformation that takes place in the hottest part of the kiln. when it arrives. but can be preserved in a metastable state at room temperature by fast cooling: on slow cooling it tends to revert to belite (Ca2SiO4) and CaO. and a poorly run kiln can easily double cement plant operating costs. free CaO data is somewhat ineffective because. and more immediate data must be used for minute-to-minute control. excessive amounts of free calcium oxide remain in the clinker. The kiln is very sensitive to control strategies. at the maximum rate that the size of kiln will allow. while meeting environmental standards.
These operate using expert systemstrategies. "knife-edge" control. The following descriptions of emissions refer to modern kiln plants based on dry process technology. while the remaining parameters relevant pursuant to ambient pollution legislation are usually determined discontinuously by individual measurements. NOx and SO2. thus requiring rapid-response. Since 1990. the temperature of both feed and gas must be optimized and maintained at every point. and the rate at which heat is drawn from the "hot end" of the system to the "cold end" Independent control of fuel to kiln and calciner Independent fan controls where there are multiple preheater strings. The feed at each stage must be at a temperature such that it is "ready" for processing in the next stage. because of multiple inter-related variables. complex high level supervisory control systems have been standard on new installations. steady conditions need to be maintained throughout the whole kiln system. initially with poor results due mainly to poor process measurements. The external controls available to achieve this are few: • • • • Feed rate: this defines the kiln output Rotary kiln speed: this controls the rate at which the feed moves through the kiln tube Fuel injection rate: this controls the rate at which the "hot end" of the system is heated Exhaust fan speed or power: this controls gas flow. for efficient operation. 7. below which the kiln's operating condition will deteriorate catastrophically.6 Cement kiln emissions Emissions from cement works are determined both by continuous and discontinuous measuring methods. that maintain a "just sufficient" burning zone temperature. Continuous measurement is primarily used for dust. To ensure this. kiln control is extremely challenging. further controls are available: • • As an exercise in process control. In the case of precalciner kilns. Computer control systems were first tried in the early 1960s.However. which are described in corresponding national guidelines and standards. non-linear responses. . and variable process lags.
1 Carbon dioxide During the clinker burning process CO2 is emitted. which become oxidised to form SO2 at the temperatures between 370 °C and 420 °C prevailing in the kiln preheater.1 t coal and 1 t clinker (besides other cement constituents and sulfate agents) must be ground to dust fineness during production.5 to 1. CO2 emissions are both raw material-related and energyrelated.6. in German raw material deposits.6. 7. 7. clinker burning and cement grinding constitute major emission sources for particulate components.g. Nitrogen monoxide (NO) accounts for about 95 %.2 Dust To manufacture 1 t of Portland cement. and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) for about 5 % of this compound present in the exhaust gas of rotary kiln plants. Given the sulfide concentrations found e. 0. emissions are given as NO2 per cubic metre exhaust gas. the raw materials may contain sulfur bound as sulfide or sulfate.2 g/m3depending on the site location.3 Nitrogen oxides (NOx) The clinker burning process is a high-temperature process resulting in the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx). 7. In some cases. Higher SO2 emissions by rotary kiln systems in the cement industry are often attributable to the sulfides contained in the raw material. In this process.7. injected calcium hydroxide is used to lower SO2 emissions.5 Carbon monoxide (CO) and total carbon . SO2 emission concentrations can total up to 1. Most of the sulfides are pyrite or marcasite contained in the raw materials. about 1. the steps of raw material processing. Raw material-related emissions are produced during limestonedecarbonation (CaCO3) and account for about 60 % of total CO2 emissions. CO2 accounts for the main share of these gases. As most of the NO is converted to NO2 in the atmosphere. 7. fuel preparation.6.7 t raw materials. Depending on their origin.6.4 Sulfur dioxide (SO2) Sulfur is input into the clinker burning process via raw materials and fuels.6. The amount formed is directly related to the main flame temperature (typically 1850 – 2000 °C).
For that reason.6. temperature distribution and residence time in rotary kilns afford particularly favourable conditions for organic compounds.6. 7.8 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) PAHs (according to EPA 610) in the exhaust gas of rotary kilns usually appear at a distribution dominated by naphthalene. the clinker burning process is a material conversion process that must always be operated with excess air for reasons of clinker quality. Emissions are generated from organic constituents in the raw material. only very low concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (colloquially "dioxins and furans") can be found in the exhaust gas from cement rotary kilns. PCB may be introduced into the process via alternative raw materials and fuels. The rotary kiln systems of the cement industry destroy these trace components virtually completely.9 Benzene.7 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) The emission behaviour of PCB is comparable to that of dioxins and furans. 7. this leads to complete fuel burn-up. xylene (BTEX) . toluene. By contrast. In concert with long residence times in the high-temperature range. which accounts for a share of more than 90 % by mass.6.The exhaust gas concentrations of CO and organically bound carbon are a yardstick for the burn-out rate of the fuels utilised in energy conversion plants.6 Dioxins and furans (PCDD/F) Thus. 7. such as power stations. The rotary kiln systems of the cement industry destroy virtually completely the PAHs input via fuels. 7.6. ethylbenzene.
condense on the kiln feed or the kiln dust. which are initially vaporous. ethylbenzene and xylene are present in the exhaust gas of rotary kilns in a characteristic ratio.10 Gaseous inorganic chlorine compounds (HCl) Chlorides are minor additional constituents contained in the raw materials and fuels of the clinker burning process. 7. subsequently re-enter the rotary kiln system and evaporate again. A C Davis .G R Redgrave & C Spackman . A hundred years of Portland cement.As a rule benzene. calcareous cement. 3. toluene.K E peray. The Rotary cement kiln. They are released when the fuels are burnt or the kiln feed is heated.6. 4. the history of calcareous cement in PC Hewlett. 2. at temperatures between 700 °C and 900 °C. BIBLOGRAPHY 1. . These compounds. RG Blezard. BTEX is formed during the thermal decomposition of organic raw material constituents in the preheater. and primarily react with the alkalis from the kiln feed to form alkali chlorides.
wikipedia.com 3.jkcement. www.www.Bottom of Form WEB SITES 1.org 2.www.rtcnorthindia.org .